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Introduction. These two words, “quality” and “education” are commonly and carelessly used in every day discussion – especially among leaders and business men and women. Every leader promises to provide the populace with quality education. Many of such promises have come and gone without any remarkable impact on the quality of education provided to the populace. It is on records that many leaders, institutions, organizations and individuals have in various ways spent large amount of their resources to ensure that the objective of providing quality education is achieved. In most cases, the situation remains the same if not worsened. The big question one may ask here is, do such leaders or institutions or bodies understand what constitutes quality education? This is because a woman who doesn’t know the ingredients that make soup tasty may be given a huge amount of money – yet the husband may be tempted to sack her because of the nature of the soup she prepared. It is therefore necessary that the two key words, “quality” and “education” be defined. Quality as contained in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2010), means the standard of something when it is compared to other things like it; how good or bad something is. Quality is used on every commodity e.g quality shoes, shirts, cars, etc. When a woman selling banana in the market sees a potential customer approaching her shed, she will not waste time to make use of “quality” to draw the man nearer for the purchase of her banana. Thus she will say “buy high quality banana”. This means that any commodity can either be of a high quality or low quality. Equally we have low quality and high quality education. Having seen what quality stands for, let us now briefly define education before marrying the two words – for a better understanding of the concept “Quality education” Today, education has become one of the greatest enterprises and has been defined in different ways by different people in different parts of the world and occupations. A renowned scholar, R.S. Peters defined education as the transmission of what is worthwhile to those who are committed to it – be they children or adults. Another educator and philosopher, Brameld saw education as “the greatest power man has not yet subdued. Okpala in his lecture stressed that education is a process of tendering, nurturing and nursing the individual so as to make him a full fledged member of the society to which he belongs. Generally, education can be regarded as an activity which goes on in a society and its aims and methods depend on the nature of the society in which it operates; so, education is sensitive to time, place and circumstances. This is because it is constantly changing, adapting itself to new demands.
FEATURESOFQUALITYEDUCATION
By
ProfS.G.NEze
FacultyofEducation,ESUT,Enugu
Introduction.
These two words, “quality” and “education” are commonly and carelessly used in every day
discussion – especially among leaders and business men and women. Every leader promises to
provide the populace with quality education. Many of such promises have come and gone
without any remarkable impact on the quality of education provided to the populace. It is on
records that many leaders, institutions, organizations and individuals have in various ways
spent large amount of their resources to ensure that the objective of providing quality education
is achieved. In most cases, the situation remains the same if not worsened. The big question one
may ask here is, do such leaders or institutions or bodies understand what constitutes quality
education? This is because a woman who doesn’t know the ingredients that make soup tasty
may be given a huge amount of money – yet the husband may be tempted to sack her because
of the nature of the soup she prepared. It is therefore necessary that the two key words,
“quality”and“education”bedefined.
Quality as contained in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2010), means the standard of
something when it is compared to other things like it; how good or bad something is. Quality is
used on every commodity e.g quality shoes, shirts, cars, etc. When a woman selling banana in
the market sees a potential customer approaching her shed, she will not waste time to make use
of “quality” to draw the man nearer for the purchase of her banana. Thus she will say “buy high
quality banana”. This means that any commodity can either be of a high quality or low quality.
Equallywehavelowqualityandhighqualityeducation.
Having seen what quality stands for, let us now briefly define education before marrying the
twowords–forabetterunderstandingoftheconcept“Qualityeducation”
Today, education has become one of the greatest enterprises and has been defined in different
ways by different people in different parts of the world and occupations. A renowned scholar,
R.S. Peters defined education as the transmission of what is worthwhile to those who are
committed to it – be they children or adults. Another educator and philosopher, Brameld saw
education as “the greatest power man has not yet subdued. Okpala in his lecture stressed that
education is a process of tendering, nurturing and nursing the individual so as to make him a
fullfledgedmemberofthesocietytowhichhebelongs.
Generally, education can be regarded as an activity which goes on in a society and its aims and
methods depend on the nature of the society in which it operates; so, education is sensitive to
time, place and circumstances. This is because it is constantly changing, adapting itself to new
demands.
FeaturesOfQualityEducation
For one to claim that he is offering quality education to the populace, he must ensure the
presenceofthefollowingconditions:
Learners who are healthy, wellnourished and ready to participate and learn, and
supportedinlearningbytheirfamiliesandcommunities;
Environments that are healthy, safe, protective and gender – sensitive, and provide
adequateresourcesandfacilities;
Content that is reflected in relevant curricular and materials for the acquisition of basic
skills, especially in the areas of literacy, numeracy and skills for life and knowledge in
suchareasasgender,health,nutritionHIV/AIDSpreventiveandpeace.
Processes through which trained teachers use childcentred teaching approaches in
wellmanaged classrooms and schools and skillful assessment to facilitate learning and
reducedisparities.
Outcomes that encompass knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and are linked to national
goalsforeducationandpositiveparticipationinsociety.
1. QualityLearners
It is a common belief that quality learners make for quality education. The quality of the lives
of
children before they even start formal education greatly influences the kind of learners they
turn out to be. What constitutes quality learners? They include health, early childhood
experience and home support. For example, children who are physically and psychologically
healthy learn very fast. According to McCain & Mustard, (1999), healthy development in early
childhood, especially during the first three years of life, plays an important role in providing the
basis for a healthy life and successful formal school experience. They maintained that adequate
nutrition is critical for normal brain development in the early years, and early detection and
intervention for disabilities can give children the best chances for healthy development.
Prevention of infection, disease and injury prior to school enrollment are important to the early
development of a quality learner. Early childhood experience also contributes a lot in making
them quality learners. Studies in many countries (Latin America, India, Philippines, Turkey,
etc) have shown that children who participate in early intervention programmes do better in
primary school than those who do not benefit from formal early child programmes. Effective
and appropriate stimulation in a child’s early years influences the brain development necessary
for emotional regulation, arousal and behavioral management. A child who misses positive
stimulation or is subject to chronic stress in the preschool years may have difficulty, with
psychosocialdevelopmentlaterinlife.(MclainofMustard,1999).
Home support or family support for learning helps in producing quality learners. The role of
parents in the upliftment of their children’s education cannot be overemphasized. It has
however been noted that often, some parents may not have the tools and background to support
their children’s cognitive and psychosocial development in schools. The level of education of
parents has been picked as one of the great contributors to children’s ability to learn in school.
According to Carron & Chau (1996), parental education not only influences parentchild
interactions related to learning, but also affects parents’ income and need for help in the home
or school. Parents with little formal education may also be less familiar with the language used
in school, thereby limiting their ability to support learning and participate in school related
activities. The question at this juncture is, to what extent have Nigerians met the above
objective?What isthepercentageofeducatedparentsinNigeria?
2. QualityLearningEnvironment
For any meaningful learning to occur, the environment must be conducive for such learning.
There are three principal elements that constitute learning environment. They are the physical
aspect,thepsychosocialandservicedeliveryelements.
Physical Element: Here, we think of factors like modern and wellequipped buildings,    
presence of adequate instructional materials, clean water supply, electricity supply, classroom
maintenance, space and furniture availability, adequate library and a host of others. According
to Fuller (1999), the quality of school facilities seems to have an indirect effect on learning, an
effect that is hard to measure. Class size is yet another physical element to be considered. In
many schools, up to 300 students are found belonging to one class. Although Williams (2000)
foundarelationship,classsizehasnotconsistentlybeenlinkedtostudents’achievement.
Note:Thisfindingissubjecttoaveryhotandendlessdebate.
Psychosocial Element: This has to do with the provision of a welcoming and  
nondiscriminatory climate. It concerns itself with the provision of peaceful, safe environments,
especially for girls. For example, Republic of Guinea formed a high profile “ Equality
Committee, research to better understand various communities’ needs and attributes, policy
reforms related to pregnancy of schoolage mothers, the building of latrines for girls in schools
etc. Welcoming this development, Sutton (1999) added that efforts to improve the learning
environment for girls were yet not fulfilled. He recommended that a lot more needed to be
done. Pigozzi (2000) reported that once girls gain access to schools, however, they may
experience both direct physical threats and more subtle assaults on their confidence,
selfesteem and identity. The journey to school may be unsafe, since many girls experience
harassment and other physical attacks either on public transportation in cities or remote paths in
ruralareas.Atschool,physicalassaultincludingrapemaybeperpetuatedagainstgirls.
Teachers’ behaviours in most cases contribute to unsafe environment for learning. For
example, sexual harassments, lack of discipline, violence of teachers towards students
(punishment).Notruelearningtakesplaceinanunsafeenvironment.
Non –Violence: War and other forms of group and interpersonal conflicts clearly have an    
impact on the children’s mental health and their ability to learn. A good example to cite here is
the just recently kidnapped Chibok girls, in Borno State. Even if they are set free, they need    
long time rehabilitation for them to be psychologically stable and be able to go to school to
studyagain.
Service Delivery: When one talks of service delivery, the mind focuses on the provision of    
health services. Provision of heath service contributes to learning by reducing absenteeism and
inattention in school/class. As reported by Carron & Chau (1996), evidences from Mexico,
India and China show that children’s illness is a primary cause for absenteeism. High quality
physical, psychological and service environments in schools have been proved to have great
impactonlearning.TowhatextenthasNigeriangovernmentaddressedtheseissues?
3.Quality Content: Reference is hereby made to the intended and taught curriculum of       
schools. According to UNICEF (2000), national goals for education, and outcome statements
that translate those goals into measurable objectives, should provide the starting point for the
development and implementation of curriculum. A good curricuture content should as a
matter of importance stress or strive to solve the problems in the society. The curriculum
shouldbetheonethatemphasizesthefollowingimportantareas:
a.Studentcentered,nondiscriminatoryandstandard–based.
b.Thereshouldbeuniquenessofbothlocalandnationalcontent.
c.Itshouldemphasizeliteracyorabilitytoreadandwrite–sinceitisoften 
consideredoneoftheprimarygoalsofformaleducation
d. The content should also lay emphasis on life skills. Examples of such life skill are hygiene,
andvocationalskills.Lifeskillscurriculumpaysattentiononissueslikeattitudes,values
and behavioral change, rather than seeking to provide young people with knowledge
aboutasettopics.
e.Thecontentshouldalsoemphasizepeaceeducation.Peaceeducationseekstohelp
students gainabilitytopreventconflicts,andtoresolveconflictspeacefullywhenthey
arise, whether on the intrapersonal, interpersonal, intergroup, national or international
level. For example, if peace education is seriously emphasized and religiously
implementedin Nigeria, may be, it would have gone a long way in solving the insecurity
problemin Nigeriatoday.
Quality Processes: In any learning endeavour, the process utilized in imparting knowledge   
matters a lot. Quality of great concern leads to quality outcome Chijioke (2014). True quality of
teachers is of great concern to any investor in education industry. There should be professional
learning for teachers in order to help students learn, have deep mastery of both their subject
matter and pedagogy (Darling – Hammond, 1979). According to the later, in Togo, Uganda and
Cape Verde, 35 percent to 50 percent of students are taught by teachers who had no training.
This affects the educational quality since students achievement especially beyond basic skills,
depends largely on teacher’s command of subject matter (Mullans, Murnace and Willett, 1996).
There is a common saying that – a teacher teaches what he knows. This implies that teacher
development must be pursued with vigor if the objective of achieving quality education is to
realized, Craig (1998) noted that effective professional development are of many forms; it
should not be limited to formal off site kinds of programmes. Dialogue and reflections with
colleagues, peer and supervisors observations and keeping journals are all effective ways for
teachers to advance their knowledge (UNICEF, 2000).External workshop training, inservice
training and the use of interactive video technology are all devices that can improve teachers’
performance.
It has been recommended highly that teachers pass through teacher education. Teacher
education, both preservice and in – service, should help teachers develop teaching methods
and skills that take new understanding of how children learn into account. A good curriculum
should be childcentered and relevant. That is exactly how the methods of teaching should be
completely childcentered. Carom and Chau (1996) observed that teaching styles in many
schools, however, remain traditional, teacher – centered and fairly rigid or even authoritarian.
Teaching methods that facilitate active student learning rather than promote passivity and rote
memorization should be recommended for use by teachers. Students should be allowed to
practice since meaningful and active practice make perfect. Teaching and learning about life
skills require interactive, studentcentered methods. Since skills are by definition active,
competency is not likely to be developed without active practice by the students that are being
taught.
For quality of education to be guaranteed, the teacher feedback mechanisms should be
monitored. Good teachers are skilled not only in instructional methods, but also in evaluation
and assessment practices that allow them to gauge individual student learning and adapt
activities according to students needs. It is important to note that in assignment, both
performance assessment and assessment of the factual knowledge should be encouraged. As
observed by Colby (2000), many teachers and educational systems continue to rely almost
exclusively on traditional paper and –pencil tests of factual knowledge that tend to promote
rotememorizationratherthanhigherorderthinkingskills.
Teachers’ Working Conditions: This is one of the greatest factors that can make or mar that    
achievement of quality education in any part of the world (Nigeria inclusive). It is obvious that
when a teacher’s working conditions are alright, he will be happy to put in his best in his job
and viceversa. Many things constitute these working conditions. They include among others:
salary, retirement age, retirement benefits, hours of work, leave allowances, lunch and social
benefits. Let us just pick one of the above factors for illustration – say salary “. How much a
teacher is paid determines his devotion to his duties. If a teacher at the end of the month,
receives small amount of money that cannot feed half’ members of his family, he is likely
going to look for alternative ways of making up the money. He may decide to open up a shop
or get involved in other activities outside teaching. This development is not good for the
teaching profession, as many teachers may sneak out of school before closures for their shops
orotheractivitieswheretheystruggleformoneytoargumentwhattheygetinschools.
Another aspect to consider in condition of service is the condition of infrastructure, availability
of textbooks and learning materials and class size. Poor remuneration coupled with poor
infrastructure and the likes spell doom to educational system of any nation. What can one write
about Nigeria on the above factors? To worsen matters, not only that what the teachers receive
is very poor, but they are not paid on time; sometimes, teachers may be owed up to three
months. All these antagonize the achievement of quality education. The effective use of
technologies is another area of concern for any individual or nation that desires to improve the
quality of education. Technology can be used to reduce global inequalities through such
vehicles as internet based distant learning, interactive video and educational television. In
areas where electricity and telephone lines are available, such approaches to learning may
contribute significantly to improve the quality of educational processes. Elearning eliminates
the barriers of time and distance, creating universal learningondemand opportunities for
people,companiesandcountries(Chambers,2000).
QualityOutcome
Many factors already discussed in this paper such as environment, content and processes are
aimed at achieving quality outcomes. Assessment of the students and teachers activities is very
important in order to determine the outcomes of their inputs. It is important to stress the fact
that there are two forms of evaluation – formative evaluation and summative evaluation. Two
of them should be used in any educational assessment. While the formative evaluation guides
the teacher to know how well the students comprehend what is being taught, the summative
evaluation helps to determine the overall knowledge of the students concerning what they have
been made to pass through. This is why summative evaluation is used for certification
purposes. It is good at this juncture to state that no matter whatever process the teachers
adopted during the instructional period, quality outcome is the end product that determines
whether those processes are appropriate or needs to be improved upon. To what extent are the
teachers in Nigerian schools making use of both formative and summative evaluation during
their constitutional programmes? According to Harris (2006), assessment of academic
achievement outcomes by most teachers has, most often, been used in a summative rather than
formative way or both. He continued that formative evaluation tends to used primarily as a
screening device to decide who can continue to the next grade or level rather than as a tool to
help improve educational quality for individuals and systems. Academic achievement is often
used as an indicator of school quality because it is easily measurable. Participant’s health is
also a measure of quality outcome. Students should receive services to improve their health
such as treatment of illness and infection and school teaching programmes to improve nutrition
as well as curricular that increases their knowledge and affects their behaviour related to health
andhygiene.
Conclusively, one can say that quality education involves healthy learners, healthy
environment, content that is reflected in relevant curricular and materials, process through
which trained teachers are childcentred and beautiful outcomes are achieved. To this end, one
wonders if Nigerian educational system is close to all to having quality education; whatever
maybethecase,theanswertothisquestionissubjecttoveryhotdebate.
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This study examined the perceived effects of examination special centres on teaching and learning of English language and the quality of education in Nsukka Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive survey design. All the 123 English language teachers (PPMB Statistics, 2020) from 31 secondary schools, five secondary school principals, three religious priests and three traditional leaders in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria were sampled for the study. The researchers developed a 15-item-structured questionnaire for data collection from the 31 teachers; while 3 structured interview questions were used to elicit responses from the principals, religious priests and traditional leaders. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the data collected with questionnaire; while the oral interview was analysed qualitatively through thematic analysis. The study revealed that examination special centres have detrimental effect on the teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools and the quality of education in Nsukka Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. It was recommended among others that private and public secondary schools, and tutorial centres that have been turned into examination special centres should be closed down by Enugu State Ministry of Education.
Chapter
The chapter discusses dominant paradigms used to define, explain and measure education quality, both locally and globally. These include policy statements on quality education by UNESCO and the OECD. One of UNESCO’s first position statements on quality in education appeared in Learning to Be: The World of Education Today and Tomorrow (1972), followed by Learning: The Treasure Within, the UNESCO Report of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century (Delors J. Learning: the treasure within. Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century. UNESCO, Paris, 1996). The quality education debates are characterised by two broad approaches to students’ academic performance: those that emphasise the technical and rational nature of the outcomes, and those that stress its negotiated nature. In most instances the former approach prevails. It emphasises an output-based approach which is influenced by the performance indicators such as those used in the OECD’s PISA study which regularly measures academic performance of students in member and non-member nations (see PISA. PISA worldwide ranking – average score of math, science and reading. Retrieved from http://factsmaps.com/pisa-worldwide-ranking-average-score-of-math-science-reading/, 2018a). Many countries are influenced by OECD performance indicators, and by adopting them, set up their own systems of quality control based on the measurement of students’ academic achievement. This chapter addresses issues in education quality, quality teaching and student outcomes globally. The chapter argues that education quality, students’ performance and quality teaching involve the establishment of motivational and engaging quality teaching and learning environments, a well as quality relationships among students and teachers. Such engaging environments and relationships are supportive, and inclusive, where teachers demonstrate a strong sense of self-efficacy and beliefs in their students’ abilities to master high quality learning. Students in such classes are regularly provided with learning tasks of high intellectual quality. Finally, quality teaching and learning helps students to develop effective critical thinking skills and metacognition, and self-regulated learning skills. The major challenge in improving quality teaching in schools lies in developing specific pedagogy, values, structures and approaches, which ensure widespread use of effective and successful classroom pedagogies.
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Abstract This study aims at examining use of the Internet to enhance quality of teaching by the Arts faculty members at the University of Tobruk- Libya. The study used descriptive analytical approaches to draw out a clear picture of the nature of use and identify the major factors that influence the adoption and use of the Internet to improve quality of teaching and learning. The sample of the study consisted 31 a faculty members from 9 scientific department at the college. The study found that the majority of the academic staff members have positive attitude towards use of the Internet for teaching purposes. However, lack of their use experience and poor telecommunication infrastructure affected negatively their adoption and use . The study recommended the need to enhance quality of Internet service, train educators and spread culture of the Internet instructional use.
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Education is the fundamental right of every child and it is the duty of the government to ensure that institutions are imparting quality education and also an easy access of its citizens to this quality education. This research aimed at evaluating the quality of education in schools running under the “Public School Support Program” (PSSP). These schools were earlier public schools that were given to private partners due to their low academic performance. This study is descriptive in nature and data was collected through questionnaires, checklists, personal observation and document analysis. The respondents of the study included the teaching staff and management, of all PSSP schools in Sialkot. A checklist with three sub-areas and three questionnaires comprising closed ended statements were developed to gather the required information. This study concluded that the enrolment rate had increased but the infrastructure and other financial, human and material resources are not sufficient in these schools which further affect the educational indicators and quality of education. More support should be extended to the system by the concerned authorities.
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Eğitim, insanların yaşamında ki en önemli unsurlardan birisidir. Eğitim anlayışının modern toplumlarda, zamanla çok önemli değişikliklere uğradığı görülmektedir. Eğitim bireyin niteliksel yapısında sağladığı değişim ve gelişim ile içinde bulunduğu toplumun sosyal, politik, kültürel ve ekonomik açıdan dönüşümüne katkıda bulunmasıdır. Ülkeler etkin eğitim politikalarıyla küreselleşme sürecindeki gelişmelere uyum sağlamaya çalışmaktadırlar. G7 ülkeleri, ortak değerler ve kültür çerçevesinde bütünleşerek üye ülkeler arasında entegrasyonu derinleştirmeyi hedeflemektedir. Söz konusu hedefe ulaşmada G7 ülkelerinin eğitim politikalarının önemli bir rol oynadığı söylenebilir. Türkiye’nin eğitim politikalarının yapısı da rolü de gelişen ve değişen eğitim anlayışından etkilenmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, G7 ülkelerinin ve Türkiye’nin eğitim politikalarını karşılaştırarak eğitimin ekonomi ve kalkınmadaki rolünü ortaya koyabilmektir. Türkiye’nin, gelişmiş bir toplum adına küreselleşen dünyada varlığını sürdürebilmesi ve yeniliklerden en iyi şekilde yararlanması için söz konusu eğitim reformlarının öncelikli olarak hayata geçirilmesi gerekir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Türkiye’de Eğitim Politikaları, G7 Ülkelerinde Eğitim Politikaları, Kalkınma
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The purpose of this research is to determine the nature of the relationship between the physical conditions and the teaching performance of the teacher of physical education and sport in high schools of Mostaganem (Algeria). To achieve the objectives of the study, the researchers prepared two main questionnaires. The first questionnaire was about the school physical conditions whereas the second was related to the teaching performance. These questionnaires were applied on a random sample that contains 65 teachers across high school level in Mostaganem, using the descriptive correlative approach. Thus, the results revealed there is a positive correlative relation between the physical conditions and teaching performance.
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Deux Etats du Nord du Bresil Bahia et Ceara participent au Projeto Nordeste qui vise a etudier et evaluer les facteurs de qualite qui contribuent a ameliorer l'apprentissage au cours des deux premieres annees de l'enseignement primaire. Trois aspects de la qualite de l'ecole et de l'enseignant peuvent expliquer la variabilite des competences precoces a lire et ecrire chez les enfants : l'infrastructure scolaire et le financement, la formation et le recrutement des enseignants, l'organisation de la classe et les pratiques pedagogiques. La question cle de l'etude rapportee ici est : quelles pratiques dans les classes bresiliennes sont correlees avec les meilleures performances des eleves? et comment le financement et les materiels pedagogiques interagissent avec la pratique pedagogique pour favoriser les competences en lecture-ecriture. La phase 1 consistait en une observation videoscopee de 12 classes de niveau primaire, la phase 2 dont l'article presente les resultats a rassemble des donnees sur l'efficacite de l'ecole et de la classe ; 140 enseignants sont observes dans leur classe sur une periode de 3 heures et differents autres indicateurs de qualite sont obtenus au cours d'entretiens avec la direction, les enseignants et les eleves (renseignements sur leurs conditions de vie, sur la famille et passation du test Early Literacy exam). Les resultats de l'analyse multivariee permettent de verifier les effets des differents facteurs de qualite de l'ecole et de l'enseignant et de soumettre quelques pistes de reflexion a l'attention des decideurs.
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This report details a study combining qualitative and quantitative research tools to compare the functioning of schools in China, Guinea, India, and Mexico and in different development contexts within each country. The focus of the analysis was on the critical factors determining the quality of the interactive process taking place in schools, how these factors relate to student performance, and how this performance can be improved. The report is organized in three parts. Part 1 contains a general description of the study, its methodological approach, the research objectives, and the contrasting localities selected in each country. Part 2 compares the principal findings of the case studies, with chapters dealing with problems relating to the interactions between the school, parents, and pupils; the material conditions of teaching; teachers' problems; how schools operate; and the teaching-learning process. This part also analyzes the communication and numeracy skills of pupils in the fourth grade and sixth or final grade of primary schooling. Part 3 summarizes the major findings and examines implications for planning and management. Appended are results of regression analyses examining variations in achievement scores between learners in Mexico, India, and Guinea. Contains 79 references. (KB)
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