Research Design : Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches / J.W. Creswell.

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    • "The design chosen for the current research is the correlational research approach. As Creswell (2003) argued, in contrast to a qualitative research design which deals with interpreting, understanding, and conceptualizing the focal phenomenon, quantitative research approach is the most suitable method for describing the trends and explaining the scope of associations between variables. Although correlation is not able to reasonably determine causation, " high correlation values should suggest causal relationships " (Barr, Kamil, Mosenthal & Pearson, 2002, p. 48). "

    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016
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    • "Anecdotes from the source data are provided to the reader for a better sense of lived experience. Pseudonyms were created to protect the identity of the participants (Creswell, 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: This exploratory study was conducted to illuminate aspects relevant to the emergence and evolution of informal roles in a group during a canoe expedition. Following tenets of ethnography, the first author collected observational and interview (conversational and focus group) data while participating as a member of the expedition. Three general dimensions were revealed with regards to emerging and evolving informal roles: context aspects; role occupant aspects; and group member aspects. Informal roles were found to be important structural components which contributed to group productivity and harmony. Findings are discussed in relation to the broader literature while questions are raised regarding how informal roles have been conceptualized. Implications include considering how informal roles relate to individual (e.g. satisfaction) and group (e.g. cohesion) level constructs and how outdoor leaders may benefit from understanding how informal roles emerge and evolve.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning
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    • "Published textual descriptions of prioritization and related terms are not consistent. Various researchers have provided different definitions (Ahl, 2005; Lauesen, 2002) and concepts (Ramzan et al., 2011; Creswell, 2013), which might be ambiguous for many researchers. Therefore, there is a need to formally define the requirements and associated prioritization problem. "

    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016
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