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p>Despite being competent in their field of work, professional’s worldwide struggle due to lack of good public speaking skills. Their assessments and appraisals are often not depictive of their professional competitiveness; therefore, it is important for students to overcome public speaking anxiety before they transit from academic life to professional life. The purpose of this study is to analyze the reasons behind the anxiety level in undergraduate students of a public speaking class and recommend strategies to overcome this fear. This study was entailed quantitative research paradigm on a sample of 50 students using convenience sampling technique from a reputable private sector business school in Karachi. The findings showed that students who fear public speaking can perform well if they use certain strategies to fight their fears. 75% participants admitted their fear of public speaking and 95% participants agreed that if proper counseling, instruction and coaching is provided, this fear can be overcome. Research revealed that exposure to virtual environment can facilitate student confidence and enables themto face audience irrespective of the size.</p
Anxiety Level in Students of Public Speaking: Causes
and Remedies
Farhan Raja
Institute of Business Management
Despite being competent in their eld of work, professional’s
worldwide struggle due to lack of good public speaking skills.
Their assessments and appraisals are often not depictive of their
professional competitiveness; therefore, it is important for students to
overcome public speaking anxiety before they transit from academic
life to professional life. The purpose of this study is to analyze the
reasons behind the anxiety level in undergraduate students of a
public speaking class and recommend strategies to overcome this
fear. This study was entailed quantitative research paradigm on a
sample of 50 students using convenience sampling technique from
a reputable private sector business school in Karachi. The ndings
showed that students who fear public speaking can perform well
if they use certain strategies to ght their fears. 75% participants
admitted their fear of public speaking and 95% participants agreed
that if proper counseling, instruction and coaching is provided, this
fear can be overcome. Research revealed that exposure to virtual
environment can facilitate student condence and enables themto
face audience irrespective of the size.
Keywords: anxiety, condence, fear, public speaking
Vol. 4 No. 1 (June 2017)94
Journal of Education and Educational Development
Most people are not born public speakers; they are trained
to become one. When they nd themselves in situations where they
become the focus of attention as they have to address an audience,
they experience emotions like fear and anxiety, leading to nausea
and excessive sweating. Most of them try to avoid situations where
they have to perform or speak in public, but when unavoidable,
such situations are endured by distress. According to Lucas (2011),
“Many people who converse easily in all kinds of everyday situations
become frightened at the idea of standing up before a group to make
a speech”(p.9). Such people need to realize that they are not the
only ones who may be going through these emotions; in fact, almost
every speaker feels the same. It is important that people consciously
realize the fact that there are more nervous speakers in the world
than those who are not.
Professionals are expected to regularly keep on improving
their communication skills. Verderber, Sellnow and Verderber
(2011) state, “Public speaking, a sustained formal presentation by a
speaker to an audience, is simply one form of human communication.
So learning to be an eective public speaker will help you to be
more eective in other communication settings as well” (p.2). A
change in their condence, speaking style, intonation pattern and
the rest can result in a positive change in their professionalism
and personality. As per the viewpoint of health care professionals,
Tacheva (2013) asserts that “The verbal register, intonation,
articulation, pronunciation, tone, rhythm, dialect dene the character
of the communicative impact as positive or negative depending on
whether they facilitate or hinder the achievement of communicative
Vol. 4 No. 1 (June 2017) 95
Anxiety Level in Students of Public Speaking
purposes”(p. 605). People can overcome this problem by practicing
in small groups of peers and then moving on to larger audiences.
Many people are shy or afraid of speaking in front of their peers or
familiar people and this can be overcome by practicing in front of
unfamiliar audiences. This will increase their condence and help
them reduce their anxiety level.
Anxiety is dened as a state of uneasiness and apprehension
of fear caused by the anticipation of something threatening.
According to Kirkwood and Melton (2002), anxiety disorders are
among the most common mental disorders encountered by public
speakers. People who feel anxiety while speaking in public generally
tend to avoid situations where they have to perform, but when they
encounter such situations, they suer intense distress and anxiety.
According to Kant (2000), people in general negatively assess and
appraise those who demonstrate their fears towards public speaking
and fail to make a strong impression through condent gestures.
These problems can act as hurdles in achieving ones goals that
could be both personal and professional; hence speakers need to
develop strong public speaking skills to enable them to become
more condent.
The purpose of this study is to identify and investigate the
causes behind the anxiety level of students of public speaking in
undergraduate programs and recommend steps that could be adopted
to overcome their anxiety level. This study presents the reasons
behind the fear of public speaking in students and problems caused
by their fear. It includes the detailed description of the results and
ndings of the research. Thus, the following research questions will
be looked into.
Vol. 4 No. 1 (June 2017)96
Anxiety Level in Students of Public Speaking
Research questions
1. To what extent does there exist a fear of public speaking
among the undergraduate students of a private sector
business school?
2. What factors are responsible for the fear of public speaking
among the undergraduate students of a private sector business
Literature review
In today’s time and age, good communication skills are needed
the most at all levels. According to Raja (2013), “Communication
has become one of the markers of social solidarity, social ranking
and professional capabilities and most of the components of the
language are learnt through this medium” (p. 154). According to
Pertaub, Slater and Baker (2001), professionals are expected to
present numerous talks to both small and large groups of audience
at dierent intervals of their professional lives and if they become
victims of public speaking anxiety, they face a backlash and this
anxiety can have a severe inuence on their career. Their research
also describes the results, which illustrate that social anxiety induced
in people is directly proportional to the variety of feedback received
from the audience. They explain that this creates a strong impact on
the condence of the individuals and it translates signicantly into
their public addresses. Spijck (2011) amplied that according to his
research, almost eighty out of every hundred people experienced
public speaking anxiety at a small or large scale. Every four out of
ten people rank public speaking fear as one of their apex three fears,
Vol. 4 No. 1 (June 2017) 97
often a fear more dreadful than death. Most psychologists refer to it
as an irrational fear which could be easily overcome.
With this, the need of public speaking skills is on the rise
as well because as individuals excel in their career, they are more
likely to present and speak in meetings, seminars and conferences
and give their opinion regarding the issues in hand. However, due
to public speaking anxiety, some people become restless and face
sleeping disorders when they have to speak in front of an audience.
Many authors have researched on the causes and reasons behind
public speaking anxiety and have come up with numerous tips and
strategies to deal with such situations and to overcome this fear.
Whatever the methodology may be to overcome public speaking
anxiety, this skill should be a part of curriculum right from school
to university level.
Akin and Kunzman (1974) in their study outlined a program
that was premeditated to behaviorally condensed symptoms of
public speaking anxiety among students. The evaluation showed
that mixed behavioral format emphasizing practice situations results
similar to the desensitization approach,which teaches participants to
control their anxiety by enabling them to gradually face it through
exposing them again and again to the anxious situation. Hence, those
who practice well before they speak in public, are more likely to be
condent and deliver good presentations. Similarly, Riegel (2013)
proposes that public speaking anxiety is not directly proportionate
to the number of audience present in one’s talk. A small group of
audience may terrify you as badly as a large group. She suggests that
when this fear hits presenters, they need to deploy strategies which
might enable them to stand on the stage with condence and vigor.
Vol. 4 No. 1 (June 2017)98
Anxiety Level in Students of Public Speaking
The presentation procedure should be transactional with a constant
exchange of oor between the presenter and the audience. The
presenters must ask questions at intervals to engage the audience
more actively which requires more dialogue than monologue.
Strategies as basic as these can create a visible dierence and can
assist individuals surmount the fright of public speaking and facilitate
them in building poise while speaking in front of an audience.
Morgan (2008) lists few things that hold great importance
during a speech or presentation: (a) intent to be open with your
audience, (b) intent to connect with the audience, (c) intent to be
passionate about your topic, and (d) intent to listen to your audience.
These are few tips that help speakers connect with the audience,
to become motivating speakers. The audience too, in turn will be
interested in the speech and will help speakers to be comfortable
while speaking. Weissman (2012) explains the reasons why some
speakers speak faster when they face the audience. He writes that
when a presenter comes in front of an audience, the pressure of the
situation prompts adrenaline rush which produces time warp that
causes the presenter to speak fast. He further says that this can be
overcome by using pauses and lubricants, which allow more time to
the audience to process the information and also gives the speaker
enough time to phrase another sentence.
Kushner, (2010) talks about simple yet very eective
strategies to overcome the fear of public speaking as well as
delivering good presentations. He starts o by describing eective
styles for starting and ending a speech. Rhetorical questions, a
quotation for the opening or conclusion can be used to involve the
audience and grab their attention. He elaborates that the speaker
Vol. 4 No. 1 (June 2017) 99
should also analyze the requirements of the topic and examine the
motivation for speaking and the audience’s motivation for listening.
He emphasizes on goal setting and puts forward that one should
also set some specic goals that need to be achieved at the end of
the presentation. If the speaker is not certain about his/her stance, it
will not leave a good impression on the audience and the audience
may get demotivated.
Many authors and researchers stress upon the signicance
of virtual environment. They suggest that exposure to virtual
environments and simulations can result in ghting public speaking
fear in people. Sandra, Robert and Max (2002) undertook a study to
examine the ecacy of Virtual Reality Therapy (VRT) in overcoming
public speaking anxiety of university students. Their sample
comprised fourteen students divided into two groups. Students in
group one underwent VRT individual treatment and post-testing,
whereas the other students in the control group completed the post-
test only. Results indicated that VRT sessions successfully helped
the students reduce their public speaking anxiety.
This was a small scale exploratory research conducted to
analyze the needs of students of public speaking class at undergraduate
level for formulating strategies that would overcome public speaking
anxiety. The study was conducted using the quantitative descriptive
research method. Creswell (1994) denes quantitative research as
an explanation of phenomena by collecting numerical data that are
analyzed using mathematically based methods. The methodology
that was used to carry out the study included questionnaires as
primary data collection tool.
Vol. 4 No. 1 (June 2017)100
Anxiety Level in Students of Public Speaking
The data were collected using the self-administered
questionnaires that were distributed to fty undergraduate students
of a reputable private sector business school. The questionnaire was
constructed using relevant literature review and observations of the
researcher that he had accumulated during the ve years of teaching
this course. The researcher; therefore, rst bracketed his observations,
which helped him to construct a very simple questionnaire, which
consisted of ve polar questions. The rst question was regarding
the fear of public speaking; the second question inquired if lack of
condence was the reason of fear, the third question looked into
the impact of the number of audience on students’ public speaking
performance; question four inquired about how participating in
public speaking activities help students deliver better presentations;
and the last question asked whether they thought that their fear
of public speaking can be overcome by using some strategies and
seeking professional help.
The study was conducted with 50 Computer Sciences
undergraduate students of a reputable private sector business
school in Karachi. Convenience sampling method was used as
“In convenience sampling, the sample is restricted to a part of the
population that is readily accessible” (Singh 7 Mangat, 1996, p.7).
Vol. 4 No. 1 (June 2017) 101
Data analysis
The data was analyzed using sample testing for mean,
standard deviation and variance, through data analysis tool pack of
MS Excel.
Results and Discussion
Instructor’s observations
The instructor bracketed his observations that helped him
go through the relevant literature review to understand the study at
hand in depth. Following are some of the observations:
Lack of condence was the most common reason of fear of
public speaking because many students have a meek nature and they
tend to feel uncomfortable while speaking in front of others. Burgess
(2013, October 30) reports that according to a survey on common
phobias, fear of public speaking was found to be a more pressing
concern than death. Another reason discovered in the research was
that students who had a good command over debates and speeches
performed better in presentations. Even if a student fears public
speaking, he can perform well by practicing and rehearsing quite
rigorously. Public speaking if treated as a skill can be tremendously
improved upon. The instructors play a vital role in giving support
and condence to the students and can help them overcome public
speaking anxiety.
Questionnaire results
This section of the study presents the results and analysis
Vol. 4 No. 1 (June 2017)102
Anxiety Level in Students of Public Speaking
of the data collected. The results of these questionnaires were
interpreted and conclusions were drawn. Table 1 shows the
percentage responses given by the students.
Table 1
Percentage responses given by the undergraduate students
Questions N %age response
%age response
Do you have fear of public
50 75 25
Do you think that this fear is
due to lack of condence?
50 50 50
Does the audience size play a
role in your public speaking
50 82 18
Do you think participating
in public speaking activities
more will help you perform
better in presentations?
50 75 25
Do you think that your fear
of public speaking can be
overcome by using some
strategies and seeking some
professional help?
50 95 5
The answer to the rst question whether the students feared
Vol. 4 No. 1 (June 2017) 103
public speaking or not was that more than 75% of them surveyed
feared speaking in front of an audience. Thus, the majority of them
were found to be afraid of speaking in front of others, which is
consistent with McCains’ (2012) results that showed that, “Nearly
90% of people reported feeling shy or uncomfortable speaking in
front of others at some time in their lives” (p.1). However, this
observation diers from person to person, as dierent people have
dierent beliefs and condence level for familiar and unfamiliar
The second question inquired whether the students thought
this fear was due to lack of condence. The data analysis of second
question showed that for more than 50% of the respondents lack of
condence was an important variable. Sjoberg (2006) suggests that
learners, who lack condence, need encouragement in the initial
phase of learning so that they could be encouraged to participate
in the class. Kelly and Watson (1986) also argue that condence is
one of the key contributors in the learning of speaking skills. The
above studies give us a reason for the 50% of the students who felt
that lack of condence was the reason for them to be anxious during
public speaking.
The third question explored whether the number of audience
played a major role on students’ performance during presentations.
82% respondents confessed that audience size has a strong impact
on their performance and level of nervousness. The reason for
this impact is given by Gamston and Wellman (1992) and they
conclude that, “Large audience often seems more intimidating than
smaller ones” ( p. 35).The fourth question inquired whether more
participation in public speaking activities help students perform
Vol. 4 No. 1 (June 2017)104
Anxiety Level in Students of Public Speaking
better in presentations. 75% of the respondents reported that taking
an active part in public speaking activities will help them perform
better in presentations. Those presenters, who appear condent
and do not show any symptoms of nervousness, have only learnt
the art of hiding their level of nervousness or have mastered the
desensitization approach (Akin & Kunzman ,1974); therefore,
constant exposure to a variety of audience will transform them into
condent speakers.
The fth question asked whether the students thought
that their fear of public speaking can be overcome by using some
strategies and seeking professional help. 95% of the students thought
that the fear of public speaking can be reduced by using dierent
strategies or by seeking assistance from some professionals. Songsiri
(2007) suggests that if students are encouraged and are facilitated
with various strategies for the accomplishment of their goals at their
own pace, not only develop, regain and repose condence, but also
become autonomous and lifelong learners.
Lucas (2011) reiterates that,“Many people who converse
easily in all kinds of everyday situations can also become frightened
at the idea of standing up before a group to make a speech” (p.9).
Thus, it is essential that activities are organized for their condence
building. As larger audience can aect the level of condence
negatively, they need to be exposed to smaller audience in the initial
phase. Later, as the level of condence increases, the size of the
audience should be increased.
Vol. 4 No. 1 (June 2017) 105
Conclusion and recommendations
This study was carried out to investigate the anxiety level in
the students of public speaking and to provide sucient results which
prove that this fear is very common among individuals, especially
among university students. Literature was reviewed to shed light
on researches that have been conducted earlier in the same area to
validate the study and to build upon what has already been done.
To summarize, the research proves that fear of public speaking is
a learned skill and can be overcome by practicing and rehearsing
before presentations or speeches and people who experience public
speaking anxiety can perform as well as those who have a good
command over public speaking. The following techniques can help
students overcome public speaking anxiety.
1. The instructor needs to help students realize that being
stressful is natural.
2. Better preparation and understanding of the topic eliminates
the chance of making a mistake or getting o track during a
public speaking activity.
3. A moment of silence is nothing to be afraid of. If speakers
lose track of what they are saying or begin to feel nervous, it
is likely that the audience will not mind a pause to consider
what the speakers have been saying.
4. Practicing complete speech several times would certainly
give the speakers an edge. They can practice it with a small
number of people they are at ease with.
Vol. 4 No. 1 (June 2017)106
Anxiety Level in Students of Public Speaking
5. Speakers should seek feedback of the audience during
practice sessions or can ask someone to record the talk.
Watching it several times for self-criticism also helps
facilitate the learning and improvement process.
6. Better preparation also helps speakers recover quickly if
they go o track or get confused.
7. The speakers should anticipate audience responses and
queries that may be generated during practice so that they
could have condent answers.
8. It is essential to focus on the material, not on the audience
as people are primarily paying attention to the information
being presented.
9. The speakers should recognize and acknowledge their
success. It may not have been perfect, but chances are that
the speakers are far more critical of themselves than the
audience is.
10. Joining an active public speaking forum would also benet
the students. Once they get into the habit of considering
themselves comfortable in an unknown environment while
speaking in public, the anxiety would automatically go down
and make the speakers feel at ease.
Vol. 4 No. 1 (June 2017) 107
Akin, C., & Kunzman, G. G. (2012).A group desensitization approach to
public speaking anxiety. Canadian Journal of Counseling and
Psychotherapy, 8(2), 106-111.
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Garmston, R., & Wellman, B. (1992). How to make presentations
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Kelly, L., & Watson, A. K. (1986). Speaking with condence and skill.
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Kirkwood, C. K., & Melton, S. T. (2002).Anxiety disorders. In J. T. Dipiro,
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Luca, S.E. (2001). The art of public speaking. New York, NY: McGraw-
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Morgan, N. (2008). How to become an authentic speaker. Harvard
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Pertaub, D. P., Slater, M., & Barker, C. (2002). An experiment on public
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... They were also disturbed by the marks they would receive, on top of that, the size and composition of the audience and their fear of the ability to present. Raja (2020) mentioned that students' fear of oral presentation could be overcome if they received proper coaching and instructions on strategies to overcome it. The survey named four kinds of strategies to reduce fear of oral presentation. ...
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... Because most people are not born public speakers, they need to be trained to improve their speaking skills. Raja (2017) in her study on "Anxiety Level in Students of Public Speaking: Causes and Remedies" revealed that lack of confidence was the most common reason among many students experiencing fright of public speaking rationalizing that meek nature and feeling distressed and uncomfortable while speaking in front of others. ...
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Since project-based learning is implemented in English Education Department, Universitas Borneo Tarakan, students are challenged to deliver their project of public speaking as well as complete their experiential writing at the end of the meeting. This class was academic speaking, where students built their confidence, insights, and public speaking performance with various activities like speech, news reports, discussion, debate, poster presentation, and other activities. This book was inspired by Freedom Writer, a 2007 American drama film". Which tells that teaching imparts knowledge and inspires change. From this inspiration, the teacher shared the pedagogical experience of how speaking for formal interaction was taught in the classroom, and students wrote down their success stories throughout the entire semester of speaking class. This book was sincere from the Local A2 students' stories in the English Education Department academic year 2021/2022. Based on the students' diaries, they successfully described the story reflecting how they strived to organize their learning and uplift their speaking skills. This writing was also a self-assessment for students to improve their language skills and metacognitive awareness. Besides, this proved the strong collaboration and autonomous learning as a group of students. This class believed "no friends are left behind" to pursue learning progress.
The results of this study argue that communication, and specifically oral communication education, is critical to students’ future personal and professional success. Similar to three earlier studies, thematic analysis of 2,155 articles, identified in academic and popular press publications extending from 2016 to 2020, provides support for the centrality of the communication discipline’s content and pedagogy. These results reinforce the importance of communication to promoting health communication; growing individually and in relation to others; enriching the educational enterprise; enhancing organizational processes; being a responsible community member locally, nationally, internationally, and globally; and addressing crises, safety, risk, security, and science communication. Subthemes are identified in each of these six thematic categories, and the results are compared with those of the three earlier iterations of this study and in light of major shifts in the sociopolitical and cultural environment in the U.S. and the globe since the last iteration.
Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is defined as a strong distress when performing a speech in front of an audience, causing impairment in terms of work possibilities and social relationships. Audience behavior and feedback received during a speech are a crucial variable to induce PSA, affecting performance and perception. In this study, two different virtual reality public speaking scenarios were developed to investigate the impact of positive (more assertive) versus negative (more hostile) audience behavior regarding perceived anxiety and physiological arousal during performance. Moreover, the presence of any carry-over effect based on first experiences (positive vs. negative) was investigated by using a within-between design. Both explicit (questionnaires) and implicit physiological measures (heart rate [HR]) were used to assess participants' experience. The results confirmed the influence of audience behavior on perceived anxiety. As expected, negative audience elicited greater anxiety and lower experience pleasantness. More interesting, the first experience influenced the perceived anxiety and arousal during performance, suggesting some sort of priming effect due to the valence of previous experience. In particular, starting with an encouraging feedback scenario did not increase the perceived anxiety and HR in front of a subsequent annoying audience. This modulation did not appear in the group who started with the annoying audience, which clearly reported higher HR and anxiety during the annoying exposure compared with the encouraging audience. These results are discussed considering previous evidence on the effect of feedback on performance. In addition, physiological results are interpreted considering the role of somatic marker theory in human performance.
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Public Speaking anxiety is a problem that continues and manifests itself in a variety of ways in schools, colleges and universities particularly among students learning English as a second or foreign language. The fear of speaking in public can come from a variety of places and affect each student distinctively. The current research describes the fears of students taking a public speaking course at a large private sector university in Pakistan along with the coping strategies they use to overcome them. For this purpose, data were collected from (n = 213) individuals and divided into two subsets i.e. anxieties and strategies. As according to the results found, (n=249) self-described anxieties of public speaking are documented in this study along with (n=35) tactics to overcome them. This study adds to our understanding of public speaking anxiety by doing an inductive analysis of students' anxieties of public speaking and a second analysis to coping strategies for public speaking anxiety.. INTRODUCTION Public speaking is a communication act that involves linguistic, physiological, cultural and psychological considerations [9]. It is a strategic skill for gaining some competitive edge, credibility, and a positive reputation, and it is one of the predictors of professional success [19]. Moreover, Oral communication ability is a requirement for personal, professional and academic success [24]. A prefatory course of oral communication at the university level is a critical
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Decentralized from decision-making processes, women have been placed at the periphery. Their silencing has been fundamental and intentional on the part of patriarchal institutions, for the sake of keeping them behind the discursive scene. To this effect, this paper examines the rebirth of women from prior states whereby they used to be denied the right to sprout the wings towards language within a ‘logocentric’ society. A deep dive into Helen Cixous’s “The Laugh of the Medusa”[i] provides grassroots for allowing a woman to transform silence into articulation. The poetry of Anne Sexton is a case study to witness the drastic change from a crippling fear of speaking into an audacity of a number of speakers in “Lullaby”, “Music Swims Back to Me” and “The Exorcists” to acquire language with which every female orator will be equipped to conquer the masculinist world without anxiety. [i] The Laugh of the Medusa will be referred to as “TLM”.
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This study aims to explore the various methods used to accomplish oral communication competence in English language institutes. The study can prove to be a valuable contribution in assessing and improving the methods and techniques used in the conversational classes conducted at language institutes. The focus of this research is to highlight the different types of activities and the processes involved in teaching verbal communication skills at English language institutes. Communication has always been quintessential for verbal transactions and English more specifically has become an integral part for social and professional development. As these institutes are basically aiming at enabling people to converse in the target language effectively, therefore the objective is to discover the different methods and techniques employed by the institutes, and then through the analysis of those methods finding the possibilities of improvement in the learning process and recommending ways to revise them. This research comprises the observation and analysis of the activities used in conversational classes with the fuller description of the processes involved. It also comprises the description of the factors deficient in the selection of the activities for the successful acquisition of oral communication along with the recommendations for the betterment.
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The report analyses the impact of linguistic and extra linguistic aspects of medical workers’ speaking style and behavior towards their patients. Special attention is drawn to two basic directions of modern communication in medicine and healthcare: 1. Verbal communication: The sociolinguistic factors of oral communication discourse between medical staff and patients; кey concepts for effective communication in medicine and healthcare; еffective communication strategies and skills in medicine and healthcare, professional speaking and listening in medicine – key principles, functions; verbal tools and techniques. Language registers and style; positive and negative language; professional medical terminology and slang. 2. Non-verbal communication: Body language in medicine and healthcare: kinetic signs, posture, gesture, mimics. International standards and personality of modern medical professional. Appearance and behavior in medicine and public healthcare. The study draws the conclusion that the positive and appropriate verbal and non-verbal communication can have a beneficial effect on sick people and can prove to be the best cure for the patient’s heart. Key words: communication in medicine and healthcare, strategies, verbal tools, language register, body language.
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This paper describes an experiment to assess the anxiety responses of people giving 5 min. presentations to virtual audiences consisting of eight male avatars. There were three different types of audience behavior: an emotionally neutral audience that remained static throughout the talk, a positive audience that exhibited friendly and appreciative behavior towards the speaker, and a negative audience that exhibited hostile and bored expressions throughout the talk. A second factor was immersion: half of the forty subjects experienced the virtual seminar room through a head-tracked, head-mounted display and the remainder on a desktop system. Responses were measured using the standard Personal Report of Confidence as a Public Speaker (PRCS), which was elicited prior to the experiment and after each talk. Several other standard psychological measures such as SCL-90-R (for screening for psychological disorder), the SAD, and the FNE were also measured prior to the experiment. Other response variables included subjectively assessed somaticization and a subject self-rating scale on performance during the talk. The subjects gave the talk twice each to a different audience, but in the analysis only the results of the first talk are presented, thus making this a between-groups design. The results show that post-talk PRCS is significantly and positively correlated to PRCS measured prior to the experiment in the case only of the positive and static audiences. For the negative audience, prior PRCS was not a predictor of post-PRCS, which was higher than for the other two audiences and constant. The negative audience clearly provoked an anxiety response irrespective of the normal level of public speaking confidence of the subject. The somatic response also showed a higher level of anxiety for the negative audience than for the other two, but self-rating was generally higher only for the static audience, each of these results taking into account prior PRCS.
The study represents one stage of an effort to develop a laboratory model of clinical anxiety. Measures of palmar sweating, subjective anxiety, and subjective activation were obtained from 8 normal subjects before, during, and after 5 performance tasks: a 2 min spontaneous talk with a graded series of 4 reading activities increasingly similar to simulated public speaking. Relative to the readings, simulated public speaking induced anxiety as indicated by marked and significant elevations of both palmar sweating and subjective tension anxiety ratings without increase in other aspects of subjective activation. Responses before and after speech making were also consistent with the construct of 'anxiety'.
1. Collection of Survey Data.- 2. Elementary Concepts.- 3. Simple Random Sampling.- 4. Sampling with Varying Probabilities.- 5. Stratified Sampling.- 6. Systematic Sampling.- 7. Ratio and Product Methods of Estimation.- 8. Regression Method of Estimation.- 9. Two-Phase Sampling.- 10. Cluster Sampling.- 11. Multistage Sampling.- 12. Sampling from Mobile Populations.- 13. Nonresponse Errors.- Appendixes.- A. Standard normal probability distribution.- B. Random numbers.- C. Number of tractors, tube wells, and net irrigated area (in hectares) for 69 villages of Doraha development block of Punjab, India.- D. Fifty WOR simple random samples.- E. Explanation of certain local terms used.- References.- Author Index.
Program evaluation shows that a mixed behavioral format emphasizing practice situations produces results similar to traditionally operant or desensitization formats, with less attrition in attendance. Statistically significant changes on fear inventory scores is the measurable outcome of the program. (Author)
This study investigated students’ attitudes towards language learning, especially speaking, at King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology, North Bangkok, Thailand. One of the important factors needing change in Thai education is the improvement of language teaching, especially speaking. The aims of the research are to improve Thai students’ motivation to speak English through a range of materials and activities used for promoting students’ confidence in speaking English. Action research procedures (plan, act, observe, reflect and revise) were used to study the processes and participant Three English teachers took part in the project to assist in its implementation and to observe the outcomes. The study was conducted in two cycles: the first cycle involved teaching a program to a class of engineering students for one semester. The teacher used new student centred techniques to teach differently from traditional teaching using six activities as a tool to motivate students to speak. These were: Self- Introduction, an English Movie, a Popular Song, My Favourite Story, Foreigner Interview and a Coffee-break Discussion. The second cycle followed the reflection on the first cycle to further develop materials, activities, teaching techniques and teacher’s roles. It involved a further semester teaching the six activities to a new class Data from Cycle I were analysed and used to make improvements for Cycle II. Observers played a role in evaluating, suggesting and revising the program. Data from Cycle II were presented to show the final outcomes and changes. Data were collected through the teacher’s journal, observers’ sheets, students’ worksheets, students’ diaries and self-rating scales. The data are presented through narrative and through interpretation of students’ responses. Data were also used to construct a model for promoting students’ confidence in speaking English for King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology, North Bangkok. The results of the research indicated that students’ increased confidence in speaking English was influenced by teaching learning strategies, using authentic materials and presenting the activity in non-threatening terms. Student centred approaches including pair and group work, cooperative learning, giving the opportunity to practise, time to rehearse and promoting positive attitudes towards language learning also contributed to improve outcomes. Further factors included a general interactive approach to teaching and teacher roles, using communication strategies, promoting positive attitudes and a positive atmosphere. Finally, the action research process itself helped students and teachers to reflect on their successes and failures in teaching and learning.
Like the best-laid schemes of mice and men, the best-rehearsed speeches go oft astray. No amount of preparation can counter an audience's perception that the speaker is calculating or insincere. Why do so many managers have trouble communicating authenticity to their listeners? Morgan, a communications coach for more than two decades, offers advice for overcoming this difficulty. Recent brain research shows that natural, unstudied gestures--what Morgan calls the " second conversation"--express emotions or impulses a split second before our thought processes have turned them into words. So the timing of practiced gestures will always be subtly off--just enough to be picked up by listeners' unconscious ability to read body language. If you can't practice the unspoken part of your delivery, what can you do? Tap into four basic impulses underlying your speech--to be open to the audience, to connect with it, to be passionate, and to "listen" to how the audience is responding--and then rehearse your presentation with each in mind. You can become more open, for instance, by imagining that you're speaking to your spouse or close friend. To more readily connect, focus on needing to engage your listeners and then to keep their attention, as if you were speaking to a child who isn't heeding your words. To convey your passion, identify the feelings behind your speech and let them come through. To listen, think about what the audience is probably feeling when you step up to the podium and be alert to the nonverbal messages of its members. Internalizing these four impulses as you practice will help you come across as relaxed and authentic--your body language will take care of itself.
The primary goal of this research program was to investigate the effectiveness of virtual reality therapy (VRT) in reducing public speaking anxiety of university students. The prevalence and impact of public speaking anxiety as a type of Social Phobia are discussed. Studies of VRT as an emerging treatment for psychological problems are reviewed. In the present study, eight students completed VRT individual treatment and post-testing, and six students in a Wait-List control group completed post-testing. Assessment measures included four self-report inventories, self-report of Subjective Units of Discomfort during exposure to VRT and physiological measurements of heart rate during speaking tasks. Four weekly individual exposure treatment sessions of approximately 15 min each were conducted by the author serving as therapist. Results on self-report and physiological measures appear to indicate that four virtual reality treatment sessions were effective in reducing public speaking anxiety in university students, corroborating earlier studies of VRT's effectiveness as a psychotherapeutic modality. Future research directions are discussed, primarily the need for research on younger populations, to assess the effectiveness of VRT for earlier intervention with public speaking anxiety.