Article

Arrhythmia Mechanism and Scaling Effect on the Spectral Properties of Electroanatomical Maps With Manifold Harmonics

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Abstract

Introduction: Spatial and temporal processing of intracardiac electrograms provides relevant information to support the arrhythmia ablation during electrophysiological studies. Current cardiac navigation systems (CNS) and electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) build detailed 3-D electroanatomical maps (EAM), which represent the spatial anatomical distribution of bioelectrical features, such as activation time or voltage. Objective: We present a principled methodology for spectral analysis of both EAM geometry and bioelectrical feature in CNS or ECGI, including their spectral representation, cutoff frequency, or spatial sampling rate (SSR). Methods: Existing manifold harmonic techniques for spectral mesh analysis are adapted to account for a fourth dimension, corresponding to the EAM bioelectrical feature. Appropriate scaling is required to address different magnitudes and units. Results: With our approach, simulated and real EAM showed strong SSR dependence on both the arrhythmia mechanism and the cardiac anatomical shape. For instance, high frequencies increased significantly the SSR because of the "early-meets-late" in flutter EAM, compared with the sinus rhythm. Besides, higher frequency components were obtained for the left atrium (more complex anatomy) than for the right atrium in sinus rhythm. Conclusion: The proposed manifold harmonics methodology opens the field toward new signal processing tools for principled EAM spatiofeature analysis in CNS and ECGI, and to an improved knowledge on arrhythmia mechanisms.

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