SSRG International Journal of Agriculture & Environmental Science ( SSRG – IJAES ) – Volume 4 Issue 2 March to April 2017
ISSN: 2394-2568 www.internationaljournalssrg.org Page 53
Some Chemical Characteristics of White
(Morus Alba L) and Black (Morus Nigra L)
Mulberry Phenotypes in Tartus Syria
Georges Makhoul*, Hafez Mahfoud**, Hussam Baroudi#
*Prof,Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.
** Researcher, Department of Biotechnology, General Commission for Scientific Agriculture. Research, Lattakia, Syria.
#Postgraduate student, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.
In this study, some chemical properties
(Glucose, Fructose, Sucrose, titratable acidity, vitamin
C, total solid contents) of 33 phenotypes of white
(Morus alba L.) and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberries
phenotypes fruits grown in Tartus of Syria were
investigated. The glucose content of mulberry
phenotypes varied between 14.69 % (KH-9, black) and
0.72% (B-7, white). The fructose content varied
between 11.01 % (KH-9, black) and 0.05 % (KH-5,
white). The sucrose content varied between 0.03%
(DN-4, black) and 2.37% (KH-1, black). Ascorbic acid
(vitamin C) was in the range from 2 mg/100 g fresh
weight (B-11, KH-5, D-7, M-7) to 42 mg/100 g fresh
weight (A-2, black). Total acidity varied between 0.06
% (D-6, white) to 2.21 % (KH-3, black). The total solid
contents % were in the range from 19.45 % (KH-9,
black) to 5.6 % (M-2, white). The results were analyzed
by (GenStat Release 12.1). The results of this study
revealed that there were big differences in juice fruits
contains (sugars, TSS, Vitamin C and TA) regardless of
the specie and the location. The study showed the
highest fructose, glucose and sucrose concentrations
were observed in some black phenotypes 25.7 % (KH-
9) followed by white mulberry phenotype 16.22 % (M-
7). Some white mulberry phenotypes had the highest
concentration of sucrose was 1.47% (DA-4). Black
mulberry phenotypes were also found to be higher than
of the white ones in ascorbic acid and total acidity
Keywords: Morus alba, Morus nigra, ascorbic acid,
sugars, TSS, TA. I. INTRODUCTION
Horticultural plants show wide variability in
terms of morphological, bio chemical and molecular
characteristics. Syria is one of the main genetic
diversity centers for numerous fruits species with
diverse phytochemical profiles and potential health
benefits important in pharmaceutical and functional
food industries. Berries are very popular in the human
diet due to their high anthocyanin content and
antioxidant activities with potential health benefits on
retarding aging, decreasing the risk of cardiovascular
diseases and cancer, therefor many studies have become
conducted on the chemical composition of berries
.Mulberry genus Morus belongs to the family
Moraceae.Morus is a typical east Asian genus
distributed in tropical and sub–tropical to temperate
regions of the world. Mulberry Can grow in a wide
range of climatic to topographical and soil conditions
Mulberry (Morus spp) leaves have been the
traditional feed for silk worm (Bombyxi mori L.) the
growth and development of the silk worm larvae and
subsequently cocoon production are greatly influenced
by nutritional quality of mulberry leaves. Mulberry
leaves are rich source of proteins, carbohydrate,
chlorophyll A and B, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid
and various mineral elements . The main use of
mulberry globally is as feed for the silk worm, but
depending on the location it is also appreciated for its
fruits (consumed Fresh, juice, or as preserves) (; ).
White mulberry is recognized as the primary food of
silk worms and is widely cultivated in china but later
it's dispersed to various parts of the world. Morus rubra
L. is native to United states of America and grows in
forests, its renowned as rich source of flavones namely
rubraflavones. Morus nigra L. originated in Iran but
was exported to Britain more than 500 years ago (;
). Today it is cultivated in Southern Europe and
Southwest Asia and its recognized as one of the most
important fruits in Mediterranean . It is mostly used
for making processed foods such as pekmez,
marmalads, juices, liquors, natural dyes and frozen
fruits for ice cream . In terms of food production
Morus is a complex genus and has a great genetic
variability. According to plants scientists it has 7
species M. alba, M. nigra andM. rubra are the most
important throughout the world, Or it has 12 species
, 14 , 30  and 68 species . White
mulberry is 25 meters in the height, the leaves are
usually rounded (cuneate to subcordate, lobes common
SSRG International Journal of Agriculture & Environmental Science ( SSRG – IJAES ) – Volume 4 Issue 2 March to April 2017
ISSN: 2394-2568 www.internationaljournalssrg.org Page 54
especially sprouts in sun), lower surface glabrous
except of scattered short hairs (mostly 0.2-0.5 mm) on
the major veins. Fruits are short –cylindric to elliptic
(L/W mostly 1.5-3) . The fruits of white mulberry
are sweet but they are very perishable. The color of
fruits doesn’t identify the species, As the genotypes of
M. alba can produce lavender white or black fruits
which are very sweet but of lack tartness. Red mulberry
fruits are usually deep red almost black and it has best
clones and a flavor that almost equals of the black
mulberry . Black mulberry is small to medium tree
that reaches nine meters in height, the leaves overall
shape is ovate-cordate to suborbicular unlobed or rarely
3-lobed, lower surface softly pubescent. The flowers
are mostly dioecious but sometimes monoecious. ripen
fruits are syncarps to short-cylindric, ovoid with purple
to black juicy edible pulp. The fruits of black mulberry
are famous for their nutritional qualities flavor, and
especially medicinal properties . The fruits of M.
nigra have a distinct flavor with juicy and acidic
characteristics making them attractive to consumers and
for use in processing industry in products because black
mulberry fruits are large and have a good balance of
sweetness and tartness that makes them the best
flavored species of mulberry. The high fresh weight,
black–purple color and extraordinary taste of black
mulberry fruits increased the need of those
plants.Flavor of fruits vary from cultivar to cultivar [15;
16]. The mulberry fruits are rich in anthocyanins and
deserve to be exploited for industrial production of
natural color to be used in the food industry. In
particular, it is known to contain cyanin which
contributes the red pigment that gives the fruits a red to
purple color. Mulberry fruits changes color from green
to purple black through red with maturity, some
varieties introduced from mid- Asia have white fruits.
The differences between the mulberry varieties in terms
of total anthocyanins content in fruits are highly
significant . Research on 31 cultivars of mulberry
yielded a total anthocyanin level calculated as cyanidin
– 3 – glucoside ranging from 147 – 68 to 2725.46 mg/
L juice. Total sugars, total acids and vitamin C
remained intact in the residual juice after removal of
anthocyanins and residual juice could be fermented in
order to produce products such as juice, wine, sauce
. The object of our research was to identify and
quantify some chemical characteristics (sugars
(glucose, fructose, sucrose), citric acid, vitamin C, TSS)
of local white and black mulberries phenotypes from
Tartus, Syria. The obtained results may be taken into
consideration in the selection of parents in future
breeding programs. Mulberry plants are normally
dioecious, but they can also be monoecious on different
branches of the same plant . The pendulous
pistillate (female) and staminate (male) Catkins are
arranged on spikes. The pistillate catkins in white
mulberry are 0.5 – 2 cm long and staminate catkins are
2.5 – 4 cm long. The pistil ate catkins in red mulberry
are 1-3 cm long and staminate Catkins are 3-5 cm long.
The green female flowers have 4 sepals and 1 pistil.
The ovary is about 2 mm long The style in white
mulberry is red brown and 0.5 – 1 mm. All mulberries
have hairy stigmas on the average 44% of the pistillate
in florescences are parthenocarpic with seedless fruits
being somewhat smaller than seeded fruits .
Mulberry species have been known and cultivated in
Turkey for more than 400 years . The reliable
information on genetic identity and relationship among
genotypes is necessary to develop corecollection for
germ plasm maintenance . Any fruit characters can
be used as a selection criterion for fruit size depending
on the heritability of the characters and simplicity for
measurement, genetic diversity was studied based on
horticultural traits and total solid content in mulberry
(Morus alba) varieties, (fruits weight, Length, width)
and TSS at immature, medium ripe and fully ripe
stages. High variation were observed in 21 varieties. At
the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.89 cluster
analysis showed that 21 varieties of mulberry could be
grouped into 6 distinct clusters. The results are helpful
for germ plasm conservation, utilization and
management for breeding of mulberry in the future
. Morphological diversity on fruits characteristics
were studied among some selected mulberry genotypes
from Turkey because Turkey has important mulberry
genetic resources and mulberry tree is used only for
fruits production not for sericulture, purposes some
selected morphological fruit characteristics such as seed
formation, fruit weight, TSS, TA, juice yield, pH of 34
selected genotypes found together in Turkey. The
results showed that there were big differences among
genotypes in terms of the most of the fruit
characteristics. Fruit weight varied from 0.66 to 3.07g.
TSS varied from 17.33% to 30.67% and TA varied
from 0.06% to 1.62%, pH varied from 2.19 to 5.86
respectively . Some morphological and agronomical
characterization of native black mulberry (M, nigra L.)
were studied in sutauler Turkey (Fruit diameter, Fruit
length, fruit coloring, Fruit weight, TSS, pH, TA,
vitamin C in order to identify with respect to some fruit
and trees characters for conserving as a genetic resource
for further breeding efforts especially variety
improvement. The results showed that vitamin C
contains were between 2.68 to 9.99 µg/g. TAc between
1.01 to 1.79%. TSS ranged from 13.91 to 18.36% .
Some phonological and pomological traits of mulberry
crown in Turkey were studied in order to select the best
mulberry genotypes for horticultural and ornamental
uses (Fruit weight, pH, sugar content, TSS, water
content, TA) of 25 selected mulberry genotypes were
found as 1.38 to 3.08g, 5.6 to 7.4, 8.73 to 12.30, 15.79
to 19.71% and 76 to 83%, 0.16 to 0.26% respectively.
SSRG International Journal of Agriculture & Environmental Science ( SSRG – IJAES ) – Volume 4 Issue 2 March to April 2017
ISSN: 2394-2568 www.internationaljournalssrg.org Page 55
At the end of this study some promising mulberry
genotypes were determined for horticultural and
ornamental uses. Mulberry fruits contain Little sucrose
but high amount of reduced sugars and the proportion
of glucose to fructose is important. white mulberry had
the highest total sugars content compared to black and
red ones, therefore white mulberries can be important
as raw materials in processing technology. Total acidity
as malic acid TA% ranged from 0.2 – 2.5% . In
average of the sugar content is about 12%, but in some
varieties it's more than 20 percent . Biochemical
constituents of different parts of mulberry genotypes
were studied, so the results indicated that (AR-12)
mulberry variety has recorded highest biochemical
constituents. The carbohydrate content in mulberry fruit
of Turkey region is 20.4%. Difference in the sugars
content amongst cultivars has also been reported by
other scientists, however values noted in present study
were about those scientists. Another research reported
total sugars content in mulberry fruits grown in
Pakistan region ranged between 21.16 to 34.77% while
it ranged between 0.37 mg/ gm to 0.65 mg/gm
according to . Mulberry is rich in alkaloids,
polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, which have
been suggested to be responsible for health benefits .
The chemical composition of white (M. alba) red (M.
rubra) and black (M. nigra) mulberry fruits grown in
turkey was studied;M. alba had the highest total fat
content 1.1% Followed by M. nigra 0.95% and M rubra
0.85% respectively. the major Fatty acids in mulberry
fruits were linoleic acid 54.2% palmitic acids 19.8%
and oleic acid 8.91% respectively. The TSS content of
mulberry species varied between 15.9% (M. rubra L.)
and 20.4% (alba), Acidity between 0.25% (alba) and
1.90% (nigra) pH between 3.52 (nigra) and 5.60 (alba)
and ascorbic acid 19.4 mg/ 100 g (rubra) and 22.4 mg/
100 g (alba) respectively. Mineral compositions of the
mulberry species were 0.83% N, 235 mg/ 100 g P, 1141
mg/ 100 g K, 139 mg / 100 g Ca, 109 mg/ 100 g Mg, 60
mg/ 100 g Na, 4.3 mg/ 100 g Fe, 0.4 mg/ 100 g cu, 4.0
mg/ 100 g N and 3.1 mg/ 100 g Zn respectively .
Bright black (M. nigra) and purple mulberry (M. rubra)
are Particularly desirable fruits in Turkey, More
recently the interest in these bright black and purple
mulberry fruits has also increased, because of the
popularization of healthy properties of these fruits, the
study was carried out in 2008 aiming to determine the
antioxidant activity, total phenolic, total anthocyanin,
mineral, soluble solid, vitamin C, and total acid content
of four black and four purple mulberry genotypes
grown in Turkey. The results showed that black
mulberry genotypes have a higher bioactive content
than purple mulberry genotypes were 20149 µg of
gallic acid equivalent GAE Per gram and 719 µg of
cyaniding 3- glucoside equivalent per gram of fresh
mass. In purple mulberry these values were for GAE
1690 µg/g and for cy-3-glu 109 µg/ g on fresh mass
basis the TSS, Vc and TA of black and purple mulberry
genotypes. TSS in genotypes varied from 16.95 to
18.4% in black. In red Mulberries, it ranged from
14.87% to 15.11% previous studies had shown that
purple mulberry had lower TSS. The average of Vc
content was 20.79 mg/100 g (black) to 18.87 (purple)
mg/ 100 ml respectively. Total acidity of black
mulberry was between 1.64 and 1.97% while in purple
mulberry 0.96- 1.1%. it can be said that purple
mulberry has lower acidity compared to black mulberry
.Physicochemical properties (total soluble solid
contents, pH, Titratable acidity, vitamin C, antioxidant
activity, total phenolic and total anthocyanins of black
mulberry fruits grow in Turkey were investigated. the
TSS content of black mulberry varies between 15.65%
and 22.1%. TA between 1.45 % to 1.185%, pH between
3.65 to 4.12, Ascorbic acid in the range from 18.40 to
23.67 mg/100 g Fresh weight. The results clearly
indicate the difference between the phenotypes used
grown in the same conditions . Sugars (glucose and
Fructose), organic acids (citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic
acid, malic acid, succinic acid and Fumaric acid),
vitamin C, phenolic compounds and antioxidant
capacity were determined in fruits of wild black berry.
Black and white mulberries from southern Bulgaria
Malic acid was the predominate organic acid for black
and white mulberries citric and malic acids were
represented with the highest content in black berries,
the highest fructose concentration was observed in
black berries 16.187 g/100 g, Black mulberries showed
the highest antioxidant activity 12.230 µ mol TE/g
Followed by white mulberries. The results illustrated
significant phytochemical profiles of the studied berries
which could contribute to the medical industry and
provide valuable genetic resources for breeding
programs. vitamin C content in black berries was 13.33
mg/100 g. Blackberry fructose content 16.18 g/100 g
was higher than that in wild black and white mulberries
. The fresh juice of black berries was tested for
antimicrobial various pathogenic, microorganisms, total
antioxidant contents, total phenolic contents, total
anthocyanins, trace minerals, total acid contents, total
solids and ascorbic acid content were also evaluated.
The results showed good antimicrobial activity. the
black mulberry juice was rich in ascorbic acid 23.45
mg/100 g had low overall acid content 1.60% and had
19 % total soluble solids. the average total anthocyanins
and total phenolic contents of black mulberry juice
were 769 µg/ g of cyaniding -3-glucoside .
physicochemical characteristics of black mulberry
genotypes from Northeast Anatolia region of Turkey
were studied. some selected physicochemical properties
(antioxidant activity, Ascorbic acid, fatty acids, fruit
color, fruit juice yield fruit weight, organic acids, pH,
total phenolic and TSS of 5 black mulberry genotypes
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grown in Turkey. Fatty acids in fruits were determined
by using chromatography, Total phenolic content was
observed in black mulberry fruits between 1943 and
2237 mg gallic acid equivalents / 100 g fresh mass. The
vitamin c content of genotypes varied between 14.9-
18.7 mg/100 ml. The major fatty acids in all mulberry
fruits were linoleic acid 53.57 – 64.41% and palmitic
acid 11.36 – 16.41%. Antioxidant activity of black
mulberry genotypes was found between 63% to 76%
which lower than standard BHA and BHT. Regarding
organic acid content mallic acid was the most
predominant with rang of 123 – 218 mg/g followed by
citric acid 21 – 41 mg/g. The results of the study are
helpful for attempting crop improvement in black
mulberry for bringing to cultivation .
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
The presented study was conducted in Tartus,
Syria in 6 locations, ranging from a height of between
(0- 500 m). Total 33 mulberry trees were studied as
phenotypes, white and black mulberries we presented in
A. Collection and Preparation of Black and White
Mulberries Fruit Samples:
Mulberry fruits were harvested from M. alba
and M. nigra phenotypes 22 of these types belong to M.
alba (A-1, H-7, B-1, B-5, B-7, B-8, B-9, B-10, B-11,
KH-2, KH-5, KH-8, D-1, D-3, DA-4, D-5, D-6, D-7,
M-1, M-2, M-5) and 11 belong to M. nigra (A-2, H-5,
B-2, KH-3, KH-4, KH-9, DN-4, D-8, M-4, M-6) these
phenotypes were originated from seeds and were
selected according to study the morphological diversity.
All berries picked in ripe stage and harvest time
according to ripening period for each phenotype during
the summer of 2014 and 2015. The berries were
selected according to uniformity of shape and color.The
fruits were then transported to laboratory for analysis in
the General Commission for Scientific Agriculture
Research GCSAR. The chemical analysis of
phenotypes fruits is the content of (sugars, ascorbic
acid, total acidity, TSS) in order to evaluate and
compare the phenotypes (white and black) in their
contents and select the best phenotype to cultivation
and genetic breeding for mulberry tree.
B. Determination of Sugars (Glucose, Fructose,
Sucrose) by HPLC:
The sugar composition in the berries was
identified based on fruit juice standards.In sugar
analysis HPLC (high-performance liquid
chromatography) was used, samples required extensive
treatment. The samples were prepared in these
following ways: 5 g of mulberry fruits juice were taken
and put them in titration crucible (flask) then mixed
with 20 – 30 ml deionised water and 1 ml of carrez
solution (1 g of K4Fe(CN)6.3 H2o) and 100 ml
deionised water in flask and 1 ml of Carrez 2 (30 g of
ZN(OAC)2H2o)and deionised water till 100 ml in flask.
After that mixed the components for 1 minute then the
analytical samples were diluted with deionised water
and filtered through filter paper then we shut out the
first 10 ml after that the sample were refilterd through
micro filter 0.45µm and washed the syringe by
deionised water then by standard solution 2-3 times
then injected the sample directly after filtration.
Combination of water or various organic liquid the
most common are methanol and acetonitrile. when the
sample is dissolved in the eluent good separation can be
expected even for the sample whose peaks appear near
the peaks of the standerd. Finally, we have got many
gradients with peaks which showed us the sort of
sugars, we record the areas, height, time of every
gradient and followed the formula to determine the
percentage of sugars %.
- The conc. of standerd is 4 ml g/ ml.
- The separate column for sugars NH2.
-The eluent: acetonitrile and deionised water.
- the flow Rate: 0.85 ml / m.
𝐴2∗ 𝐶 ∗
X: the cone of sugar %.
A1: the area of sample gradient 𝑐𝑚2.
A2: the area of standerd gradient 𝑐𝑚2.
C: the cone of standerd mg/g.
W: the sample weight g.
C. Determination of Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) in
In this study titration method was used to
determine the concentration of vitamin C in freshly
prepared and packaged fruit juice samples. After
pureeing and filtering the fruit juices samples, the juice
was used for vitamin C analysis. Mulberry juice,
Ascorbic acid standard solution Metaphosphoric acid,
2.6 Dichloro – Indophenol (DCIP) solution 250 ml
Beaker, 25 ml measuring cylinder calibrated burette and
chlorophorm CHCl3 for black mulberry juice in order to
determine the endpoint of titration. The endpoint is the
point at which the titration is complete as determined
by the color change of the indicator. DCIP solution
changes to pink color when contacts with the ascorbic
acid solution and it becomes colorless after shaking
well. The end point is reached once a drop of DCIP
solution is added and distinct light rose, pink color
persists in the solution even after mixing thoroughly.
Record the volume of DCIP solution added and
Estimate the reading of burette up to two decimal
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places. the following formula was used to determine the
concentration of vitamin C :
X: conc of Vc (mg/100g).
V1: The milliliters of DCTP used to titrate the sample.
V2: DCIP ml used to titrate standard.
R: Titer of DCIP
W: Sample weight g.
V3: milliliters of mulberry juice.
R: Titer of DCIP
W: weight of pure vitamin C g.
V1: The ml of pure Vc.
V2: DCIP ml used to titrated the standard.
V3: The volume of flask ml.
D. Determination of the Titratable Acidity (TAc)% in
Titratable acidity of mulberry was expressed
as citric acid % (TAc). To determine the total acidity in
mulberry in mulberry fruits juice, a known amount of
mulberry juice was added to beaker (10 ml) then
additional water (distilled water) was added If the juice
is rather dark The amount of water isn't critical. Adding
water doesn’t change the total amount of acid in our
samples however we did not add more water than 5
times the amount of mulberry fruits juice, then about 5
drops of phenolphthalein was added, it is an indicator,
that is clear when it is in a solution that is acidic, but
will change to purplish color when that solution
becomes neutral to basic.
Then we started adding NAOH (0.1 N)
(Normal sodium Hydroxide) until the solution started to
turn pinkish and stayed pinkish then we noted the
amount of NAOH used for the titration. The following
formula was used to determine the TA of mulberry
juice TAc .
X: Total acidity %.
V1: The millimeters of NAOH ml.
V2: The millimeters of mulberry fruits juice.
T: 0.1 N.
K: (0.0064 for citric acid).
E. Determination of Total Soluble Solids in
Mulberry Fruits (TSS):
Total Solids that are dissolved within a
substance. A common total soluble solid is sugar. The
technique of measuring the concentration of total
soluble solids is called refractometer which is used
extensively in the food industry. TSS were determined
by extracting and mixing one drop of juice from each
fruit into a digital refractometer (Model MA881) at
20°C which had temperature compensation Capability.
F. Statistical Analysis:
The experiment was a completely randomized
design. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was
used for assessment of the differences in the chemical
parameters between white and black mulberries. Mean
separation was performed by Duncan’s. Statistical
evaluation was made via GenStat (release 12.1) at 5%
A. Sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose) in Mulberry
Fruits: In white mulberry phenotypes the fructose
concentration varied from 0.05% (KH-5) to 7.3% (D-6)
with an average of 11.78%, The glucose concentration
phenotypes ranged from 0.72% (B-7) to 10.7% (KH-8)
with average 4.53%, the sucrose concentration varied
from 0.13% (D-7) to 1.47% (DA-4) with average of
0.48%. while in black mulberry phenotypes the fructose
concentration varied from 2.25% (KH-3) to 11.01%
(KH-9) with an average of 4.91%, The glucose
concentration ranged from 2.21% (KH-4) to 14.69%
(KH-9) with an average 6.32%, the sucrose
concentration varied from 0.03% (DN-4) to 1.47%
(KH-1) with average 1.2%.
The mulberry phenotypes had glucose and fructose
regardless of the species (black and white). The
mulberry juice had the highest amount of glucose
compared to fructose (Fig 1), mulberry juice contained
a little amount of sucrose in mulberry fruits (10
phenotypes). As it seen in (fig 2) the total sugars
content (glucose+ fructose+ sucrose) among white
mulberry phenotypes were ranked as between 3.84% (B
– 5) and 15.64% (KH- 8) with average 8.56%, while in
black mulberry phenotypes the total sugars content
(glucose+ fructose+ sucrose) were varied from 4.53%
(KH-4) to 25.7% (KH-1) with average 11.4%. 
reported that mulberry genotypes contained a little
amount of sucrose and highest amount of glucose
comparing to black mulberry genotypes. one-way
analysis of variance (ANOVA) with multiple range
significant difference (LSD 5%= 6,233). The statistical
analysis results revealed that the phenotype (KH–9)
showed high significant difference among 33
phenotypes followed by (KH –1) Except (M-7, KH-8,
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D-6, M-6, D-1, D-8) which showed no significant
difference. The Result of statistical analysis showed no
significant difference between the 21 phenotypes.
Fig 1. Percentage of Fructose, Glucose and Sucrose in White and Black Mulberries Phenotypes Fruits.
Fig 2. Percentage of Total Sugars (fructose+ glucose+ sucrose) in White and Black Mulberries Phenotypes Fruits.
B. Ascorbic Acid content in Mulberry Fruits Juice
The content of ascorbic acid of mulberry
phenotypes in fresh white mulberry juice was found to
be from 2 mg/100 g (D-7) to 16 mg/100 g (D-6) with
average 3.90 mg/100 g. while in black mulberry varied
from 3 mg/100g (KH-9) to 42 mg/100 g (A-2) with
average 21.27 mg/100 g. In particular, the highest
ascorbic acid content was found in M. nigra compared
to M. alba (fig 3). In the earlier work conducted on the
northeast Anatolia region of Turkey reported that
vitamin C contents of black mulberry cultivars varied
from 14.9 to 18.8 mg/100 ml.  reported that the
average of vitamin C content in black and purple
mulberries as 20.79 and 18.87 mg per 100 ml extract
respectively.  reported that vitamin C content in
black and purple mulberries was 16.6 and 11.9 mg/100
ml extract.  reported that vitamin C content of M
alba was (17.8 mg/ 100 ml) followed by M. nigra (16.6
mg/ 100 ml) and M. rubra (11.9 mg/ 100 ml). the
results obtained by  reported 23 mg/100 ml of
ascorbic acid.  reported the ascorbic acid content
ranged between 18.40 to 23.76 mg/100 g. the statistical
analysis results revealed that the phenotypes (KH-9, A-
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2) belong to black mulberry showed a high significant
difference in ascorbic acid content except (KH-3, M-6)
nigra. (M-6) surpassed with a high significant to all
phenotypes, the statistical analysis results showed that
there was no significant difference between (H-5 and
M-4). Finally, there wasn’t a significant difference
between the 25 mulberry phenotypes.
C. Total acidity (TAc%) in mulberry fruits:
The variation of TAc in white mulberry fruits
juice was ranged from 0.06% (D-6) to 0.375% (H-7, B-
1) with average 0.19%. while in black mulberry fruits
juice was between 0.38% (B-2) to 2.21% (KH-3) with
average 1.16% (fig 4) which is a little lower than those
reported for black mulberry genotypes was varied
between 1.64 - 1.97%, whereas these values were
between 0.96 – 1.10% in purple mulberry genotypes.
(; ) reported 1.6% of total acidity.
Fig 3. Ascorbic Acid Content in White and Black Mulberries Phenotypes Fruits.
 reported that the titratable acidity ranged
between 1.45 to 1.85%. As it seen black mulberry had
the highest amount of total acidity comparing to white
mulberry. The statistical analysis results revealed that
the black mulberry phenotypes showed a high
significant difference (except B-2) to all white mulberry
types. there was a high
significant difference in black mulberry phenotypes as
followed (KH-3, KH-4, respectively, there isn’t
significant difference between (DN-4, KH-9).
Fig 4. Total Acidity % In White And Black Mulberries Phenotypes Fruits.
ISSN: 2394-2568 www.internationaljournalssrg.org Page 60
D. Total soluble solid % in Mulberry Fruits Juice:
The TSS content in white mulberry
phenotypes varied from 5.6% (M-2) to 15.6% (M-5)
with average 11.57%. while in black mulberry was
between 8% (KH-3) to 19.45% (KH-9) with average
11.94% (fig 5).  reported that TSS in black mulberry
juices averaged 19.4%.  reported 13.11 to 16.23%
total soluble solids in black mulberry genotypes. 
also reported that TSS in mulberry grow in different
agro-ecological regions ranges from 15 to 31%. 
showed that TSS of black mulberry varied from 15.65
The statistical analysis results (LSD= 0.446)
revealed that the phenotype (KH-3) showed the highest
TSS content with a high significant difference
comparing to the total phenotypes while (KH-4) had a
high significant difference compared to all phenotypes
except (M-4 and M-6) which didn’t have any
significant difference. (KH-1, H-5, A-2) surpassed to 26
phenotypes with a high significant difference.
Fig 2. Total Soluble Solid% in White and Black Mulberries Phenotypes Fruits.
The results clearly indicate the differences
between white and black mulberry phenotypes. The
differences between them may be a reflection of the
chemical differences between the mulberry phenotypes.
The white and black mulberries phenotypes have a
good vitamin C, TSS, TAc, sugars (glucose and
fructose) content. These phenotypes can be used for
future breading activities. The results showed that the
mulberry types fruits had the highest amount of
monosaccharides (Glucose, Fructose) regardless of the
species while the phenotypes had a little amount of
sucrose (10 phenotypes) most of them belong to white
mulberry. The data about chemical parameters in white
and black mulberry phenotypes available so far are still
not understood well. Therefor more studies should be
performed. In this research the glucose and fructose
sugar content were shown to be higher when compared
to those reports by . [(8]; ) reported that Morus
nigra had the highest amount of TAc, vitamin C and
anthocyanins comparing to Morus alba, therefor black
mulberry has the best good combination of TSS and TA
so it’s been also preferred as fresh fruits and it has been
using to treat mouth lesions along time as well. while
white mulberry can be important as raw materials in
processing technology. There was not a clear variation
in TSS content while there was a variation among
phenotypes that belong to one species (alba or nigra).
The variation of fruit weight, TSS, pH in black
mulberry fruits could be result of heterozygote nature of
seed propagated genotypes and the effect of different
environmental conditions where genotypes grown .
We can say that the difference of mulberry types in
terms of above characteristics is supposed to it genetic
derivation as well because all plants found
approximately in the same age and ecological, it’s
previously reported that plant genotype effects the
content of berry group fruits.
Finally, it can be said that mulberry fruits are a valuable
horticultural nutrient composition. Certain growing
condition and cultural management techniques affecting
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the nutritional value of mulberry species will be the
subject of further research project.
Table 1. Fructose, Glucose, Sucrose, Vitamin C, Titratable acidity, TSS Composition of White Mulberry Phenotypes.
Table 2. Fructose, Glucose, Sucrose, Vitamin C, Titratable Acidity, TSS Composition of Black Mulberry
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