Lyme disease, or Lyme borreliosis, is caused by infection with the tick-borne spirochete, B. burgdorferi. Lyme borreliosis is a zoonosis, an infection transmitted among species. As such it is focally endemic-requiring co-localization of the causative organism, vectors, reservoir hosts, and humans. This chapter discusses the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, as well as prevention and ... [Show full abstract] control of the disease. Borrelia are highly sensitive in vitro to penicillins, third-generation cephalosporins, tetracyclines, and macrolides, although the last are less effective clinically. Numerous clinical trials have confirmed the efficacy of oral regimens for most cases of Lyme borreliosis, including arthritis, meningitis, cranial neuritis, and radiculoneuritis. Since B. burgdorferi-infected ticks are geographically localized, avoidance of their habitats is highly effective. The recommendation that in summer children wear long pants tucked into their socks and long sleeve shirts tucked into their pants would be hypothetically helpful but, as any parent will attest, is impractical at best.