ArticlePDF Available

Various Pharmacological Aspects of Cocos nucifera-A Review

  • Sanskar College of Pharmacy and Research. India
  • School of Pharmacy- VGI


Plant materials, derived from thousands of plant species from lichens to towering trees, represents substantial portion of the global market. When we think about the highly nutritious plant parts then we can’t move beyond Cocos nucifera. Many scientists around the world have worked on Cocos nucifera and revealed too may bioactivities such as antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, antineoplastic, insecticidal, and leishmanicidal activities. In this review also, we focused on various pharmacological aspects of Cocos nucifera, with different extraction methods and isolated compounds.
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, 2017, Vol. 5, No. 2, 25-30
Available online at
©Science and Education Publishing
Various Pharmacological Aspects of
Cocos nucifera - A Review
Babita Aggarwal1, H. S. Lamba2, Pankaj Sharma2, Ajeet3,*
1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, H. R. Institute of Pharmacy, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Vishveshwarya Group of Institute,
Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
*Corresponding author:
Abstract Plant materials, derived from thousands of plant species from lichens to towering trees, represents
substantial portion of the global market. When we think about the highly nutritious plant parts then we can’t move
beyond Cocos nucifera. Many scientists around the world have worked on Cocos nucifera and revealed too may
bioactivities such as antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, antineoplastic, insecticidal, and
leishmanicidal activities. In this review also, we focused on various pharmacological aspects of Cocos nucifera, with
different extraction methods and isolated compounds.
Keywords: Cocos nucifera, husk fiber, shell, pharmacological effects, extraction methods
Cite This Article: Babita Aggarwal, H. S. Lamba, Pankaj Sharma, and Ajeet, Various Pharmacological
Aspects of Cocos nucifera - A Review.” American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 5, no. 2 (2017):
25-30. doi: 10.12691/ajps-5-2-2.
1. Introduction
Plant materials and herbal remedies, derived from
around 70,000 plant species from lichens to towering trees,
represents substantial portion of the global market. From
time immemorial, the herbs have played a major role by
providing us lead compounds for the isolation and
synthesis of many conventional drugs.
Being a flowering plant, Cocos. nucifera belongs to
angiosperm and represented in Magnoliophyta division
which could be classified in two subclasses like
Magnoliopsida and Liliopsida. Liliopsida class is
monocotyledons while plants belonging to Magnoliopsida
are dicotyledons. [1,2]
1.1. Traditional Health Benefits of Coconut
Antimicrobial and antifungal treatment for skin like
ring worms, psoriasis candidiasis, sore throat, sores,
skin burns, sunburns, toothache and ulcer.
Coconut oil acts as anti ageing regimen to keep skin
soft and youthful, also used as oil massage to
remove heel cracks and removing darkening of
To treat scalp and hair problems from dandruff to
baldness and graying of hairs.
As an antidote against pesticide poisoning.
To treat colitis, stomach acidity and kidney stones.
As diuretics.
Used for the treatment of urinary tract, kidney
problems and gall bladder.
Used for the treatment of catarrhal inflammation.
Consumption of flesh of Coconut with Coconut
milk and honey results in increased libido in both
men and women.
Used to treat measles.
1.2. Scientific Health Benefits of Coconut
1.2.1. Immune System Booster
It is best for the immune system.
It is also considered as a potent nutritional source
which can boost energy and endurance, enhancing
athletic and physical capacity.
1.2.2. Improvement to Digestion
It has been found to improve digestion and
absorption of nutrients including minerals, vitamins
and amino acids
Parasites such as tapeworms and lice can also be
expelled out.
1.2.3. Antibacterial, Antiviral and Antifungal Action
It contains antimicrobial lipids, caprylic acid and
lauric acid, which are well known to possess
antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral property.
It helps strengthen the immune system through
converting lauric acid into monolaurin which limits
the activities of virus.
Coconut also fights against bacteria such as listeria
monocytogenes & heliobacter pylori that cause
throat infections, gum disease, ulcers, pneumonia,
gonorrhea and urinary tract infections.
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 26
It is also used in to treat fungi and yeast infections
such as ringworm, athlete's foot, thrush and
1.2.4. Skin and Hair Care
Coconut oil is widely used for healthy growth of
Traditionally it is used to treat baldness, dandruff
and head lice.
Coconut oil is also used topically for wounds and
burns to lubricate skin and to protection from
It reduces symptoms of psoriasis, eczema, and
It helps to soften the skin and relieve flaking and
Prevents wrinkles and age spots.
Coconut is also used as a protective agent against
the damaging effects of UV radiation from the sun.
1.2.5. Prevents from Heart Disease
There is a misconception about coconut oil that being
high in saturated fats, that it can cause heart diseases. In
fact, recent researches have shown that the saturated fats
found in coconut oil is a type of unique fat molecule
which is known as medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) that
actually prevents heart diseases. The medium-chain fatty
acids found in coconut oil increases the HDL level while
lowering the LDL in the blood thus improving the ratio of
HDL to LDL which is the basis for heart disease risks.
The p-Coumaric acid in coconut oil prevents the formation
of arterial plaque by preventing the stickiness of the blood
platelet reducing the risk of damaging the arteries and
preventing the development of atherosclerosis and
lowering the blood pressure.
1.2.6. Weight Loss
Coconut oil contains medium-chain fatty acids which
are readily burned into energy which prevents the
formation of fats; actually this process relieves the
pancreases of stress, increasing the body metabolism,
there by burning more energy that results in weight
reduction. This likewise reduces the symptoms of
pancreatitis also. Coconut oil is easy to digest which helps
the thyroid and the enzyme system to function properly as
well. A study was performed on women who were given
coconut oil as supplement for 12 weeks as compared to
those given with soybean oil have indicated that women
who took 30 milliliters of coconut oil daily have lower
body mass index and reduced waist line also.
1.2.7. Antioxidant and Anti-cancer
Virgin coconut oil naturally contains Tocopherol, p-
Coumaric acids and Ferulic acid which are known
as potent antioxidants.
The antioxidants in coconut helps protect the body
from free radicals which are primary reason behind
premature aging, degenerative disease and cancer
Traditionally it is also used to protect the body
against colon, and breast cancer.
1.2.8. Other benefits to health
Relieves diabetes by improving insulin secretion
and utilization of blood glucose
Relieve chronic fatigue syndrome.
Relieves benign prostatic hyperplasia (prostate
Reduces epileptic seizures.
Active against urinary, kidney and bladder
Prevents liver disease.
Improves the absorption of calcium and magnesium
which is beneficial for osteoporosis prevention.
Relieves in pain and irritation caused by
(All the above given information about traditional and scientific
benefits of Cocos nucifera have been taken from website
assessed on 5th June 2017).
Many researchers have worked on Cocos nucifera and
revealed too may bioactivities such as antimicrobial,
antiinflammatory, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, antineoplastic,
insecticidal, and leishmanicidal activities. [3]
There are some more bioactivities other than specified
earlier in this review which are biocidal activity,
anti-biofilm activity, healing process etc. [3]
Cocos nucifera Linn. is the well known drug in Indian
System of medicine for their potential phytochemical and
therapeutic values. Keeping in view the potential of these
plants, an effort is made to accumulate bioactivities
related to Cocos nucifera.
2. Literature Review
In the year 2017, Rukmini J N et. al. had performed in-
vitro experimental study on Streptococcus mutans to
evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of tender coconut
water in its natural state. For this purpose they used fresh
tender coconut water and pasteurized tender coconut water
as sample, whereas dimethyl formamide as negative
control, and 0.2% chlorhexidine as the positive control.
They found that, with the tender coconut water, there was
no zone of inhibition. Actually it was found with positive
control (0.2% Chlorhexidine) [4].
Nidhi Tyagi et. al. 2015 has investigated the effect of
ethanolic as well as aqueous extract of Cocos nucifera
endocarp on blood glucose concentration. They found
17.2 mg (CNAE) in ethanolic extract and 21.4 mg (CNEE)
in aqueous extract. They also found the total present
flavonoid contents as 23.71 mg (CNAE) and 37.57 mg
(CNEE) in respective extracts. Streptozotocin induced
diabetes was used by them to study the effect on blood
glucose level. They said that ethanolic extract of Cocus
nucifera posses some greater extent of antidiabetic
potential than aqueous extract. [5]
Elizabeth Abidemi Balogun et. al. in 2014, Dwarf Red
variety of Cocos nucifera was evaluated for antimalarial
and toxicity activity of the methanolic extract of the husk
fibre. This husk fibre was exhaustively extracted with
hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol successively. These
were screened for flavonoids, phenols, tannins, glycosides,
alkaloids, steroids, triterpenes, phlobatannins and
27 American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
anthraquinones. They also evaluated their toxicity in rats
for selected hematological parameters. As a result of
analysis they found alkaloids, tannins, steroids, phenol,
saponins, glycosides and anthraquinones. They also
declared significantly increased in urea, creatinine,
cholesterol, bilirubin concentrations and high-density
lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum, whereas it reduced
albumin concentration significantly at higher doses as
compared to controls. [6]
The extracts of five Nigerian varieties of Cocos
nucifera were evaluated in vitro for antimalarial and toxic
potentials by J. O. Adebayo et. al. in 2013. He found that
alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids were present in ethyl
acetate extract fraction and was active against
Plasmodium falciparum. This was also active in vivo
against Plasmodium berghei, with more than 50%
reduction in parasitaemia.[7]
Viju, N. et. al. in 2013 extracted the coconut husk
which was screened for anti-biofilm activity with the help
of various methodologies. The marine biofilm set on
acrylic sections has been used to develop various microbes
such as Alteromonas sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Gallionella
sp. [8]
J O Adebayo et. al. in 2012 tested extracts from husks
of 4 different varieties of Cocos nucifera, which were
evaluated for their antiplasmodial activity, cytotoxicity
and hemolytic activities in vitro. It was found that hexane
extract was active against the blood forms of Plasmodium
falciparum which is a human malaria parasite maintained
in continuous culture. Selectivity indices of <10 was
observed in most of the extracts, but hexane extract of
coco mestico had a selectivity index of 35, which reveals
non-toxic attitude of extract. [9]
Dry distilled extract of Endocarp of Cocos nucifera L.
was evaluated by R K Singla et. al. in 2012 for
antimicrobial activity using a method known as Kirby
bauer agar diffusion. They used P. aeruginosa, E. coli
strains, S. aureus & B. subtilis, and 4 fungal strains which
are A. oryzae, C. albicans, R. oligosporus and A. flavus.
They found extract as potential growth inhibitor of B.
subtilis and Aspergillus species. At all concentrations this
extract was found inactive against R. oligosporus. [10]
Bidkar J S, et. al. in 2011 evaluated the inhibitory
action of Cocus nucifera shell ash against Oral Microflora:
They collected samples of mouth rinse and tartar from
male and femal population. They revealed that the
organisms were susceptible much more to the stock. [11]
Z. A. Zakaria et. al. in 2011 carried out his investigation
against antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities
for oil of virgin coconut. They used different concentrations
diluting with Tween 80 for various in-vivo model systems.
They found dose-dependent antinociceptive activity
significant for acetic acid-induced writhing test. They also
revealed that vergin coconut oil also exhibited significant
antinociceptive activity in all phases of the formalin and
hot-plate tests. Z. A. Zakaria et. al. also clearly mentioned
that this virgin coconut oil does not exhibited its activity
for chronic conditions as a case of cotton-pellet-induced
granuloma test, but its action against carrageenan-induced
paw edema test stands positive.[12]
Taiwo Adesola Akinyele et. al. in 2011 treated
n-hexane and crude aqueous extracts of husk of Cocos
nucifera for special Vibrio species and some bacterial
which generally include in food and wound infections.
They found 0.65.0 mg/mL minimum inhibition
concentration for aqueous extract and 0.35.0 mg/mL for
n-hexane extracts. [13]
M. Komala Sivakumar et. al. in 2011 carried out studies
to observe the antibacterial potential of Cocos nucifera
Linn. bark and root against urinary tract infection. They
used E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and K. pneumonia as
their test samples with Amikacin as standard drug. Along
with antibacterial action, they also exhibited some test like
ash values and antibiotic susceptibility tests, which reveals
the positive attitude root and bark of plant against urinary
tract infection. During this study they observed that
aqueous extract of root is more effective as compared to
alcoholic. [14]
Abdulelah H. Al-Adhroey et. al. in 2011 studied White
flesh extract of Cocos nucifera (coconut) to evaluate the
antimalarial usage in Malaysian folk medicine. They
evaluated different extract doses of different
concentrations such as 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg in
vivo against Plasmodium berghei. Standard drugs used
were Chloroquine (20 mg/kg) and pyrimethamine
(1.2 mg/kg). They revealed that extract contained few
phytochemical constituents which are safe on oral
administration toxologically. They also said that extract
significantly reduces the parasitaemia. Whereas they also
found the extract with significantly increased the survival
time. [15]
Hemanth Sairam Pattigadapa et. al. in 2011said that
various parts of coconut tree is used in the treatment of
cancer, indomethacin-induced ulceration. Even coconut
water intake reduces diastolic blood pressure. They
evaluated fresh coconut water with dilution 1:1 (coconut
water: distilled water) for cardiac activity on the isolated
frog heart. It was found that concentrated sample showed
good response when compared to the diluted coconut
water. [16]
C.T.C. Costa et. al. in 2010studied the anthelmintic
activity of the liquid extracted of the bark of the green
coconut and its extract in butanol, on mouse intestinal
nematodes. They determined chemical composition of the
extract and its butanol extract by phytochemical tests.
They also revealed that a dose of 1000 mg/kg of butanol
extract showed 90.70% efficacy in reducing the mouse
worm. Authors also revealed the presence of saponnins,
triterpens and condensed tannins. [17]
Andrzej K. Bledzki et. al. in 2010 studied the potential
of barley husk and coconut shell. They also studied
thermal degradation characteristics of fibres. They used
scanning electron microscopy for particle morphology and
particle size study. To determine importance of end-use
properties of composites they study surface chemistry. [18]
Obidoa Onyechi et. al. in 2010 They study the
phytochemical constituents of the endosperm of Cocos
nucifera L. They cut endosperm, washed, dried and milled
with the help of laboratory mill. They found the presence
of terpenoids, alkaloids, glycosides, resins, and steroids.
They also said that acidic compounds and flavonoids were
not observed. They said that the alkaloids, steroids and
terpenoids are well known to have antioxidant properties.
Girish R. Bankar et. al. in 2010 Aim of the study: They
undertake study of ethanolic extract of Cocos nucifera
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 28
Linn. endocarp for vasorelaxant activity on rat aortic rings
(isolated) and deoxycorticosterone acetate salt-induced
hypertensive rats for antihypertensive effects. It was
further characterized by HPLC. It was observed that
extract significantly reduces the mean systolic blood
pressure in salt-induced hypertensive rats. Further they
revealed that the vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects
of extract is possible through nitric oxide production and
endothelium-dependent manner. [20]
Intahphuak S et. al. investigated pharmacological
properties of coconut oil in 2010. They said they observed
anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effects. These
activities were tested through various models such as ethyl
phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and
carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema.
They also observed a moderate analgesic effect as well as
an antipyretic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing
effect and yeast-induced hyperthermia respectively. [21]
In 2009, Sebastian Rinaldi et. al. revealed that tea from
the husk fiber is generally and widely used to serve against
inflammatory disorders. They evaluated crude extract and
Cocos nucifera fractions to test the anti-inflammatory
and antinociceptive activities. They also showed that
their different samples significantly develop central
antinociceptive and peripheral activity but with lesser
effect on supra-spinal regions. They observed inhibition of
the antinociceptive effect after administration of the
opioid antagonist, naloxone (5 mg/kg), which clearly
shows that its extract and fractions may be act mediated
through opioid receptors. Further, they also show that
these extract and fractions may inhibit rat paw edema
induced by histamine, and serotonin. [22]
L.M.B. Oliveira et. al. in 2009 evaluated the efficacy of
Cocos nucifera fruit against sheep gastrointestinal
parasites. They performed in vitro and in vivo tests of
ethyl acetate extract with different concentrations based
on egg hatching and larval development tests. They found
100% efficacy in egg hatching and 99.77% in larval
development. [23]
Moumita Chakraborty et. al. in 2008 prepared some
methanolic extract of Cocos nucifera L. mesocarp, and
evaluated them against some biological activities with
help of DPPH, FRAP and deoxyribose assays. They found
the mesocarp extract as a potential source for therapeutic
purposes. While performing antimicrobial activity, they
used Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia
coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthet they revealed
that extract shows a potent anti-staphylococcal activity.
After analysis with the help of HPLC and UV/ESIMS
they found some chemical structures responsible for
bioactivity such as three tentative isomers of
caeoylshikimic acid, 5-O-caeoylquinic acid and
dicaeoylquinic acid. [24]
In 2008, Pallavi Srivastava et. al. evaluated oil of Cocos
nucifera against burn wound healing. They also compared
the burn wound healing effect of the combination of this
“oil and silver sulphadiazine” with silver sulphadiazine
itself. To evaluate the efficacy of burn wound healing
properties they observed some parameters such as
epithelialization period and percentage of wound
contraction. They observed that they found significant
improvement in burn wound contraction from the
combination of Cocos nucifera oil and silver
sulphadiazine along with significantly reduction in period
of epithelialization. [25]
P.R. Koschek et. al. in 2007 investigated the fractions
from aqueous extracts of the husk fiber against in vitro
anti-tumor activities. They evaluate cytotoxicity for
leukemia cells with the help of 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-
yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
According to him extract showed antitumor activity
against the leukemia cell line K562. They screened
different fractions of extract with the help of Amicon
membranes and found molecules with varying weights,
like, for fraction A from 1-3 kDa, for fraction B from 3-10
kDa and more than 10 kDa for fraction C. They also found
extracts active against Lucena 1, which is a multidrug-
resistant leukemia cell line. [26]
Sueli Rodrigues et. al. in 2007 evaluated the coconut
shell as a possible source of phenolic compounds as upon
investigation it was found with a composition similar to
wood . They treated coconut powder to dierent toasting
temperatures and after that the phenolic compounds were
extracted with the application of ultrasound. It has been
generally used as a low cost alternative in substitution
against solvent reflux extraction. They performed
experiments according to a factorial experimental
planning and evaluated some parameters through response
surface methodology, such as; eects of toasting time,
toasting temperature and extraction time. They found high
amounts of phenolic content extracted from coconut shell
with this extraction technology. [27]
Z A Zakaria et. al. in 2006 performed experiments to
evaluate the potential of Cocos nucifera as antipyretic,
wound healing and anti-inflammatory agents. They used
fresh juice of Cocos nucifera was directly used while they
also used aqueous kernel extract obtained after 72 h of
soaking of 1:2 (w/v) fresh kernel in 2:1 (v/v) chloroform:
methanol. They revealed that fresh juice and aqueous
kernel extract exhibited significant antipyretic and anti-
inflammatory activities and promoted wound healing. [28]
Gargi Dey et. al. in 2005 works for identification of few
phenolic metabolites in Cocos nucifera. They used
HPLC/UV system to analyze all soluble and wall-
associated phenolics in leaf tissues and mesocarp. They
revealed that alkaline hydrolysis of the mesocarpic and
leaf tissues yielded a major phenolic compound as
4-hydroxybenzoic acid. They also said that Other phenolic
compounds were also identified such as ferulic acid,
vanillic acid, 4-coumaric acid and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde.
Daniela S. Alviano et. al. in 2004 studied the aqueous
extract of the husk fiber of Cocos nucifera L. against free
radical scavenging and analgesic properties. They used
acid-induced writhing response, Tail flick and hot plate
assays and some acute toxicity tests. They revealed that it
does not induce any significantly acting dermic or ocular
irritation. They performed DPPH photometric assay which
positively results in free radical scavenging properties.
Ricardo R. Mendonça-Filho et. al. in 2004 works for
identification of polyphenolic rich extract from the husk
fiber of Cocos nucifera Linn. presents antiviral and
antibacterial bioactivities. They evaluated Cocos nucifera
on Leishmania amazonensis in vitro for leishmanicidal
effects. They said that findings from this research provide
29 American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
new perspectives on development of drug against
leishmaniasis. They revealed that the extract of Cocos
nucifera is a remarkably potent leishmanicidal substance
which is able to inhibit the growth of both amastigote and
promastigote developmental stages of L. amazonensis.
Gargi Dey et. al. in 2003 reported extraction and
identification for phenolic acids which could be present in
the dried mesocarpic husks of mature coconut fruit. They
found phenolic content of the husk material as 13 mg/g
dry wt. 4-HBA and ferulic acid contents were identified
and analysed in the husk fractions. They said that
mesocarpic husk materials can be an alternative source of
4-HBA. [32]
Daniele Esquenazi et. al. in 2002 performed decoction
of Cocos nucifera L. husk fiber for treatment of arthritis
and diarrhea. They revealed that water extract from
coconut husk fiber and fractions showed antimicrobial
activity against Staphylococcus aureus. They also
suggested that crude extract and a fraction contained
catechin showed inhibition against acyclovir resistant
herpes simplex virus. They revealed that there were not a
single fraction found which could be active against the
fungi Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and
Fonsecaea pedrosoi.
S. Venkatraman et. al., (1980) had evaluated coconut
shell for its anti-fungal activity of alcoholic extract against
Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, M. audouinii,
Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton flocossum
etc. They found id active at a dose of 100 μg/ml, but it
was 200 μg/ml for E. flocossum.
3. Conclusion
After studying about the traditional and novel uses and
bioactivities of Cocos nucifera, it was observed that it has
tremendous activities in various pharmacological aspects.
This also tends to promote us identify some more and
novel uses of Cocos nucifera. Hence we can conclude that
it has numerous un-revealed aspects left behind which are
still waited to be discovered.
[1] Singh Y. N., “Traditional medicine in Fiji: some herbal folk cures
used by Fiji Indians”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 15, 57-88, 1986.
[2] Yartey J., Harisson E. K., Brakohiapa L. A., Nkrumah, F. K.,
“Carbohydrate and electrolyte content of some home available
fluids used for oral rehydration in Ghana”. Journal of Tropical
Pediatrics, 39, 234-237, 1993.
[3] Selvaraj Mohana Roopan, “An Overview of Phytoconstituents,
Biotechnological Applications, and Nutritive Aspects of Coconut
(Cocos nucifera)”.
[4] Rukmini J. N., Manasa S., Rohini C., Sireesha L. P., Ritu S.,
Umashankar G. K., “Antibacterial efficacy of tender coconut
water (Cocos nucifera L) on Streptococcus mutans: An in-vitro
study”. J Int Soc Prevent Communit Dent, 7,130-134, 2017.
[5] Nidhi Tyagi, Vikas Hooda, Anjali Hooda and Sachin Malkani,
“Evaluation of antidiabetic potential of ethanolic and aqueous
extract of Cocos nucifera endocarp”. World Journal of Pharmacy
and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4(7), 1112-1120, 2017.
[6] Elizabeth Abidemi Balogun, Sylvia Orume Malomo, Joseph
Oluwatope Adebayo, Ahmed Adebayo Ishola, Ayodele Olufemi
Soladoye, Lawrence Aderemi Olatunji, Olatunji Matthew
Kolawole, Stephen Olubunmi Oguntoye, Abiola Samuel
Babatunde, Oluwole Busayo Akinola, “In vivo antimalarial
activity and toxicological effects of methanolic extract of Cocos
nucifera (Dwarf red variety) husk fibre”. Journal of Integrative
Medicine, 12(6), 504-511, 2014.
[7] Adebayo J. O., Balogun E. A., Malomo S. O., Soladoye A. O.,
Olatunji L. A., Kolawole O. M., Oguntoye O. S., Babatunde A. S.,
Akinola O. B., Aguiar A. C. C., Andrade I. M., Souza N. B.,
Krettli A. U., “Antimalarial Activity of Cocos nucifera Husk Fibre:
Further Studies”. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative
[8] Viju N., Satheesh S., Vincent S. G. P., “Antibiofilm activity of
coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) husk fibre extract”. Saudi Journal
of Biological Sciences, 20, 85-91, 2013.
[9] Adebayo J. O., Santana A. E. G., Krettli A. U., “Evaluation of the
antiplasmodial and cytotoxicity potentials of husk fiber extracts
from Cocos nucifera, a medicinal plant used in Nigeria to treat
human malaria”. Human and Experimental Toxicology, 31(3),
244-249, 2012.
[10] Singla R. K., Jagani H., “Investigation of Antimicrobial Effect of
Dry Distilled Extract of Cocos nucifera Linn Endocarp”. Webmed
Central Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(8), WMC003671, 2012.
[11] Bidkar J. S., Poojari S. K., Dama G. Y., Bidkar S. J., “An
Inhibitory Study on Oral Microflora of Homo sapiens by the
Water Extract of Cocos Nucifera Shell Ash”. International Journal
of Pharma Research & Development, 3(2), 171-174, 2011.
[12] Zakaria Z. A., Somchit M. N., Mat Jais A. M., The L. K., Salleh
M. Z., Long K., “In vivo Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory
Activities of Dried and Fermented Processed Virgin Coconut Oil”.
Med Princ Pract, 20, 231-236, 2011.
[13] Taiwo Adesola Akinyele, Omobola Oluranti Okoh, David Ayinde
Akinpelu, Anthony Ifeanyi Okoh, “In-Vitro Antibacterial
Properties of Crude Aqueous and n-Hexane Extracts of the Husk
of Cocos nucifera”. Molecules 16, 2135-2145.
[14] Komala Sivakumar M., Mohammed Moideen M., Ruby Varghese,
Sampath Kumar K. P., “Antibacterial potential of root and bark of
Cocos nucifera linn. Against isolated urinary tract infection
causing pathogens”. International Journal of Pharma and Bio
Sciences, 2(4), 489-500, 2011.
[15] Abdulelah H. Al-Adhroey, Zurainee M. Nor, Hesham M. Al-
Mekhlafi, Adel A. Amran, Rohela Mahmud, “Evaluation of the
use of Cocos nucifera as antimalarial remedy in Malaysian folk
medicine”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 134, 988-991, 2011.
[16] Hemanth Sairam Pattigadapa, Ramesh M., Praneeth Sagar C.H.,
Bhaskar Rao U., Lakshman G., Ankaiah M., Balu Naik J.,
“Cardiotonic Activity Of Coconut Water (Cocos nucifera)”.
Recent Research in Science and Technology 3(4), 155-157, 2011.
[17] Costa C. T. C., Bevilaqua C. M. L., Morais S. M., Camurça-
Vasconcelos A. L. F., Maciel M. V., Braga R. R., Oliveira L. M.
B., “Anthelmintic activity of Cocos nucifera L. on intestinal
nematodes of mice”. Research in Veterinary Science, 88, 101-103,
[18] Andrzej K. Bledzki, Abdullah A. Mamun, Jürgen Volk, “Barley
husk and coconut shell reinforced polypropylene composites: The
effect of fibre physical, chemical and surface properties”.
Composites Science and Technology 70, 840-846, 2010.
[19] Obidoa Onyechi, Joshua, Parker Elijah, Eze Nkechi J.,
“Phytochemical Analysis of Cocos nucifera L.”. Journal of
Pharmacy Research, 3(2), 280-286, 2010.
[20] Girish R. Bankar, Pawan G. Nayak, Punit Bansal, Piya Paul, Pai K.
S. R., Rajeev K. Singla, Varadaraj G. Bhat., “Vasorelaxant and
antihypertensive effect of Cocos nucifera Linn. endocarp on
isolated rat thoracic aorta and DOCA salt-induced hypertensive
rats”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 134(1), 50-54, 2011.
[21] Intahphuak S., Khonsung P., Panthong A., “Anti-inflammatory,
analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil”. Pharm
Biol. 48(2), 151-157, 2010.
[22] Sebastian Rinaldi, Davi O. Silva, Fabiana Bello, Celuta S. Alviano,
Daniela S. Alviano, Maria Eline Matheus, Patricia D. Fernandes,
“Characterization of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory
activities from Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae)”. Journal of
Ethnopharmacology 122, 541-546, 2009.
[23] Oliveira L. M. B., Bevilaqua C. M. L., Costa C. T. C., Macedo I. T.
F., Barros R. S., Rodrigues A. C. M., Camurc¸ a-Vasconcelos A. L.
F., Morais S. M., Lima Y. C., Vieira L. S., Navarro A. M. C.,
“Anthelmintic activity of Cocos nucifera L. against sheep
gastrointestinal nematodes”. Veterinary Parasitology, 159, 55-59,
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 30
[24] Moumita Chakraborty, Adinpunya Mitra., “The antioxidant and
antimicrobial properties of the methanolic extract from Cocos
nucifera mesocarp”. Food Chemistry, 107, 994-999, 2008.
[25] Pallavi Srivastava, Durgaprasad S., “Burn wound healing property
of Cocos nucifera: An appraisal”. Indian J Pharmacol, 40(4),
144-146, 2008.
[26] Koschek P. R., Alviano D. S., Alviano C. S., Gattass C. R., “The
husk fiber of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae) is a source of anti-
neoplastic activity”. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological
Research, 40, 1339-1343, 2007.
[27] Sueli Rodrigues, Gustavo A.S. Pinto, “Ultrasound extraction of
phenolic compounds from coconut (Cocos nucifera) shell powder”.
Journal of Food Engineering, 80, 869-872, 2007.
[28] Zakaria, Z. A., Reezal I., Jais A. M. M., Somchit M. N., Sulaiman
M. R., et al., “The anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and wound
healing activities of Cocos nucifera (MATAG Types) fresh juice
and kernel extract in experimental animals”. J. Pharmacol.
Toxicol., 1,516-526, 2006.
[29] Gargi Dey, Moumita Chakraborty, Adinpunya Mitra, “Profiling
C6C3 and C6C1 phenolic metabolites in Cocos nucifera”.
Journal of Plant Physiology 162, 375-381, 2006.
[30] Daniela S. Alviano, Karen F. Rodrigues, Suzana G. Leitão, Marcio
L. Rodrigues, Maria Eline Matheus, Patrıcia D. Fernandes, Angelo
R. Antoniolli, Celuta S. Alviano. “Antinociceptive and free radical
scavenging activities of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae) husk fiber
aqueous extract”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 92, 269-273,
[31] Ricardo R. Mendonça-Filho, Igor A. Rodrigues, Daniela S.
Alviano, André L. S. Santos, Rosangela M. A. Soares, Celuta S.
Alviano, Angela H. C. S. Lopes, Maria do Socorro S. Rosa.,
“Leishmanicidal activity of polyphenolic-rich extract from husk
fiber of Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae)”. Research in
Microbiology, 155, 136-143, 2004.
[32] Gargi Dey, Ashish Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh, Adinpunya Mitra,
“Detection of major phenolic acids from dried mesocarpic husk of
mature coconut by thin layer chromatography”. Industrial Crops
and Products, 18, 171-176, 2003.
... In South America, countries like Brazil use it to prepare alcoholic drinks such as Batida de Côco and piña colada cocktails (D'Amato et al., 2012). Coconut milk has been reported to have antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties (Aggarwal et al., 2017;Lima et al., 2015;Roopan, 2016). ...
Coconut milk is a rich source of several nutrients and free of lactose which can be an excellent alternative to cow milk for lactose-intolerant consumers. This study aimed to investigate the potential of producing coconut-based kefir beverages using low-fat and high-fat coconut milk. The beverage was evaluated for pH values, titratable acidity, peptide content, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, and rheological properties. The results showed a significant increase in lactic acid bacteria and yeast after the fermentation for 24 h. The pH of the low-fat and high-fat coconut milk kefir declined to 3.77 ± 0.01 and 3.84 ± 0.01, respectively. The titratable acidity increased to 0.75 ± 0.04% and 0.66 ± 0.01% lactic acid, respectively. The fermentation with kefir grains significantly increased the peptides content of low-fat coconut milk to 0.7 ± 0.016 mg mL⁻¹, and for high-fat coconut milk, it increased to 0.571 ± 0.038 mg mL⁻¹. In addition, low-fat coconut kefir showed strong antibacterial growth inhibition and antioxidant activity. The apparent viscosity of the kefir beverage decreased with increasing shear rate and was higher at a lower temperature. The low-fat coconut kefir's flow behavior index (n) and consistency index (K) were 0.216 and 0.223. The consistency index (K) was 3.067 and 0.576 Pa·s ⁿ at 5 and 25 °C, respectively. Moreover, the (n) values of high-fat coconut kefir were recorded as 0.422 and 0.581, and (K) values as 0.33 and 1.245 Pa·s ⁿ. Therefore, low-fat coconut milk can be an alternative to cow milk in producing kefir-based beverages.
... Phytochemicals in VCO with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties are effective in promote wound healing in eczematous lesions. VCO is an effective adjuvant for faster healing of wound VCO can half the wound healing time compared to non-VCO treatment (Srivastava and Durgaprasad, 2008;Aggarwal et al., 2017). Significant wound contraction and complete epithelization have been noticed after VCO treatment. ...
... Some studies also demonstrated the antibacterial action of bark and root extracts of C. nucifera against microbes involved in urinary tract infections among which those used in the present work like P. aeruginosa, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Apart from their biological activities, various parts of C. nucifera are more exploited in traditional pharmacopoeia to treat infections caused by pathogens [30,31,32]. This can also explain the bactericidal effects of all tested parts of this plant against selected studied bacteria. ...
Full-text available
Background: The rapid emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria is occurring worldwide, endangering the efficacy of antibiotics, which have transformed medicine and saved millions of lives. Antibiotic-resistant infections are already widespread in the Sub-Saharan Africa and across the globe. To extend the search for new and more efficient antimicrobial drugs from natural sources, this work has been carried out to study the phytochemical composition and the antibacterial activities of some Cameroonian dietary plants (Cocos nucifera, Glycine max and Musa sapientum) against several MDR Gram-negative strains including Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Providencia stuartii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa species expressing efflux pumps. Methods: Phytochemical screening of plant extracts was performed using qualitative standard methods and the antimicrobial assays of these extracts alone and in combination with antibiotics were done using serial 96-wells microplate dilution essays. Results: Each plant extract contained at least three mean classes of secondary metabolites. Glycine max, epicarps, leaves and bark of C. nucifera as well as mesocarps of M. sapientum contained each alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenes. Moreover, steroids were also found in G. max, steroids and saponins in epicarps and saponins in bark of C. nucifera. Meanwhile epicarps from M. sapientum contained only polyphenols, flavonoids and saponins. Antibacterial assays showed that different parts of C. nucifera were more active than other extracts. Their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) varied from 128 to 2048 µg/mL. The bark part presented the highest antibacterial potential inhibiting the growth of 90% of strains with significant activity (100≤MIC≤512 µg/mL) against 50% of them (three E. coli, four E. aerogenes and three K. pneumoniae). It showed bactericidal effects (MBC/MIC≤4) on 45% of the same bacterial species. It was followed by epicarps and leaves parts which exhibited an inhibitory power against 75% and 60% of bacteria with significant activity on 40% and 20% of them respectively. They also showed bactericidal effects on E. coli ATCC8739 for epicarps extract and E. coli ATCC8739 and P. stuartii NEA16 for leaves extract. Extracts from G. max were less active and those from mesocarps and epicarps of M. sapientum did not showed any activity on all studied bacteria. Bark and epicarps extracts of C. nucifera potentiated the activities of all used antibiotics against at least 70% of bacteria while leaves extract exhibited this effect improving the activities of 67% of antibiotics with improvement activity factors (IAF) ranging from 2 to 256 suggesting that they contain bioactive compounds which could be considered as efflux pumps inhibitors. Extracts from G. max, epicarps and mesocarps of M. sapientum enhanced the inhibitory potential of 56%, 34% and 23% of antibiotics respectively against at least 70% of studied bacteria. These increases of activities also characterize synergistic effects between antibiotics and bioactive compounds of plants. Conclusion: The findings of this work suggest that infections by resistant bacteria can be treated using different parts of C. nucifera as an alternative to commonly used antibiotics.
... Eco-friendly alternatives are commonly chosen to control fish diseases, avoiding the selection of more resistant bacteria with chemicals (Harnisz et al., 2015). The VCO stands out as a medium-chain fatty acids with antimicrobial activity (protozoan, bacterium, fungus and virus) (Kappally et al., 2015;Aggarwal et al., 2017). ...
This study evaluated in vitro the antimicrobial activity of virgin coconut oil (VCO) and lauric acid (LA) against three fish pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Saprolegnia parasitica and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis). The experiments occurred in completely randomized design with five concentration for pathogen to determine lethal concentration. All data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05). Virgin coconut oil (VCO) and lauric acid (LA) affected the fungal and bacterial growth. Only the lauric acid (LA) prevent the mycelial growth (r² = 0.94) while the virgin coconut oil (VCO) reduced it. However, none treatment (VCO and LA) promoted fungicidal effect. Lauric acid provoked complete mortality (100%) of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis at concentration 40 mg.L⁻¹ while the virgin coconut oil only reduced its development with 386.71 μL.L⁻¹ (equivalent to the LA 200 mg.L⁻¹). In the bacterial assy, both VCO and LA caused reduced the colonies amount, but they have no any inhibition halo against the bacterium. The results suggest positive effect to control the pathogen development with greater effects using lauric acid.
... Phytochemicals in VCO with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties are effective in promote wound healing in eczematous lesions. VCO is an effective adjuvant for faster healing of wound VCO can half the wound healing time compared to non-VCO treatment (Srivastava and Durgaprasad, 2008;Aggarwal et al., 2017). Significant wound contraction and complete epithelization have been noticed after VCO treatment. ...
... Phytochemicals in VCO with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties are effective in promote wound healing in eczematous lesions. VCO is an effective adjuvant for faster healing of wound VCO can half the wound healing time compared to non-VCO treatment (Srivastava and Durgaprasad, 2008;Aggarwal et al., 2017). Significant wound contraction and complete epithelization have been noticed after VCO treatment. ...
Full-text available
This chapter discusses the potential application of Cocus nucifera (Coconut) in bioremediation to sustainably improve soil health. Environmental pollution over the years has adversely affected agricultural soils leading to low yield and food insecurity. Conventional and physical methods have proven expensive and ineffective. The potential use of coconut in remediation of waste water pollution and agricultural soils have been discussed in this chapter as well as strategies to achieve optimum bioremediation. The environmental impact of cultivating coconut has shown potential in different parts such as leaves, stems, fibers and shell or the whole plant in bioremediation. The strategy of incorporating coconut cultivation, as a means of alleviation of soil pollutions, and improving productivity should provide a new avenue to the agricultural practices.
... Kopyor coconut has been investigated worldwide using some parts of plants have been used for the treatment of various pathological conditions such as antiinflammation, antioxidant, antihelminthic, antimalarial, and antiviral activity, [7][8][9] thus this current research studied antiacne formulation from the extract of C. nucifera L. from flesh part. ...
Full-text available
Cocos nucifera Linn., which contain lauric acid has been known had antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes that usually improve severe of pimple. Current study investigated optimum formula of emulgel mask based on the C. nucifera L. Extract from Kopyor coconut. Extract were tested for antibacterial against P. acnes ATCC 11827. In this research, C. nucifera L. extract of 1 and 5% were formulated as an active agent of peel off antiacne emulgel mask-containing carbomer 940 in various concentration (1% and 1.5%). The peel-off emulgel mask of C. nucifera L extract was then evaluated in terms of viscosity, pH, drying time, spreadability, and antibacterial activity. The selected formula was formula containing 5% of extract and 1% of carbomer 940. This formula had pH that suitable with skin pH 4.5-6.5, had good spreadability, and also produced highest antibacterial activity against P. acnes.
The huge diversity of worms belongs to various classes such as Nematoda, Trematoda, and Cestoda, which are responsible for helminth-mediated diseases. Among those, parasitic helminths are significant candidates for many diseases in this context. To cure this type of parasitic helminth-mediated disease, several traditional medicinal plants, which include Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine plants, have already been checked for cytotoxic, anti-parasitic, anti-filarial, anti-helminthic, and anti-leishmanial activity characteristics, and promising drugs could be discovered from plant extract. Here the authors summarize the effects of helminths together along with plant source and their bioactive compounds to treat helminthic-mediated diseases.
Full-text available
Despite the discovery and development of an array of antimicrobial agents, multidrug resistance poses a major threat to public health and progressively increases mortality. Recently, several studies have focused on developing promising solutions to overcome these problems. This has led to the development of effective alternative methods of controlling antibiotic-resistant pathogens. The use of antimicrobial agents in combination can produce synergistic effects if each drug invades a different target or signaling pathway with a different mechanism of action. Therefore, drug combinations can achieve a higher probability and selectivity of therapeutic responses than single drugs. In this systematic review, we discuss the combined effects of different antimicrobial agents, such as plant extracts, essential oils, and nanomaterials. Furthermore, we review their synergistic interactions and antimicrobial activities with the mechanism of action, toxicity, and future directions of different antimicrobial agents in combination. Upon combination at an optimum synergistic ratio, two or more drugs can have a significantly enhanced therapeutic effect at lower concentrations. Hence, using drug combinations could be a new, simple, and effective alternative to solve the problem of antibiotic resistance and reduce susceptibility.
Today, the need for human care and beauty is increasing. The use of personal care products, especially those from nature, has been given special attention by consumers. With diverse features and good effects on the human body, especially the skin, coconut oil is being cared for by many manufacturers. With the aim of diversifying personal care products from coconut oil, this research has initially achieved positive results. Soap saponified as raw soap is considered to have good cleaning effect (better than sodium lauryl sulfate solution (SLS) when diluted to the same concentration). The combination of 10% crude soap and 4% sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) surfactants formulate cleansing products with effective cleansing properties. Ingredients auxiliary cleaners, moisturizing, and softening, antioxidants are added with the appropriate content to improve the disadvantages of raw soap. The personal care products that have been studied have the potential to enter the cosmetic market and attract many consumers.
Full-text available
Objective The antibacterial property of coconut, the presence of lauric acid, and the ability to extract antimicrobial peptides Cn-AMP (1, 2, and 3) from tender coconut water has drawn attention on its effectiveness in normal consumption. An in-vitro experimental study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of tender coconut water in its natural state on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods Fresh tender coconut water and pasteurized tender coconut water were taken as test samples, dimethyl formamide was used as the negative control, and 0.2% chlorhexidine was used as the positive control. Pure strain of S. mutans (MTCC 890) was used for determining the antibacterial effects. The test samples along with the controls were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity test procedure and the zone of inhibition was examined. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to check for any significant differences in the antibacterial efficacy between the samples. Result There was no zone of inhibition with the tender coconut water, fresh and pasteurised, and negative control (dimethyl formamide). Zone of inhibition was seen in positive control (0.2% Chlorhexidine). Conclusion No antimicrobial activity was demonstrated with tender coconut water in its normal state (in vitro).
Full-text available
The in vitro antilisterial activities and time kill regimes of crude aqueous and n-hexane extracts of the husk fiber of Cocos nucifera were assessed. The aqueous extracts were active against 29 of the 37 test Listeria isolates while the n-hexane extracts were active against 30. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all the susceptible bacteria ranged between 0.6 and 2.5 mg/ml for the aqueous fraction and between 0.6 and 5.0 mg/ml for the n-hexane extract. The average log reduction in viable cell count in the time kill assay ranged between 0.32 Log 10 and 3.2 Log 10 cfu/ml after 4 h of interaction, and between 2.6 Log 10 and 4.8 Log 10 cfu/ml after 8 h interaction in 1 × MIC and 2 × MIC (aqueous extract); and between 2.8 Log 10 and 4.8 Log 10 cfu/ml after 4 h of interaction, and 3.5 Log 10 to 6.2 Log 10 cfu/ml after 8 h interaction in 1 × MIC and 2 × MIC for the n-hexane extract. The extract was bactericidal against one of the test bacteria at 1 × MIC and against three of the test bacteria at 2 × MIC for the 8 h interaction period for the aqueous extract, while for the n-Hexane fraction; the extract was bactericidal against all the five test bacteria at both MICs after the 8 h interaction period. We suggested that the crude aqueous and n-hexane extracts of the husk of C. nucifera could be bacteriostatic or bactericidal depending on the time of exposure and concentration. Key words: Cocos nucifera, n-hexane extract, aqueous extract, minimum inhibitory concentration, time-kill.
Full-text available
Cocos nucifera is one of the highest nutritional and medicinal value plants with various fractions of proteins which play a major role in several biological applications such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-neoplastic, anti-parasitic, insecticidal, and leishmanicidal activities. This review is focused on several biotechnological, biomedical aspects of various solvent extracts collected from different parts of coconut and the phytochemical constituents which are present in it. The results obtained from this source will facilitate most of the researchers to focus their work toward the process of diagnosing diseases in future.
Full-text available
The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of C. nucifera as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and wound healing agents. The fresh juice of C. nucifera (FJCN) was directly used while its aqueous kernel extract (AKCN) was obtained after 72 h soaking of 1:2 (w/v) fresh kernel in 2:1 (v/v) chloroform:methanol. The extracts, in the concentrations/strengths of 10, 50 and 100%, were used in anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory studies while those in the concentration of 100% were used only in the wound healing study. The fresh juice and aqueous kernel extract of C. nucifera exhibited significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities and promote wound healing with the latter producing a more effective effects in all assays used. This finding has scientifically supported the folkloric used of C. nucifera in the treatment of inflammation, pyrexia and wound.
Full-text available
In this study, antibiofilm activity of coconut husk extract (CHE) was tested by various assays in the laboratory. The effects of CHE on extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production, hydrophobicity and adhesion ability of Pseudomonas sp., Alteromonas sp. and Gallionella sp. and the antimicrobial activity of the extract against these bacteria were assessed. CHE was found to possess antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains and affected the EPS production. The CHE affected the growth of the biofilm-forming bacteria in a culture medium. The hydrophobicity of the bacterial cells was also changed due to the CHE treatment. The active compound of the CHE was characterised by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. HPLC spectrum showed a single peak and the FT-IR spectrum indicated the presence of an OH-group-containing compound in the extract. In conclusion the CHE could be used as a source for the isolation of antifouling compounds.
The study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial potential of Cocos nucifera Linn. root and bark against isolated UTI (urinary tract infection) causing pathogens. In the study, the following bacteria were used: E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and K. pneumonia. Amikacin taken at 1mcg/disc was selected as the standard drug. Phytochemical tests were performed for the identification of various plant constituents. Other tests which were carried out were determination of ash values and antibiotic susceptibility tests. The study revealed that the root and bark of plant Cocos nucifera Linn. showed antibacterial activity against all the UTI isolates. The study concluded that the aqueous extract of root of Cocos nucifera Linn. was found to be more effective in inhibiting the growth of UTI pathogens than the ethanolic extract and decoction.
In the current study, the analgesic and free radical scavenging properties of an aqueous extract from the husk fiber of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae) were demonstrated by the use of in vivo and in vitro models. The orally administered Cocos nucifera aqueous extract (200 or 400 mg/kg) inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice. Tail flick and hot plate assays demonstrated that treatment of animals with this plant extract at 200 mg/kg induced attenuation in the response to a heat stimulus. A LD50 of 2.30 g/kg was obtained in acute toxicity tests. Topic treatment of rabbits with the Cocos nucifera extract indicated that it does not induce any significant dermic or ocular irritation. In vitro experiments using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) photometric assay demonstrated that this plant extract also possesses free radical scavenging properties.
Phytochemical constituents as well as antimalarial and toxicity potentials of the methanolic extract of the husk fibre of Dwarf Red variety of Cocos nucifera were evaluated in this study. The dried powdered husk fibre was exhaustively extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol successively and the methanolic extract was screened for flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, alkaloids, steroids, triterpenes, phlobatannins, anthraquinones and glycosides. A 4-day suppressive antimalarial test was carried out using Plasmodium berghei NK65-infected mice, to which the extract was administered at doses of 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight (BW). Toxicity of the extract was evaluated in rats using selected hematological parameters and organ function indices after orally administering doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg BW for 14 d. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolics, saponins, glycosides, steroids and anthraquinones in the extract. Moreover, the extract reduced parasitemia by 39.2% and 45.8% at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW respectively on day 8 post-inoculation. Various hematological parameters evaluated were not significantly altered (P>0.05) at all doses of the extract, except red blood cell count which was significantly elevated (P<0.05) at 100 mg/kg BW. The extract significantly increased (P<0.05) urea, creatinine, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and bilirubin concentrations in the serum as well as atherogenic index, while it reduced albumin concentration significantly (P<0.05) at higher doses compared to the controls. Alanine aminotransferase activity was reduced in the liver and heart significantly (P<0.05) but was increased in the serum significantly (P<0.05) at higher doses of the extract compared to the controls. The results suggest that methanolic extract of the Dwarf red variety has partial antimalarial activity at higher doses, but is capable of impairing normal kidney and liver function as well as predisposing subjects to cardiovascular diseases.
Etnobotanically the use of Cocus nucifera shell ash has been stated so this study was undertaken to determine the inhibitory effect of the water extract of cocus nucifera shell ash on oral microflora from human being. Samples of mouth rinse and tartar were collected from male and female population. The inhibitory effect testing was carried out and results showed that the organisms were susceptible more to the stock as observed by the zone of inhibition in mm, with subsequent reduction in the zone of inhibition with the various fold dilutions. The results of this preliminary investigation revealed that the water extract of cocus nucifera shell ash had Inhibitory effect against oral microflora.
Coconut is a tropical fruit largely consumed in many countries. In some areas of the Brazilian coast, coconut shell represents more than 60% of the domestic waste volume. The shell is composed mainly of lignin and cellulose with chemical composition very similar to wood. As several kinds of wood are used as a phenolic source to produce extracts for artificial aging of alcoholic beverages, in this work, the coconut shell was evaluated as a source of phenolic compounds. The coconut powder was submitted to different toasting temperatures and the phenolic compounds were extracted by the application of ultrasound. The ultrasound extraction methodology has been studied as a low cost alternative in substitution to solvent reflux extraction. The experiments were done according to a factorial experimental planning and the effects of toasting time, toasting temperature and extraction time were evaluated through response surface methodology. The results indicate that high amounts of phenolics can be extracted from coconut shell by ultrasound assisted extraction technology, and that the extraction time was the most significant parameter for the process.