Transference and countertransference: A review
Originally a psychodynamic concept, the therapeutic relationship (also therapeutic alliance, helping alliance or simply alliance) has become a pan-theoretical model for the professional relationship between a therapist and his or her client (Kivlighan, 1995). With the development of this concept in the latter half of the 20th century, psychotherapeutic theory and practice saw a paradigm shift away from strict adherence to technique with little room for responsive, individual behavior from the therapist and toward the "authentic" human relationship at the core of therapy. This meant that more consideration was given to the idea of mutual influence from patient and therapist to the success of therapy (Safran & Muran, 2006). This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the complex and shifting research on the therapeutic relationship to promote a greater understanding of the concept.