Research Design : Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches / J.W. Creswell.
- SourceAvailable from: Reza Shaker Ardekani
- "However, it is neither merely an exploratory design nor an explanatory one, and is in fact inclined to combine these two sequential orders. In other words, based on the " what works " narrative (Creswell, 2003; Davies et al., 2000), research sometimes is started with the quantitative approach and supports the empirical findings (explanatory sequential design) and sometimes vice versa (exploratory sequential approach). In this sense, the research will be conducted along the lines of an exploratory scope, but at the same time aims to provide explanations. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The driving forces behind Technology Education (TE) are teachers themselves. Technology Education across Africa is a key part of improving human resource development. TE offers a variety of benefits for the African continent. These benefits include improving education and knowledge sharing, as well as increasing exposure to innovation in order to improve the living conditions of the continent's residents. If teachers are not equipped to teach TE as a process, the African continent will continue to show unacceptable results unless radical interventions are implemented. It is against this background that action research (AR) comes handy to emancipate TE teachers of five sampled schools from Mk1 Circuit in Limpopo Province of South Africa. AR was used as a means for radical interventions and it was implemented in South African schools. Some of the notable problems that contribute to the education crisis in South Africa are unqualified or underqualified teachers, large numbers of learners from disadvantaged backgrounds, inadequate delivery of infrastructure, incompetent teaching and poor learner results. The AR cycles and spirals activities of observing, planning, acting and reflecting manage to professionally develop TE teachers from low self-esteem of teaching TE to a remarkable increased TE didactic and pedagogic knowledge levels. The study was underpinned by Nash's Equilibrium Theory (NET) and guided by developmental action paradigm (DAP). Reflective questionnaires, non-participative observation and interviews were used to collect data. Action research with technology teachers manages to close the technology pedagogic content knowledge gap.
- "In most qualitative studies, theory comes at the beginning and provides a lens that shapes what is looked at and the questions asked especially in a transformative research (Creswell, 2014). Theory in the researcher's thought helps to make research decisions and provide a sense of the world around. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The diagnosis of HIV is life-changing that requires people not only to deal with the disease but also to cope with the stigma attached to HIV. People living with HIV (PLWH) as well as their close family members (CFM) are stigmatised; however, CFM also stigmatise PLWH. This interaction affects the relationship between PLWH and their CFM. Aim: To explore and describe the experiences of PLWH and CFM during and after a community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention in both an urban and rural setting in the North-West. Method: A qualitative description approach through in-depth interviews was used in both settings. Purposive sampling was used for the PLWH and snowball sampling for the CFM. Data was analysed using open coding. Results: Both urban and rural groups gained a richer understanding of HIV stigma and how to cope with it. The relationships were enriched by PLWH feeling more supported and CFM realising how they stigmatised PLWH and that they should be more supportive. Leadership was activated in PLWH and CFM through the stigma reduction project that they participated in. Conclusion: No significant differences were found between rural and urban communities, thus the intervention can be implemented with similar results in both settings. The intervention showed positive outcomes for both PLWH and CFM. Bringing PLWH and CFM together during an intervention in an equalised relationship proved to be useful as PLWH felt more supported and CFM showed much more compassion towards PLWH after the intervention.
- "Digital voice-recorded interviews were accurately transcribed to be used for data analysis. The open coding process of Tesch (as cited in Creswell, 2014) was followed. The researcher got a sense of the whole by reading the full text, then developed codes, coded the text, and turned them into subcategories, categories and themes by moving from descriptive to interpretative analysis. "
Questions & Answers about this publication
- How does triangulation work with mixed methods design?
How does triangulation work with mixed methods design?
I used mixed method for my thesis, in which I did survey first followed by case studies.
Some aspects you need to consider for your research designs are:
• implementation of both methods is sequentially or simultaneously
• which method gets higher priority
• the time when the integration will be done, whether during data collection, during data analysis, during interpretation of the results, or a combination of all three
• whether there is a greater theoretical perspective that regulate the overall study design.
The following book I use for my reference.