ArticlePDF Available
Stoiko Liliya et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 8 (Suppl 2), 2017
252
Research Article
www.ijrap.net
POLYSACCHARIDES IN CENTAURIUM ERYTHRAEA RAFN.
Stoiko Liliya 1, Dakhym Iryna 2*, Pokotylo Olena3, Marchyshyn Svitlana 4
1Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacy Management, Economics and Technology, І. Horbachevsky Ternopil
State Medical University, Maidan Voli 1, Ternopil, Ukraine
2Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacognosy and Medical Botany, І. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical
University, Maidan Voli 1, Ternopil, Ukraine
3Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacy Management, Economics and Technology, І. Horbachevsky Ternopil
State Medical University, Maidan Voli 1, Ternopil, Ukraine
4Professor, Department of Pharmacognosy and Medical Botany, І. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University,
Maidan Voli 1, Ternopil, Ukraine
Received on: 18/02/17 Accepted on: 11/04/17
*Corresponding author
E-mail: iradakhym@gmail.com
DOI: 10.7897/2277-4343.082122
ABSTRACT
We used gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GCMS) to determine polysaccharide and monosaccharide content of Centaury herb. The
monosaccharides present in the investigated raw material were derivatized with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in the mixture of pyridine/methanol
(4:1 v/v), identified by their retention time in the gas chromatograms and compared to those of pure reference compounds. The monosaccharides were
quantified by comparing their response signal to that of sorbitol as an internal standard. Six components among free carbohydrates and eight
components among monosaccharides after hydrolysis were identified and quantified in the Centaury herb. Among the monosaccharides after
hydrolysis glucose and pinitol had the highest content at 26.86 mg/g and 15.26 mg/g respectively. Glucose (13.07 mg/g), saccharose (7.16 mg/g) and
pinitol (3.71 mg/g) had the highest content among the free carbohydrates. We used gravimetric analysis to study qualitative content of
polysaccharides in dried Centaury herb. We determined that 11.80±0.01 % of total mass was water-soluble polysaccharides and 2.33±0.05 % pectin
substances.
Keywords: Centaurium erythraea, gas chromatography, gravimetric method, monosaccharides, polysaccharides
INTRODUCTION
Centaury (Centaurium erythraea Rafn.) is a flowering plant in
the family Gentianaceae. This is a biennial plant with basal leaf
rosette, growing to the height of 1524 cm. Its stems are
branched, bearing clusters of pink or red flowers1. Centaury
grows in dry and sandy places in Europe, Western Asia, North
Africa and North America. It has also naturalized throughout
eastern Australia, where it is an introduced species2. The whole
plant is utilized in herbal medicine.
Centaury is traditionally given as a bitter tonic to increase
gastric secretions, to relieve dyspeptic discomfort and loss of
appetite. The herb is claimed to have antidiabetic, antitumor,
sedative, anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic
properties3 and possess wound healing4 activity. Centaury is
included in some cosmetic and toiletry preparations for its
allergy soothing and astringent properties.
Previous studies found that centaury herb contains flavonoids,
hydroxycinnamic acids, tannic substances, coumarines, fatty and
organic acids, aminoacids, carotenoids and chlorophylls5,6,7.
However, there is no published information about some primary
metabolites, such as polysaccharides. Polysaccharides are
energy-rich molecules providing energy for life processes as
well as building parts of the cell walls of plants and animals. In
animals, they play crucial role in the pathogenesis, immune
system, and blood clotting responses. Polysaccharides have
expectorant, laxative, demulcent, sorbent, anti-inflammatory,
antiulcer, anti-viral and detoxifying actions. Many
polysaccharides are used as stabilizers, fillers, emulsifiers and
film coating agents in pharmaceutical industry8. Thus, the aim of
our study was to determine the content and monomeric
composition of polysaccharides in aerial parts of C. erythraea
Rafn. collected from natural habitat.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant Material
Aerial parts of C. erythraea were collected on the outskirts of
Zboriv (Ternopil region, Ukraine) during the flowering period in
July 2013. The raw material was authenticated by TSMU
professor Dr. Svitlana Marchyshyn. A voucher specimen no.
133 is kept at the Department of Pharmacognosy and Medical
Botany, TSMU, Ternopil, Ukraine. The plant material was dried
using conventional methods and then stored in paper bags in dry
place.
Chemicals and Methods
Two conventional methods for quantification of polysaccharides
and determining their monomeric content were used: gas
chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and
gravimetry. All reagents were of analytical grade (> 95 %
purity). The chemicals were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, USA
and were: D-mannose (Man), L-rhamnose (Rha), D-ribose
(Rib), D-galactose (Gal), D-xylose (Xyl), D-arabinose (Ara), D-
fucose (Fuc), D-glucose (Glc), D-fructose (Fru), D-saccharose
(Sac), D-sorbitol; methanol, trifluoroacetic acid, hydroxylamine
hydrochloride, pyridine, dichloroethane, hydrochloric acid,
Stoiko Liliya et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 8 (Suppl 2), 2017
253
heptanes, ethyl acetate, picric acid, sodium hydrogen carbonate
and sodium hydroxide.
Sample Preparation and Chromatographic Analysis
Centaury herb was powdered in glass mortar. 500 mg of raw
material was placed into the flask and 5 mL of 2 M
trifluoroacetic acid was added for the extraction of bonded
monosaccharides or monosaccharides after hydrolysis.
Hydrolysis was performed under 100 °C for 6 hours. 2 mL of
hydrolysate was evaporated and 2 mL of internal standard was
added.
For the extraction of free monosaccharides 500 micrograms of
methanol solution with internal standard (sorbitol) was added to
500 mg of powdered centaury herb. The extraction took place in
the ultrasonic water bath at 80 °C for 4 hours.
To obtain acetylated aldonitriles 2 mL of extract was evaporated
to dry and 0.3 mL of derivatization reagent (32 mg/mL of
hydroxylamine hydrochloride in pyridine/ methanol (4:1 v/v))
was added. The extract was incubated at 75 °C for 25 min. For
acetylation of aldonitrile derivatives 1 mL of acetic anhydride
was subsequently added to the samples and incubated at 75 °C
for 15 min. 2 mL of dichloroethane was added and the excess of
the derivatization reagents was removed by the double
extraction with 1 M hydrochloric acid and water.
Dichloroethane layer was dried and dissolved in 300 µL of the
mixture of heptane/ethyl acetate (1:1 v/v)9,10.
GC-MS analysis of monosaccharides was performed using gas
chromatograph Agilent 6890N with 5973inert mass detector
(Agilent Technologies, USA). Samples were analyzed on a
capillary column HP-5MS (30 m×0.25 mm×0.25 µm). The oven
temperature was initially set at 160 °C, held for 8 min, then
raised to 240 °C at the rate of 5 °C/min and finally kept at this
point for 6 min. Injections were made in the split mode 1:50.
The detection was performed in the SCAN mode at the width
range of 38-400 m/z. Helium was used as the carrier gas at a
constant flow rate of 1.2 mL/min.
The polysaccharides were hydrolyzed to produce constituent
monosaccharides, which were subsequently converted into
acetylated aldononitriles.
Identification of monosaccharides was based on their retention
times compared to Sac standard and mass library NIST 02.
Quantification was done by using internal standard of sorbitol
added to the sample.
The quantities of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin
substances were determined by gravimetric method reported by
Marchyshyn et al11. All samples were analyzed in triplicates and
the results were averaged.
RESULTS
Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS)
was used to identify and measure the monosaccharides content
in C. erythraea herb.
In the analyzed material Rha, Ara, Man, Glc, Gal, Pinitol,
Inositol and Mannitol were identified after acidic hydrolysis and
derivatization with acetylated aldononitriles (Figure 1). The
following free carbohydrates were identified from the water-
methanol solution of the samples: Glc, Pinitol, Inositol, L-Iditol,
Fru and Sac (Figure 2).
The quantitative content of carbohydrates in mg/g calculated in
reference to the internal standard (sorbitol) is shown in the Table
1.
Among bonded monosaccharides glucose and pinitol had the
highest content 26.86 mg/g and 15.26 mg/g respectively.
Glucose (13.07 mg/g) was the major compound of free
carbohydrates followed by saccharose (7.16 mg/g) and pinitol
(3.71 mg/g).
The content of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin
substances in centaury was determined at 11.80±0.1 % and
2.33±0.05 % of total dry weight respectively (Figure 3).
DISCUSSION
The monosaccharides identified in this study have various roles
and can cause a variety of pharmacological effects when
administered to mammals.
We found that in C. erythraea herb the predominant
monosaccharide compound was glucose: 26.86 mg/g and 13.07
mg/g among monosaccharides after hydrolysis and free
monosaccharides respectively. The main function of this
aldohexose is to supply energy for physiological processes. Of
all mammalian organs and tissues, the brain, neurons and
developing red blood cells have the highest energy demand. If
concentration of glucose is low, processes requiring mental
effort are deteriorated12.
Table 1: Content of monosaccharides after hydrolysis and free carbohydrates in C. erythraea Rafn.
No.
Carbohydrate
Content in the plant material [mg/g]
Monosaccharides after hydrolysis
Free carbohydrates
1
Rhamnose (Rha)
1.46
2
Arabinose (Ara)
0.98
3
Manose (Man)
1.08
4
Glucose (Glc)
26.86
13.07
5
Galactose (Gal)
3.50
6
Pinitol
15.26
3.71
7
Inositol
1.02
0.28
8
L-Iditol
0.45
9
Mannitol
0.81
10
Sorbitol
internal standard
11
Fructose (Fru)
0.45
12
Saccharose (Sac)
7.16
Stoiko Liliya et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 8 (Suppl 2), 2017
254
Figure 1: GC-MS chromatogram of C. erythraea monosaccharides
after hydrolysis
Figure 2: GC-MS chromatogram of C. erythraea free carbohydrates
Figure 3: Water-soluble polysaccharides (WSPS) and pectin substances (PS) in C. erythraea Rafn.
Glucose is also a precursor for the synthesis of biologically
active molecules such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and is
involved in the synthesis of polysaccharides.
The second major identified sugar was pinitol (3-O-methyl-D-
chiro-inositol). Its content in the bonded state was 15.26 mg/g
and in free state 3.71 mg/g. The anti-diabetic action of pinitol
was shown in normal, obese-diabetic (ob/ob) and streptozotocin
(STZ)-diabetic mice when administered orally (p.o.) and
intraperitoneally (i.p.)13.
The anti-tumor effect of D-pinitol against 7,12-
dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-initiated rat mammary
carcinogenesis have been investigated in vivo and its mechanism
of action was determined. D-pinitol mitigates tumor growth by
modulating interleukins and hormones and induces apoptosis in
rat breast cancer cells through inhibition of necrosis factor-α14.
Saccharose in free carbohydrates was present in the analyzed
samples in the amount of 7.16 mg/g. It is an easily assimilated
macronutrient that provides a quick source of energy.
CONCLUSION
In this study, we determined composition and quantified
polysaccharides, monosaccharides and monosaccharide
derivatives in dry herb of Centaurium erythraea Rafn., a plant
used in traditional medicine preparations. We used gas
chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry as a relatively
simple and efficient method to determine these compounds, and
these methods can be adapted to determine poly- and
monosaccharide content in other herbal material. The main
compounds identified in Centaurea herb were glucose, pinitol
and saccharose as well as water-soluble polysaccharides and
pectin substances, which, based on published animal studies, can
be involved in therapeutic properties of the herb.
These results point to the need for further studies of
pharmacological effects of the plant and of poly-and
monosaccharides.
REFERENCES
1. Vaughan JG, Judd PA. The Oxford Book of Health Foods.
Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2006.
2. Kumarasamy Y, Nahar L, Cox P J, Jaspars M, Sarker SD.
Bioactivity of secoiridoid glycosides from Centaurium
erythraea. Phytomedicine 2003; 10: 344-347.
3. Berkan T, Ustunes L, Lermioglu F, Ozer A. Anti-
inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of an
aqueous extract of Erythraea centaurium. Planta Med
1991; 57:34-37.
4. Kupeli EA, Suntar I, Keles H, Aktay G. Evaluation of the
wound healing activity of Buxus sempervirens L. and
Centaurium erythraea (L.) Rafn. by using in vivo and in
vitro Methods. Planta Med 2013; 13:1155.
5. Marchyshyn SM, Stoiko LI. Definition of Phenolic
compounds in herbs of Centaurium erythraea Rafn. by
HPLC. Pharmaceutical review 2014; 1:15-17.
6. Marchyshyn SM, Stoiko LI. The composition of lipophilic
fraction from the herbs of Centaurium erythraea Rafn.
Ukr Biopharm J 2015; 1:65-68.
7. Marchyshyn SM, Stoiko LI. Volatile compounds of
Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Gentiana cruciata L.
Phytotherapy. Review 2016; 3:45-48.
8. Kyslychenko VS, Zhuravel IO, Marchyshyn SM,
Minarchenko VM, Khvorost OP Pharmacognosy. 1st ed.
Kharkiv: Golden Pages; 2015.
9. Chen Y, Xie MY, Wang YX, Nie SP, Li C. Analysis of
the monosaccharide composition of purified
polysaccharides in Ganoderma atrum by capillary gas
chromatography. J Phytochem Anal 2009; 20:503.
10. Kozachok S, Marchyshyn S, Ostapchuk A, Zavyalova L.
Monosaccharide composition of Herniaria glabra L. and
Stoiko Liliya et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 8 (Suppl 2), 2017
255
Herniaria polygama J.Gay. Curr Issues Pharm Med Sci
2016; 29: 142-145.
11. Marchyshyn SM, Demydyak OL, Dakhym IS, Berdei TS,
Kozyr HR. Investigation of Polysaccharide complexes of
Asteraceae Family Plants. Sci J ScienceRise 2015; 10(4,
Suppl 15):31-36.
12. Mergenthaler P, Lindauer U, Dienel GA, Meisel A. Sugar
for the brain: the role of glucose in physiological and
pathological brain function. Trends Neurosci. 2013;
36:587-597.
13. Bates SH, Jones RB, Bailey CJ. Insulin-like effect of
pinitol. Br. J. Pharmacol. 2000; 130:1944-1948.
14. Rengarajan T, Nandakumar N. D-pinitol mitigates tumor
growth by modulating interleukins and hormones and
induces apoptosis in rat breast carcinogenesis through
inhibition of NF-κB. J Physiol Biochem 2015; 71:191-
204. Rengarajan T, Nandakumar N, Rajendran P, Ganesh
MK, Balasubramanian MP, Nishigaki I.
Cite this article as:
Stoiko Liliya et al. Polysaccharides in Centaurium erythraea
Rafn. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 2017;8(Suppl 2):252-255
http://dx.doi.org/10.7897/2277-4343.082122
Source of support: Nil, Conflict of interest: None Declared
Disclaimer: IJRAP is solely owned by Moksha Publishing House - A non-profit publishing house, dedicated to publish quality research, while
every effort has been taken to verify the accuracy of the content published in our Journal. IJRAP cannot accept any responsibility or liability
for the site content and articles published. The views expressed in ar ticles by our contributing authors are not necessarily those of IJRAP
editor or editorial board members.
... Identification of monosaccharides was based on comparing their retention times with retention times of standards of the mass spectral library NIST 02. Quantification was done by using sorbitol added to the sample [33][34][35][36]. ...
... Also, the protective effect against the dangerous aftermath of oxidative stress suffered by the renal and hepatic tissues in mamma cancer was established [48]. D-pinitol's anti-tumor effect against 7,12dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-initiated carcinogenesis has been investigated in vivo and found lower tumor growth by modulating hormones and interleukins and stimulation apoptosis in cancer cells due to inhibition of necrosis factor-α [34]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Thus, the aim of our research was to determine the qualitative composition and quantitative content of carbohydrates in the studied plant material with the prospect of its application as a medicinal plant raw material. Methods: The carbohydrates of the herb of Gentiana cruciata L. determined by GC/MS method. Identification of monosaccharides was based on comparing their retention times with retention times of standards of the mass spectral library NIST 02. Quantification was done by using sorbitol added to the sample. Results: The quantitative content of 4 free carbohydrates such as D-saccharose (38.39 mg/g), D-Pinitol (12.01 mg/g), D-glucose (10.05 mg/g) and D-fructose (1.69 mg/g) was established in the herb of Gentiana cruciata L. Also, this method established the qualitative composition and quantitative content of eight carbohydrates (monosaccharides and their derivatives after hydrolysis): D-glucose (29.66 mg/g), D-Pinitol (22.24 mg/g), L-arabinose (4.26 mg/g), D-galactose (3.55 mg/g), D-xylose (1.80 mg/g), L-rhamnose (1.49 mg/g), D-Dulcitol (0.76 mg/g) and D-mannose (0.44 mg/g). Conclusion: The results of the study showed that carbohydrates from the Gentiana cruciata L. can be used as important resources of new ingredients for the pharmaceutical industry.
... The number of carbohydrates in mg/g was calculated according to the following equation: where: Sxis a peak area of each monosaccharide or disaccharide; Minstis a mass of the internal standard; Sinstis a peak area of the internal standard; mis a mass of plant material [12,15]. The amounts of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin substances were determined by gravimetric method reported by Kyslychenko O. А. et al [16]. ...
... In animals, they play crucial role in the immune system, pathogenesis, and blood clotting responses. Polysaccharides have sorbent, expectorant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and detoxifying actions [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, methods of treatment using medicinal plants and biologically active substances based on them have become increasingly common. Today, the search for plants with a long history of use and minor side effects is of interest to our society. The most promising for procurement and use in medical practice is a common throughout Ukraine – common agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria L.). The presence of tannins, which are represented by two groups: condensed and hydrolyzed tannins is indicated. There is insufficient information in the literature on the biologically active substances of Agrimonia eupatoria L. The common agrimony herb contains 1.2–1.6 % of flavonoids, which belong to different subgroups. Thus, from the group of flavones apigenin, luteolin, luteolin-7-glycoside have been identified. The herb of Agrimonia eupatoria L. as an insufficiently studied plant raw material is also a promising object of study, including carbohydrate composition. The aim. The aim of our study was to determine the content of carbohydrates in aerial parts of Agrimonia eupatoria L. collected from natural habitat. Materials and methods. The determination of carbohydrates of Agrimonia eupatoria L. was carried out by gas chromatograph Agilent 6890N with a mass detector 5973 inert (Agilent Technologies, USA). The amounts of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin substances were determined by gravimetric method. Results. Three free carbohydrates were found in the studied grass of the Agrimonia eupatoria L., namely: D-glucose, D-galactose and D-fructose, the content of which was 15.02 mg/g, 0.28 mg/g and 12.90 mg/g, respectively. In the common agrimony, after acidic hydrolysis and derivatization with acetylated aldononitriles were identified 8 compounds. The predominant ones were D-glucose, D-galactose and D-xylose. The content of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin substances in Agrimonia eupatoria L. was determined at 2.90 % and 8.54 % of total dry weight, respectively. Conclusions. In completion, the present results of GC/MS indicated the presence of certain carbohydrates both in free and bound form in Agrimonia eupatoria L., that have important medicinal activity, which answered to the knowledge about the therapeutic activity of this analyzed plant. We established that in Agrimonia eupatoria L. herb the predominant monosaccharide compound was D-glucose: 23.88 mg/g and 15.02 mg/g among monosaccharides after hydrolysis and free monosaccharides respectively. Our findings propose that carbohydrates from the studied raw material can be used for creating drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, and could be used for the development of nutraceuticals
... Muy útil contra los parásitos y la diarrea. estimula la secreción de las glándulas del tracto digestivo, y tiene propiedades coleréticas, antitumorales, sedantes, antidiabéticas, antiinflamatorias, antipiréticas, analgésicas, antipalúdicas, tónicas, anticolinesterásicas y antimutagénicas, debido a la presencia de compuestos fenólicos, polisacáridos, compuestos volátiles, clorofilas y carotenoides (25, 38,39). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objetivo: Determinar preliminarmente 10 plantas medicinales del Valle del Mantaro mediante el método cualitativo (fitoquímico) para uso farmacéutico. Material y Métodos: Cualitativo (fitoquímico) para uso farmacéutico. Resultados: La actividad farmacognósicas de las plantas medicinales son utilizadas en el Valle del Mantaro: Xanthium spinosum (Juan alonso) como antitumoral y anticancerígena, Equisetum arvense (Cola de caballo) como osteoporosis, coagulación sanguínea Mentha sativa L (Hierba buena) para el nerviosismo, Rumex crispus L. (Cuturrumasa) como antiinflamatorio, Piper aduncum (Matico) como antiviral, Centauriun erythraea Rafn. (Canchalagua) como antitumorales, antidiabéticas, Schinus molle (Molle) como antirreumático, Psoralea glandulosaxonomía (Culen) como hipoglucemiente, Minthostachys mollis (Inca muña) como antireumático y acción carminativa, Taraxacum officinale (Diente de león) como hipoglucemiante. Conclusiones: De acuerdo al análisis fitoquímico de las plantas, confirman la actividad farmacológica para el uso medicinal: Xanthium spinosum (Juan Alonso), Equisetum arvense (Cola de caballo), Mentha sativa L. (Hierba buena), Rumex crispus L. (Cuturrumasa), Piper aduncum (Matico), Centauriun erythraea Rafn (Canchalagua), Schinus molle (Molle), Psoralea glandulosaxonomía (Culen), Minthostachys mollis (Inca Muña) y Taraxacum officinale (Diente de León). El uso de las plantas medicinales en el Valle del Mantaro por sus metabolitos secundarios pueden asociarse a prometedoras actividades medicinales como: antitumorales, anticancerígenos, osteoporosis, antiviral, antidiabéticas, antirreumático; siendo candidatos para estudios con mayor profundidad fitoquímica y farmacobiólogica.
... Centaury is traditionally given as a bitter tonic to increase gastric secretions, to relieve dyspeptic discomfort and loss of appetite. Centaurium erythraea is part of some cosmetics and toiletries due to its soothing and astringent properties for allergies (Stoiko et al. 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Medicines from plants are widely used in the complex treatment of different diseases every day. Therefore, theoretical and practical interest is the in-depth study of the herb of perspective plants like Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Gentiana cruciata L. These plants have a long history of usage and interest of people. The aim of the study was to determine the content of amino acids in these plants. The amino acids composition and content in the herb of study species of the family Gentianaceae determined by the HPLC method. The results of the research revealed that the raw material of Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Gentiana cruciata L. contains free and bound amino acids. Sixteen free and seventeen bound amino acids were identified in the herb of Centaurium erythraea Rafn. The herb of Gentiana cruciata L. contained thirteen free and fifteen bound amino acids. L-glutamic acid, L-arginine, L-aspartic acid, and L-cystine were predominant of Centaurium erythraea Rafn. herb. Amino acids L-lysine, L-serine, L-aspartic acid, and L-phenylalanine were present in the herb of Gentiana cruciata L. in the greatest amount. The metabolic processes in which these amino acids are involved connected to the medicinal properties of the study plants according to their use in official or nontraditional medicine.
... The aerial parts also contain essential oil (0.02%) consisting of monoterpenes hydrocarbons, sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, ketones, acids, aldehyde and alkanes, the major compounds being carvacrol, menthol, tricosane, isomenthone, piperitone, hexadecanoic acid, toluene, camphor and menthone (Bouyahya et al., 2019;Jerković et al., 2012). C. erythraea has 11.80% water-soluble polysaccharides and 2.33% pectin substances (dry weight) (Stoiko et al., 2017). Alkaloids (gentianine, gentianidine), sterols, lactones, resins, fatty acids were also identified in C. erythraea Barnes et al., 2007;Gruenwald et al., 2000;Oniga, 2007;Parvu, 2006). ...
... Of all tissues and organs, mammalian, neurons and the brain have the supreme energy demand. The processes requiring mental effort are deteriorated if the concentration of this aldohexose reduces [19,20]. In the Antennaria dioica Gaertn. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The purpose of our study was to determine sugars and amino acids content of Antennaria dioica Gaertn. herb. In continuation of the investigation of biologically active substances from Antennaria dioica Gaertn., it advisable to study the qualitative composition and quantitative contents of sugars and amino acids from the herb of this plant. Methods: The herb of Antennaria dioica Gaertn. was analyzed for the content of sugars by GC/MS. The amino acids were identified and quantified by HPLC method. Results: The results of GC/MS analysis showed that in Antennaria dioica Gaertn. herb D-glucose had the highest content (7.16±0.09) mg/g, followed by D-fructose (5.27±0.06) mg/g and D-saccharose (6.72±0.08) mg/g. In the raw material a large amount of monosaccharides derivative-Myo-inositol was revealed, a content of which was (2.12±0.06) mg/g. We determined 17 bound and 16 free amino acids in the Antennaria dioica Gaertn. by HPLC method. Conclusion: The contents of primary metabolites provide opportunities for creating medicine and food supplements. The results show that Antennaria dioica Gaertn. is a rich source of these important biologically active substances. The resulting data will be used with the further purpose to produce new drugs of natural origin.
... Of all tissues and organs, mammalian, neurons and the brain have the supreme energy demand. The processes requiring mental effort are deteriorated if the concentration of this aldohexose reduces [19,20]. In the Antennaria dioica Gaertn. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The purpose of our study was to determine sugars and amino acids content of Antennaria dioica Gaertn. herb. In continuation of the investigation of biologically active substances from Antennaria dioica Gaertn., it advisable to study the qualitative composition and quantitative contents of sugars and amino acids from the herb of this plant. Methods: The herb of Antennaria dioica Gaertn. was analyzed for the content of sugars by GC/MS. The amino acids were identified and quantified by HPLC method. Results: The results of GC/MS analysis showed that in Antennaria dioica Gaertn. herb D-glucose had the highest content (7.16±0.09) mg/g, followed by D-fructose (5.27±0.06) mg/g and D-saccharose (6.72±0.08) mg/g. In the raw material a large amount of monosaccharides derivative–Myo-inositol was revealed, a content of which was (2.12±0.06) mg/g. We determined 17 bound and 16 free amino acids in the Antennaria dioica Gaertn. by HPLC method. Conclusion: The contents of primary metabolites provide opportunities for creating medicine and food supplements. The results show that Antennaria dioica Gaertn. is a rich source of these important biologically active substances. The resulting data will be used with the further purpose to produce new drugs of natural origin.
... 133 is kept at the Department of Pharmacognosy and Medical Botany, I. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University, Ukraine. The plant material was dried using conventional methods and then stored in paper bags in dry place 7 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. Throughout the centuries, plants have been used not only as a source of nutrition, but also in the fight against diseases. The most interesting are medicinal plants being well tolerated by patients regardless of age. One of these plants is Centaurium erythraea Rafn. The aim of the study was to develop an optimal technology for obtaining an alcoholic extract with the highest content of biologically active substances: hydroxycinnamic acids, phenolic compounds. Materials and methods. We have performed a study of the concentration of ethanol and multiplicity of dilution with the help of a symmetric rotary composite plan of the second order. Results and discussion. The regression equations were adequate – Fexp. < Ftab. The nature of the influence of the studied factors was determined by the magnitude and signs of the coefficients from regression. To obtain the alcohol extract with the highest content of hydroxycinnamic acids and phenolic compounds, the concentration of ethanol should be 69%, and the ratio of raw material to extractant should be 1 to 5. Conclusions. Further pharmacological studies showed the extract obtained reliability of its application for an increase in gastric acid secretion.
... The sugar chain of silenan was found earlier to contain residues of D-galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose and rhamnose as the main constituents [53]. The predominant monosaccharide in C. erythraea decoction was glucose 3.13 g/100 g which is in accordance with observations by Stoiko et al. [54] -26.86 mg/g. ...
Article
Nettle ( Urtica dioica L.), tansy ( Tanacetum vulgare L.), bladder campion ( Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke, waterpepper ( Polygonum hydropiper L.), common centaury ( Centaurium erythraea Pers.) and rose hip fruit ( Rosa canina L. cv. Plovdiv 1) were used for preparation of different water extracts (infusion, decoction and microwave extract) and ethanol (tincture) extracts. Carotenoids (lutein, lycopene and β-carotene), tocopherols (α-, γ- and δ-), organic acids (ascorbic, malic, fumaric and citric), five macro- and three microelements, sugars and uronic acids content in the obtained extracts were analyzed. Among the investigated plants, stinging nettle, bladder campion and rose hip fruit were evaluated as most potential with respect to bioactive compounds and microelements. The results showed that the selected six medicinal plants and their extracts can be presented as sources of dietary fibers and micronutrients, which may encourage further application as food supplements and beverages as well as to motivate plant use as a dietary alternative in different foods. The present study is a first detailed analysis with respect to sugar content of decoction, infusion and tincture of S. vulgaris .
Article
Full-text available
Th plants from Herniaria genus (Caryophyllaceae family) are mainly applied as diuretic agents for the treatment of kidney and gall-stones, gouts, urinary tract infections, hypertension and diabetes. Th most widely spread species in Europe is Herniaria glabra L. (HG). Herniaria polygama J.Gay (HP) is found growing from Eastern Europe to Asia. Surprisingly, no work has been reported on the analysis of primary metabolites of HP yet and there is only a limited data on HG. Th aim of our study was to establish the monosaccharide composition aftr a complete hydrolysis and in a free state in the entire herbs of HG and HP harvested in the western and central parts of Ukraine. Th carbohydrates were separated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry aftr conversion into volatile derivatives as aldononitrile acetate. As a result, the monosaccharide composition aftr a total hydrolysis was established with the contribution of the following components: D-rhamnose, D-arabinose, D-fucose, D-xylose, D-manose, D-glucose, D-galactose, D-pinitol, myo-inisitol, D-mannitol, D-dulcitol. In a free state it was detected: D-fructose, D-glucose, D-galactose, D-pinitol, myo-inisitol, D-mannitol and D-saccharose. Th following monosaccharides were found in the most abundant quantities in HG and HP respectively: glucose was determined as the major component – 33.40 and 22.80 mg/g, the second dominant sugar was pinitol – 16.80 and 18.07 mg/g, followed by galactose – 13.88 mg/g in HG and arabinose – 8.13 mg/g in HP. Sugars were determined in these plant species for the fist time and this fiding shed new light on their pharmacological application.
Article
Full-text available
Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignant neoplasm in the world and chemoprevention through dietary intervention strategy is an emerging option to reduce the incidence. D-Pinitol (DP) a major component of soya bean possesses attractive biological actions. We have investigated whether D-pinitol have an effect on tumor growth in vivo against 7,12- dimethyl benz (a) anthracene (DMBA)-iniciated rat mammary carcinogenesis and investigated its mechanism of action. Tumors were induced in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats by gastric dose of 20 mg/kg DMBA and after 13 weeks of induction period, the rats were orally administered with D-pinitol for 45 days. At the end of the assay, animals in carcinogen control group prompted a tumor incidence of 100% and developed a tumor volume of 8.35 ±0.56 which was significantly reduced to 5.74 ±0.32 for the animals treated with D-pinitol. The D-pinitol treatment not only decreased the tumor volume, further examination revealed that tumors from animals that received D-pinitol reduced NF-kB activation which in turn results in modulation of its down streaming p53 and proteins of caspase -3 family. Bcl-2 expression and caspase-3 activation were also decreased after D-Pinitol supplementation leading to induction of apoptosis and finally cell death. Further, the status of the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and tumor markers, lipid profile and hormones were also significantly declined up on d-pinitol administration. Thus it reveals that the collective involvement of above mentioned parameters along with NF-κB signaling through which D-Pinitol induces apoptosis and subsequently suppresses breast cancer during DMBA-induced rat breast carcinogenesis.
Article
Buxus sempervirens L. (Buxaceae) and Centaurium erythraea (L.) Rafn. (Gentianaceae) have been used for wound healing in Turkish traditional medicine. In order to evaluate the wound healing potential of these plants three different extracts were successively prepared from 500 gr of plant materials by extracting with 4000 ml of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol at room temparature for 24 hours. The extracts were evaporated to dryness in vacuo. The healing process was investigated with a circular excision and a linear incision wound model to analyse the wound contraction and tensile strength in vivo. The anti-inflammatory potential, which is related to the wound healing activity, was evaluated by an in vivo experimental model based on the inhibition of acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability assessment. Biochemical and histopathological evaluations were done too. For the antioxidant activity assessment DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay was applied. According to the results of the present study, methanol extracts of both B. sempervirens and C. erythraea displayed remarkable wound healing activity with the significant tensile strength values of 30.4 and 34.7%, respectively on the linear incision wound model. Similarly, methanol extracts demonstrated notable wound healing effect with the 59.5 and 71.5% contraction values, respectively on the circular excision wound model.
Article
The mammalian brain depends upon glucose as its main source of energy, and tight regulation of glucose metabolism is critical for brain physiology. Consistent with its critical role for physiological brain function, disruption of normal glucose metabolism as well as its interdependence with cell death pathways forms the pathophysiological basis for many brain disorders. Here, we review recent advances in understanding how glucose metabolism sustains basic brain physiology. We synthesize these findings to form a comprehensive picture of the cooperation required between different systems and cell types, and the specific breakdowns in this cooperation that lead to disease.
Article
Ganoderma, one of the best-known traditional Chinese medicines, has attracted considerable attention owing to the fact that dozens of polysaccharides isolated from it have shown diverse and potentially significant pharmacological activities. However, no work has been reported on the analysis of monosaccharide composition of polysaccharide isolated from the aqueous extract of Ganoderma atrum yet. To develop a simple and sensitive GC-based method for the analysis of monosaccharide composition of purified polysaccharides in Ganoderma atrum. The polysaccharide was first hydrolysed to give the constituent monosaccharides, which were subsequently derived into acetylated aldononitriles and analysed by gas chromatography using a capillary column packed with a (5%phenyl) methylpolysiloxane stationary phase with the addition of acetyl inositol as the inner standard. High-performance liquid chromatography was also used for comparison. The stable derivatives of the most common monosaccharides could be separated and reproducibly determined with high sensitivity. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.013 and 0.043 mg/mL, respectively. The intermediary precision values (expressed as the RSD) were less than 10%. The mean recovery of the method was 100 + or - 3%, with RSD values of less than 5%. The results obtained from GC and HPLC methods were found to be close to each other within acceptable error ranges. This study demonstrated that the developed method could be applied as an accurate method for the compositional analysis of monosaccharides in the field of biological and biochemical study.
Article
Erythraea centaurium is a plant which is used in the treatment of various inflammatory conditions in popular medicine. The aqueous extract of the plant has been examined for its antiinflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects in several animal models. The extract exhibited antiinflammatory and antipyretic activity although no analgesic activity was observed.
Article
D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol), an active principle of the traditional antidiabetic plant Bougainvillea spectabilis, is claimed to exert insulin-like effects. This study investigates the effect of D-pinitol on glucose homeostasis in animal models of diabetes, and on glucose transport by cultured muscle cells. Plasma glucose concentrations were measured in normal, obese-diabetic (ob/ob) and streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice after oral (p.o.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of D-pinitol. Glucose transport was measured in L6 rat muscle cells by 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) uptake. In STZ-diabetic mice, 100 mg kg−1 p.o. D-pinitol acutely decreased the hyperglycaemia (by 22% at 6 h). A similar decrease in plasma glucose (by 21%) was observed after 100 mg kg−1 i.p. D-pinitol. Insulin concentrations and the rate of insulin-induced (1 unit kg−1 actrapid i.p.) glucose disappearance were not altered by 100 mg kg−1 p.o. D-pinitol. Chronic administration of D-pinitol (100 mg kg−1 i.p. twice daily for 11 days) to STZ-diabetic mice maintained a reduction in plasma glucose concentrations from about 14 to 10 mmol l−1. In normal non-diabetic and severely insulin resistant ob/ob mice, 100 mg kg−1 p.o. D-pinitol did not significantly affect plasma glucose or insulin during acute studies. Incubation of L6 muscle cells with D-pinitol (10−3 M) increased basal 2DG uptake by 41% after 10 min and by 34% after 4 h. The effect of D-pinitol was inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. D-pinitol did not increase insulin-stimulated 2DG uptake by L6 cells. The data support the view that D-pinitol can exert an insulin-like effect to improve glycaemic control in hypoinsulinaemic STZ-diabetic mice. D-pinitol may act via a post-receptor pathway of insulin action affecting glucose uptake. British Journal of Pharmacology (2000) 130, 1944–1948; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0703523
Article
As part of our on-going search for bioactive compounds from Scottish plants, two secoiridoid glycosides, swertiamarin and sweroside, have been isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurium erythraea Rafn (Family: Gentianaceae) by reversed-phase preparative HPLC coupled with a photo-diode-array detector. The structures of these compounds were elucidated unambiguously by UV, FABMS and extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses and also by comparing experimental data with literature data. Antibacterial, free radical scavenging activities and general toxicity of these glycosides have been assessed. Both compounds inhibited the growth of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Citrobacter freundii and Escherichia coli. While swertiamarin was also active against Proteus mirabilis and Serratia marcescens, sweroside inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Swertiamarin and sweroside exhibited significant general toxicity in brine shrimp lethality bioassay and the LD50 values were 8.0 microg/ml and 34 microg/ml, respectively, whereas that of the positive control podophyllotoxin, a well known cytotoxic lignan, was 2.79 microg/ml. Chemotaxonomic implications of these compounds in the family Gentianaceae have also been discussed briefly.
Definition of Phenolic compounds in herbs of Centaurium erythraea Rafn
  • S M Marchyshyn
  • L I Stoiko
Marchyshyn SM, Stoiko LI. Definition of Phenolic compounds in herbs of Centaurium erythraea Rafn. by HPLC. Pharmaceutical review 2014; 1:15-17.