Research ProposalPDF Available

Words Have Power: Anime as a Teacher of Critical Thinking

Words Have Power 1
Words Have Power: Anime as a Teacher of Critical Thinking
Juan A. Colon Norat
University of Puerto Rico
Mayaguez Campus
MAEE Student
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There is an increasing number in dropouts from high school students from the
educational institutions in Puerto Rico. Educational reports by (Swanson, 2008) and (Bridgeland
et al., 2006) have revealed a certain correlation between dropouts and lack of engagement in the
classroom. In addition, a report by (The department of education, 2012) has revealed that less
than half of the students score within basic level performance in standardized testing. These
findings contribute towards the possibility that if the issue of class engagement was resolved, it
would help close the gap of high school dropout which in turn calls for a critical evaluation of
the current pedagogy used in Puerto Rico along with the creation of a multi-modality classroom.
Studies by (Kress, 2003) and (Frey & Fisher, 2008) agree that visual media is an essential tool in
order to lead multi-modality classroom and which supports student’s engagement in class and
benefits their internalization of information.
The purpose of this research is to perform a qualitative case study in a classroom setting
where using a teaching unit which makes use of Anime as a visual form of text triggers students
into reading and interpreting this “visual text” in order to gain insights about different thematics
and issues which affect their person, community, and/or culture among other factors. The main
problem which the researcher wishes to address is the lack of engagement in the classroom
which results from older teaching strategies which rely on canonical texts and standardized
testing which does not encompass for all the different kinds of mindsets which a teacher can
encounter in the modern classroom. Using data collection methods of non-participant
observation, interviews with the teacher and collecting artifacts from student’s work throughout
the semester, the researcher can address if the use of visual media in the classroom does help
with engagement in the classroom and students develop complexity in their interpretations of the
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thematics and issues discussed in class. This study may reveal important details about the use of
visual media in the classroom setting. Lastly, it might reveal whether current pedagogy which
does not make use of visual media gauges class engagement effectively.
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Context of the Study
The problem of new literacy and education
The classroom environment is one of the most dynamic spaces that exists due to its
flexible nature which accepts adjustments in order to make it more accessible to students with
different backgrounds. Student’s engagement with the classroom and the content presented to
them is one of the educator’s main concerns when reflecting about classroom management.
However, the current system of education in the US faces a challenge with “only about one-half
(52 percent) of students in the principal school systems… complete high school with a diploma”
(Swanson, 2008). Which means that the remaining 48 percent are dropping out of high school
education. According to another report on high school dropouts by (Bridgeland et al., 2006)
“nearly half (47 percent) [of students] said a major reason for dropping out was that classes were
not interesting. These young people reported being bored and disengaged from high school”.
Taking into consideration that half of the dropouts reported by Swanson are formulated by
Bridgeland et al. as being linked to lack of student motivation in the classroom we can make an
argument that if we improved student’s engagement with the classroom we could lower the
dropout rate of students by 25 percent.
Hence, it should not be surprising that as a territory of the United States; Puerto Rico
mirrors this situation within a very close margin. The Library and Information Services Program
from the Department of Education released an education improvement government plan where
they revealed that one of their goals was to help improve student’s average performances in the
areas of Spanish, Mathematics, English and Science which are in a critical state:
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Thirty-nine percent (39%) of public school students perform at a basic level (average
performance) in Spanish in the Puerto Rico’s Standardized Tests. Likewise, they perform
at 36% in the basic level in Mathematics, 35% perform in the basic level in English, and
43% in Science. These low percents in the average performance establishes the need to
provide educational strategies for teachers and other personnel to help students reach the
desirable performance level established in state goals, content standards, and expected
grade performance by subject. (Department of Education, 2012)
Another report by (Bauman & Graf, 2003) displays a data chart that focuses on the education
attainment of population that are 25 years of age and older; they show that in Puerto Rico during
the year 2000 from a population of 2.3 million, 60% were able to attain a high school diploma,
37.7% attained some college education but did not finish a bachelor’s degree and only 18.3 got
to attain a full bachelor’s degree. In essence, the data presented here shows a decline in education
attainment which implies a lot of potential drop outs from education since high school at the very
least. This situation which mirrors that of the Unites States calls for a deeper insight into the
roots of this decline, which questions how effective current pedagogy engages the student
learners into their own education.
The development of literacy through digital media has become the required path in order
to get students engaged to the modern classroom with an innovative lens supported by their
interests of these modern “texts” and the advantages which can be reaped from such an endeavor.
The purpose of education has been to create individuals which have a skillset that will
support their decisions on how they are going to become civic members of society. However, a
distinction between the purpose of this education, whether economical or cultural has been made
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by (Kanpol, 1999) whom argues “that historically the primary function of schools has been an
economic one--to prepare students for the work force”. The essence of Kanpol’s argument is that
modern education has defined the classroom space to the community of learners as a training
camp which prepares them to simply enter the work force like gears that oil a machine. The
prevailing notion behind this definition of the classroom space has in turn created a community
of teachers which rely on traditional schooling methods which do not encompass the different
student backgrounds which teachers will encounter in the classroom. Consequently, they are not
taking into consideration that modern students have different needs, desires and motivations. Yet,
despite the evidence against treating the classroom as a training field and the overuse of outdated
teaching methodologies, digital media is not a tool that you will see often in the standard English
Lankshear & Knobel (2006) state that “the day-to-day business of school is still
dominated by conventional literacies, and engagement with the 'new' literacies is largely
confined to learners' lives in spaces outside of schools and other formal educational settings” (p.
30). Nevertheless, according to (Rodríguez & Pérez, 2009) the reason why digital media has not
been widely adopted in the classroom has to do with the prevailing notion that educators actually
ignore digital media as a tool to be used for teaching and learning. “Despite finding ourselves
immersed in a veritable audiovisual abyss, the learning of this grammar is conspicuously absent
and undervalued as an area of knowledge, like writing, that may be taught and learned”.
By overgeneralizing or standardizing the classroom environment teachers will often miss
the development of student’s literacy interests which is linked to their motivation towards school
subjects. In order to create a classroom space which is more in tune with the student’s
development of literacy, the teacher must make use of modern forms of “text” or visual media
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which the student can find affinity with. It is through the response to these texts that students will
find meaning in their education and create a mindset as (Lankshear & Knobel, 2006) discuss in
their research of classroom literacies. They also make the distinction that these new literacies are
so distant from the classroom environment that students "at school they operate in one literacy
'universe', and out of school they operate in another". One of the main advantages about digital
media is that it includes visual media which engages student’s attention more than auditory
modalities in the classroom:
Probably the most compelling reason for using images in instruction is that images are
stored in long-term memory. Unlike factoids and phone numbers that can ‘go in one ear
and out the other’, images are indelibly etched in our long-term memory. We are more apt
to remember a person’s face than that person’s name. The implications for achievement
testing are obvious. The key is to make sure students have a picture in their ‘mind’s eye’
of the important concepts and content that they will need to recall. (Frey & Fisher, 2008)
In which case, using digital media which relies on the visual medium in the classroom
would prove to be fruitful for students since they are able to internalize information through
visual media better than just through lectures and/or memorization. (Kress, 2003) states that
"language and literacy now have to be seen as partial bearers of meaning only" and that a
theoretical change from linguistics to semiotics that accounts for alternative meaning making
modes like “gesture, speech, image, writing, 3D objects, colour, music and no doubt others”
must be discussed in order to account for the "changes that are taking place around us" when it
comes to communication and/or meaning production.
Multimodality classroom
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(Gardner, 1993) describes standardized testing as a "scenario [that] is destined to be
repeated universally for the foreseeable future" and argues that current methods of assessment
are not sufficient to measure the intelligence of an individual who has attained skills that fall
outside of the scope of said assessment. Which leads him to identify that the root of the problem
"lies less in the technology of testing than in the ways in which we customarily think about the
intellect and in our ingrained views of intelligence" (Gardner, 1993). This entails that
perspectives of what constitutes intelligence are a key issue when deciding how knowledgeable a
student is when considering their education and that current education assessment is evaluating
students with the incorrect criteria to do so. (Gardner, 1993) divides the intelligences that exist
into categories like linguistic intelligence, musical intelligence, logical-mathematical
intelligence, spatial intelligence, Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence, and the personal intelligences
which are sub-divided into personal intelligence and interpersonal intelligence. Which affirms
(Kress, 2003) earlier statement about how alternative modes of meaning making should be
discussed in order to account for a better understanding of the changing environment of
Academic communication
Development of academic language is one of the important issues which concern the
modern classroom and affects the eventual success of students through their trajectory in grade
school and eventually college education.
Educators need to be able to use all the learning modalities available to them in order to
further student’s interest in the subject content of their education. An advantage that stems from
student’s motivation towards their subjects is the potential to develop academic language when
getting involved in their subject content. When discussing the section of her article which deals
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with creating a “classroom ecology which promotes academic language”, (Haneda, 2014)
suggests that this environment may be constructed by the enactment of the following
pedagogical principles:
(a) honoring students’ lived experiences, engaging their interests, and proposing goals for
activities that have meaning for them beyond the classroom; (b) creating opportunities for
participation in social practices associated with different school subjects through
collaborative joint activities; (c) encouraging students to make strategic use of the
diversity of tools, material and semiotic, at their disposal, including vernacular and
academic registers as well as various other modes of meaning-making; and (d) supporting
students to take up, transform, and appropriate the knowledgeable skills involved in joint
activities in order to make sense of or act on the world. (p. 130)
It was through this that she made her argument that having learners participate in the subject
content, like the design experiment research she mentions where sixth graders learned the basics
of heat transfer by discussing amongst themselves and then going outside the classroom in order
to experience a change in temperature and then coming back in, which developed their
understanding of Newton’s Law of thermodynamics and their academic communication, which
created a “community of learners”. Through her design experiment (Haneda, 2014) has managed
to prove a two-fold point, which is that academic communication is essential for students
understanding of subjects and that classroom methods can rely on other modes of
communication and learning aside from auditory and visual modalities.
After having created a classroom environment that promotes the use of different modes of
learning and communication, it would be in the favor for the development of the individual to
attain a set of skills that would develop them as civic members of society.
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Critical thinking skills
(Jones, 1995) conducted a survey with 600 faculty, employers, and policy makers which
agreed on a set of skills which college graduates should attain in order to become “effective
employees and citizens”. These same participants also agreed in the importance of critical
thinking skills as tools to identify:
indirect persuasion including the use of leading questions that are biased towards eliciting
a preferred response, use of misleading language, use of slanted definitions or
comparisons, and instances where irrelevant topics or considerations are brought into an
argument to divert attention from the original issue. (Jones, 1995)
It is through these skills that learners can become civic members of society and through the
inclusions of digital literacy and the creation of a multimodality classroom environment that the
problem of literacy and education can be resolved in Puerto Rico.
A Delphi report by Facione (1990) which made use of various professional scholars that
specialize in critical thinking reached a consensus that the inclusion of critical thinking practices
are an essential tool because it involves “purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in
interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential,
conceptual, methodological, criteriological, or contextual considerations upon which that
judgment is based” (p. 2). Even then, the report itself mentions that “the experts insist that ‘one
cannot overemphasize the value of a solid liberal education to supplement the honing of one’s
CT [Critical Thinking] skills and the cultivating of one’s CT dispositions” which strengthens the
relationship which the previous argument implies. The report by Falcione also reached a
consensus regarding the skillset which results from adopting critical thinking practices. The
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experts involved in the Facione report categorized this skillset into core skills and subskills as
1. Interpretation
1.1. Categorization
1.2. Decoding Significance
1.3. Clarifying Meaning
2. Analysis
2.1. Examining Ideas
2.2. Identifying Arguments
2.3. Analyzing arguments
3. Evaluation
3.1. Assessing Claims
3.2. Assessing Arguments
4. Inference
4.1. Querying Evidence
4.2. Conjecturing Evidence
4.3. Drawing Conclusions
5. Explanation
5.1. Stating Results
5.2. Justifying Procedures
5.3. Presenting Arguments
6. Self-regulation
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6.1. Self-examination
6.2. Self-correction (p. 6)
Despite the fact that the whole skillset has a function in a pedagogical context, the
relevant skill which is critical to the literacy and engagement of students is “explanation” and its
subskills as their general tenet is “to present one’s reasoning in the form of cogent arguments” (p.
10). The reason being that in order for learners to be able to form the kind of arguments which
justify their “reasoning in terms of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological and
contextual considerations” that are expected out of them; development of academic
communication becomes a vital component in students’ literacy and engagement in their
Critical Pedagogy
The most appealing aspect of a classroom is that it allows the teacher to mold it around
the necessities of the student in order to address their weaknesses in the material. The critical
pedagogy approach which was pioneered by Paulo Freire, opens the classroom space to the
students’ voices and concerns about their own environment and how it affects them as
individuals. Shaping the classroom material around issues which concern the students will help
them understand and think critically about how to take action against the issues which affect their
lives. Haneda (2014) makes use of Paulo Freire’s principles of education in order to create a
“classroom ecology” that promotes a “community of learners”. Creating a community of learners
would promote the use of academic communication and further class discussions which are
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essential for students’ development of their literacy and engagement in their education. Shor
(1992) describes the approach as:
"Habits of thought, reading, writing, and speaking which go beneath surface meaning,
first impressions, dominant myths, official pronouncements, traditional clichés, received
wisdom, and mere opinions, to understand the deep meaning, root causes, social context,
ideology, and personal consequences of any action, event, object, process, organization,
experience, text, subject matter, policy, mass media, or discourse." (Empowering
Education, 129)
This approach aims to empower disempowered individuals through the use of critical
literacy when engaging texts and takes into consideration learners’ different backgrounds and
contexts according to their interests by developing their voice as important contributions towards
their own education. In addition, critical pedagogy also takes into account the relevancy of the
content from the learner’s perspective which motivates the student to engage himself with
learning in order to take action against the issues which affect him/her.
Anime Thematics
As an extremely influential media of pop-culture in Puerto Rico with massive events like
the Puerto Rico Comic-con (PRCC), Anime is an excellent medium to drive classroom thematics
around social issues like discrimination and slavery. Slavery is a main theme which is touched
upon in the anime “The Legend of Arslan” by Yoshiki Tanaka where the main character has
always lived in a society which promotes slavery as a way of providing to those who are poor.
However, a series of events begins to change this way of thinking and the theme of slavery is
explores in intricate and complex ways in which students could get involved in discussion about.
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Another example, is the anime “One Piece” by Eichiiro Oda where there is a whole arc which is
dedicated to a conflict between humans and mermen which are shunned by human society.
Research Questions
The goal of this study is two-fold: first, to observe whether visual media improves
student’s engagement with their classes and/or their attitudes towards the use of visual modalities
in the classroom. Second, to observe if a discussion-based teaching unit around the thematics and
social issues which can be interpreted from visual media (e.g. anime) improves student’s overall
performance in their education. In addition, field notes on the development of the complexity
with which they argument in class discussion will also be taken into consideration. The paradigm
used as a guiding lens for the focus of the discussion will be critical pedagogy since according to
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(Shor, 1992) it aims to “understand the deep meaning, root causes, social context, ideology, and
personal consequences of any action, event, object, process, organization, experience, text,
subject matter, policy, mass media, or discourse”. In essence, students will use critical thinking in
order to address these issues and understand the underlying implications behind them and it is
through the skillset that they acquire from critical thinking that they will improve their
development in their overall education. The researcher wishes to observe if applying this
paradigm along with the use visual media influences student’s engagement and development in
their overall education. The main questions which this study aims to answer are framed around
the need observe both engagement and development of these students throughout their three high
school years along with sub-questions which serve as guidelines that the researcher will make
use of in his observation of any intricacies which this study might raise during its elaboration.
The questions are:
1. Does visual media improve student’s engagement in class?
a. Will engagement in class through the use of visual media provide enough
motivation for students with a negative initial attitude of their education to
improve their own performance throughout the school year?
2. Will the use of visual media (e.g. anime) and a discussion based teaching unit around
thematics and social issues develop students’ depth and complexity when
argumenting about these issues?
b. Will students find any relatable situations, contexts, problems, and issues on
which they can reflect critically through their own personal situation?
3. Will the development of critical thinking skills improve student’s performance in their
overall education?
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The goal of this research project is to identify which are the factors that affect student’s
engagement in class along with the inclusion of a teaching unit that makes use of visual media.
In order to explore whether this inclusion helps with student’s engagement and their overall
performance in their education; we need to address the main issue of engagement. In which case,
there is a need to observe students’ reaction in their academic environment in order to make
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generalizations about their outlooks on education and learning. Hence, “a unique example of
real people in real situations” is a crucial requirement in order to describe the variables which
influence engagement (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2011, p. 289). A case study provides this
essential requirement through "understanding of a complex issue or object and can extend
experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research" (Shen, 2009).
Making use of the case study method allows the researcher to make observations about the
students and gain understanding about how their engagement in class shifts depending on the
pedagogical method used. In addition, observing the academic environment in its most natural
setting allows the researcher to address whether the inclusion of visual media does improve upon
the student’s engagement in class. Another aspect which is also being inquired is the
effectiveness of the teaching unit when concerning student’s development of their understanding,
depth and complexity of their argument during a lecture that makes use of class discussions.
This case study will use a single-case design identified by Yin which focuses “on a
critical case, an extreme case, a unique case” (Cohen et al., 2011, p. 291). According to (Cohen
et al., 2011) Robson claims that extreme and unique cases can provide a “test bed” that allows
researchers to choose an ideal set of circumstances where one may examine how new approaches
work under these set of circumstances (p. 291). Shen (2009) states that the purpose of the case
study is “not to represent the world, but to represent the case”. Which implies that while case
studies should not be considered a complete representation of a population, they can be useful in
order to explore how a population operates according to the phenomenon which is being inquired
about; in this case, students outlook and development of education. Therefore, a case study
method is essential for the goals of this research project.
Research site and time period
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The research site chosen for this project is a high school setting where the researcher is
allowed access to the students during their progression from 10th grade up till their graduation
from 12th grade. A study of the relationship between middle school motivation, high school
grades and high school graduation revealed that high school motivation is essential in defining
student’s persistence in high school and their graduation as well (Importance of Student
Motivation, 2013). Hence, the researcher will make use of the critical period of high school
students since once they have finished their 12th grade, they are expected to continue studies in
higher education and developing their engagement in education would help with their success in
subsequent academic endeavors. The English classroom which makes use of literature as a tool
of discussion is the perfect setting for such an undertaking since the aim of literature discussions
is “to provide students practice in learning to formulate, develop, extend their responses and to
help them learn how to interact with their peers in a collaborative manner so that they are
learning to mutually develop their responses through their interaction” (Beach et al., p. 186).
Cultivating high school students’ engagement with their education will foster their persistence
and help with their success in higher education studies along with their development of civic
members of society. Observing students throughout their whole high school experience will
allow the researcher to document how individual changes in students’ behavior, dispositions and
their character also influence their engagement and motivation for academic achievement.
Documenting these intricacies will help the researcher also validate which factors are intrinsic to
the student’s individual personality and their influence on their engagement and which variables
that influence engagement are more universal to the overall population.
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The population for this research project will be 30 high school students in an English
classroom setting. High school students are in a critical period of their education while also have
a certain maturity which allows for the development of complex arguments in their academic
setting and hence, would be easier to implement a teaching unit which explores thematics of
slavery and discrimination. The sampling strategy used in this research will be a non-probability
sample of the whole population of 30 students in a classroom since this will allow the researcher
to assess the group of students as a whole and include their interactions as part of the data to be
considered as part of the research in order to evaluate whether the shift in engagement is due to
intrinsic factors or if they are characteristics from the use of visual media in the classroom. This
will also allow for a rich pool for data on student’s use of critical thinking and their development
as well. Krejcie and Morgan suggest that when dealing with a population of 30 or fewer like
class of students, the researcher should make use of the whole population as a sample (as cited in
Cohen et al., 2011, p. 145). In addition, this approach seems favorable due to the exploratory
nature of this research project since the goal is to identify whether the use of visual media
improves upon the students’ engagement in education along with factors and variables which can
be used in subsequent studies with similar goals of addressing student engagement in education.
Data collection methods
The instruments which the researcher will make use of for this research will be semi-
structured interviews with the teacher/instructor of the classroom, artefacts which students
provide throughout the semester, and a non-participant observer who will be focusing on the
classroom dynamics as a whole in order to appraise which factors and variables are involved in
student’s engagement. Cohen et al. (2011) discuss how interviews serve the purpose of testing
hypotheses or suggest new ones and as an “explanatory device to help identify variables and
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relationships” (p. 411). Which means that when gathering data in order to gain an understanding
of the variables which affect student engagement with education, interviews allow the researcher
to explore different venues of information from the respondents which the interview is focused
on. While using a structured interview designates specific questions which the researcher must
abide by; using a semi-structured method of interview allows the researcher to gather additional
information from the subjects which influence the population (e.g. the teacher/instructor) from
their own. Using the teacher/instructor as the respondent of the interview will allow the
researcher to discuss different positions on the effectiveness of the teaching unit and the use of
visual media of the classroom. In addition, the teacher/instructors perception of the shift in
students’ engagement in class is an extremely valuable data for the researcher since this allows
one to compare the students’ engagement with education before the inclusion of visual media in
the classroom and during the inclusion of visual media. The topics of discussion for these
interviews will be focused around a monthly report of students’ participation and development in
the class, initial and conclusive reactions and/or opinions from the teacher regarding his/her
student’s performance during the semester. In addition, the content and thematics of the teaching
unit will be discussed with the researcher in order gain insight on what are the objectives that
students are expected to fulfill at the end of the semester and assess whether these objectives
were met or not.
This research project will also make use of participant-provided artefacts which
composes itself mainly of class materials, like class assignments, homework, class notes, and
visual media which is created by the students as well. Cohen et al. (2011) suggest that artefacts
may reveal “what a group is doing, but not why” when concerning qualitative research (p. 532).
However, they also mention that “how researchers use artefacts depends on their research
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questions” (p. 533). Which means that taking into consideration my second question which
inquires about whether a teaching unit that focuses around social issues and thematics in visual
media will develop students’ depth and complexity when argumenting about these issues and my
second question, which inquiries about whether the use of critical thinking can help with the
students’ overall education, would be answered by appraising students’ artefacts since the
inclusion of the teaching unit and assessing their development over the course of the research
Cohen et al. (2011) discuss that as a research technique, observation “offers an
investigator the opportunity to gather live data from naturally occurring social situations” which
allows the researcher to take field notes of any intricacies which take place in the research site.
The type of observation being done is a naturalistic observation with a non-participant observer
who will take record of students’ interactions and shifts in engagement in the classroom. Using a
non-participant observer allows the researcher to gain data about the classroom environment in
the most naturalistic way possible since the research taking place is meant to be applied for other
academic settings and these do not make inclusion of another party involved in the classroom
interaction as a participant observer would be. In addition, the non-participant observer works as
a second pair of eyes that is not distracted by the daily tasks of a teacher for example, giving
lectures, leading class discussions, and focusing on specific students in order to address issues
which might come up according to the situations which might unfold in the academic setting.
Significance/Implications of the Study
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There is a need to revise whether current pedagogy has the capability to perform a correct
assessment of student’s capabilities as learners. Perspectives of what constitutes intelligence are
a key issue when deciding how knowledgeable a student is when considering their education and
current education assessment is evaluating students with the incorrect criteria to do so. Despite
the fact that the setting of this study is suggested to be an English classroom; the target audience
for this study are educators in general since the goals of this study is also to raise awareness of
the use of the importance of using visual media in the classroom. Educators need to take into
consideration that students’ capabilities are being gauged inefficiently using criteria based on
standardized testing. However, policy-makers of education would also benefit from taking into
consideration how visual media affects students’ engagement in order to make changes in
education policies which would make inclusion of visual modalities in the classroom and address
the lack of engagement in education as well. In addition, another important audience of this
study are researchers which can make use of the exploratory nature of this study in order to
create other studies which stem from this one which would further the research on addressing the
issue of student engagement and would also develop their own research on using other classroom
modalities which would help students with their engagement in class.
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Timeline for Project Completion
Research Phase
Research Activity
Time Period
Submit Proposal
Final draft to all committee members
December 8, 2015
Submit IRB
Deliver IRB form with all requirements
Mid January
Find possible participants
Early February
Selection of Participants
Final selection of participants
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Mid February
First Data collection
Conduct first session of monthly interviews and artefact collection.
August – December (2016)
Second data collection period
Conduct second session of monthly interviews and artefact collection.
January – May (2017)
Third Data collection period
Conduct third session of monthly interviews and artefact collection.
August - December (2017)
Fourth Data Collection period
Conduct fourth session of monthly interviews and artefact collection.
January – May (2018)
Fifth Data collection period
Conduct fifth session of monthly interviews and artefact collection.
August – December (2018)
Sixth Data collection period
Conduct sixth session of monthly interviews and artefact collection.
January – May (2019)
Transcribing the rough data from the interviews and artefact collection.
June – July (2019)
Literature Review
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Revision and addition of literature
Analysis of findings
Data analysis and coding
September - November
Verifying data interpretation
Discussion of data analysis with the teacher
Late November
Writing the Thesis
Write manuscript
March –April
Thesis Defense
Formal presentation
Early May
Thesis revisions
Committee revisions
Mid May
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Bauman, K., & Graf, N. (2003). Educational Attainment: 2000 (pp. 1-12). Washington, DC: U.S.
Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration.
Beach, R., Appleman, D., Hynds, S., & Wilhelm, J. (2011). Teaching Literature to Adolescents
(2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
Bridgeland, J., DiIulio, J., & Morison, K. (2006). The Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High
School Dropouts (pp. 1-20). Washington, DC: Civic Enterprises.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011). Research Methods in Education (7th ed.).
London: Routledge.
Department of Education,. (2012). Puerto Rico Five Year LSTA Plan 20132017 (pp. 3-23).
Library and Information Services Program.
Facione, P. A. (1990). Critical Thinking: A Statement of Expert Consensus for Purposes of
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Full-text available
Anime is a form of educational entertainment that cultivates learning and develops skills of learners. The aim of this study is to compare the critical thinking ability of learners who are watchers and non-watchers of anime. A total of 87 undergraduate student of San Isidro College were randomly selected to be participants of the study. The study utilized a researcher made questionnaire to assess the critical thinking of the students. The result of the study shows that students spend around 11.8 hours a week watching anime and anime watchers have a higher critical thinking score compared to the non-watchers. Furthermore, the hours spent in watching anime has no bearing on the development of the critical thinking skill due to the few who watched anime for the sake of entertainment.
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