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Loads on Structure and Waves in Ice (LS-WICE) project, Part 3: Ice-structure interaction under wave conditions

Authors:
  • Aker Solutions AS
  • Hamburgische Schiffbau-Versuchsanstalt GmbH (retired)
Conference Paper

Loads on Structure and Waves in Ice (LS-WICE) project, Part 3: Ice-structure interaction under wave conditions

Abstract and Figures

A multi-group investigation was conducted at Hamburgische Schiffbau-Versuchsanstalt GmbH (HSVA) from Oct. 24 to Nov. 11, 2016 under the project: Loads on Structure and Waves in Ice (LS-WICE). There are three parts to this investigation: ice fracture under wave actions, wave attenuation/dispersion in broken ice covers, and ice-structure interaction under wave conditions. This paper focuses on the last part of the investigation in which a cylindrical structure was subjected to impact loads due to ice floes in regular waves. The global loads from both only waves and combined ice/wave action were obtained. Waves with periods 1.5 s – 2.0 s and heights 25 mm – 75 mm were used in the tests. Two additional runs were performed with wave heights 100 mm and 200 mm and wave period 1.6 s; major fractures of the ice floes were observed in these test runs. All tests were well documented with help of pressure transducers, ultrasound sensors, accelerometers on the ice, load cells on the structure, an optical system and several cameras, which were covering the ice-structure interaction zone both above and under the water level.
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POAC17-068
Loads on Structure and Waves in Ice (LS-WICE) project, Part 3:
Ice-structure interaction under wave conditions
Andrei Tsarau1, Sergiy Sukhorukov2, Agnieszka Herman3, Karl-Ulrich Evers4, and Sveinung
Løset1
1 Sustainable Arctic Marine and Coastal Technology (SAMCoT), Centre for Research-based
Innovation (CRI), Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
2 KvaernerAS, Lysaker, Norway
3 Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Poland
4 Arctic Technology, Hamburgische Schiffbau-Versuchsanstalt GmbH, Hamburg Ship Model
Basin, Bramfelder Straße 164, D-22305 Hamburg, Germany
ABSTRACT
A multi-group investigation was conducted at Hamburgische Schiffbau-Versuchsanstalt
GmbH (HSVA) from Oct. 24 to Nov. 11, 2016 under the project: Loads on Structure and
Waves in Ice (LS-WICE). There are three parts to this investigation: ice fracture under wave
actions, wave attenuation/dispersion in broken ice covers, and ice-structure interaction under
wave conditions. This paper focuses on the last part of the investigation in which a cylindrical
structure was subjected to impact loads due to ice floes in regular waves.
The global loads from both only waves and combined ice/wave action were obtained. Waves
with periods 1.5 s – 2.0 s and heights 25 mm – 75 mm were used in the tests. Two additional
runs were performed with wave heights 100 mm and 200 mm and wave period 1.6 s; major
fractures of the ice floes were observed in these test runs. All tests were well documented
with help of pressure transducers, ultrasound sensors, accelerometers on the ice, load cells on
the structure, an optical system and several cameras, which were covering the ice-structure
interaction zone both above and under the water level.
KEY WORDS: Marginal Ice Zone; Waves; Loads on Structure; Model Tests.
INTRODUCTION
In the light of the observed climate change, Arctic marine structures may have to operate in
Marginal Ice Zones (MIZ), in which the ice cover typically consists of individual ice floes
formed by ocean waves penetrating into the ice field. Both vessel traffic and offshore
structures may be subject to MIZ conditions, at least during a part of the ice season.
Therefore, studying wave-ice interactions and their effects on a marine structure in such
POAC’17
Busan, KOREA
Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on
Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions
June 11-16, 2017, Busan, Korea
POAC17-068
conditions is of practical importance.
A multi-group investigation was conducted at Hamburgische Schiffbau-Versuchsanstalt
GmbH (HSVA) from Oct. 24 to Nov. 11, 2016 under the Hydralab+ Transnational Access
project: Loads on Structure and Waves in Ice (LS-WICE). There are three parts to this
investigation: ice fracture under wave actions, wave attenuation/dispersion in broken ice
covers, and ice-structure interaction under wave conditions. This paper focuses only on the
third part. Several accompanying papers at this conference present the other parts of the LS-
WICE project (see Cheng et al., 2017; Herman et al., 2017; and Li et al., 2017).
DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPERIMENT
The experiment focused on studying combined wave and ice actions on a fixed structure
represented by a cylinder with a diameter of 0.69 m. The structure was located approximately
in the middle of the ice tank at 43.7 m from the wave maker as shown in Figure 1. The ice
concentration near the structure was approximately 100%. Apart from the structure and the
ice field, Figure 1 shows a number of sensors and video cameras that were used in the tests:
12 pressure sensors and 2 ultrasound sensors to measure wave height; Qualisys cameras and
markers to monitor ice deflection; an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) to record the
accelerations of an ice floe; video cameras on the ceiling, side walls, above the structure and
under the water surface to monitor the ice cover and the ice-structure interaction area. A set of
load cells that were installed inside the structure and fixed to a rigid carriage was used to
measure loads on the structure. The IMU was installed at the centre of an ice floe adjacent to
the structure to obtain the response in waves and impact accelerations (Figure 2).
Figure 1. Layout of the wave tank and sensors. P1 – P10 are single pressure sensors, P11/12 –
double pressure sensor, S1 and S2 – ultrasound sensors, continuous blue lines – fields of view
of GoPro camera, dashed blue lines – field of view of the AXIS camera, continuous black
lines – locations of longitudinal and transverse cuts (i.e., floe boundaries), yellow rectangle –
a region, where no transverse cuts were done during the tests, green points – location of the
Qualisys markers, dashed green line – approximate location of the Qualisys cameras and the
IMU.
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Figure 2. Structure and an adjacent ice floe equipped with an IMU. X shows the surge
direction.
The procedure of producing the ice cover is described by Cheng et al. (2017). A level ice
sheet was formed by seeding first to create a granular layer. Sustained cooling thickened this
top layer by columnar growth until the whole sheet reaches about 0.035 m thickness. The
Young’s modulus, flexural strength, ice thickness, density and salinity were then obtained
(Table 1). The choice of the ice properties was defined by the intention to have similar ice
properties as in the tests of wave attenuation in broken ice (Cheng et al., 2017). The intact
level ice was then cut longitudinally into six 1.6 m wide strips parallel to the wave tank wall.
Transverse cuts were applied to create square floes of a uniform size.
Table 1. Ice properties.
Parameter
Unit
Thickness
m
Density
kg/m3
Salinity
Elastic Modulus
MPa
Flexural Strength
kPa
Compressive Strength*
kPa
* The compressive strength was not measured directly. It was obtained using a relationship between the flexural strength and the
compressive strength for model ice as provided by HSVA.
Three test series were conducted with different wave periods between 1.5 2.0 s and three
controlled wave heights between 25 and 75 mm at the wave maker. Two additional runs were
performed with wave heights of 100 and 200 mm and a wave period of 1.6 s, during which
major ice breaking was observed and therefore the IMU was removed. The water depth in the
tank was 2.48 m (the deep-water section did not affect this experiment).
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TEST SERIES AND RESULTS
This paper presents only a selected set of data obtained during the experiment. We mainly
focus on the following parameters: the surge acceleration of the ice floe adjacent to the
structure, a, and its oscillation amplitude due to waves, aamp; additionally, the peak
acceleration of the floe when it was impacting the structure, apeak; the amplitude of the
hydrodynamic wave force on the structure in the surge direction, Fhd; the surge force between
the structure and the rigid carriage when the ice floe was impacting, R, and its peak value
Rpeak. The latter parameter is only used to indicate the impact load and cannot be directly
interpreted as the total force on the structure due to waves and ice impacts; this is because the
structure often responded to impacts at its natural frequency at approximately 10 Hz. This
issue did not affect the measurements of Fhd as the wave frequencies were much below 10 Hz.
Instead of using an inverse analysis of R to identify the actual impact force between the
structure and the ice floe, this force was approximately calculated as Fimp = -m*apeak, where m
is the mass of the ice floe. Fimp also includes the added-mass effects on the ice floe.
Table 2 summarises all parameters described above for the test series in which the ice floe
adjacent to the structure remained intact, except for a small part of the floe crushed by the
structure in the interaction zone. The controlled parameters in each test were the wave period
T and the wave height at the wave maker. Instead of the latter, Table 2 presents the wave
height HP8 which was measured by the pressure sensor located closest to the structure (see P8
in Figure 1); this is because of the fact that waves undergo attenuation in broken ice fields.
Note that all parameters in Table 2 are related to the model scale.
Table 2. Controlled and measured parameters.
Run
Number
T
[s]
HP8
[mm]
aamp
[m/s2]
Fimp
[N]
Rpeak
[N]
Fhd
[N]
4110
2.0
25
0.06
126
186
21
4120
1.8
22
0.2
122
169
20
4130
1.6
18
0.09
141
167
16
4140
1.5
16
0.14
110
159
21
4210
2.0
45
0.14
270
341
35
4220
1.8
40
0.13
289
360
35
4230
1.6
28
0.17
361
353
39
4240
1.5
27
0.26
379
276
41
4310
2.0
67
0.32
--
--
52
4320
1.8
55
0.26
319
438
55
4330
1.6
36
0.26
249
371
56
Typical time series of the forces obtained from the experiment are shown in Figures 3 and 4.
The red curve is the surge force on the structure measured by the load cells, and the black
force is the total force on the ice floe in the inverse surge direction, which was calculated as -
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m*a. In these figures, the impact forces due to ice-structure collisions appear as long vertical
spikes with positive peaks; spikes with negative peaks appear only on the black curves and
are attributed to floe-floe collisions.
Figure 3. Time series of the surge force on the structure (red) and the inverse surge force on
the ice floe (black) in Test 4120.
Figure 4. Time series of the surge force on the structure (red) and the inverse surge force on
the ice floe (black) in Test 4320.
DISCUSSION ON THE FLOE RESPONSE NEAR THE STRUCTURE
The wave-induced motion of a floating body is usually presented in the form of non-
dimensional response amplitude operators (RAO). The surge RAO of an ice floe is defined as
POAC17-068
𝑥 (#
$𝐻), where x is the floe motion amplitude in surge and H is the wave height. As the wave
frequencies in the tests are known, x can be obtained by analytically integrating aamp from
Table 2. Figure 5 presents the calculated RAOs for the ice floe adjacent to the structure based
on the acceleration data prior or between any collisions. The results are averaged for different
wave heights and the bars show scatter around mean value.
Figure 5. Surge RAO of the ice floe near the structure as a function of wave period.
According to Masson and LeBlond (1989), when the floe size is small compared to the
wavelength, the floe tends to behave essentially as a fluid particle. For deep water waves, the
water particle travels along closed circular orbits of radius #
$𝐻, resulting in a surge RAO of 1.
In our case, the obtained RAOs differ from unity because of several reasons: first, the
wavelengths were only 2 – 4 times the floe size and therefore the long-wave assumption did
not apply; second, the floe responses were also influenced by the presence of the structure
due to the hydrodynamic interaction. The latter effect was thoroughly investigated by
McGovern and Bai (2014) in a number of wave-tank experiments with a cylindrical structure
and floes of different sizes and shapes. Their results showed that when an ice floe was in the
vicinity of the structure, the floe’s response in surge, regardless of whether there was an
eventual impact, was markedly reduced compared to that in the far-field region. The surge
RAO of the floe as it approached the cylinder decreased from 1.2 (in the far-field) to
approximately 0.8 1 just before the impact. Similar results are also demonstrated in Figure
5 for the near-filed RAO.
DISCUSSION ON THE IMPACT FORCES
The experimental setup (Figure 2) ensured that all impacts of the upstream floe on the
structure were nearly head-on. However, the impact occurrence in the experiment was not
regular: in some tests impacts occurred almost at every wave cycle (e.g., Test 4120, see
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Figure 3); in some tests impacts were rare (as shown in Figure 4 for Test 4320); in Test 4310
no impact was detected at all. As it was observed during the tests, impact occurrence seemed
to be dependent on the initial separation distance between the floe and the structure and floe-
floe interactions. No exact parametric dependence of impact occurrence was found.
As Table 2 presents, the impact forces Fimp were more than 5 times higher than the
corresponding hydrodynamic forces Fhd. This was observed in all tests until the floe finally
broke apart due to the wave action and impacts on the structure during Test 4330. There was a
clear increase in Fimp with increasing wave height in all tests; however, the effect of wave
period on Fimp is unclear. The increase in Fimp from Test 4210 to Test 4240 is most likely
attributed to the increase of the interaction area between the floe and the structure due to
crushing. Figure 6 shows how the crushed area was developing.
Figure 6. Increasing interaction area in subsequent tests.
As this paper presents only a preliminary analysis of the obtained data, no functional
relationships were intended to be established between the impact force and the identified
influencing parameters such as wave height and period, floe response in waves, floe-floe
interaction prior to impact, penetration depth or interaction area. However, the range of data
from the LS-WICE project allows a more thorough analysis that would result in such
relationships.
CONCLUSIONS
A preliminary analysis of the LS-WICE data on wave-ice-structure interaction was presented.
This analysis focused on both the response of a wave-driven ice floe near the structure and
the forces on the structure due to both waves and ice impacts. Regarding the surge RAO of
the ice floe, its mean values were not significantly different from 1 for all considered
wavelengths. However, it was found that this RAO does not solely account for the variation
of the impact forces on the structure and impact occurrence in the experiment. Floe-floe
collisions seemed to affect impact occurrence as well.
Among the parameters influencing the impact force, we identified the following:
wave height and period (also wavelength for shallow water);
ice-floe kinematics in waves, including momentum exchange due to floe-floe
interaction;
interaction area between the structure and the ice floe.
The effect of ice properties was not assessed in this study. A major difference of this
experiment compared to previous experiments on impacts of a wave-driven ice mass on a
structure is the utilisation of a wave tank fully covered with ice floes instead of considering
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only one isolated ice mass and a structure. Full ice coverage ensures a better representation of
MIZ conditions and allows taking into account floe-floe interactions and the wave dispersion
effects in ice-covered water.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The work described in this publication was supported by the European Community’s Horizon
2020 Programme through the grant to the budget of the Integrated Infrastructure Initiative
HYDRALAB+, Contract no. 654110. The author(s) would like to thank the Hamburg Ship
Model Basin (HSVA), especially the ice tank crew, for the hospitality, technical and scientific
support and the professional execution of the test programme in the Research Infrastructure
ARCTECLAB, and the instrumentation help from Meleta Truax of the Clarkson University.
Authors AT and SL are also funded in part by the SAMCoT CRI through the Research
Council of Norway and all of the SAMCoT Parties.
REFERENCES
Cheng, S., Tsarau, A., Li, H., Herman, A., Evers, K.U., and Shen, H. (2017). Loads on
Structure and Waves in Ice (LS-WICE) project, Part 1: Wave attenuation and dispersion in
broken ice fields. Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Port and Ocean
Engineering under Arctic Conditions, June 11-16, 2017, Busan, Korea.
Herman, A., Tsarau, A., Evers, K.-U., Li, H., and Shen, H.H. (2017) Loads on Structure and
Waves in Ice (LS-WICE) project, Part 2: Sea ice breaking by waves, Proceedings of the 24th
International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, June 11-16,
2017, Busan, Korea.
Li, H., Tsarau, A., Shen, H., A., Herman, A., Evers, K.U., and Lubbad, R. (2017). Loads on
Structure and Waves in Ice (LS-WICE) project, Part 4: Wave attenuation and dispersion in
broken ice fields Ice collisions under wave actions Proceedings of the 24th International
Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, June 11-16, 2017,
Busan, Korea.
Masson, D., and LeBlond, P. H. (1989). Spectral evolution of wind-generated surface
gravity waves in a dispersed ice field. J. Fluid Mech., 202, 43–81.
McGovern, D.J., Bai, W., 2014. Experimental study of wave-driven impact of sea ice floes on
a circular cylinder. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 108, 36–48.
... In 2015 and 2016, several tests on wave-ice interaction were performed at the Large Ice Model Basin (LIMB) of the Hamburg Ship Model Basin (Hamburgische Schiffbau-Versuchsanstalt, or HSVA) [65][66][67]. The main goals of these tests were (1) to investigate the distribution of floe sizes when an initially continuous uniform ice sheet was broken by regular waves with prescribed characteristics, (2) to measure wave attenuation and dispersion in broken ice, and (3) to improve the understanding of ice-structure interactions under wave conditions. ...
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Loads on Structure and Waves in Ice (LS-WICE) project, Part 4: Wave attenuation and dispersion in broken ice fields-Ice collisions under
  • H Li
  • A Tsarau
  • H Shen
  • A Herman
  • A Evers
  • K U Lubbad
Li, H., Tsarau, A., Shen, H., A., Herman, A., Evers, K.U., and Lubbad, R. (2017). Loads on Structure and Waves in Ice (LS-WICE) project, Part 4: Wave attenuation and dispersion in broken ice fields-Ice collisions under wave actions Proceedings of the 24 th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, June 11-16, 2017, Busan, Korea.