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Thermal and energy performance of a building with PV-applied double-skin façade

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... Mirzaei and Carmeliet (2015) showed that the stepped arrangement of modules on a pitched roof increases the ventilation rate, improving its performance. Luo et al. (2018), Yu et al. (2017), Wang et al. (2017) studied the performance of naturally ventilated PV-DSF. Yun et al. (2007) found a maximum reduction in the module temperature for natural ventilation. ...
... While for winter season DSF without ventilation performs better in heating load reduction. Among the technologies, perovskite cell with the generation of about 29.7kWh/m 2 year showed better performance than DSSC 15.7 kWh/m 2 year and a-Si of 12.7 kWh/m 2 year (Yu et al. 2017). A simulation was performed to compare the performance of PV-DSF to glass DSF. ...
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Integration of Photovoltaic (PV) technologies with building envelopes started in the early 90 to meet the building energy demand and shave the peak electrical load. The PV technologies can be either attached or integrated with the envelopes termed as Building Attached (BA)/Building Integrated (BI) PV system. The BAPV/BIPV system applications are categorized under the building envelope roof and facades as PV-roof, PV-Skin Facade, PV- Trombe Wall, PV claddings, and louvers. This review covers various factors that affect the design and performance of the BAPV/BIPV system applications. The factors identified are air gap, ventilation rate, a tilt angle of PV shading devices, adjacent shading, Semitransparent PV(STPV) glazings design, Cell Coverage Ratio (CCR), transmittance, Window to wall ratio (WWR), and glazing orientation. Furthermore, the results of the possible factors are compared to building locations. This review article will be beneficial for researchers in designing the BAPV/BIPV system and provides future research possibilities.Keywords: Photovoltaic,Double skin Facades,Trombe wall,Glazings
... Building cooling energy consumption and reduction in cooling load by applying PV panels as shading devices [9,10,37,38] is studied in EnergyPlus (NREL). The house model is made in SketchupPro (Trimble Inc, USA) by using Euclid Extension to run EnergyPlus. ...
... A model with PV panels at 1 m apart is shown in Figure 13. The cooling load of building decreases with the increase of shaded rooftop [9,10,[37][38][39]. Flat plate PV panels provide maximum reduction in cooling load as shown in Figure 14. ...
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PV estimation in an urban environment requires detection of rooftop area, design of PV system based on optimization on PV placement distance and the study of additional benefit of lower cooling load of building by shading provided by PV panels. The study is aimed at policymakers to introduce renewable energy policy towards net-zero energy buildings in urban areas. In this research, the capital city of Pakistan, Islamabad is analyzed for rooftop PV capabilities using deep learning algorithms. The area of the rooftop is calculated by extracting buildings in high-resolution satellite imagery using a deep learning algorithm. The site location is analyzed for available solar energy resources. The distance between the rooftop PV array is optimized based on self-shading losses, coefficient of performance, energy yield, net-zero energy analysis and reduction of cooling load of the building provided by PV arrays as shading devices. The 40 km2 area of Islamabad considered in this research can generate 1,038 GWh of solar energy annually from its 4.3 km2 rooftop area by installed capacity of 447 MW PV panels rows placed at 0.75 m apart. The electricity generated by Islamabad can curtail residential load from the national grid and form a near net-zero energy zone while the electrical energy from the grid can be provided to the industries to enhance the economy and reduce unemployment in Pakistan.
... These results further suggest that South facing offices incorporating facades with a g-value of 0.5 and U-value of around 2 W/m 2 K would require minimal heating and cooling during winter. Although this measure will increase energy demand at other times of the year, assuming much of this energy can be derived from various green sources such as photovoltaic modules installed in the spandrel area of the façade (Yu et al, 2017) and/or air source heat pumps, which is a realistic proposition given that irradiation levels and dry-bulb temperatures are higher during these periods, should help reduce CO2 emissions (Wang and Arya, 2016). ...
Article
Office buildings require a significant amount of energy for heating and cooling purposes. A possible strategy for reducing this energy in order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and operational costs is to specify high-performance facades. However, their benefits remain unclear for UK conditions with mild winters and cool summers. This paper reports on an investigation on the energy demand of offices in London, UK, incorporating facades with U-values between 1·2 and 2·6 W/(m^{2}K) and g-values between 0·3 and 0·5 using the dynamic simulation tool Tas. Other variables considered included climate change (using the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers’ future weather data files), low internal gains, long working hours and office orientation. It was found that, apart from the case when internal gains are low, cooling is overwhelmingly necessary and energy usage increases with decreasing U-value and decreases with decreasing g-value. Low-U-value facades act to reduce conduction heat losses, thereby increasing energy use. Conversely, low-g-value facades act to reduce solar heat gains, thereby reducing the energy required for cooling. The results are used to highlight deficiencies in The Building Regulations 2010 and where more advice would be of benefit. The paper also discusses the merits of a number of strategies for reducing energy use in office buildings.
... The integration of PV system shows positively effect on the building sensible cooling energy demands and in increasing the peak production power. Yu et al. (2017) conducted a similar study on a double skin facade with integrated PV panels in R.O. Korea. ...
Article
Advanced building envelope systems can contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and improve the energy flexibility of buildings while maintaining high levels of indoor environmental quality. Among different transparent envelope technologies, the so-called double skin facades (DSFs) have been since long time proposed as an effective, responsive building system. The implementation of DSF systems in a real building is highly dependent on the capabilities of the prediction of their performance, which is not a trivial task. The possibility to use whole-building energy simulation (BES) tools to replicate the behaviour of these systems when integrated into a building is, therefore, a crucial step in the effective and conscious spread of these systems. However, the simulation of DSFs with BES tools can be far more complex than that of more conventional facade systems and represents a current barrier. This article is based on evidence from the scientific literature on the use of BES tools to simulate DSF, and provides: (i) an overview of the implementation of DSFs systems in BES tools, with the current capabilities of some selected BES tools; (ii) a comprehensive review of recent, relevant simulation studies, where different approaches to modelling and simulating DSFs are reported; and (iii) the identification of current gaps and limitations in simulation tools which should be overcome to increase the possibilities to correctly predict the performance of DSFs when integrated into a building.
... By simultaneously functioning as envelope material and power generator, building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems can be more costeffective and can provide savings in materials and energy costs, reduce carbon dioxide emissions and add architectural enhancement to the building (Agathokleous and Kalogirou, 2016). The final article (Yu et al., 2017) investigated and compared the energy and thermal performance of a building with a glass DSF and a PV-integrated DSF through dynamic simulation modelling. The results showed that the PV-DSF system was advantageous during summer to decrease cooling load. ...
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ZEMCH aims to tackle issues arising in the delivery of socially, economically and environmentally sustainable built environments in developed and developing countries, which accommodate people with different socioeconomic backgrounds, ages and abilities. Annually, the conference brings together researchers and government and industry professionals to discuss the problems and delights of design, manufacturing and marketing surrounding the delivery of low-carbon dioxide and, ultimately, zero-energy houses that are customisable on a mass scale, either built or under construction in developing and developed countries. The ZEMCH network was established in 2010 after a number of international industry-academia collaborative study tours were organised in order to observe the state-of-the-art production and sales facilities of leading low-to zero-energy or carbon dioxide emission sustainable housing manufacturers in Japan, which also practise inclusive design. Presently, the ZEMCH network consists of 667 global partners from academia, industry and government based in over 45 countries. Built upon the success of previous conferences, the fourth conference in the ZEMCH series attracted a large number of submissions from all around the world, which were subjected to a two-stage peer review process. With the objective of producing a high-quality conference, papers were selected for presentation at the conference and publication in the proceedings. The scope of the conference is extensive and 64 oral presentations were delivered. Extended and revised versions of the top articles, which were selected by the ZEMCH scientific committee and the Engineering Sustainability editorial panel, are included in this themed issue to disseminate further the leading research in this field first presented at ZEMCH 2015. The selected papers cover key research topics in the areas of sustainable built environments, including green building rating systems, intelligent building technologies, gamification in the built environment, four-dimensional (4D) building information modelling (BIM), vertical green walls and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). A wide range of 'green' building rating and assessment tools are used around the world to help mitigate the environmental impacts of the built environment through the measurement and recognition of sustainability performance (AlWaer and Kirk, 2012; Haroglu, 2013). Sustainability is now a top priority in the Middle East region and countries like Jordan, Qatar and UAE have developed their own green building rating system to incorporate social, economic, environmental and cultural aspects in modern construction. The first article in this issue (Shareed and Altan, 2017) assessed and compared the different building sustainability rating systems in the Middle East with well-established and leading international green building certification systems such as the Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (Breeam) and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (Leed). The assessment focused on the vision and structure, categories, weightings, levels and certification processes. The study highlighted the importance of developing and employing local green building codes or systems to achieve sustainability targets according to national priorities and regulations. The second article in this issue (Gadakari et al., 2017) focused on finding the relationship between building intelligence and sustainability by developing a predictive statistical model that can estimate the impact of intelligent building technologies (IBTs) on sustainability scores of green building rating tools. The data were collected from 40 Breeam-and Leed-certified buildings in the UK and Europe and were subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis methods. The work highlighted the numerous benefits that IBTs can provide, and the analysis proved that there was a strong positive correlation between the number of IBTs used in a building and the scores achieved. One of the most important challenges faced by the building sector today is tackling the 'energy performance gap', which is the disparity in energy use of buildings, from predicted performance at the design stage to actual performance in use (Baborska-Narozny and Stevenson, 2017; Johnston et al., 2015; Robinson et al., 2016). The third paper in this issue (Patlakas and Raslan, 2017) discusses the significant role of building users in determining the energy use of buildings and the influence of their behaviour on the 'performance gap'. The authors attempted to addressed the issue by using 'gamification' or game-based tools to help users better understand the issues relating to building performance, post-occupancy evaluation surveys and facilities management. The study demonstrated both the advantages and challenges of gamification which were in agreement with the experiences reported in the literature.
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To mitigate the overheating problem in the warmer seasons, and thereby improve thermal performance and energy efficiency of the double-skin façade (DSF) system, this study introduced an innovative design approach involving the integration of passive thermal mass technique with the air channel of the conventional DSF. To assess the contribution of this integration to energy efficiency of the system, a numerical model was developed, capable of determining the thermal performance of the conventional DSF. The numerical model is composed of airflow and thermal models. This paper briefly describes the development of the models as well as the models’ verifications. Models were then used to carry out a series of parametric studies to investigate the effect of thermal mass on the energy performance of the integrated system.The simulation results revealed that mechanically ventilated DSF can save energy based on configuration from 21% to 26% in summer and from 41% to 59% in winter as compared to conventional DSFs without thermal mass. The results also showed the total saving for a naturally ventilated DSF is negligible year-round.
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Developments in the design and manufacture of photovoltaic cells have recently been a growing concern in the UAE. At present, the embodied energy pay-back time (EPBT) is the criterion used for comparing the viability of such technology against other forms. However, the impact of PV technology on the thermal performance of buildings is not considered at the time of EPBT estimation. If additional energy savings gained over the PV system life are also included, the total EPBT could be shorter. This paper explores the variation of the total energy of building integrated photovoltaic systems (BiPV) as a wall cladding system applied to the UAE commercial sector and shows that the ratio between PV output and saving in energy due to PV panels is within the range of 1:3–1:4. The result indicates that for the southern and western façades in the UAE, the embodied energy pay-back time for photovoltaic system is within the range of 12–13years. When reductions in operational energy are considered, the pay-back time is reduced to 3.0–3.2years. This study comes to the conclusion that the reduction in operational energy due to PV panels represents an important factor in the estimation of EPBT.
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One of the most important methods of saving energy in a building is by carefully designing its facade. A 'double skin façade' is optimally one of the best options in managing the interaction between the outdoors and the internal spaces. It also provides some architectural flexibility to the design. Recently it has received much attention as opposed to the more typically glazed curtain wall. This is because of its ability to efficiently reduce energy and therefore saves cost. The amount of energy saved depends on the climate and the design chosen. The design of the DSF involves decisions on geometric parameters, glass selection, ventilation strategy, shading, daylighting, aesthetics, wind loads, and maintenance and cleaning cost expectations. DSF has an impact on several aspects of the design phase of a building. For example, thermal properties, acoustic characteristics and daylighting are affected in the exploitation phase of the building. In addition, in terms of building safety point of view, fire propagation maintenance or glazing thermal break must be taken into account. Currently, little work has been done on the behaviour of DSFs in hot and humid climates. This paper shall review previous studies made on double skin façade systems (DSFS) in buildings.
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Energy consumption in the residential and commercial sector accounts for over 25% of the total in Japan. With the information technology revolution and the improving requirement for indoor air environment, energy consumption for household air conditioning is increasing. In this research, a double skin facade is proposed for a two-story house in Kitakyushu of Japan. The stack effect in the double skin space during the summer, the green house effect during the winter and the availability for free air-conditioning during the autumn have been studied. The temperature distribution, thermal performance in the double skin space and its impact on air-conditioning load in rooms have been measured. Results show that the double skin façade leads to about 10–15% energy saving for cooling in the peak of summer because of heat exhausted by natural ventilation, 20–30% energy for heating in winter because of the green house effect, and the temperature adjustment is quite large with the different operation mode of the double skin system during the intermediate seasons. Therefore the double skin system is proved to be effective in energy conservation in residential buildings.