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ABSTRACT— Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm is one on the most common and widely symmetric block cipher algorithm used in worldwide. This algorithm has an own particular structure to encrypt and decrypt sensitive data and is applied in hardware and software all over the world. It is extremely difficult to hackers to get the real data when encrypting by AES algorithm. Till date is not any evidence to crake this algorithm. AES has the ability to deal with three different key sizes such as AES 128, 192 and 256 bit and each of this ciphers has 128 bit block size. This paper will provide an overview of AES algorithm and explain several crucial features of this algorithm in details and demonstration some previous researches that have done on it with comparing to other algorithms such as DES, 3DES, Blowfish etc.
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Cryptography and Network Security 2017
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
Algorithm to Encrypt and Decrypt Data
Ako Muhamad Abdullah
MSc Computer Science UK
PhD Student in Computer Science
Department of Applied Mathematics & Computer Science
Eastern Mediterranean University - Cyprus
ako.abdullah@univsul.edu.iq
Student No. 16600094
Publication Date: June 16, 2017
ABSTRACT Advanced Encryption Standard
(AES) algorithm is one on the most common
and widely symmetric block cipher algorithm
used in worldwide. This algorithm has an own
particular structure to encrypt and decrypt
sensitive data and is applied in hardware and
software all over the world. It is extremely
difficult to hackers to get the real data when
encrypting by AES algorithm. Till date is not
any evidence to crake this algorithm. AES has
the ability to deal with three different key sizes
such as AES 128, 192 and 256 bit and each of
this ciphers has 128 bit block size. This paper
will provide an overview of AES algorithm and
explain several crucial features of this
algorithm in details and demonstration some
previous researches that have done on it with
comparing to other algorithms such as DES,
3DES, Blowfish etc.
Keywords Cryptography, AES (Advanced
Encryption Standard), Encryption, Decryption
and NIST.
I. INTRODUCTION
Internet communication is playing the
important role to transfer large amount of data in
various fields. Some of data might be transmitted
through insecure channel from sender to receiver.
Different techniques and methods have been using
by private and public sectors to protect sensitive
data from intruders because of the security of
electronic data is crucial issue. Cryptography is
one of the most significant and popular techniques
to secure the data from attackers by using two vital
processes that is Encryption and Decryption.
Encryption is the process of encoding data to
prevent it from intruders to read the original data
easily. This stage has the ability to convert the
original data (Plaintext) into unreadable format
known as Cipher text. The next process that has to
Cryptography and Network Security 2017
carry out by the authorized person is Decryption.
Decryption is contrary of encryption. It is the
process to convert cipher text into plain text
without missing any words in the original text. To
perform these process cryptography relies on
mathematical calculations along with some
substitutions and permutations with or without a
key.
Modern cryptography provide the
confidentiality, integrity, nonrepudiation and
authentication [1]. These days, there are a number
of algorithms have been available to encrypt and
decrypt sensitive data which are typically divided
into three types. Frist one is symmetric
cryptography that is the same key is used for
encryption and decryption data. Second one is
Asymmetric cryptographic. This types of
cryptography relies on two different keys for
encryption and decryption. Finally, cryptographic
hash function using no key instead key it is mixed
the data [2].
The symmetric key is much more effective
and faster than Asymmetric. Some of the common
symmetric algorithms is Advance Encryption
Standard (AES), Blowfish, Simplified Data
Encryption Standard (S-DES) and 3DES. The
main purpose of this paper will provide a detail
information about Advanced Encryption Standard
(AES) algorithm for encryption and decryption
data then make a comparison between AES and
DES algorithm to show some idea why replacing
DES to AES algorithm.
This paper is organized as follows: In section 2
presents a brief history of AES algorithm. Related
work discuss in section 3. In section 4 provides the
evaluation criteria of AES algorithm. Basic
structure of AES algorithm describe in section 5.
Encryption process of AES algorithm presents in
section 6. In section 7 explains the expanded key
of AES. Decryption process presents in section 8.
In section 9 discuss implementation areas of AES.
Finally, provide a conclusion in section 10.
II. BRIEF HISTORY OF AES
ALGORITHM
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
algorithm is one of the block cipher encryption
algorithm that was published by National Institute
of Standards and technology (NIST) in 2000. The
main aims of this algorithm was to replace DES
algorithm after appearing some vulnerable aspects
of it. NIST invited experts who work on encryption
and data security all over the world to introduce an
innovative block cipher algorithm to encrypt and
decrypt data with powerful and complex structure.
From around the world many groups
submitted their algorithm. NIST accepted five
algorithms for evaluate. After performing various
criteria and security parameters, they selected one
of the five encryption algorithm that proposed by
two Belgian cryptographers Joan Daeman and
Vincent Rijmen. The original name of AES
algorithm is the Rijndel algorithm. However, this
name has not become a popular name for this
algorithm instead it is recognized as Advanced
Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm around the
world [14].
III. RELATED WORK
Hardware and software implementation of the
AES algorithm is one of the most important area to
attractive researches to do a research on it. In
recent years a number of research papers have been
publishing on AES algorithm to provide much
more complexity and comparing the performance
between the popular encryption algorithms to
encrypt and decrypt data.
In [6] Lu, etal proposed a new architecture
method to reduce the complexity architecture of
Cryptography and Network Security 2017
AES algorithm when it is implementing on the
hardware such as mobile phone, PDAS and smart
card etc. This method has consisted of integrating
the AES encrypted and the AES decrypted to
provide a perfect functional AES crypto-engine.
To do that they focused on some important features
of AES especially (Inv)SubBytes and
(Inv)Mixcolumn module.
A study in [10] has conducted on different
secret key algorithms to identify which algorithm
can be provided the best performance to encrypt
and decrypt data. To do that there was conducted
on four common algorithms such as Blowfish,
AES, DES and 3DES. In this paper to evaluate
these algorithm contents and sizes of encrypting
input files were changed and two different
platforms were used to test these algorithms such
as P-II 266 MHz and P-4 2.4 GHz. According to
the results Blowfish has the ability to provide the
best performance compared to other algorithms
and AES has a better performance than 3DES and
DES. It also provide that 3DES 1/3 throughput of
DES.
In [11] provides the performance
evaluation of symmetric encryption algorithms.
This paper was conducted on six different common
algorithms like AES, DES, 3DES, RC2, Blowfish
and RC6. To compare among these algorithms
different settings were performed on each
algorithm such as different data types, different
size of data block, different key sizes, battery
power consumption and different speed for
encryption and decryption data.
Under these situations there was not found
significant deference when the data types were
based on hexadecimal encoding or 64 encoding
and there is no difference when using audio, video,
text or documents. According to the results
Blowfish can provide better performance
compared to other algorithms when the packed size
was changing, followed by RC6. On the other
hand, they found that DES has high performance
compared to 3DES algorithm. To time
consumption RC2 provided the worst performance
over all algorithms. Whereas AES has better
performance than three common algorithms RC2,
DES and 3DES. However, it is clear from the
results when the size of key was increasing, it
needs more battery and time consumption.
In this paper [14] evaluate the performance of
three algorithms such as AES, DES, and RSA to
encrypt text files under three parameters like
computation time, memory usage, and output
bytes. Encryption time was computed to convert
plaintext to cipher text then comparing these
algorithm to find which algorithm takes more time
to encrypt text file. According to the results they
have obtained RSA takes more time compared to
other algorithms. For second parameters RSA
needs a larger memory than AES and DES
algorithms. Finally, the output byte of each
algorithm has considered. DES and AES produce
the same level of output byte whereas RSA has a
low level of output byte.
IV. EVALUATION CRITERIA
FOR AES ALGORITHM
Three important criterions were used by NIST
to evaluate the algorithms that were submitted by
cryptographer experts.
A. Security
One of the most crucial aspects that NIST was
considered to choose algorithm it is security. The
main reasons behind this was obvious because of
the main aims of AES was to improve the security
issue of DES algorithm. AES has the best ability to
protect sensitive data from attackers and is not
allowed them to break the encrypt data as
compared to other proposed algorithm. This was
Cryptography and Network Security 2017
achieved by doing a lot of testing on AES against
theoretical and practical attacks [3].
B. Cost
Another criterion that was emphasis by NIST
to evaluate the algorithms it is cost. Again, the
factors behind this measures was also clear due to
another main purpose of AES algorithm was to
improve the low performance of DES. AES was
one of the algorithm which was nominated by
NIST because it is able to have high computational
efficiency and can be used in a wide range of
applications especially in broadband links with a
high speed [4].
C. Algorithm and Implementation
Characteristics
This criteria was very significant to
estimate the algorithms that were received from
cryptographer experts. Some important aspects
were measured in this stage that is the flexibility,
simplicity and suitability of the algorithm for
diversity of hardware and software implementation
[5].
V. BASIC STRUCTURE OF
AES Algorithm
AES is an iterative instead of Feistel cipher.
It is based on two common techniques to encrypt
and decrypt data knowns as substitution and
permutation network (SPN). SPN is a number of
mathematical operations that are carried out in
block cipher algorithms [7]. AES has the ability to
deal with 128 bits (16 bytes) as a fixed plaintext
block size. These 16 bytes are represented in 4x4
matrix and AES operates on a matrix of bytes. In
addition, another crucial feature in AES is number
of rounds. The number of rounds is relied on the
length of key. There are three different key sizes
are used by AES algorithm to encrypt and decrypt
data such as (128, 192 or 256 bits). The key sizes
decide to the number of rounds such as AES uses
10 rounds for 128-bit keys, 12 rounds for 192-bit
keys and 14 rounds for 256-bit keys [8].
Fig. 1 Basic Structure of AES
VI. ENCRYPTION PROCESS
Encryption is a popular techniques that plays a
major role to protect data from intruders. AES
algorithm uses a particular structure to encrypt data
to provide the best security. To do that it relies on
a number of rounds and inside each round
comprise of four sub-process. Each round consists
of the following four steps to encrypt 128 bit block
Cryptography and Network Security 2017
Fig.2 Encryption Processes
A. Substitute Bytes Transformation
The first stage of each round starts with
SubBytes transformation. This stage is depends on
nonlinear S-box to substitute a byte in the state to
another byte. According to diffusion and confusion
Shannon’s principles for cryptographic algorithm
design it has important roles to obtain much more
security [12]. For example in AES if we have hexa
53 in the state, it has to replace to hexa ED. ED
created from the intersection of 5 and 3. For
remaining bytes of the state have to perform this
operations.
Table 1 AES S-box Table
Fig. 3 Substitute byte transformation
B. ShiftRows Transformation
The next step after SubByte that perform on the
state is ShiftRow. The main idea behind this step is
to shift bytes of the state cyclically to the left in
each row rather than row number zero. In this
process the bytes of row number zero remains and
does not carry out any permutation. In the first row
only one byte is shifted circular to left. The second
row is shifted two bytes to the left. The last row is
shifted three bytes to the left [13]. The size of new
state is not changed that remains as the same
original size 16 bytes but shifted the position of the
bytes in state as illustrated in Fig 4.
Cryptography and Network Security 2017
Fig.4 Shift Rows
C. MixColumns Transformation
Another crucial step occurs of the state is
MixColumn. The multiplication is carried out of
the state. Each byte of one row in matrix
transformation multiply by each value (byte) of the
state column. In another word, each row of matrix
transformation must multiply by each column of
the state. The results of these multiplication are
used with XOR to produce a new four bytes for the
next state. In this step the size of state is not
changed that remained as the original size 4x4 as
shown in Fig. 5.
Fig. 5 Multiplication Matrix
b1 = (b1 * 2) XOR (b2 *3) XOR (b3 * 1) XOR (b4 * 1)
And so on until all columns of the state are
exhausted [14].
D. AddRoundKey Transformation
AddRoundKey is the most vital stage in AES
algorithm. Both the key and the input data (also
referred to as the state) are structured in a 4x4
matrix of bytes [19]. Fig. 6 shows how the 128-bit
key and input data are distributed into the byte
matrices. AddRoundKey has the ability to provide
much more security during encrypting data. This
operation is based on creating the relationship
between the key and the cipher text. The cipher text
is coming from the previous stage. The
AddRoundKey output exactly relies on the key that
is indicated by users [15]. Furthermore, in the stage
the subkey is also used and combined with state.
The main key is used to derive the subkey in each
round by using Rijndael's key schedule. The size
of subkey and state is the same. The subkey is
added by combining each byte of the state with the
corresponding byte of the subkey using bitwise
XOR [16].
Fig. 6 Add Round Key
Cryptography and Network Security 2017
Fig.7 Inputs for Single AES Round
VII. AES KEY EXPANSION
AES algorithm is based on AES key expansion
to encrypt and decrypt data. It is another most
important steps in AES structure. Each round has a
new key. In this section concentrates on AES Key
Expansion technique. The key expansion routine
creates round keys word by word, where a word is
an array of four bytes. The routine creates 4x
(Nr+1) words. Where Nr is the number of rounds
[17]. The process is as follows:
The cipher key (initial key) is used to create the
first four words. The size of key consists of 16
bytes (k0 to k15) as shown in Fig.8 that represents
in an array. The first four bytes (k0 to k3)
represents as w0, the next four bytes (k4 to k7) in
first column represents as w1, and so on. We can
use particular equation to calculate and find keys
in each round easily as follows:
K [n]: w[i] = k [n-1]: w[i] XOR k[n]:
w[i].
This equation uses to find a key for each round
rather than w0. For w0 we have to use particular
equation that is different from above equation.
K[n]: w0 = k [n-1]: w0 XOR SubByte (k
[n-1]: w3>>8) XOR Rcon [i].
Fig. 8 AES Key Expansion
AES Key Expansion Example
K1:
W0 = 0f 15 71 c9
W1 = 47 d9 e8 59
W2 = 0c b7 ad e8
W3 = af 7f 67 98
How to find K2?
K2 = w0 = k1: w0 XOR SubByte (k1:w3>>8) XOR Rcon [2]
0f 15 71 c9 XOR SubByte (af 7f 67 98>>8) XOR Rcon [2]
Rcon [2] from Auxiliary function = 02 00 00 00
Cryptography and Network Security 2017
0f 15 71 c9 XOR SubByte (7f 67 98 af ) XOR 02 00 00 00
0f 15 71 c9 XOR D2 85 46 79 XOR 02 00 00 00
0f 15 71 c9 XOR d0 85 46 79
K2 = w0 = df q0 37 b0
K2: w1 = k1: w1 XOR k2: w0
47 d9 e8 59 XOR df q0 37 b0
K2: w1 = 98 49 df eq
K2: w2 = k1: w2 XOR k2: w1
In this example we have found W0 and W1. In a
similar way we can find W2 and W3.
Fig.9 AES Key Expansion
Fig. 10 Auxiliary Function
AES Encryption Example
To more explain the main steps of AES
encryption take an example for the first round to
demonstrate how to encrypt data by using AES
algorithm. We have a plaintext: AES USES A
MATRIX.
o Firstly, we have to convert this text into
Hexadecimal.
Plaintext
Hexadecimal
A
00
E
04
S
12
U
14
S
12
E
04
S
12
A
00
M
0C
A
00
T
13
R
11
I
08
X
23
Z
19
Z
19
Table 2 Convert Plaintext into Hexadecimal
Cryptography and Network Security 2017
o Secondly, creating a matrix that based on
the bytes which are obtained from above
table as shown below:
12
0C
08
04
00
23
12
13
19
00
11
19
Fig. 11 State
o Thirdly, SubByte: This step relies on AES
S-box but before using SubByte both the
key and this matrix (also referred to as the
state) are structured in a 4x4 matrix of bytes
by using XOR operation as follows:
Fig. 12 Add Round Key Stage
o Second stage is ShiftRows. It has explained
above. The most important stage is
MixColumns. Each value in the column is
eventually multiplied against every value
of the matrix in a particular field (Galois
Field).
Fig. 13 Multiply two States
Calculate:
63 * 02 + F2 *03 + 7D * 01 + D4 * 01
63 * 02 = 0110 0011 *02 = 1100 0110
F2 * 03 = F2 *02 + F2 * 01
= 1111 0010 *02 = 11100101 XOR 1B = 11100101
XOR 0001 1011
F2 *02 = 1111 1111
F2 *01 = 1111 0010 * 01 = 1111 0010
F2 * 02 + F2 *01 = 0000 1101 = F2 *03
7D * 01 = 0111 1101
D4 * 01 = 1101 0100
63 * 02 + F2 *03 + 7D * 01 + D4 * 01
11000110 + 00001101 + 01111101 + 11010100 =
01100010 = 62
After computing all bytes we can obtain the
state as follows. In this example we
calculated only one byte of the state,
remaining bytes have the same procedures.
Fig. 14 New State
o The final steps in first round is Add
Round Key. This stage creates form
new state of MixColumn with 128-bits
of the round key by using XOR
operation in a similar way others
rounds.
VIII. DECRYPTION PROCESS
The decryption is the process to obtain the
original data that was encrypted. This process is
based on the key that was received from the sender
Cryptography and Network Security 2017
of the data. The decryption processes of an AES is
similar to the encryption process in the reverse
order and both sender and receiver have the same
key to encrypt and decrypt data. The last round of
a decryption stage consists of three stages such as
InvShiftRows, InvSubBytes, and AddRoundKey
as illustrated in Fig. 8.
Fig. 15 Decryption Processes
IX. IMPLEMENTATION
AREAS
AES algorithm is one of the most powerful
algorithm that are widely used in different fields all
over the world. This algorithm enables faster than
DES and 3DES algorithms to encrypt and decrypt
data. Furthermore, it is used in many cryptography
protocols such as Socket Security Layer (SSL) and
Transport Security Layer protocol to provide much
more communications security between client and
server over the internet. Before AES algorithm
released both of protocols to encrypt and decrypt
data relied on DES algorithm but after appearing
some vulnerable of this algorithm the Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) decided to replace
DES to AES algorithm. AES can also be found in
most modern applications and devices that need
encryption functionality such as WhatsApp,
Facebook Messenger and Intel and AMD
processor and Cisco devices like router, switch,
etc. In addition, AES Crypt package is available on
many library of software programs such as C++
library, C# /.NET, Java and JavaScript which uses
to easily and securely encrypt files from intruders
[20].
CONCLUSION
Using internet and network are increasing
rapidly. Everyday a lot of digital data have been
exchanging among users. Some of data is sensitive
that need to protect from intruders. Encryption
algorithms play vital roles to protect original data
from unauthorized access. Various kind of
algorithms are exist to encrypt data. Advanced
encryption standard (AES) algorithm is one of the
efficient algorithm and it is widely supported and
adopted on hardware and software. This algorithm
enables to deal with different key sizes such as 128,
192, and 256 bits with 128 bits block cipher. In this
paper, explains a number of important features of
AES algorithm and presents some previous
researches that have done on it to evaluate the
performance of AES to encrypt data under
different parameters. According to the results
obtained from researches shows that AES has the
ability to provide much more security compared to
other algorithms like DES, 3DES etc.
Cryptography and Network Security 2017
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in-ABSTRACT-In recent years, blockchain technology has gained considerable attention. A blockchain is a public ledger of transactions or events recorded and stored in chronologically-and linearly-connected blocks. Later blocks maintain the hash code of previous blocks. It records cryptographic transactions in a public ledger or book that is difficult to alter and compromise because of the distributed consensus. As a result, blockchain is believed to resist fraud activities and hacking. Although blockchain technology resists several types of malicious attacks and reduces many associated risks, it does not eliminate all attacks. Its preventative mechanisms (e.g., distributed consensus, cryptography, and anonymity) may impair its resistance to some types of frauds and maliciousness. In this project, we use blockchain technology in file transfer system. Since blockchain provides only the authentication, we intend to provide confidentiality to the data by encrypting it with the encryption algorithm, AES before hashing. Thereby, we can ensure the security of data and can make it trustworthy for the users.
Chapter
The transportation sector is dominated by compression ignition (CI) engines. Their high power output, portability, efficiency, and overall prevalence in vehicles have resulted in their status as the largest petroleum consumer in any field. The present research aims to reduce petroleum reliance by using biodiesel as an alternative fuel to diesel in the CI engine. As a renewable, eco-friendly alternative to fossil fuels, biodiesel requires thorough investigation under operational conditions. The studies on the mixture of diesel and single biodiesel have been carried out for most available plant and animal sources. With the combination of two different biodiesel blends with diesel, very little work has been done, and much potential has been left in this region. This investigation involves examining a 50:50 mixture of biodiesels extracted from non-edible Pongamia pinnata and Neem plant seed oil to blend with diesel. An acid catalyst chemically treats both non-edible oils before transesterification and reduces their free fatty acid (FFA) content. The results show that blends B10 to B30 have better or adjacent values with conventional diesel in fuel consumption and thermal efficiency. With all biodiesel blends, CO and HC emissions were reported to be reduced than that of diesel. As biodiesel is constituted of more oxygen molecules it enables better combustion of fuel in the combustion chamber. The emission of NOX is slightly higher in biodiesel blends when compared with diesel. In conclusion, dual biodiesel blends up to 30%, could be used as substitute to diesel in a conventional CI engine without significantly altering the engine and compromising on the engine's performance and emissions.
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In India, the government provides with subsidies to people on the basis of their electricity bills yet the energy consumption has seen no change. Customers take no effort in reducing the same. In our paper, we are trying to rank residential apartments based on their monthly electricity consumption rating. Firstly, we take in data for the monthly electricity consumption of 50 apartments. Thereby, we apply K-means clustering algorithm to divide those apartments into 5 categories (best, good, average, bad, and worst) on the basis of their electricity consumption. Finally, with the help of 6 different machine learning algorithms, namely logistic regression, decision tree, Gaussian Naive Bayes, K-nearest neighbor (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), random forest, we fit these models onto the data we collect from the residential apartments. This helps us classify any new residents into the above 5 categories. We split data into train and test data in the ratio 75:25. The accuracy of the classification model we get is in the range 80 to 100%. To secure the personal data of residents that we store we used AES encryption and decryption algorithm which is the best encryption algorithm till date.
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Vorwort Dieser Bericht entstand im Rahmen der Lehrveranstaltung "Forschungs-methoden und Seminar (FMS)" im Wintersemester 2021/22 auf Initiative der Studierenden des Masterstudiengangs "Elektro-und Informations-technik (MEI)". Diese Lehrveranstaltung hat das Ziel, systematisch an das wissenschaft-liche Arbeiten, speziell die Wissenschaftskommunikation, heranzuführen. Daher war geeignete Literatur zu einem individuellen Thema zu recher-chieren, Veröffentlichungen auf ihre Relevanz hin zu beurteilen und letzt-endlich eine eigene Ausarbeitung basierend auf der Literaturrecherche zu erarbeiten und diese in einem Vortrag zu präsentieren. Parallel dazu erfolgte im Theorieteil die entsprechende Hinführung zu den verschiedenen Elementen der Wissenschaftskommunikation: • Bedeutung der Wissenschaftskommunikation für die Arbeit der In-genieure in Forschung und Entwicklung • Literaturrecherche, Suchmaschinen, Sichtung und Analyse vorhan-dener Publikationen, Bewertung der Qualität aufgefundener Fachli-teratur, Auswahl geeigneter Materialien für die eigene Arbeit • Aufbereitung und Darstellung der recherchierten technischer Inhalte in Form einer seitenanzahlbegrenzten wissenschaftlichen Ausarbei-tung • Einhalten formaler Randbedingungen bzgl. Strukturierung, einschl. Bildnachweise und Zitationsstile • Peer-review-Prozess bei wertschätzender Beurteilung der Leistung anderer • Publikumsangepasstes Aufbereiten komplexer fachlicher Inhalte mit hochschulöffentlicher Präsentation der Ergebnisse • Führen mündlicher wissenschaftlicher Diskurse Nachdem die Masterstudierenden in der Regel über noch keine eigene wissenschaftliche Forschungserfahrung bzw.-inhalte verfügen, lag der wählbare Schwerpunkt der Literatursuche auf der Bearbeitung von vor-gegeben aktuellen technischen oder gesellschaftspolitischen Forschungs-themen.
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In spite of the importance of security in process models, the domain of BPM and BPMS which stand for "Business Process Management" and "Business Process Management System", provide only little support for securing sensitive data. Nevertheless, privacy and confidentiality in BPMS solutions is still missing. This is particularly required for e-health applications. In this paper, we address the problem of privacy requirements and discuss data encryption approaches for personal information of patients and doctors in the database of a BPMS solutions in Intelligent assistance system for a COVID-19 crisis unit (SMART2C).
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In our everyday lives, the IoT is everywhere. They are used for the monitoring and documentation of environmental improvements, fire safety and even other useful roles in our homes, hospitals and the outdoors. IoT-enabled devices that are linked to the internet transmit and receive a large amount of essential data over the network. This provides an opportunity for attackers to infiltrate IoT networks and obtain sensitive data. However, the risk of a loss of privacy and security could outweigh any of these benefits. Many tests have been carried out in order to solve these concerns and find a safer way to minimize or remove the effect of IoT technologies on privacy and security practices in order to protect them. The issue with IoT devices is that they have small output modules, making it impossible to adapt current protection methods to them. This constraint necessitates the presentation of lightweight algorithms that enable IoT devices. In this article, investigated the context and identify different safety, protection, and approaches for securing components of IoT-based ecosystems and systems, as well as evolving security solutions. In addition, several proposed algorithms and authentication methods in IoT were discussed in order to avoid various types of attacks while keeping the limitations of the IoT framework in mind. Also discuss some hardware security in IoT devices.
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Nowadays, network has important roles for transferring data accurately and fast from source to a destination. The data is not secure enough to transfer highly confidential. The security of information has become one of the principle challenges of resource sharing with data communication over computer network. Cryptography and Steganography are two methods for protecting data from intruders while transferring over an open channel network. Cryptography is a method to encrypt data and steganography is the art and science of hiding secret message in a cover image. In this paper a Hash Least Significant Bit (H-LSB) with Affine cipher algorithm has been proposed for providing more security to data in a network environment. First we encrypt the data with the new cryptography algorithm and then embed in the image. Eight bits of the secret message are divided into 3, 3, 2 and embedding into the RGB pixels values of the cover image respectively. A hash function is used to select the particular position of insertion in LSB bits. This system allows a message sender to select keys to encrypt the secret message before embedding into the image and a receiver is used the keys to decrypt the message. Receiver can be decrypted the encrypt message with incorrect the keys but to a different form from the original message. This system has the ability to provide better security while transferring the secret message from one end to the other end in network environment.
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Faults attacks are a powerful tool to break some implementations of robust cryptographic algorithms such as AES and DES. Various methods of faults attack on cryptographic systems have been discovered and researched. However, to the authors' knowledge, all the attacks published so far use a theoretical model of faults. In this paper we prove that we are able to reproduce experimentally the random errors model used by G. Piret and J.J. Quisquater (2003) to realize practical fault attack on a smart card embedding an AES encryptor by under-powering it. In spite of the fact that this method is a convenient fault injection technique to set up, it does not often appear in the open literature. We argue that the fault model is consistent with a setup violation: errors appear at the end of combinatorial logic cones, caused by an early sampling in the downwards registers. We also carry out an extensive characterization of the faults, in terms of spatial and temporal localization.
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In this chapter, a fourth design example is presented. The implemented circuit is the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) which is another cryptographic block. In this implementation, the static power consumption of the MCML gates is reduced by applying the Power Gated MCML (PG-MCML) technique where the current source of the gates is switched off when there is no activity. The example block is implemented by using both MCML and CMOS gates. The power consumption, area, and the DPA-resistance figures with the one of static CMOS and conventional MCML are compared. The results show that the PG-MCML library can achieve a power consumption comparable with the one of static CMOS, thus proving that PG-MCML cells can suit the strict power budget of battery operated devices.
Conference Paper
Cryptography algorithms are becoming more necessary to ensure secure data transmission, which can be used in several applications. A modified Rijndael algorithm capable of encrypting a 128 bit input/output/key is presented. The presented algorithm depends on substitution and permutation network (SP-Network) rather than feistel network. A new stage is proposed in the encryption process. The introduced architecture was implemented by VHDL, schematic and core generator - Based Design which are synthesized, placed and routed in Virtex XCV800-6bg432 which resulted in an optimized area (7148) slices and (44) MHz clock speed. Post simulations for major functions and the final algorithm are presented and discussed.
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The sensor network is a network technique for the implementation of Ubiquitous computing environment. It is wireless network environment that consists of the many sensors of lightweight and low-power. Though sensor network provides various capabilities, it is unable to ensure the secure authentication between nodes. Eventually it causes the losing reliability of the entire network and many secure problems. Therefore, encryption algorithm for the implementation of reliable sensor network environments is required to the applicable sensor network. In this paper, we proposed the solution of reliable sensor network to analyze the communication efficiency through measuring performance of AES encryption algorithm by plaintext size, and cost of operation per hop according to the network scale.
Conference Paper
In today's world most of the communication is done using electronic media. Data Security plays a vital role in such communication. Hence, there is a need to protect data from malicious attacks. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is an encryption standard used for securing information. AES is a block cipher algorithm that has been analyzed extensively and is now used widely. The hardware implementation of AES algorithm is faster and more secure than software implementation. There are different hardware models to implement the Rijndael Encryption core. This paper addresses the performance of Rijndael AES Encryption algorithm of key length 128 bits. Two hardware models based on HDL and IP core are used to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. The encryption time and also the performance metrics such as size, speed and memory utilization are evaluated, using these models. Results are compared to a reference model and have shown an increase in the throughput per slice measure.
Conference Paper
Securing data is more important than ever, yet cryptographic file systems still have not received wide use. One barrier to the adoption of cryptographic file systems is that the performance impact is assumed to be too high, but in fact is largely unknown. In this paper we first survey available cryptographic file systems. Second, we perform a performance comparison of a representative set of the systems, emphasizing multiprogrammed workloads. Third, we discuss interesting and counterintuitive results. We show the overhead of cryptographic file systems can be minimal for many real-world workloads, and suggest potential improvements to existing systems. We have observed not only general trends with each of the cryptographic file systems we compared but also anomalies based on complex interactions with the operating system, disks, CPUs, and ciphers.