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Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.


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Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. ( Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550, and Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 11548) were evaluated based on the feasibility criteria of probiotics, comprising acid production, bile tolerance, and adhesion to epithelial cells. Formerly, we combined the optimum strains with yogurt culture ( Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus EMCC 11102 and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus EMCC 11044) for producing frozen yogurt. Finally, physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation of the frozen yogurt were investigated during storage of 60 days at −18°C. Results directed that Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550 and Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551 could be utilized with yogurt culture for producing frozen yogurt. Moreover, the frozen yogurt fermented by two bifidobacterial strains and yogurt culture gained the high evaluation in the physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation. In summary, our results revealed that there was no significant difference between frozen yogurt fermented by Bifidobacterium spp. and yogurt culture and that fermented by yogurt culture only.
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Research Article
Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with
Bifidobacterium spp.
Amro Abdelazez,1,2 Zafarullah Muhammad,1Qiu-Xue Zhang,1Zong-Tao Zhu,1
Heba Abdelmotaal,3,4 Rokayya Sami,5,6 and Xiang-Chen Meng1
1Key Laboratory of Dairy Science of Ministry of Education, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
2Department of Dairy Microbiology, Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center,
Dokki, Giza 12618, Egypt
3Department of Microbiology, Soil, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza 12619, Egypt
4Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University,
Harbin 150030, China
5Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Taif University, Taif, Al-Huwayah 888, Saudi Arabia
6Department of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China
Correspondence should be addressed to Xiang-Chen Meng;
Received 11 November 2016; Accepted 5 January 2017; Published 11 June 2017
Academic Editor: Pratik Banerjee
Copyright ©  Amro Abdelazez et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions
of the frozen yogurt containing viable bidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed
a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bidobacterium species. Firstly, ve strains of Bidobacterium spp. (Bidobacterium bidum
ATCC , Bidobacterium longum ATCC , Bidobacterium infantis ATCC , Bidobacterium adolescentis ATCC ,
and Bidobacterium breve ATCC ) were evaluated based on the feasibility criteria of probiotics, comprising acid production,
bile tolerance, and adhesion to epithelial cells. Formerly, we combined the optimum strains with yogurt culture (Lactobacillus
delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus EMCC  and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus EMCC ) for producing frozen
yogurt. Finally, physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation of the frozen yogurt were investigated during storage of  days
at C. Results directed that Bidobacterium adolescentis ATCC  and Bidobacterium infantis ATCC  could be utilized
with yogurt culture for producing frozen yogurt. Moreover, the frozen yogurt fermented by two bidobacterial strains and yogurt
culture gained the high evaluation in the physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation. In summary, our results revealed that
there was no signicant dierence between frozen yogurt fermented by Bidobacterium spp. and yogurt culture and that fermented
by yogurt culture only.
1. Introduction
Diet plays an important role in preventing diseases and ensur-
ing health. Hence, the consumption of functional foods (i.e.,
benecial compounds or foods containing microorganisms)
which provide health benets with a reduction of coronary
heart disease, obesity risk, and diabetes has increased during
and maintain human health is not new at all. Probiotic
microorganisms are usually used as culture concentrates in
dried or deep-freeze forms to be added to food for industrial
or home uses []. In addition to the probiotic foods, there
are various health products and pharmaceutical preparations
containing probiotics on the market [].
Bidobacterium is an important group of probiotic cul-
tures and commonly used in fermented dairy products that
contributes a major part in the human intestinal micro-
BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 6438528, 10 pages
BioMed Research International
many benecial eects including improvement of lactose
digestibility, anticarcinogenic activity, reduction of serum
cholesterol level, synthesis of B vitamins, and facilitation in
calcium absorption []. Moreover, numerous studies with
dierent strains of Lactobacillus and Bidobacterium have
models to investigate their immunomodulatory properties
and probiotic potential to treat various infectious, allergic,
and inammatory conditions [, ]. Even though Bidobac-
terium strains have already been used in dairy products, they
have some inferior behavioral characteristics compared with
the traditional lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used in fermented
dairy products, hindering their possible applications [].
Vitally, they represent weaker growth and acid production
in cow milk and require long fermentation times, anaerobic
conditions, and low redox potential for their growth [].
ere are clear relationship between the food we eat and
our health. erefore, some reports have investigated ice
cream and yogurt as probiotic carrier. Hence, frozen yogurt
is a novel way of combining the characteristics of ice cream
with the therapeutic properties of yogurt that are considered
as a healthy alternative to ice cream for the people suering
from cardiovascular diseases and lactose intolerance [, –
]. e aim of study was to examine dierent factors
aecting survival and activity of ve species of bidobacteria,
study the viability of two chosen Bidobacterium species in
manufactured frozen yogurt under dierent conditions, and
investigate the eect of storage temperatures on their viability.
2. Materials
2.1. Additives. Skim milk powder, vanilla, and sugar were
purchased from local market. Stabilizer, emulsier, and Cre-
mondan SE  veg were provided by Danisco Ingredients,
2.2. Bacterial Strains. Freeze dried Lactobacillus delbrueckii
subsp. bulgaricus EMCC  and Streptococcus salivar-
ius subsp. thermophilus EMCC  and Bidobacterium
species including Bidobacterium bidum ATCC , Bi-
dobacterium longum ATCC , Bidobacterium infantis
ATCC , Bidobacterium adolescentis ATCC , and
Bidobacterium breve ATCC  were provided by Cairo
Microbiological Resources Center, Egypt.
3. Methods
3.1. Determination of Maximum Growth Rate and Maxi-
Bidobacterium spp. were inoculated (% v/v) and grown
in MRSL (Man Rogosa Sharpe) broth (Oxoid, Basingstoke,
UK) supplemented with % (w/v) lactose (Win Lab, Gem-
ini House, Middlesex, Hab ET, UK) and .% (w/v) L-
cysteine-HCL (Merck, Germany) at C under anaerobic
conditions (BBL Gas Pak, Becton Dickinson, Cockeysville
ing the absorbance with a spectrophotometer (DU , Beck-
man Coulter,USA) at  nm. Moreover, pH was determined
by using pH meter (MP , Metler Toledo, Greifensee,
Switzerland). e maximum acidication rate was reported
according to [].
3.2. Bile Salts Tolerance of Bidobacterium spp. According to
[] Bidobacterium spp. strains were inoculated in MRSL
broth added to .% (w/v) oxgall powder (Merck, Germany)
and incubated at C under anaerobic conditions for  hr.
Bacterial growth was monitored by measuring absorbance
with a spectrophotometer at  nm aer  hr. e obtained
absorbance values were plotted against the incubation time.
Strain inoculated in MRSL broth without oxgall powder was
taken as the control. Correlation between all the results of
Bidobacterium spp. resistance to bile salts was determined
by the principal component analysis (PCA) using XLSTAT
3.3. Calculation of Survival Rate in Bile Salts. e survival
rate was calculated by using the following formula reported
by []:
%Bilesurvival=log 𝑁1
log 𝑁0×100. ()
log 𝑁1is absorbance of culture in MRSL broth con-
taining .% bile salts.
log 𝑁0is absorbance of culture in MRSL broth with-
out bile salts.
3.4. Adhesion of Bidobacterium spp. to Intestinal Epithelial
Cells. According to [] for the adherence assay, ve Bi-
dobacterium spp. strains were tested for the adherence to
epithelial cells. Bidobacterium spp. strains were inoculated
in MRSL broth and incubated overnight at C under anaer-
obic conditions. e cultures were adjusted overnight to .
×8CFU/mlandthenmlofBidobacterium spp. cultures
was removed and centrifuged at  ×gRPMformin.e
supernatant was discarded, and ml PBS (pH .) was added
and mixed using vortex. e crop scraping of epithelial cells
was prepared by scrapping o the epithelium from rabbit
duodenum with the edge of a microscope slide, washed by
phosphate buered saline, and suspended in buer (pH .).
Moreover, cell cultures were washed ve times with sterile
phosphate buered saline (PBS) (pH .). ereaer, .ml
of epithelial cell suspension was added to . ml of bacterial
cell suspension. e mixture was centrifuged at  ×gRPM
C for  min. Finally,
binding between the bidobacterial cells and epithelial cells
was examined by gram stained phase contrast microscopy
(magnication fold, x). e adhered bidobacterial cells
were determined by counting adhering bidobacterial cells in
 randomly selected microscopic elds.
3.5. Manufacturing Procedure of Frozen Yogurt
3.5.1. Preparation of Yogurt. Experimental plain yogurt was
prepared by heating pasteurized whole milk at Cfor
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minutes and subsequently cooled to C en, it was divided
into ve separate containers:
Formula 1 (C) inoculated with % w/w starter yogurt
culture with no Bidobacterium spp.
Formula 2 (C + A) inoculated with % w/w starter yogurt
culture + % w/w of B. adolescentis.
Formula3(C+B)inoculated with % w/w starter yogurt
culture + % w/w of B. infantis.
Formula 4 (A + B) inoculated with % w/w B. adolescentis
+%w/wofB. infantis.
Formula5(C+A+B)inoculated with % w/w starter
yogurt culture + % w/w B. adolescentis +%w/wofB.
e inoculated mixtures were incubated at Cuntilthe
pH . was obtained.
3.6. Preparation of Frozen Yogurt. Five frozen yogurt blends,
each of three replicates, were prepared. All mixtures were
standardized to contain % fat, % milk solids not fat, %
sugar, .% stabilizer/emulsier, and .% vanilla. In each
treatment, mixed ingredients were homogenized together by
using the method described by [] with some modications
C and then aged overnight at the same temperature. On the
other hand, prepared yogurt was added (% v/v) to ve ice
cream mixes prior to freezing. e freezing was performed in
a horizontal batch freezer (Taylor Co., USA) and hardened at
C for  h before analyses.
3.7. Physicochemical Analyses. Frozen yogurt samples were
stored at  ±C for  days, and the physicochemical
(TA) and total solid (TS) were analyzed for all frozen yogurt
samples according to [], and pH was determined by pH
meter (MP , Metler Toledo, Greifensee, Switzerland).
3.8. Overrun and Meltdown Tests. e overrun was calculated
according to [].
Overrun =[(𝑊1 𝑊2)
𝑊2 ]×100, ()
where 𝑊1is weight of the mix and 𝑊2is weight of the same
volume of frozen yogurt. e meltdown test was conducted
in a chamber with controlled temperature (C). According
to the method described by []. Results were expressed as a
3.9. Hardness. Texture analysis was performed using Texture
Analyzer (TA.XT Plus Texture Analyzer, UK). e samples
were stored in  mm plastic containers at Cuntil
analysis. Measurement was carried out by using a cylindrical
probe. Penetration depth at the geometrical center of the
sample was  mm and penetration speed was set at  mm/s.
e hardness was determined as the peak compression force
(g) during penetration [].
3.10. Enumeration of Viable Bidobacterium spp. in Frozen
Yo g ur t . e viable bidobacterial cell count in frozen yogurt
samples containing Bidobacterium spp. was determined and
expressed as colony forming units (CFU/mL) during storage
of , , , and  d at  ±C. Bidobacterial cell counts
were enumerated on MRSL agar using pour plate technique.
e plates were incubated anaerobically at Cforhr.
Survival rates percentage of bidobacteria was calculated
according to [].
3.11. Sensory Appraisal. Organoleptic properties of frozen
yogurt were evaluated aer  days of storage according to
[], for avor ( points), body and texture ( points),
appearance ( points), melting quality ( points), and
total scores ( points) by  panelists of the experienced
sta members of the Dairy Science Department, Faculty of
Agriculture, Minia University, Egypt.
3.12. Statistical Analysis. All experiments and analyses were
performed in triplicate. e results were given as means ±the
standard error of mean (SEM) and analyzed by using Graph
Pad Prism  soware. Comparisons between groups were
performed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
aer 𝑡-test. In addition, 𝑝 < 0.05 was considered signicant.
e PCA using XLSTAT soware determined the correlation
between all the experiments.
4. Results and Discussions
4.1. Growth Rate and pH of Bidobacterium spp. in MRSL at
37C. All the bidobacterial species showed a similar growth
prole when Bidobacterium spp. were incubated in MRSL at
C. e rst log phase was observed during the rst  to
 hr of growth and second log phase was started at  hr and
continued until  hr and aer that decline phase was started
(Figure (a)).
e kinetics growth of ve Bidobacterium spp. and pH
investigated that B.adolescentis,B.breve,and B. longum
grown well in lactose MRS and the rates of growth were
., ., and . at  hr, respectively, at log phase, while
from . at zero time to ., ., and ., respectively, aer
 hr. However, growth of the B.adolescentis,B.breve,and
B. longum was ., ., and . at  hr, respectively,
whereas pH was ., ., and . at  hr, respectively.
On the contrary, growth of the B. infantis and B. bidum
was . and . at  hr of incubation and pH was .
. and pH . and ., respectively, at  hr. ese
results were in complete consensuses with [] that have
attributed this pattern of growth to the presence of two
dierent 𝛽-galactosidases. However, B. adolescentis showed
the highest growth rate, followed by B. breve and B. bidum.
Meanwhile, B. infantis and B. longum were the lowest at
 hr of incubation. Moreover, the dierences in growth rate
among species of Bidobacterium spp. correlated to dierent
levels of tolerance to aerobic conditions.
4.2. Resistance of Bidobacterium spp. to Bile Salts in MRSL
Incubated at 37C. Bile tolerance is one of the most crucial
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0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time (h)
B. infantis
B. bidum
B. longum
B. adolescentis
B. breve
O.D/660 nm
0 8 24 32 48 56 72 80 96
Time (h)
B. infantis
B. bidum
B. longum
B. adolescentis
B. breve
F : (a) Growth rate of dierent species of Bidobacterium spp. (b) pH of dierent species of Bidobacterium spp.
B. infantis
B. bidum
B. longum
B. adolescentis
B. breve
Observations (axes F1 and F2: 95.16%)
F2 (24.79%)
F1 (70.38%)
F : Plots of the 𝑥-loadings of Bidobacterium spp.
properties as it determines the ability of bacteria to survive in
the small intestine and play their functional role as probiotics.
A concentration of .% of bile salts closely appropriates the
bile level, which are found in the gastrointestinal tract [].
Common observations among this comparison of dierent
cultures for bile salts tolerance were shown in this study.
e highest and lowest resistance of ve Bidobacterium spp.
were observed in Figure . It was shown that B. infantis
and B. bidum were more resistant to bile salts than the
other three species that they reached O.D660 of . and .
athr,respectively.Onthecontrary,Badolescentishad a
dramatically decreased O.D660 of . at  hr according to
these results. Finally, we summarized that the growths of
Bidobacterium spp. were harmed by bile salts. Moreover,
these results were in convergence with [] who reported
the tolerance of Bidobacterium to bile or acid. erefore,
B. infantis had the highest survival rates followed by B.
bidum,B.breve,and B. longum, when exposed to bile salts
at concentrations ranging from zero to  g/L.
e result of the PCA was used to study the resistance of
Bidobacterium spp. to bile salts. Figures  and  presented
the plots of the scores and the correlation loadings, respec-
the ve Bidobacterium spp. based on their resistance to bile
salts. e loadings are the coecients of the original variables
Without bile
Without bile With bile at
With bile at
Variables (axes F1 and F2: 95.16%)
F2 (24.79%)
0.50.250 0.75 1
0.50.75 0.251
F1 (70.38%)
24 h
zero h
zero h
at 24 h
F : Plots of the scores of Bidobacterium spp.
B. infantis
B. bidum
B. longum
B. adolescentis
B. breve
Survival rate (%)
Bidobacterium spp.
% survival rate at 0 h
% survival rate at 24 h
Bile salts tolerance of Bidobacterium spp.
F : Resistance percentage of Bidobacterium spp. to bile salts.
that dene each principal component. Inertia percentage and
correlated variables for axes  and  were displayed in Table .
Axis  explained .% of the total inertia. Axis  explained
.% of the inertia. Plots of the scores in Figure  indicated
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B. adolescentis Control
B. bidum B. longum
B. breve B. infantis
A = adhesion Bidobacterium, B = nonadhesion Bidobacterium
F : Adhesion of Bidobacterium spp. to intestinal epithelial cells.
T : Discriminate variables factors of principal components
analysis to study the resistance of Bidobacterium spp. to bile salts.
F F
Proper value . .
Variability (%) . .
Cumulative (%) . .
that the data cloud was mainly bidimensional with respect to
the explanatory variables. Figure  showed three clusters of
Bidobacterium spp. First cluster included the B. breve and B
adolescentis species. Second cluster included the B. bidum
and B. longum species. e third cluster (B. infantis species)
was individualized.
Cells. Major considerations in the choice of Bidobacterium
spp. to be used as dietary adjuncts are not only the capability
of survival and passing the harmful GI conditions, but also
being established within the digestive tract. Caco- cells
are human intestinal cell lines expressing morphologic and
physiologic characteristics of normal human enterocytes
[]. at has been exploited to select and assess probiotics
based on their adhesion properties.
erefore, the adhesion of Bidobacterium spp. to colum-
nar epithelial cells of the small intestine of rabbit was tested
by B. adolescentis to Caco- cells was stronger than that of
other tested strains, but mainly with resistance to bile salts. In
contrary, B. infantis was less capable of adhering to epithelial
cells and acid production, but it was the best strain resistant
to bile salts.
According to data shown in Figures (a), (b), , and  B.
adolescentis have the highest percentage in survival rate at low
B. infantis is best strain in resistance of bile salts. erefore,
we have chosen these strains to manufacture frozen yogurt.
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C C + A C + B A + B C + A + B
Acidity (%)
Frozen yogurt mixes
C C + A C + B A + B C + A + B
Frozen yogurt mixes
F : (a) Changes in titratable acidity of frozen yogurt during storage of , , , and  d at C. (b) Changes in pH of frozen yogurt
during storage of , , , and  d at C.
4.4. Physicochemical Characteristics of Frozen Yogurts during
60 Days of Storage at 18CAcidityandpH. ese studies
of frozen yogurt made with yogurt culture and Bidobac-
terium spp. during  days of storage at C.
Results indicate that there are similar changes of titratable
acidity and pH values development observed in dierent
frozen yogurt treated. Only slight changes were found in mix
at  days in the end of storage period. Furthermore, acidity
development and pH were steady for ve treatments of 
days of storage. No signicant dierences (p>.) in titrat-
able acidity and pH values were noted among dierent frozen
yogurt mixes during storage periods. ese results indicated
that the addition of Bidobacterium had no obvious changes.
Data in Figures (a) and (b) were in conformity with the
results obtained by [], who found that titratable acidity of
terium spp. culture was .. ese indicated that there were
no biochemical activities by yogurt culture during storage
of the product at C. On the contrary, these results were
in disagreement with ndings by [] who reported that the
addition of the Bidobacterium spp.ledtolowerpH.
4.5. Total Solids. Total solids play an important role in the
made with yogurt culture and Bidobacterium spp. during
 days of storage at C indicated that total solids in all
treatments made with yogurt culture and Bidobacterium
spp. were about . to .. ese results demonstrated
that there was no high signicance at p<., among frozen
yogurt samples during the storage periods. erefore, these
have close conformities with results obtained by [], who
found that total solids of frozen yogurt made with yogurt
culture and Bidobacterium spp.culturewithuptoweeksof
storage at C did not signicantly changed. Moreover, []
reported that a slight increase in total solids was found in all
samples during storage period up to  days. ey attributed
an increase to the partial losses in free water during storage.
4.6. Changes in Rheological Properties of Frozen Yogurt Made
with Yogurt Culture and Bidobacterium spp. during 60
Days of Storage at 18C
4.6.1. Changes in Hardness (g) of Frozen Yogurt during 60 Days
of Storage at 18C. As seen in Table  hardness of frozen
yogurt made with yogurt culture only (C) was – while
hardness of frozen yogurt made with Bidobacterium spp. (C
+ A), (C + B), and (A + B) was , , and , respectively,
at  days of storage. On the contrary, hardness of mix (C
+ A + B) was the highest values; it was  at fresh samples
and ., , and  for , , and  days’ storage period,
respectively. ese obtained results were in agreement with
results obtained by [] who reported that no signicant (p
<.) dierences in hardness were found between frozen
yogurts samples. erefore, the addition of Bidobacterium
spp. did not aect the texture of the frozen yogurt.
4.6.2. Changes in Meltdown/Min of Frozen Yogurt during 60
Days of Storage at 18C. ResultsinTableshowedthatthe
meltdown of frozen yogurt made of yogurt culture (C) was in
at C, while the time for collection was increased in mixed
yogurt culture + B. adolescentis (C + A) from . to . of
fresh to  days’ storage at C. Moreover, frozen yogurt
made with yogurt culture + B. infantis (C+B)wasslightly
decreased from . to .. In addition, Bidobacterium
min of fresh to  days’ storage at C. erefore, frozen
yogurt made with three combinations of cultures (C + A +
to  days of storage at C. Finally, we summarized that
only slight changes were found in mix (C + A + B) which
BioMed Research International
T : Changes in some rheological properties of frozen yogurt made with yogurt culture and Bidobacterium spp. culture during  days
of storage C.
Treatment Storage time/days Hardness/g Meltdown/min % Overrun
±j. ±o
 . ±.hi . ±e
  ±h ±f
  ±f. ±d
. ±g. ±p
  ±e ±h
  ±c ±j
  ±b. ±l
±i. ±g
  ±h. ±m
  ±e ±n
  ±d. ±l
±j. ±b
  ±hi  ±a
  ±g ±c
  ±e. ±c
. ±f. ±q
 . ±.e ±k
  ±b. ±m
  ±a ±i
Values are the average of three individual samples each analyzed in duplicate ±standard deviation. Dierent lowercase superscript letters, respectively, indicate
signicant dierence (p<.) analyzed by Duncan’s multiple range test.
was clear that there was no signicant (p>.) dierence
in melting time and overrun values between dierent frozen
yogurt mixes. e melting behavior of the product coincided
with previous reports focusing on the melting behavior of ice
cream with and without probiotics []. ese ndings were
in close agreement with the ndings of [].
4.6.3. Changes in Overrun Percentage of Frozen Yogurt Made
with Dierent Bidobacterium spp. Overrun is one of the
most important quality parameters of frozen desserts, since it
aects the texture and consequently the price of the products.
Results in Table  showed that the overrun levels of the ve
studied frozen yogurt formulations were low (.%–.%)
the addition of Bidobacterium spp. led to no high changes
in the overrun levels (p<.). We hypothesized that it
would lead to a poorer foaming capacity and decrease air
incorporation in samples with blending components.
4.6.4. Changes in the Viability of Bidobacterium spp. in
Frozen Yogurt during 60 Days of Storage at 18C. Results
in Figure  showed the revealed count of Bidobacterium
spp. at C decreased with storage period. e count of
Bidobacterium spp.forfrozenyogurtmadewithyogurt
culture and B. adolescentis (C + A) was from . ×8to
. ×8CFU with decrease percent .% from fresh to
 days of storage period, while that of frozen yogurt made
with yogurt culture and B. infantis (C + B) was from . ×8
Fresh 15 days 30 days 60 days
Storage (d)
C + A
C + B
A + B
C + A + B
F : Changes in viability of Bidobacterium spp. in frozen
to . ×8CFU with decrease percent .% from fresh
to  days of storage. Moreover, frozen yogurt made with
Bidobacterium spp. culture of B. adolescentis +B. infantis (A
+B)hadcountof.×8to . ×8CFU with decrease
percent .% from fresh to  days of storage period.
Finally, the count of Bidobacterium spp. for frozen yogurt
mix made with yogurt culture + B. adolescentis +B. infantis
BioMed Research International
Flavor (45) Body and
texture (35)
Melting quality
Appearance (10) Total scores (100)
A + B
C + B
C + A
C + A + B
F : Sensory evaluation of frozen yogurt.
(C+A+B)wasfrom.×8to . ×8CFU with decrease
percent .% from fresh to  days of storage period. ese
data were in close agreement with data obtained by [, ]
whoreportedthatnosignicant(𝑝 > 0.05) dierence was
observed in the count of yogurt bacteria as well as B. bidum
count between dierent frozen yogurt mixes.
4.7. Sensory Evaluation of Frozen Yogurt aer 60 Days of
Storage at 18C. ResultsinFigurehaveshowntheeval-
uation scores of frozen yogurt made with yogurt culture
and Bidobacterium spp. aer  days of storage at C.
It indicated that there were no high dierences between
samples in sensory evaluation. It appeared that frozen yogurt
made with yogurt culture + Bidobacterium adolescentis +
Bidobacterium infantis (C+A+B)gainedahighscore
of . In addition, samples made with yogurt culture +
Bidobacterium infantis (C+B)gainedscoreofintotal
as well.
ere are at least two important aspects that should
be highlighted while analyzing frozen yogurt. First, con-
with traditional yogurt bacteria, which would lead to lower
sensory scores to products that do not t into this cate-
gory. Secondly, Bidobacterium spp. are heterofermentative
organisms, which are able to produce several types of organic
acids (lactic, acetic, and formic acid) and ethanol [] which
can induce important avor modications. Considering the
potential benets provided by the probiotic microorganisms,
process adjustments could be implemented in order to
overcome any possible avor or aroma issues. In spite of
the slightly acidic avor of their samples, unfamiliar to our
consumers, all these samples were acceptable. e results in
Figure  closely agreed with results obtained by [], who
found that the overall acceptance of probiotic ice cream
depends on the preferred and accepted pH.
characteristics, some rheological properties, and sensory
C + A
C + B
A + B
C + A + B
Observations (axes F1 and F2: 76.35%)
F2 (21.27%)
F1 (55.07%)
F : Plots of the 𝑥-loadings.
evaluation of frozen yogurts. Figure  presented the cor-
relation loadings. e scores plot of PCA illustrated the
large variability of ve mixes of frozen yogurt based on
dierent species of Bidobacterium spp. during  days of
storage at C. Loadings were the coecients of the original
variables of each principal component. Inertia percentage
and correlated variables for axes  and  were displayed
in Table . Axis  explained .% of the total inertia.
Axis  explained .% of the inertia. With respect to the
explanatory variables, Figure  shows four clusters of mixes.
e rst cluster included the C + A and C + B, whereas the
B, respectively, individualized.
5. Conclusion
Bidobacterium spp. can grow well and have ability to
withstand dierent conditions of acidity and bile. Moreover,
frozen yogurt can serve as an excellent vehicle for dietary
incorporation of probiotic bacteria. On the contrary, frozen
BioMed Research International
T : Discriminate variable factors of principal components
analyses of analyzed physicochemical characteristics, some rheolog-
ical properties, and sensory evaluation.
F F
Proper value . .
Variability (%) . .
Cumulative (%) . .
dobacterium spp., which are sucient to oer the suggested
therapeutic eects. Supplementation with Bidobacterium
spp. has been found to exert a little eect on avor or
compositional characteristics of frozen yogurt. Our previous
study indicated that there were no signicant dierence
changes (𝑝 > 0.05) during adding dierent Bidobacterium
spp. in the physiochemistry or sensory evaluation of frozen
Conflicts of Interest
e authors declare that there are no conicts of interest
regarding the publication of this study.
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... The functional food products and by-products are artificial throughout exogenous natural compounds can create and improve the biogenic compounds [2,3]. Presently, milk products are the major matrix for solvents, and used functional foods [4][5][6]. Ahmadiankia [7], studied pomegranate peel extracts as a natural antioxidants in cream cheese. Dried pomegranate peels can be extracted in several solvents employed both externally and internally for treating ulcers, aphthae, and diarrhea. ...
... Total titratable acidity (TTA) was determined during (0-216 h) [6]. Total aerobic plate count was performed using a BUG (Biolog Universal Growth) Agar after incubation for 48 h at 37 C and evaluated as CFU/mL. ...
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Consumers are interested in antimicrobial by-products from natural sources. The present study aims to estimate the antibacterial effects of different concentrations and solvent extracts such as methanol, ethanol, and water extract of pomegranate peels with the milk quality application in-vitro. Listeria monocytogens, E. coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus were used as bacteria growth indicators in two pomegranate varieties (i.e., Wonderful and Francis). Besides, evaluating somephysical characterization, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Results showed that the highest inhibition zone of 18.88 mm was observed with 90% ethanol extract of Wonderful variety against Listeria monocytogens, at 0, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/mL concentrations, while the lowest inhibition zone of 11.29 mm was observed with 90% methanol extract of Francis variety, at 12.5 mg/mL concentration. The milk treated with WPE of Wonderful variety maintained the bacterial growth from 1.19 ±0.29 x 10 ⁹ to 1.43 x 10 ¹¹ CFU/mL at 4 °C. Punicalagin was the most abundant polyphenolic compound (165.05–190.43 µg/mL) followed by gallic acid (153.08–177.65 µg/mL), and p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (91.29–92.5 mg/mL). Acetaldehyde (23.09–27.15 PPM), followed by acetoin (9.65–15.33 PPM) were the most predominant volatile compounds. The WPE treated milk maintained the sensory evaluations such as taste, color, texture, and overall acceptance longer time longer time (i.e., 144 h) than FPE treated milk (i.e., 168 h) at 4°C. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging of capacity (IC50 values) of FPE treated milk were found to be lower than WPE treated milk (i.e., 159.65 µg/mL and 131.87 µg/mL), respectively. While, FPE treated milk reported a higher viscosity content than WPE treated milk (13.11 cP). In conclusion, pomegranate peel extracts especially Wonderful variety may be used to prolong the shelf-life of milk in dairy products manufacturers.
... An averagesized egg (55-60 g) consists of 10% shell and membrane [3]. Calcium is considered a vital nutrient required for maintaining many important biological activities such as nerve cells, muscle cells, mitosis, chronic diseases, and coagulation of blood [4,5]. The dietary reference intake (DRIs) of calcium is 800-1300 mg/day based on the age of the consumer [6]. ...
... The ingredients of the yogurt are shown in Table II were used by the following method described by Abdelazez et al. [5]. Processed yogurt was analyzed for moisture, fat, protein, pH, acidity, and ash contents. ...
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Eggshells are the hard, outer covering of eggs. It is known that eggshells are discarded as waste materials, although they contain a significant amount of calcium. The study was aimed to extract and quantify calcium from the eggshells and fortification on the biscuit and yogurt products. The extraction of calcium was done using calcium chloride with HCL solution at different propositions (1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20). After extraction, the sample was dried at 50 °C temperature for 3 hours to obtain dry calcium chloride. Calcium was fortified at a concentration of 100 ppm, 1000 ppm, and 2000 ppm in both the biscuits and yogurt, respectively. The calcium-fortified samples were analyzed for sensory properties and chemical composition. The ash content of calcium-fortified yogurt (0.47) was slightly higher than normal yogurt (0.44), while the other chemical components remains similar to the control. For the sensory evaluation result, the biscuit with 2000 ppm calcium-fortified biscuit and 1000 ppm calcium-fortified yogurt was found to be highly acceptable among the calcium-fortified samples. The extraction of calcium chloride from eggshells was obtained the highest for eggshells on HCl ratio 1:20 (w/v) where calcium chloride was found 32.92%, 26.95%, and 23.63% for duck, layer chicken, and local chicken eggshells, respectively. The extraction rate of calcium chloride of duck eggshells was higher than the local and layer chicken’s eggshells. Therefore, it may be opined that the fortified products (2000 ppm Ca) contained a considerably higher amount of calcium content than the control sample.
... Since yogurt is one component of frozen yogurt, with the coupling of delicate flavor of fruit, it serves as a very apt medium for probiotics too. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are the most common species of bacteria used as probiotics for the production of valued dairy products (Abdelazez et al., 2017). ...
... The pertinent counts using encapsulated L. casei and B. lactis cells were 7.3  10 8 and 9.1  10 8 cfu/g respectively when fresh; the counts increased to 8.6  10 7 and 9.6  10 7 cfu/g respectively at 150 th day. Abdelazez et al. (2017) employed B. adolescentis ATCC 11550 and B. infantis ATCC 11551 along with yogurt culture to prepare frozen yogurt. The B. adolescentis count of product was 2.6 × 10 8 cfu/g when fresh, while the count decreased by 71.20% at 60 th day. ...
Nowadays there has been a significant interest in the development of innovative functional food products conferring customized benefits to the consumers viz., physical and mental well-being, dental health, gastro-intestinal functions, etc. Among the dairy products with live cultures, probiotic ice cream and fermented frozen desserts such as frozen yoghurt are the emerging functional foods. Ice creams and frozen yoghurt are food products showing potential for use as probiotic vehicles and are highly popular with the consumers. The problem to be tackled relates to the loss of viability of probiotic cells in frozen dairy desserts which can occur during product formulation, processing, freezing and storage. The development of probiotic frozen dairy desserts containing live probiotic bacteria necessitates certain technological interventions. The means used to attain higher survivability of probiotic cells in such frozen products include use of selected probiotic strains, use of prebiotics along with probiotics, encapsulation of probiotic cells, use of cryoprotectants, etc.
... Nowadays, it is a big challenge to provide a safe and healthy food to consumers that is not only beneficial for health but also effective to inhibit chronic diseases and disorders (Abdelazez et al., 2018). In this regard, the use of microorganisms such as probiotics in fermented foods to improve health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases i.e., heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and kidney toxicity remains a challenge for researchers (Abdelazez et al., 2017;Ahmad et al., 2018). ...
The growing demand for dairy products amended with probiotics has led to the exploration of new beneficial microorganisms such as probiotics with beneficial properties. In the present work, the probiotic and antioxidant potential of Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from dairy products were evaluated. Strains were investigated for their probiotic properties by performing different tests such as survival in pepsin, low pH, and bile salt, antibacterial activity, and antioxidant potential. These strains were further evaluated for their utilisation in yogurt formation as a probiotic. The isolated strains were identified as L. fermentum Y1, L. fermentum Y2, and L. fermentum C by 16S rRNA sequencing. All strains showed greater survival ability in simulated gastric conditions (pH 2.2 + pepsin) and in the presence of 0.3% bile salt. The highest antibacterial activity was exhibited by L. fermentum Y1 against Bacillus cereus. Among these three strains, L. fermentum Y1 had the highest reducing power, and L. fermentum C had the highest DPPH scavenging activity. All Lactobacillus strains as a single inoculum or in consortium showed significant (p < 0.05) probiotic properties by maintaining pH, titratable acidity, solid content, and high water holding capacity in comparison to the control in the cow yogurt and homogenised milk. The isolated Lactobacillus strains may be a potential source of probiotics in commercial yogurt preparation.
... anaerobes that benefit the microbiota by exhibiting anticarcinogenic effects, lowering cholesterol levels, improving lactose hydrolysis, producing vitamins, etc. (Abdelazez et al., 2017). Their growth in the large intestine can be activated by introducing large amounts of probiotics, which contain these bacteria, in the form of dietary supplements or functional fermented milk products. ...
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The gastrointestinal microflora regulates the body's functions and plays an important role in its health. Dysbiosis leads to a number of chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, inflammation, atherosclerosis, etc. However, these diseases can be prevented by using probiotics - living microorganisms that benefit the microflora and, therefore, improve the host organism's health. The most common probiotics include lactic acid bacteria of the Bifidobacterium and Propionibacterium genera. We studied the probiotic properties of the following strains: Bifidobacterium adolescentis АС-1909, Bifidobacterium longum infantis АС-1912, Propionibacterium jensenii В-6085, Propionibacterium freudenreichii В-11921, Propionibacterium thoenii В-6082, and Propionibacterium acidipropionici В-5723. Antimicrobial activity was determined by the 'agar blocks' method against the following test cultures: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica ATCC 14028, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa B6643, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 63, and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644. Moderate antimicrobial activity against all the test cultures was registered in Bifidobacterium adolescentis АС-1909, Propionibacterium jensenii В-6085, and Propionibacterium thoenii В-6082. Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH inhibition method in all the lactic acid strains. Our study indicated that some Propionibacterium and Bifidobacterium strains or, theoretically, their consortia could be used as probiotic cultures in dietary supplements or functional foods to prevent a number of chronic diseases.
... In this study, the relative abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae and Bifidobacterium in patients with HDP decreased compared with the healthy controls, which was consistent with the trend in a previous study of patients with PE in Shanghai (17) and patients with hypertension in Tangshan (39) and Henan (40). Bifidobacterium plays an important role in maintaining health (41). Bifidobacterium can maintain the homeostasis of gut microbiota, protect intestinal mucosal barrier, and reduce LPS (42). ...
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Objective The aim is to explore the intakes of dietary nutrients and the changes of gut microbiota composition among patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of HDP.Methods This study was conducted at the Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital of Changzhou. A total of 170 pregnant women (72 patients with HDP in the case group and 98 healthy pregnant women in the control group) in the third trimester were enrolled. Dietary nutrient intakes were assessed through a food frequency questionnaire survey. Fresh fecal samples were aseptically collected, and 16S rDNA sequencing was conducted. The intakes of dietary nutrients and the diversity and relative abundance of gut microbiota were compared between pregnant women with and without HDP. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between differential gut microbial genera and the risk of HDP.ResultsThe daily dietary intakes of vitamin A and vitamin C in pregnant women with HDP were significantly lower than those in the control group. The relative abundances of Bacteroidota, Bacteroidaceae, and Bacteroides were increased, and the relative abundances of Actinobacteriota, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Blautia, Prevotella, and Bifidobacterium were decreased in women with HDP compared with those in the controls. In addition, the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium was positively correlated with dietary intakes of vitamin C and vitamin E in patients with HDP. After adjustment for confounding factors, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of HDP for the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium was 0.899 (0.813, 0.995).Conclusion The composition of gut microbiota in pregnant women with HDP was significantly changed compared with that of healthy controls. The relative abundance of Bifidobacterium was negatively associated with HDP. Moreover, dietary vitamin C and gut Bifidobacterium may cooperatively contribute to reduce the risk of HDP.
... There were no significant differences in moisture between individual ice cream groups and during storage, which was confirmed by the 3-factor ANOVA ( Table 3). These results are in line with the studies by Abdelazez et al. [40] and Ranadheera et al. [41], who showed that the moisture of frozen products does not change significantly during freezer storage. Table 2 shows the pH values determined before and after the fermentation of the ice mixes. ...
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The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of using Olkuska sheep milk for the production of ice cream with probiotics and prebiotics. The study examined the effect of the storage and type of bacteria used for the fermentation of ice cream mixes and partial replacement of inulin with apple fiber on the physicochemical properties, viability of probiotic cultures and organoleptic properties of sheep’s milk ice cream stored at −22 °C for 21 days. The addition of apple fiber reduced the pH value of ice cream mixes before fermentation. In ice cream mixes and ice cream with apple fiber, the lactic acid content was higher by 0.1–0.2 g L−1 than in their equivalents with inulin only. These differences persisted during the storage of the ice cream. After fermentation of the ice mixes, the bacterial cell count ranged from 10.62 log cfu g−1 to 12.25 log cfu g−1. The freezing process reduced the population of probiotic bacteria cells in ice cream with inulin from 0.8 log cfu g−1 in ice cream with Lactobacillus acidophilus, 1.0 log cfu g−1 in ice cream with Lacticaseibacillus paracasei and 1.1 log cfu g−1 in ice cream with Lacticaseibacillus casei. Freezing the varieties with apple fiber also resulted in a reduction of viable bacterial cells from 0.8 log cfu g−1 in ice cream with L. paracasei and Lb. acidophilus to 1 log cfu g−1 in ice cream with L. casei, compared to the results after fermentation. The highest percentage overrun was determined in ice cream with L. paracasei and Lb. acidophilus. Ice cream with L. casei was characterized by significantly lower overrun on the 7th and 21st days of storage. Although L. paracasei ice cream had the highest overrun, it did not cause a significant reduction in the probiotic population during storage. After seven days of storage, the first drop differed significantly depending on the type of bacteria used for fermentation of the mixture and the addition of apple fiber. L. casei ice cream had a longer first drop time than L. paracasei and Lb. acidophilus ice cream. Partial replacement of inulin with apple fiber resulted in a significant darkening of the color of ice cream mixes. Depending on the type of bacteria used for fermentation, the addition of apple fiber decreased the value of the L* parameter. Ice cream mixes and ice cream with inulin and apple fiber were characterized by a high proportion of yellow. Partial replacement of inulin with apple fiber reduced the hardness of ice cream compared to inulin-only ice cream. Moreover, the panelists found that ice cream with inulin was characterized by a sweeter taste than ice cream with apple fiber. Moreover, the addition of apple fiber favorably increased the flavor and aroma perception of the mango-passion fruit. Therefore, the milk of Olkuska sheep could be successfully used for the production of symbiotic dairy ice cream.
The influence of novel nano membranes on the quality characterizes of cucumber fruits during storage was evaluated. Chitosan (C), Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (T), and sodium tripolyphosphate (S) were used for the synthesis of novel nano membranes. Samples were divided into four lots. One lot was coated with water; another with C-Film, another with C/T-Film, and the fourth lot with C/T/S-Film. All the samples were dried with forced air at 25 °C for 1 h. Samples were stored in plastic trays for 21 days and evaluated every 7 days (0, 7, 14, and 21 days) at 10 °C. Quality characterizes included texture-profile analysis, pitting and warts appearances rates, acidity, pyruvate enzyme oxidation, and microbial population, especially psychrophilic bacteria. Results revealed that the C/T-Film treated cucumber samples showed the lowest values loss in almost all the texture analysis, gumminess (N) 441.79, resilience 0.035, hardness (N) 1145.02, and cohesiveness 0.19, compared to other coating treatments; while cucumber samples treated with (C/T/S-Film) established the lowest values loss in chewiness (N) 231.41. Cucumber samples treated with C/T/S-Film showed the lower value of pitting and appearance rates 0.67 and 0.21, respectively. For cucumber samples treated with C/T-Film and C/T/S-Film reported the same acidity values as 4.63 at the end of the storage period. The pyruvate enzyme oxidation was higher (187.53 n mol/kg FW) in cucumber fruits treated with C/T/S-Film, compared with cucumber treated with C/T-Film that recorded value of 166.09 n mol/kg FW. After 21 days of the storage period, C/T/S-Film-coated samples had the least psychrophilic bacterial counts 7.03 Log CFU/g, lower than C/T-Film-coated samples 7.6 Log CFU/g. So, in the current work novel nano membranes, consisting of chitosan, titanium dioxide nanoparticles, and sodium tripolyphosphate were effective to extend the shelf-life of cucumbers until 21 days during storage.
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Probiotics are commonly added to yogurt to provide many health benefits for the consumer. A description is provided for some commonly used probiotics in yogurt. A GRAS (generally recognized as safe) list of probiotic bacteria that can be added to yogurt or similar types of products is provided. Additionally, prebiotics, synbiotics (combination of prebiotics and probiotics), postbiotics, paraprobiotics, and psychobiotics can be added to yogurt. Probiotic yogurt can come in various forms in addition to spoonable yogurt, and yogurt can be used as an ingredient in other food products. Many useful functional ingredients can be applied to probiotic yogurt. The safety of probiotics must be addressed, especially for critically ill patients and other susceptible populations. Probiotics must survive within yogurt throughout its entire shelf-life and within the gastrointestinal tract after consumption by the consumer to provide health benefits, and many techniques can be used to maintain survival of probiotics in yogurt. Furthermore, probiotics can be added to Greek yogurt acid whey. Many opportunities exist for adding a wide variety of probiotics to a wide variety of yogurt-based products.
Bifidobacterium has been widely studied for its probiotic properties. In our previous study, Bifidobacterium longum CCFM5871 (CCFM5871) showed potential to relieve inflammation and constipation. In current study, we investigated the application of CCFM5871 as an adjunct starter culture for the production of fermented milk. First, genome analysis indicated that CCFM5871 possess various carbohydrate metabolic pathways, including the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism and galactose related genes GH2 and GH27. Comparative genomic analysis shows that similar functional gene were detected in other bifidobacteria strains applied in dairy fermentation. Then the sugar metabolism phenotype experiment verified the result of genomic analysis. Subsequently, we evaluated the effects of CCFM5871 supplementation on the production and storage of fermented milk by monitoring changes in multiple parameters over 14 days of storage at 4 °C, including pH, titratable acidity, physical properties, volatile flavor compounds, and sensory quality. The bacterial level was significantly higher at the fermentation termination than the fermentation initiation, indicating that CCFM5871 can be regarded as a candidate for adjunct start culture. Compared to the control group, supplementation with CCFM5871 increased acidification and solidification of fermented milk. Moreover, we revealed that there was no other significant difference between the yogurt fermented with CCFM5871 and the yogurt with culture only in flavor and taste. In summary, our results identified that CCFM5871 may be an appropriate co-culture for fermented milk, and the genomic analysis may be instructive for future to filter the culture in fermented milk.
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In this work, the physicochemical characteristics, meltdown behavior and sensory properties of goat's milk ice cream produced with and without the probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BLC1 were analyzed. The ice cream with added B. animalis was further evaluated in regard to the probiotic viability during processing, frozen storage, and simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Results showed that the addition of B. animalis decreased the pH (p < 0.05), but it had no effect on physicochemical properties, including overrun and melting behavior of ice cream from goat's milk (p > 0.05). After 120 days of frozen storage, a survival rate of 84.7% was registered. With regard to cell viability during gastrointestinal conditions, the exposure to bile and pancreatin resulted in the decline of 3.82 log cycles in ice cream samples previously stored at −18 °C for 120 days. Overall, the goat's milk ice cream with B. animalis received good sensory scores and satisfactory probiotic viability (6–7 log CFU/g) was maintained throughout the 120 days of frozen storage. Therefore, this research shows that goat's milk ice cream is an adequate delivery vehicle for the probiotic bacteria B. animalis.
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Bifidobacteria are one of the predominant bacterial groups of the human intestinal microbiota and have important functional properties making them interesting for the food and dairy industries. Numerous in vitro and preclinical studies have shown beneficial effects of particular bifidobacterial strains or strain combinations on various health parameters of their hosts. This indicates the potential of bifidobacteria in alternative or supplementary therapeutic approaches in a number of diseased states. Based on these observations, bifidobacteria have attracted considerable interest by the food, dairy, and pharmaceutical industries and they are widely used as so-called probiotics. As a consequence of the rapidly increasing number of available bifidobacterial genome sequences and their analysis, there has been substantial progress in the identification of bifidobacterial structures involved in colonisation of and interaction with the host. With the present review, we aim to provide an update on the current knowledge on the mechanisms by which bifidobacteria colonise their hosts and exert health promoting effects.
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Ice cream is a product with peculiar textural and organoleptic features and is highly appreciated by a very broad spectrum of consumers. Ice cream's structure and colloidal design, together with its low-temperature storage, renders it a very promising carrier for the stabilization and in vivo delivery of bioactive compounds and beneficial microorganisms. To date, many applications related to the design and development of functional ice cream have been documented, including products containing probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, dietary fibers, natural antioxidants such as polyphenols, essential and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and low glycemic index blends and blends fortified with mineral or trace elements. In this review, promising strategies for the incorporation of innovative functional additives to ice cream through the use of techniques such as microencapsulation, nanoemulsions, and oleogels are discussed, and current insights into the implications of matrix, processing, and digestion on bioactive compounds in frozen dairy desserts are comprehensively reviewed, thereby providing a holistic overview of the current and emerging trends in this functional food sector.
Growth and acid production were quite different for Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. angulatum, B. longum, and B. breve tested in this study. Species of bifidobacteria which produced acid early during growth were less tolerant to acidity than those which produced it later during the growth. Addition of L-cysteine-HCI enhanced only the growth of B. breve and B. angulatum. Although the 4 species of bifidobacteria were bile tolerant, B. longum and B. angulatum were more resistant to bile than the other 2 species. Adherence of the 4 species to the epithelial cells of the small intestine of sheep was observed in this study.
This study was performed to enumerate the total viable cell count of probiotic in five brands (A to E) of commercially cultured milk drinks that are available in the Malaysian market as well as to test their tolerance to various pH and bile concentrations by simulating the human gastrointestinal pH and bile concentration. The acid tolerance test was studied under pH 1.5 and 3.0 with 7.2 as control. The cell count for the acid tolerance test was obtained at an interval of 0, 1.5 and 3 hours respectively and was plated onto duplicate MRS agars to be incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. All cells recovered after 3 hours of pH treatment were selected for bile tolerance test in MRS broth containing bile concentrations of 0% (control), 0.3% and 2.0% and cell counts were recorded after 24 hours of incubation. The probiotic strains in products A, B, C & D met the suggested initial count of 10 6 CFU/ml with brand C recording the highest at 9.19 ± 0.14 log CFU/ml. Strains in product A, B & C showed good tolerance to pH 3.0 and 7.2 recording a count of >10 6 CFU/ml after 3 hours with a range of 6.60 - 9.04 log CFU/ml. The higher bile concentrations resulted in lower growth of strains in all the brands. Upon pH 1.5 treatment, only brand C recorded growth in all bile concentrations. After pH 3.0 treatment, all brands except brand E met the requirement of survival at 0.3% bile concentration. Results showed probiotics in product A, B & C met the initial count requirement, and exhibited good acid and bile tolerance therefore being a potentially good source of probiotic.
Current interests towards lowering fat content in food products and producing healthier and safer foods, have convinced ice cream manufacturers to substitute milk fat in ice cream with either carbohydrate or protein based fat replacers. In the present work, reduced-fat ice cream (5% fat) was produced using milk protein concentrate (65%) and inulin as fat replacers (0, 2 and 4%) as well as two types of commercial stabilizeremulsifier blends (Stab-IC80 and Stab-6924) at levels of 0.3 and 0.4%. Rheological, physicochemical and sensory properties of ice cream mix and final ice cream were evaluated. All the mixes were pseudoplastic fluids with apparent viscosity values decreasing with increasing shear rate. Mix viscosity and consistency coefficient increased while flow behaviour index decreasing by use of MPC (Milk Protein Concentrate) and inulin and as well with an increase in either type of stabilizer level. Ice cream hardness was not affected by type and amount of fat replacer and stabilizer but overrun values decreased with increasing MPC, inulin and stabilizers' level in the product formulation. In general, samples containing Stab-IC80 had greater values of overrun and melting resistance than samples with Stab-6924. According to panel test results, the highest score for sensory evaluation was given to sample containing 2% inulin.
This study study evaluated the effects of microbial transglutaminase (TG) (Streptoverticillium mobaraense) on the properties of ice cream with 4, 6 and 8 g/100 g fat. The TG was added at a concentration of 4 U g(-1) and the chemical characteristics, capacity to incorporate air (overrun), fat coalescence, melting behavior, rheological properties and texture were evaluated. The TG was effective in controlling the ice cream properties providing greater overrun, greater fat coalescence and melting resistance in relation to samples without TG. These modifications can be attributed to the formation of a more cohesive protein network which increased the stability of the ice cream. Regarding the rheological parameters, it was found that TG caused an increase in the flow behavior index and pseudoplastic properties of the samples. The firmness of the ice cream was decreased by the addition of TG and was inversely proportional to the fat content. Ice cream with fat contents of 4 and 6 g/100 g subjected to enzymatic treatment had similar characteristics to samples formulated with 8 g/100 g fat, demonstrating that TG can be used to partially replace fat in ice cream.
The pool of microbes inhabiting our body is known as "microbiota" and their collective genomes as "microbiome". The colon is the most densely populated organ in the human body, although other parts, such as the skin, vaginal mucosa, or respiratory tract, also harbour specific microbiota. This microbial community regulates some important metabolic and physiological functions of the host, and drives the maturation of the immune system in early life, contributing to its homeostasis during life. Alterations of the intestinal microbiota can occur by changes in composition (dysbiosis), function, or microbiota-host interactions and they can be directly correlated with several diseases. The only disease in which a clear causal role of a dysbiotic microbiota has been demonstrated is the case of Clostridium difficile infections. Nonetheless, alterations in composition and function of the microbiota have been associated with several gastrointestinal diseases (inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, or irritable bowel syndrome), as well as extra-intestinal pathologies, such as those affecting the liver, or the respiratory tract (e.g., allergy, bronchial asthma, and cystic fibrosis), among others. Species of Bifidobacterium genus are the normal inhabitants of a healthy human gut and alterations in number and composition of their populations is one of the most frequent features present in these diseases. The use of probiotics, including bifidobacteria strains, in preventive medicine to maintain a healthy intestinal function is well documented. Probiotics are also proposed as therapeutic agents for gastrointestinal disorders and other pathologies. The World Gastroenterology Organization recently published potential clinical applications for several probiotic formulations, in which species of lactobacilli are predominant. This review is focused on probiotic preparations containing Bifidobacterium strains, alone or in combination with other bacteria, which have been tested in human clinical studies. In spite of extensive literature on and research into this topic, the degree of scientific evidence of the effectiveness of probiotics is still insufficient in most cases. More effort need to be made to design and conduct accurate human studies demonstrating the efficacy of probiotics in the prevention, alleviation, or treatment of different pathologies.
Probiotic foods are reported to provide several health benefits, as they help in maintaining a good balance and composition of intestinal flora, and increase the resistance against invasion of pathogens. The demand of probiotic functional foods is growing rapidly due to increased awareness of consumers about the impact of food on health. Development of foods with adequate doses of probiotics at the time of consumption is a challenge, because several factors during processing and storage affect the viability of probiotic organisms. The presence of probiotics in food products may also adversely affect their quality and sensory properties. Several attempts have been made during the last few decades to improve the viability of probiotics in different food products during their production until the time of consumption. Major emphasis has been given to protect the microorganisms with the help of encapsulation technique, by addition of different protectants, and by alteration of processing and storage conditions. This contribution provides an overview of probiotic foods, factors responsible for survival of probiotics, and advance technologies used to stabilize their viability during processing and storage.