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Abstract

The present study focuses on the role of positive emotion regulation as a potential mechanism for linking trait emotional intelligence (EI) and subjective well-being (SWB). We examined whether the savouring and dampening of positive emotions mediate the relationship between trait EI and the two components of SWB: life satisfaction and subjective happiness. A sample of 254 participants completed measures of trait EI, life satisfaction, subjective happiness, and the typical use of savouring and dampening strategies. Analyses indicated that trait EI was positively correlated with the two components of SWB and savouring strategies, and negatively correlated with dampening strategies. Furthermore, savouring strategies were positively related to life satisfaction and subjective happiness, whereas dampening strategies were negatively related to life satisfaction and subjective happiness. Notably, path analyses indicated that the savouring and dampening of positive emotions partially mediated the relationship between EI and both life satisfaction and subjective happiness. The findings corroborate an important role of trait EI in promoting SWB and suggest that part of its beneficial effect reveals itself through positive emotion regulation.

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... Emotional intelligence was also found as a positive predictor of life satisfaction in adolescents [31], undergraduates [32][33][34][35][36][37][38], teachers [39][40][41], and adults from China [42] and Australia [43]. Life satisfaction is one of three core components of subjective wellbeing and positive and negative affect [44]. ...
... Life satisfaction is one of three core components of subjective wellbeing and positive and negative affect [44]. Szczygieł and Mikolajczak [38] suggested that the trait of emotional intelligence plays a crucial role in promoting subjective well-being, and its beneficial effect is partially mediated via positive emotion regulation. On the other hand, low emotional intelligence is a predictor of high stress, anxiety, and burnout [34,36,45]. ...
... Although previous studies found associations between these three variables, the mediation model was never thoroughly tested. Since emotional intelligence is a positive predictor of job satisfaction [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] and life satisfaction [31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43], while job satisfaction is a strong positive predictor of life satisfaction [39,[46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53], it is expected that emotional intelligence has an indirect positive impact on satisfaction with life, via job satisfaction. Brunetto et al. [29] found the partial mediating effect of well-being on the association between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction among police officers. ...
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This study examines the indirect effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction among teachers during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. A sample of 322 teachers aged 23-71 (M = 45.37, SD = 8.99) participated in a cross-sectional online survey. The online survey (Google form) contained some demographic information and standardized psychological questionnaires: the Multivariate Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS) for measuring emotional intelligence, the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)-a short form for job satisfaction assessment, and the Life Satisfaction Scale (SWLS). Emotional intelligence is a significant positive predictor of job satisfaction and life satisfaction, and job satisfaction is a strong positive predictor of life satisfaction. Job satisfaction partly mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. To maintain the well-being of teachers during a pandemic, schools should implement training to improve emotional intelligence and increase job satisfaction by supporting distance e-learning among teachers.
... For instance, differences in the acknowledgement and discrimination of emotions yielded differences in SWB (Lischetzke et al. 2012), suggesting that the way people handle EI plays a crucial role in the promotion of wellbeing. All in all, the literature supports the positive relationship between EI and SWB indicators (e.g., Koydemir et al. 2013;Szczygieł and Mikolajczak 2017). ...
... Although many studies have shown that EI is not a one-dimensional construct (e.g., Chen et al. 2016;Delhom et al. 2017;Mayer et al. 2016), it is still interpreted and studied as though it were (Gutiérrez-Cobo et al. 2017;Koydemir et al. 2013;Szczygieł and Mikolajczak 2017). Regardless of scientific efforts to measure and integrate EI as a category of intelligence, it is not yet considered an independent form of intelligence per se (Mestre et al. 2016). ...
... The first goal of the present paper was to examine the role of EI and its dimensions in prediction of life satisfaction and happiness. Obtained results confirmed our general expectations, as EI analysed in both studies generally positively predicted life satisfaction and happiness, in agreement with previous research (Koydemir et al. 2013;Szczygieł and Mikolajczak 2017). Nonetheless, the results of the specific emotional facets were contradictory to the existing literature, presumably as a result of introducing the bifactor model in the study of EI, which showed better adjustment than other tested structures. ...
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Emotional intelligence (EI) has been found to generally predict subjective wellbeing (SWB) indicators such as life satisfaction and happiness. Concerning the specific abilities of trait EI, i.e., mood attention, emotional clarity and mood repair, research has largely demonstrated that emotional clarity and mood repair are the strongest predictors of SWB indicators, whereas mood attention has been relegated to a secondary role. To clarify previous inconsistencies, we tested EI by means of the bifactor model because it allows for a better comprehension of the complex nature of EI. The current paper was composed of two studies: Study 1 examined the prediction of SWB indicators by EI and its dimensions in the bifactor model; and Study 2 analysed the differences in EI and SWB indicators across university students and employees. Results of Study 1 demonstrated that the structure of EI is best represented by the bifactor model with a general e(motional)-factor and three specific emotional abilities. Mood attention was a negative predictor of SWB indicators, whereas mood repair was a positive predictor, and emotional clarity was non-significant. Study 2 showed that employees and university students did not differed in how EI predicted SWB indicators. These findings evidenced a shift in the study and measurement of EI. Further implications of this paper are discussed.
... Numerous research studies have examined the relationship between EI and academic performance (Pulido and Herrera, 2017). They have also analyzed their relationship with other variables such as adjustment and permanence in the school context (Hogan et al., 2010;Szczygieł and Mikolajczak, 2017), coping styles (MacCann et al., 2011), the degree of social competence (Franco et al., 2017), and school motivation (Usán and Salavera, 2018). ...
... In general, scientific literature shows that academic achievement is related to self-concept (Susperreguy et al., 2018;Wolff et al., 2018;Sewasew and Schroeders, 2019), personality (Perret et al., 2019;Smith-Woolley et al., 2019), and EI (Corcoran et al., 2018;Deighton et al., 2019;Piqueras et al., 2019). Also, that within these construct, academic self-concept (Ferla et al., 2009;Guay et al., 2010;Chen et al., 2013;Marsh et al., 2014), intellect/imagination (Poropat, 2009;Smith-Woolley et al., 2019), and adaptability (MacCann et al., 2011;Szczygieł and Mikolajczak, 2017) correlate significantly with academic achievement. In this research the predictive value of the dimensions of self-concept, personality and EI regarding the academic grades obtained in three subjects of the Primary Education curriculum has been established. ...
... In light of the results obtained in the present research study, the need to carry out a comprehensive education in schools that addresses the promotion of not only academic but also personal, social and emotional competences, are underlined (Cherniss, 2010;Hunagund and Hangal, 2014;Herrera et al., 2017;Szczygieł and Mikolajczak, 2017;Corcoran et al., 2018;Cvencek et al., 2018). For this, the application of the principles derived from Positive Psychology in the education field would be an adequate strategy (Suldo et al., 2015;Chodkiewicz and Boyle, 2017;Domitrovich et al., 2017;Shoshani and Slone, 2017). ...
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A review of the scientific literature shows that many studies have analyzed the relationship between academic achievement and different psychological constructs, such as self-concept, personality, and emotional intelligence. The present work has two main objectives. First, to analyze the academic achievement, as well as the self-concept, personality and emotional intelligence, according to gender and cultural origin of the participants (European vs. Amazigh). Secondly, to identify what dimensions of self-concept, personality and emotional intelligence predict academic achievement. For this, a final sample consisting of 407 students enrolled in the last 2 years of Primary Education were utilized for the study. By gender, 192 were boys (47.2%) and 215 girls (52.8%), with an average age of 10.74 years old. By cultural group, 142 were of European origin (34.9%) and 265 of Amazigh origin (65.1%). The academic achievements were evaluated from the grades obtained in three school subjects: Natural Sciences, Spanish Language and Literature, and Mathematics, and the instruments used for data collection of the psychological constructs analyzed were the Self-Concept Test-Form 5, the Short-Form Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version-Short. Based on the objectives set, first, the grades in the subject of Spanish Language and Literature varied depending on the gender of the students. Likewise, differences were found in self-concept, personality, and emotional intelligence according to gender. Also, the physical self-concept varied according to the cultural group. Regarding the second objective, in the predictive analysis for each of the subjects of the curriculum of Primary Education, the academic self-concept showed a greater predictive value. However, so did other dimensions of self-concept, personality and emotional intelligence. The need to carry out a comprehensive education in schools that addresses the promotion of not only academic but also personal and social competences is discussed. Also, that the study of the variables that affect gender differences must be deepened.
... An individual is considered to have high emotional intelligence if they can adaptively overcome stress and problems in daily life so that they are manageable, have a more intimate relationship, and a broader network of social support [21] . Moreover, an emotionally intelligent individual will show strong capacity to facilitate a better adaptation of a change caused by a certain condition and consider the stress as a challenge rather than a threat [17]. Furthermore, based on a meta-analytic observation by Schutte et al., [17] and Martins et al., [12] they have found a similar result, in which high emotional intelligence has a significant positive correlation to better health. ...
... Moreover, an emotionally intelligent individual will show strong capacity to facilitate a better adaptation of a change caused by a certain condition and consider the stress as a challenge rather than a threat [17]. Furthermore, based on a meta-analytic observation by Schutte et al., [17] and Martins et al., [12] they have found a similar result, in which high emotional intelligence has a significant positive correlation to better health. The research conducted by Julika and Setiyawati also shows that academic stress and emotional intelligence contribute to students' subjective well-being [6]. ...
... The research conducted by Julika and Setiyawati also shows that academic stress and emotional intelligence contribute to students' subjective well-being [6]. More research shows that emotional intelligence is crucial in various healthy adaptation aspects, from affective function to social relationships [17] . For the past years, one of the issues that has taken the interest of researchers is the role of emotional intelligence characteristics in determining subjective well-being that refers to the way one experiences their quality of life [3]. ...
... Subjective well-being is sometimes labeled "happiness" (Diener, 2000). Such well-being is understood as people's cognitive and affective evaluations of their lives as a whole and encompasses two most commonly studied components: life satisfaction and subjective happiness (Diener, 2000;Lyubomirsky, 2001;Diener et al., 2003;Szczygieł and Mikolajczak, 2017). Life satisfaction refers to one's cognitive assessment of his life (Diener et al., 2003), whereas subjective happiness refers to one's global assessment of whether he is a happy or an unhappy person (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, 1999). ...
... Hence, life satisfaction reflects a more cognitive facet of subjective well-being, whereas subjective happiness can be considered a rather affective facet of subjective well-being. Both life satisfaction and subjective happiness conceptualize wellbeing as a subjectively determined positive mental state, which represents the hedonic (versus eudaimonic) view of well-being (Ryan and Deci, 2001;Szczygieł and Mikolajczak, 2017). ...
... The subjective well-being scale includes two aspects of subjective well-being: a more cognition-based rating of life satisfaction was assessed by the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., 1985) and a more affection-based rating of subjective happiness was assessed by the Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, 1999;Szczygieł and Mikolajczak, 2017). The Satisfaction with Life Scale comprises five items (e.g., "I am satisfied with my life"), in which the participants were asked to indicate how much they agree or disagree with each item on a seven-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree), and the corresponding Cronbach's alpha was 0.87. ...
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Awe is an intense emotional response to perceptually vast stimuli that dramatically transcend one’s ordinary reference frame and provoke a need to adjust the current mental structures. Dispositional awe reflects individual differences in the tendency to experience awe. The current study aims to examine the effect of dispositional awe on subjective well-being, with a focus on confirming the mediating role of meaning in life and materialism. A sample of 563 Chinese adults completed measures of dispositional awe, meaning in life, materialism, and subjective well-being. Correlation analysis revealed that dispositional awe, meaning in life, and materialism were all significantly correlated with subjective well-being. Structural equation modeling showed significant paths from dispositional awe to subjective well-being through both meaning in life and materialism. Bootstrap analysis also indicated that meaning in life and materialism mediated the relationship between dispositional awe and subjective well-being. These findings not only corroborate the critical role of dispositional awe in promoting subjective well-being, but also shed some light on why people high in dispositional awe are happier than those low in dispositional awe. Limitations and directions for future research were also discussed.
... However, different individuals may react differently to the same events; for example, individuals with strong emotional regulation may be less negatively affected by work-leisure conflict because emotional regulation can moderate the relationship between the two factors (Gao et al. 2012;Hsu F. Wang, W. Shi et al. 2010). This ability to regulate emotions is called emotional intelligence, which helps individuals rapidly recover from distress (Miao et al. 2016;Szczygieł and Mikolajczak 2017). As a resource, emotional intelligence can protect individual psychological resources because emotional intelligence can help individuals better adapt to job changes and resolve conflicts at work (Bai et al. 2016;Salovey and Grewal 2005). ...
... Second, emotional intelligence helps people balance challenges such as work-leisure conflict and buffer related negative emotions, and it can be improved by training (Slaski and Cartwright 2003;Szczygieł and Mikolajczak 2017). Therefore, according to different employees' emotional intelligence characteristics, enterprises can conduct appropriate training programmes to help employees' control and transform their emotions to allow them to better cope with the challenges of work-leisure conflicts. ...
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Based on the conservation of resources theory, this study explores the relationship between work-leisure conflict and front-line employees’ work engagement. From the emotional perspective, we further explore the mediating role of negative emotion, the moderating effects of emotional intelligence and team emotional climate at the individual and team levels, respectively. In this study, 521 front-line employees from 50 work teams were investigated, and relational models were established and analysed. The results show that work-leisure conflict has a significant negative impact on front-line employees’ work engagement, and the negative emotion from this conflict plays a mediating role in the process. Emotional intelligence plays a moderating role in the relationship between work-leisure conflict and work engagement at the individual level whereas team emotional climate plays a cross-level moderating role in this relationship at the team level. The findings of this study have theoretical value and provide a management reference for enterprise managers.
... It is a positive evaluation of the conditions of life, a judgment that balance favorably against your standards or expectations (Summer & Knight, 2001), and symbolizes an overarching criterion or ultimate outcome of human experience (Andrew & Withey, 1976). From organizational management approach, life satisfaction is a subjective evaluation of individual's level of contentment which forms one of the major factors in quality, performance, productivity, business effectiveness and profit (Ferguson, Carlson, & Kacmar, 2015;Szczygieł, & Mikolajczak, 2017). ...
... Life satisfaction differs from life happiness as the latter is an emotional state that contributes to life satisfaction (Lewinsohn, Redner, & Seeley, 1991). According to Szczygieł and Mikolajczak, (2017) happiness is taken as a sense of subjective enjoyment of individual's life. However, subjective well-being encompasses occurrences of pleasant emotions, minimal levels of negative moods and high measures of life satisfaction, which positively affect the perceived quality of life (Diener, Suh, Lucas, Smith, 1999;Huebner, Suldo, & Valois, 2005). ...
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Civil servants' life satisfaction is increasingly relevant as a key factor in personal well-being and organizational productivity. This study investigated the influence of socio-demographic factors, perceived happiness and psychological distress on life satisfaction among civil servants in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria. Using cross sectional research design and purposive sampling technique, three hundred and two participants were sampled (48.7%) men and 51.3% women). Their age ranged from 22 to 59 years with mean age of 43 years (SD = 9.81). Self-report questionnaires, namely, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), General Happiness Scale (GHS) and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (KPDS) were employed for data collection in this study. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, multiple correlation and hierarchical regression. Result showed that participant's age, job level, years of experience, perceived happiness had positive relationships with life satisfaction, while psychological distress significantly had a negative relationship with life satisfaction. In the regression, participant's age, job level, years of experience, perceived happiness significantly predicted life satisfaction. Psychological distress negatively predicted life satisfaction. Heads of government agencies and other agencies should make consider the roles of the predictor variables in this study in order to improve employees' happiness and minimize psychological distress in order to enhance their life satisfaction.
... The literature reported contradictory results about the role of this facet on SWB indicators (Augusto-Landa et al. 2011;Sánchez-Álvarez et al. 2015) and it remained less studied than emotional clarity and emotional regulation. As these inconsistencies may respond to measurement limitations, a recent study suggested the introduction of the bifactor model as a plausible solution to assess EI more reliably (Blasco-Belled et al. 2019) The Bifactor Model in the Study of EI Most studies in the field have overlooked the fact that EI is not an unidimensional construct (e.g., Gutiérrez-Cobo et al. 2017;Koydemir et al. 2013;Szczygieł and Mikolajczak 2017). As a mean to understand the plausible implications of the bifactor EI model, Blasco-Belled et al. (2019) compared EI with general intelligence in terms of their structural organization. ...
Article
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Emotional intelligence (EI) plays a key role in the adjustment of adolescents during this transitional life period. The accumulated evidences suggest that EI is associated with happiness, considered the affective component of subjective well-being and optimism and pessimism, considered cognitive mechanisms to expect either a brighter or darker future. In spite of the relevance of the relationship between EI, happiness, optimism, and pessimism, the majority of the research falls behind findings with adult samples, accumulating little knowledge in the context of adolescence. Furthermore, the measurement of EI has been recently challenged by the introduction of the bifactor model into the study of EI. The goal of the current study was to explore the association of EI with happiness, optimism, and pessimism in adolescence by introducing the bifactor EI model. The participants were 493 Spanish high-school students ranging from 14 to 18 years old (52.7% females) who completed self-report questionnaires. The results demonstrated that the bifactor EI model with an e-factor (general EI factor) and three emotional dimensions (emotional attention, emotional clarity, and emotional regulation) also represented the best well-fitted structure in adolescence. Most remarkably, results suggested that general EI and emotional regulation predicted positively happiness and optimism, while emotional attention predicted positively pessimism and negatively happiness. These results highlight the importance of the measurement of EI in the study of associated outcomes that are considered relevant during the period of adolescence. Hence, the specific role of the EI dimensions are important when explaining the relationship of EI with happiness, optimism, and pessimism.
... Individuals internally use cognitive reappraisal strategies to construct positive perceptions of life events, thereby promoting happiness. Accordingly, they have sufficient energy to explore the world and discover themselves, which to a certain extent enhances the college students' understanding and experience of the sense of life meaning (Quoidbach et al., 2015;Szczygie and Mikolajczak, 2017). Gross and John (2003) investigated the relationship between the two emotion regulation strategies and wellbeing and depression. ...
Article
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This study aimed to explore the mechanism of college students’ meaning of life. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the Gratitude Questionnaire Six-Item Form, the General Wellbeing Schedule, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire were used as measurement instruments. In total, 1,312 valid responses were obtained. The results showed that the cognitive reappraisal and expression suppression strategies were significantly positively and negatively correlated with gratitude, subjective wellbeing, and the sense of life meaning, respectively. Further, Emotion regulation strategies can affect college students’ sense of life meaning through three paths: the mediating effect of gratitude; the mediating effect of subjective wellbeing; the chain mediating effect of gratitude and subjective wellbeing. This study illuminated the roles of gratitude, and subjective wellbeing in influencing the sense of life meaning among the Chinese college students. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.
... Emotional intelligence (EI) is another important factor that impacts on people's social and psychological well-being [41,42]. As a personality trait, it encompasses emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions, concerning how people manage emotions and understand the impact of their emotions on social interactions, and is measured via self-report [43,44]. ...
Article
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Lifespan is increasing globally as never before, and leading to an aging world population. Thus, the challenge for society and individuals is now how to live these years in the best possible health and wellbeing. Despite the benefits of physical activity for both are well documented, older people are not active enough. Physical self-concept is correlated with high levels of sports practice, although its evolution across one's life span is not clear. The aim of this research has been to analyze the physical self-concept in older adults and its relationship with emotional intelligence, motivation and sports habits. The sample of 520 adults aged between 41 and 80 was clustered in ranges of age; 70.96% were men (n = 369; 57.34 years (SD: 7.97)) and 29.04% women (n = 151; age = 55.56 years (SD: 9.12)). Questionnaires adapted to Spanish were used to measure physical self-concept (Physical Self-Perception Profile), motivation (Sport Motivation Scale), and emotional intelligence (Trait Meta-Mood Scale). Regarding physical self-concept, the youngest group obtained the highest mean values and the oldest group the lowest. Physical self-concept correlated positively with emotional regulation and intrinsic motivation. Initiation to sports in childhood, the practice of sports activities for more than 150' per week, and the practice of three or more sports, were associated with a higher score of physical self-concept. The findings reveal that physical self-concept declines in older adults, slightly at first, and sharply between 71 and 80 years, being intrinsic motivation, emotional regulation , and sports habits, factors to consider in favoring a positive physical self-concept and adherence to sporting activities.
... This meta-analysis offered strong evidence demonstrating the relationship between emotional intelligence and subjective happiness. Consistent with this finding, a recent research study of undergraduate students conducted in Poland also found that trait emotional intelligence is significantly correlated with subjective happiness (Szczygieł and Mikolajczak 2017). Likewise, in a study of Italian high school students, Di Fabio and Kenny (2016) found that both hedonic and eudemonic well-being can be enhanced by trait emotional intelligence. ...
Article
Subjective happiness has been considered a key indicator of adolescents’ healthy development. The present study aimed at identifying the impact of childhood emotional abuse on adolescents’ subjective happiness and the possible role of emotional intelligence as a mediating variable. Using convenience sampling, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with 9 secondary schools in Hong Kong, China. Participants included a total of 1710 grade 8 to grade 9 secondary school students. The mean age was 13.6, and 61.2% were boys. Measures included child abuse and trauma, emotional intelligence, and subjective happiness. The results showed that childhood emotional abuse in adolescents’ childhood is a significant risk factor for subjective happiness. Emotional intelligence has a partial mediation effect on the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and subjective happiness. It is noteworthy that parenting practices in childhood have a significant impact on children’s happiness even after a period of time. It is suggested that students’ emotional intelligence be enhanced to increase their subjective happiness. Although the conventional parenting style may be rooted in Chinese culture, a paradigm shift in parenting seems to be needed for Chinese parents. Efforts should be made to promote appropriate parenting methods and emotional intelligence in Chinese societies. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research are also discussed.
... exigencias profesionales y el consiguiente desgaste psicológico que suponen (Vesely et al., 2013). Las investigaciones previas han mostrado que las competencias emocionales de los docentes ayudan a prevenir síntomas de estrés laboral, probablemente debido a la sensación de control sobre los acontecimientos estresantes y al uso de estrategias constructivas para hacerles frente (Szczygieł y Mikolajczak, 2017;Valente y Lourenço, 2020). En cambio, los profesores y profesoras que sienten estrés o agobio por sus responsabilidades como educadores tienen dificultades para manejar su clase, lo que afecta a su bienestar y al rendimiento académico del alumnado (Atmaca et al., 2020;Lavy y Eshet, 2018). ...
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La literatura señala que educar en emociones conduce a una mejora en la convivencia, la salud mental y el bienestar, no solo de los alumnos, sino también de los docentes, que cuentan con más recursos para hacer frente a las diferentes exigencias profesionales y el consiguiente desgaste psicológico. Dado los beneficios de la educación emocional para toda la comunidad escolar, se ha desarrollado e implementado el Programa de Educación Emocional para Docentes (MADEMO), basado en el modelo de inteligencia emocional de Mayer y Salovey (1997). El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar tanto los efectos del programa de intervención sobre los cambios producidos en las competencias emocionales, como la propia percepción de los docentes. Participaron en el estudio 135 docentes entre 22 y 62 años (M = 43,66; DT = 9,29), 104 eran mujeres (77%). Para la valoración del programa se utilizó una metodología mixta que permitió analizar los aprendizajes percibidos por las personas participantes y profundizar en su experiencia subjetiva. Los resultados señalan aprendizajes significativos en las cuatro competencias emocionales descritas por el modelo de inteligencia emocional, así como el fomento de la interacción social y el desarrollo personal y profesional. Los resultados del análisis cuantitativo complementan el análisis cualitativo, permitiendo una exploración más profunda de la utilidad del programa MADEMO para educar en emociones, atendiendo a la necesidad real de los docentes que demandan recursos para afrontar las tareas que implican la atención y gestión de las emociones dentro y fuera del aula.
... In most theories, a key indicator of wellbeing is positive affect (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005;Cohn and Fredrickson, 2009;Kong and Zhao, 2013;Coffey et al., 2014;Szczygieł and Mikolajczak, 2017). However, existing negative emotions and mood should not be ignored as emotional wellbeing has been defined as "the ratio of positive affect (PA) to negative affect (NA) in a person's life over a representative time period" (Larsen, 2009:249). ...
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In response to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, educational institutions around the world were forced into lockdown in order to contain the spread of the virus. To ensure continuous provision of education, most transitioned to emergency remote instruction. This has been particularly the case in higher education institutions. The circumstances of the pandemic have brought unprecedented psychological pressure on the population, in the case of educators and students exacerbated by the transition to a mode of instruction that was completely novel to the majority. The present study examines how college and university instructors dealt with teaching online in these unprecedented circumstances, with a focus on how factors connected with their daily lives and livelihoods influenced their well-being. A comprehensive online survey was filled out by 804 HE instructors from 92 countries between April and September 2020. We explore how sociodemographic variables such as gender, age, relationship status, living conditions, and length of professional experience non-trivially affect situational anxiety, work-life synergy, coping, and productivity. The results contribute to a better understanding of the impact of the pandemic and emergency remote instruction on college and university instructors’ well-being by explaining the mechanisms mediating the relationship between individual, contextual and affective variables. It may provide helpful guidelines for college and university administrators as well as teachers themselves as to how help alleviate the adverse effects of the continuing pandemic and school closures on coping and well-being.
... Researchers further found that modesty may increase happiness by enhancing personal social relationships (Bond et al. 1982;Han 2011), and EI contributes to the quality of those relations, in increasing emotion regulation and social competence (Andrei et al. 2016). There is also a large body of studies demonstrating the benefits of EI on promoting SWB and reducing mental distress (Kong et al. 2012;Wang and Kong 2014;Szczygieł and Mikolajczak 2017). Hence, we assumed that modesty, defined as goal-direct self-presentational behaviors, plays a role in the development of EI and thus contributes to higher SWB and less depression. ...
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Modesty, often defined as a goal-direct self-presentational behavior, is highly beneficial to behavioral health regulation, self-efficacy, interpersonal relation, and group performance. Recent theories and studies have provided evidence that modesty is linked to adaptive well-being, but the potential mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. This study examined the mediating roles of emotional intelligence (EI) and self-esteem (SE) in the relationship between modesty and subjective well-being (SWB) as well as depression among 500 Chinese adults. The results showed that higher levels of modesty were positively associated with EI, SE, SWB, and negatively correlated with depression. Furthermore, EI and SE were positively related to SWB, and were negatively related to depression. Path analyses indicated that EI and SE mediated the relationship between modesty and both SWB and depression in-sequence. EI was also a direct mediator between modesty and depression, whereas SE played an indirect role through its relationship with EI. These findings suggest an important role of modesty in promoting well-being and provide the preliminary evidence regarding possible mechanisms through which modesty contributes to well-being.
... El Autoconocimiento Emocional (AE) y la Autorregulación Emocional (ARE) son precisamente indicadores de dicha inteligencia emocional, y hacen referencia a todas las habilidades que permiten el control y la expresión emocional (Estrada, 2015;Goleman, 2012;Valles & Valles, 2003;Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Estos aspectos de la inteligencia emocional son sustanciales para consolidar la autoconfianza, la cual es un factor relacionado positivamente con el bienestar y la felicidad (Szczygieł & Mikolajczak, 2017), que a su vez contribuyen a que los individuos lleven una vida personal y social más placentera. Asimismo, el AE y la ARE ayudan a: reducir la ansiedad, superar situaciones estresantes, mejorar las relaciones interpersonales, tolerar las frustraciones y desarrollar habilidades para resolver los problemas que surgen en el contexto personal, familiar, social y laboral (Díaz, Muela, García & Espinosa, 2011). ...
... The extant literature has examined why emotional intelligence may influence subjective well-being and has suggested several mediating mechanisms in the relations of emotional intelligence with subjective well-being, for example, positive and negative affect (Sánchez-Álvarez, Extremera, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2015), perceived stress (Ruiz-aranda, Extremera, & Pineda-Galan, 2014) and positive emotion regulation (Szczygieł & Mikolajczak, 2017), which mainly focus on processes within individual psychosocial level. However, network-based processes, as identified by social networks theory, have received very little attention as mechanisms in understanding the link between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being. ...
Article
This study examined whether the status (central or peripheral position) of individuals in a friendship network and the quality of a friendship network represent key mechanisms in determining how emotional intelligence is associated with subjective well-being. Using data collected from 217 Chinese senior undergraduates, we found that the interaction of the quality of a friendship network and a peripheral position in a friendship network mediated relations of emotional intelligence with subjective well-being. Although a central position in a friendship network did not interact with the quality of a friendship network, it did mediate the relations of emotional intelligence with subjective well-being on its own. The findings expand the growing body of research findings on the association between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being by investigating the role of friendship networks and highlight the importance of a network perspective in understanding the association.
... Despite the benefits of happiness (De Neve et al., 2013;Fredrickson, 1998Fredrickson, , 2001Szczygieł & Mikolajczak, 2017) and the effectiveness of happiness-boosting interventions (Hendriks et al., 2019;Sin & Lyubomirsky, 2009;Tejada-Gallardo et al., 2020), some people still show an aversion towards experiencing positive feelings and states of mind (Joshanloo & Weijers, 2013). One may think that if happiness happens to be feared, all the possible benefits of promoting happiness might dissipate. ...
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Objective Two studies were conducted to investigate fear of happiness through the lens of the dual continua model of mental health. Methods In Study 1, we examined whether depression (indicator of mental illness) and happiness (indicator of mental health) predicted fear of happiness through a Structural Equation Model. In Study 2, we ran a quasi-experimental design to examine differences in affect (positive and negative), happiness and depression when engaging in either fearless or fearful beliefs of happiness. Results Fear of happiness was positively and negatively predicted by depression and happiness, respectively. Fearless individuals reported higher positive affect and happiness, and lower negative affect and depression, than fearful individuals. Conclusions Fearing happiness might act as a maladaptive self-verifying motive to enhance one's perspective of the world. Given the likelihood of modifying maladaptive cognitive patterns, we highlight different psychological interventions that can address the negative impact of fearful beliefs of happiness.
... Furthermore, high mood repair predicted a decrease in both depression and anxiety in adolescents, whereas high emotional clarity predicted a decrease in depression only [20]. Moreover, high emotional intelligence predicted both greater life satisfaction and subjective happiness in undergraduate students [21]. Emotional intelligence also mediated the relationship between mindfulness and well-being in university students [22] and the levels of emotional intelligence were low in individuals with various emotional disorders [23]. ...
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Background Whether mindfulness and emotional intelligence may counteract psychological symptoms and whether brooding and worry may be linked to decreased psychological well-being (PWB) in individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is still an issue. Methods The study used a cross-sectional design on a sample of 66 consecutive individuals with a diagnosis of GAD. Two hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to determine whether PWB and anxiety symptoms were accounted for by mindfulness and emotional intelligence skills, brooding, and worry. Results Worry was negatively related to PWB and showed a tendency to be positively associated with anxiety symptoms after controlling for the other variables. Brooding was uniquely and positively related to anxiety symptoms. Different mindfulness (i.e., describing and nonjudging) and emotional intelligence (i.e., attention and repair) skills were particularly important for PWB. Repair was also negatively related to anxiety symptoms. Conclusions Repair was the variable that played a key role in the association with both PWB and GAD symptoms. Worry was the second most important variable, although it approached significance in the relationship with anxiety symptoms. Brooding was more strongly positively associated with anxiety than worry. In sum, the results suggest that an integrated and balanced focus on both positive and negative functioning will be useful in future clinical psychology research to predict, understand, and treat anxiety as well as to examine the antecedents and characteristics of positivity in individuals with GAD and promote their PWB.
... For this reason, and also taking into account the evidence demonstrating that people differ in the spontaneous use of ER strategies in response to online emotions arising in the present moment (Egloff, Schmukle, Burns, & Schwerdtfeger, 2006;Ehring, Tuschen-Caffier, Schnülle, Fischer, & Gross, 2010;Volokhov & Demaree, 2010), it can be predicted that there are differences between individuals that influence their approach to negative stimuli and determine how they choose to alter the impact of those stimuli on the experienced and expressed emotions. For example, there is evidence that people high in trait emotional intelligence are able to use ER strategies in a more flexible manner than their counterparts low in emotional intelligence because they have access to more ER strategies (Peña-Sarrionandia, Mikolajczak, & Gross, 2015;Szczygieł & Mikolajczak, 2017). It would, therefore, be desirable to develop more sophisticated research paradigms that could capture the complexity of potential determinants of ER strategy choices better. ...
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The present study examined the effect of negative emotional stimulus intensity (low versus high) on the choice of emotion regulation (ER) strategy when a person wants to control their emotional expression, and the impact of this choice on how the information accompanying emotional stimuli is remembered. The effects of emotional stimulus intensity on the choice of ER strategy were examined in two studies. In both studies, the participants (unaware of the differences in the intensity of stimuli) were asked to view images inducing negative emotions of high and low intensity and to choose which strategy (cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression) they would use in order to control their emotional expression. In addition, in Study 2, the authors tested the memory of the verbal content accompanying the emotional stimuli that appeared during the ER period. As expected, the participants chose reappraisal over suppression when confronted with low-intensity stimuli. In contrast, when confronted with high-intensity stimuli, they chose suppression over reappraisal. The results of Study 2 revealed that memory accuracy was higher for those images that the participants chose to use reappraisal rather than suppression.
... An inverse relation between job stress and employee happiness exists [29]. In social science literature, happiness is usually taken in a sense of subjective enjoyment of an individual's life in its entirety [30]. People with high EI have self-control and self-management under stressful situations and that strengthens them, and feelings of self-esteem and satisfaction can increase happiness [31]. ...
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The contribution of emotional intelligence in a working environment has been studied in a good extent in the literature. The findings from empirical studies signify the importance of emotional intelligence in ensuring the good functioning of an organization. This paper aims at investigating the effect of emotional intelligence on workplaces by gathering the findings that show the positive correlations between EI, attitudes and working variables. More specifically, it presents the link between emotional intelligence and six variables, very significant for a better and more effective working environment. Furthermore, it can be a kind of help for managers and researchers to better realize the relationship between EI and the other factors, its effectiveness so to incorporate training programs in courses and in companies based on EI and empathy.��
... Hence, EI tends to lead to behaviors that consider the internal experiences and emotional needs of oneself and others. EI may also involve generating positive emotions to facilitate thinking from multiple perspectives to enable problem-solving and to motivate performance and persistence (Isen 2000;Salovey et al. 1999;Szczygiel and Mikolajczak 2017). ...
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The role of emotions in student engagement has been examined in many studies. However, little is known about how emotional intelligence (EI) is related to engagement and other key learning outcomes in higher education. To fill this gap, this study examined how EI is associated with student engagement and how EI and engagement jointly predict key learning outcomes in higher education, including the students’ GPA, generic outcomes, and satisfaction with the university experience. The study adopted a prospective longitudinal design involving 560 first-year students from 10 faculties of a university in Hong Kong. The data were collected at two-time points, namely before the start and after the end of the students’ first year in the university. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the measurement and hypothesized models. Results indicated that EI positively predicted all dimensions of student engagement and promoted key learning outcomes (including GPA, generic learning outcomes, and students’ satisfaction with the university) via the different dimensions of student engagement. The model also explained 16%, 44%, and 38% of the students’ GPA, generic learning outcomes, and satisfaction with their university experience, respectively. This study provides empirical evidence on the positive effect of EI on the students’ optimal functioning in the higher education context. Implications of the findings are discussed.
... To better explain why EI positively affects major life outcomes, scholars have recently started to shift their attention from individual differences in EI more towards the behavioral mechanisms that underlie the positive effects of EI (Joseph & Newman, 2010;Mestre, MacCann, Guil, & Roberts, 2016;Peňa-Sarrionandia, Mikolajczak, & Gross, 2015;Ybarra, Kross, & Sanchez-Burks, 2014). This shift in attention has resulted in several important 1 insights, including increased understanding of when and how EI is used in individuals' lives (Matthews, Zeidner, & Roberts, 2017;Peňa-Sarrionandia et al., 2015;Szczygiel & Mikolajczak, 2017). To illustrate, high-EI individuals have been found to modify their emotions as early as possible during emotional situations. ...
... Similar patterns of relationships were found with the capacity for utilizing emotions for problem solving. Because emotional intelligence is not only related to down-regulating negative emotions but to up-regulating positive emotions (Quoidbach, Mikolajczak, & Gross, 2015;Szczygieł & Mikolajczak, 2017), it can be suspected that different subgroups of perfectionists may experience different effects of diverse emotions on emotional outcomes such as burnout. ...
Article
This study aimed to examine the relationship between the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism, academic burnout, and achievement emotions via a person-centered approach in a sample of 450 South Korean adolescents (64.7%female). Participants completed two perfectionism scales (i.e., the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised), the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey. The results of the latent profile analysis offered support for the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism with four classes: adaptive (high perfectionistic strivings(PS)/low perfectionistic concerns(PC)), maladaptive (low PS/high PC), mixed (high PS/high PC), and non-perfectionists (low PS/low PC). Adaptive and mixed perfectionists experienced higher levels of positive-activating achievement emotions and lower levels of negative-activating/deactivating achievement emotions than maladaptive and non-perfectionists did. Regarding academic burnout, maladaptive perfectionist was the most maladaptive profile, whereas adaptive perfectionist was the most adaptive profile. Additionally, positive-activating emotions and negative-deactivating emotions negatively and positively predicted academic burnout, respectively. Among these relationships, only the relationship between positive-activating emotions and cynicism was moderated by perfectionism profile. Overall, the present findings may offer a useful framework for understanding the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism of adolescents in academic settings.
... Perceiving, expressing, understanding and managing emotions can be essential to a better subjective wellbeing (Zeidner et al., 2012). In addition, a considerable amount of research studies points to the incremental validity of emotional intelligence in predicting subjective well-being (Szczygieł and Mikolajczak, 2017). Similar results are obtained by other scientists; Extremera et al. (2020) confirm the correlation between emotional intelligence, cognitive emotion regulation strategies and psychological well-being and satisfaction with life, whereas S anchez-Álvarez et al. (2016) show that emotional intelligence promotes the frequency of pleasant emotions and decreases that of negative emotions, a consequence of which is a strengthened perception of subjective well-being. ...
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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of the relationship between emotional intelligence and materialism by exploring how subjective well-being mediates this link. Design/methodology/approach: Data was collected from surveying 1,000 Lithuanians within random sampling, and structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques using SmartPLS were used to analyze the data. Findings: The results show that emotional intelligence not only has a negative indirect effect on materialism but also a positive impact on both dimensions of subjective well-being (satisfaction with life and affect balance). In addition, the findings indicate that both satisfaction with life and affect balance predict a decrease in materialism. Finally, the SEM analyzes show that the path between emotional intelligence and materialism is partially mediated by both satisfaction with life and affect balance. Social implications: The results of this study expand the understanding to what extent and how emotional intelligence is able to assist in adjusting materialistic attitudes, which have become more prevalent with the respective growth of consumerism and consumer culture worldwide. In the light of unsustainable consumption patterns threatening the survival of humankind and nature, the opportunities that could reverse this trend are presented for marketers and policy makers. This study gives insight into the potential pathways for diminishing consumer materialism, which is considered detrimental to subjective well-being and mental health. Originality/value: The relationship between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being has been well documented, as has the link between materialism and subjective well-being. However, the simultaneous examination of the relationship between emotional intelligence, subjective well-being and materialism is lacking. The current study adds to the understanding of materialism not only by examining the effect of under-researched antecedent such as emotional intelligence but also by explaining the underlying mechanism of subjective well-being by which emotional intelligence connects to materialism.
... The results of this study show that EI positively predicted SWB, which was consistent with previous studies (e.g., Sánchez-Álvarez et al., 2016;Szczygieł and Mikolajczak, 2017). According to EI theory, as individuals with high EI are good at understanding and managing their emotions, they are more likely to cope better with the stresses and troubles of daily life (Zeidner et al., 2012). ...
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This study aimed to explore the mediating role of emotional regulation strategies in the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and subjective well-being (SWB) among Chinese university teachers, and evaluate whether effort-reward imbalance moderated the mediating effect of emotional regulation strategies. A total of 308 Chinese university teachers were recruited for this study. The results showed that emotional regulation strategies played a partial mediating role in the relationship between EI and SWB. Moreover, an effort-reward imbalance moderated the relationship between emotional regulation strategies and SWB. For individuals with more balanced perceptions, EI had a significant effect on SWB via cognitive reappraisal, while for individuals with more imbalanced perceptions, EI did not have a significant effect on SWB via cognitive reappraisal. These findings provide a better understanding of the effects of EI and emotional regulation strategies on SWB, which could provide interventions for promoting SWB among teachers.
... This may lead them to value their lives more positively. Thus, it has been proposed that greater trait EI may allow individuals to extend or enjoy to a greater extent their positive emotional states and thereby generate greater life satisfaction (Szczygieł & Mikolajczak, 2017). Something similar could happen with negative emotions, with those with higher levels of trait ER managing to reduce the duration of negative emotions, which could increase their life satisfaction. ...
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Teaching is an emotionally demanding profession that can negatively affect teacher well-being. This cross-sectional study aimed to test a comprehensive structural equation model of both the direct and indirect (through affect and intrinsic job satisfaction) relationships between trait emotion regulation and life satisfaction in a sample of 404 Spanish teachers. The model obtained good fit (SeB c2 ¼ 319.142, df ¼ 201, p < .001; CFI ¼ 0.957; RMSEA ¼ 0.038). Outcomes suggested that: i) positive and negative affect mediates the relationship between trait emotion regulation and both life and job satisfaction; ii) job satisfaction is the main determinant of life satisfaction. Practical implications and limitations are also discussed.
... Many researchers argue that people with higher emotional intelligence can positively impact both team and organization (Rezvani et al., 2016;Maqbool et al., 2017;Zhang et al., 2018). Emotionally intelligent leaders tend to positively experience and express emotion by their emotion regulation ability (Peslak, 2005;Szczygieł and Mikolajczak, 2017). By releasing positive emotion in the workplace, leaders could effectively influence subordinates' behaviors and attitudes, such as enhancing subordinates' engagement performance and organizational citizenship behavior (Goswami et al., 2014). ...
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The emotional intelligence of a construction project manager plays an essential role in project management, and recent developments in teamwork have increased the need to explore better ways to utilize teams and achieve effectiveness in the construction sector. However, research that holds the team-level perspective in emotional intelligence studies is lacking, and the mechanism of the construction project manager’s emotional intelligence on team effectiveness remains unexplored. This knowledge gap is addressed by developing a model that illuminates how construction project manger’s emotional intelligence can affect team effectiveness via the mediation of team cohesion and the moderation of project team duration. A questionnaire survey was utilized to gather information from construction project teams across 156 leader-member dyads in the Chinese construction industry. The results reveal that construction project manager’s emotional intelligence is positively related to team effectiveness and the team cohesion mediates this cause and effect. Further, project team duration moderates the relationship between team cohesion and effectiveness. This study offers new insight into how project manager can better lead team members toward desired team outcomes from a team perspective and makes an explorative effort in investigating the “time” role in construction project management.
... This suggests that people with higher FA values in the regions involved in cognitive and emotional regulation are less likely to experience strong stress and, as are shown in the current research, more likely to experience higher happiness. This is strangely consistent with the results of previous psychological studies, which showed that people with a higher ability to read and evaluate the emotions of others had lower stress 102-104 and higher SHS 105,106 , and that people with lower stress tend to have higher SHS [107][108][109] . Previous studies have hypothesized that aging does not reduce happiness because gaining life experience increases certain tolerances 17,18 . ...
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As the population ages, the realization of a long and happy life is becoming an increasingly important issue in many societies. Therefore, it is important to clarify how happiness and the brain change with aging. In this study, which was conducted with 417 healthy adults in Japan, the analysis showed that fractional anisotropy (FA) correlated with happiness, especially in the internal capsule, corona radiata, posterior thalamic radiation, cingulum, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. According to previous neuroscience studies, these regions are involved in emotional regulation. In psychological studies, emotional regulation has been associated with improvement in happiness. Therefore, this study is the first to show that FA mediates the relationship between age and subjective happiness in a way that bridges these different fields.
... According to Gross' process model of emotion regulation [12,31], emotion generation, intensity, and duration can be influenced by situation selection, situation modification, attention deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation. Other researchers further subdivided these categories: For instance [33], lists four response modulation strategies upregulating pleasant emotions: Being present, behavioral display, capitalizing, and positive mental time travel. With regard to crises [34], proposed that resilient people may recover more quickly from negative events because they use pleasant emotions to cope with the stressful situation. ...
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In stressful situations such as the COVID-19-pandemic, unpleasant emotions are expected to increase while pleasant emotions will likely decrease. Little is known about the role cognitive appraisals, information management, and upregulating pleasant emotions can play to support emotion regulation in a pandemic. In an online survey (N = 1682), we investigated predictors of changes in pleasant and unpleasant emotions in a German sample (aged 18–88 years) shortly after the first restrictions were imposed. Crisis self-efficacy and felt restriction were predictors of changes in unpleasant emotions and joy alike. The application of emotion up-regulation strategies was weakly associated with changes in joy. Among the different upregulation strategies, only “savouring the moment” predicted changes in joy. Our study informs future research perspectives assessing the role of upregulating pleasant emotions under challenging circumstances.
... En función de la metodología utilizada para la medición de este constructo se ha diferenciado entre dos tipologías de inteligencia emocional (Siegling, Saklofske, & Petrides, 2015): por un lado, la inteligencia emocional habilidad hace referencia a la medida de diferentes capacidades cognitivas a través de pruebas de rendimiento máximo; mientras que la inteligencia emocional rasgo se identifica con evaluaciones sobre las emociones realizadas mediante autoinformes. En cuanto a la medición de la inteligencia emocional a través de autoinformes, investigaciones recientes han obtenido asociaciones positivas entre la inteligencia emocional autopercibida y la satisfacción vital (Delhom, Gutierrez, Lucas-Molina, & Meléndez, 2017;Gascó, Badenes, & Plumed, 2018;Gavín-Chocano & Molero, 2020;Szczygieł & Mikolajczak, 2017;Wang, Zou, Zhang, & Hou, 2019). ...
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Resumen Abstract Tabla de Contenido Dentro del campo de la Psicología, el bienestar vital del individuo es un aspecto esencial por su gran relevancia y repercusión a lo largo de todas las etapas y ámbitos. Los objetivos de este estudio son examinar el grado alcanzado por los estudiantes universitarios en inteligencia emocional, apoyo social percibido y satisfacción vital, valorar las diferencias en función del sexo y analizar el nivel predictivo de las dos primeras variables sobre la tercera. 381 estudiantes universitarios completaron el Trait Meta Mood Scale, el Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support y el Satisfaction With Life Scale. Los resultados muestran que tanto la inteligencia emocional como el apoyo social se relacionan y predicen la satisfacción vital y que existen diferencias entre sexos. En conclusión, tanto la inteligencia emocional como el apoyo social son aspectos clave a la hora de intervenir con los estudiantes para promover su satisfacción vital.
... Furthermore, the behavioral expression of gratitude results in more social support offered and received by grateful individuals, which ultimately leads to higher levels of wellbeing. Alongside these findings, another possibility is that of gratitude magnifying wellbeing through the act of savoring through which people derive happiness from positive events (Jose et al., 2012;Szczygieł and Mikolajczak, 2017). Savoring, where constant mental repetition of a positive experience happens, could assist the upregulation of emotions and increase attention on positive instances from the past. ...
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The study examines the necessity and sufficiency of gratitude for supporting workplace happiness among Indian university teachers. It also explores the mediating effect of psychological capital and social capital in the relationship between gratitude and workplace happiness. The moderating effect of spiritual climate is investigated. A survey of 726 university staff in India was undertaken to examine the relationship between gratitude and workplace happiness. A series of statistical tests involving correlation, multiple regression, and necessary condition analysis was undertaken from the data set. The mediation effect of psychological capital and social capital was investigated using bootstrapping estimates using PROCESS Macro in SPSS. Also, the moderation effect of spiritual climate was explored using PROCESS Macro in SPSS. The results reveal that gratitude is both a sufficient and necessary condition for workplace happiness. It also suggests a significant mediating effect of psychological capital and social capital. Also, a significant effect of spiritual climate amid the relationship between gratitude and workplace happiness is concluded. The study is one of the first studies that explore the relationship between gratitude and workplace happiness. It examines the mechanism through which gratitude influences happiness in the workplace.
... If we analyse the data concerning correlates of emotional intelligence with well-being, on which we focus in this article (or associated concepts such as physical and mental health, satisfaction with life), we can see that most of the spectacular results proving its high importance are obtained with the use of questionnaire-based measurements (see e.g. Extremera, Salguero, Fernández-Berrocal, 2011;Malinauskas, Malinauskiene, 2020;Martinez-Pons, 1997;Rey, Extremera, Pena, 2011;Szczygieł, Mikolajczak, 2017); its role is not so consistently proved when estimated with the use of tests: then correlation coefficients are usually low or insignificant (cf. Brackett, Mayer, 2003;Extremera, Ruiz-Aranda, Pineda-Galan, Salguero, 2011;Extremera, Sánchez-Álvarez, Rey, 2020;Lopes, Salovey, Straus, 2003;Matczak, Piekarska, Studniarek, 2005;Ruiz-Aranda, Extremera, Pineda-Galan, 2014); although there are also some correlation coefficients which prove its moderate correlation (cf. ...
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The study was focused on relations between the abilities to recognize facial emotions, emotion understanding abilities, emotional competencies and well-being. It was expected that the relation between emotional intelligence and well-being is mediated by emotional competencies. Statistical software IBM SPSS AMOS 21 was used to test mediation models involving emotional abilities as the independent variable, emotional competencies as the mediator variable, and well-being as the dependent variable. The participants were 144 students aged between 18 and 32 (M = 20.59; SD = 1.82). Two tests were used to measure emotional intelligence: Emotional Intelligence Scale-Faces (EIS-F, in Polish: Skala inteligencji emocjonalnej-twarze, SIE-T) by Anna Matczak, Joanna Piekarska and Elżbieta Studniarek, and Emotion Understanding Test (EUT, in Polish: Test rozumienia emocji, TRE) by Anna Matczak and Joanna Piekarska. Emotional competencies were estimated with a self-descriptive questionnaire PQEI (in Polish: PKIE) by Anna Matczak et al. Well-being was measured with the use of a Depression Symptom Questionnaire (DSQ, in Polish: Kwestionariusz symptomów depresyjnych, KSD) by Anna Matczak and Katarzyna Martowska. It was found that emotional competencies are the mediator of the relation between emotional intelligence and well-being. The study also shows that having high emotional potential (emotional abilities) itself does not guarantee well-being. It is acquired emotional competencies, meaning the skills of coping in different emotional situations, that may significantly contribute to improving the person's physical and mental state. At the same time, emotional intelligence is a prerequisite for the development of such competencies, although more than that is necessary. The results of the study confirm the difference between emotional abilities and emotional competencies constructs and point out the importance of emotional competencies for the person's well-being. Keywords: abilities to recognize facial emotions, emotion understanding abilities, emotional intelligence, emotional competencies, physical and mental state
... np. Extremera, Salguero, Fernández-Berrocal, 2011;Malinauskas, Malinauskiene, 2020;Martinez-Pons, 1997;Rey, Extremera, Pena, 2011;Szczygieł, Mikolajczak, 2017); mniej konsekwentnie w badaniach ujawnia się jej rola wówczas, gdy szacujemy ją za pomocą testów -współczynniki korelacji są na ogół niskie lub nieistotne (por. Brackett, Mayer, 2003;Extremera, Ruiz-Aranda, Pineda-Galan, Salguero, 2011;Extremera, Sánchez-Álvarez, Rey, 2020;Lopes, Salovey, Straus, 2003;Matczak, Piekarska, Studniarek, 2005; Ruiz-Aranda, Extremera, Pineda-Galan, 2014); choć zdarzają się także współczynniki korelacji świadczące o jej umiarkowanie silnym związku (por. ...
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Badania dotyczyły związków między zdolnościami do rozpoznawania emocji na twarzy, zdolnościami do rozumienia emocji, kompetencjami emocjonalnymi i samopoczuciem. Oczekiwano, że relacja między inteligencją emocjonalną a samopoczuciem jest mediowana przez kompetencje emocjonalne. Korzystając z programu statystycznego IBM SPSS AMOS 21 przetestowano modele mediacyjne, w których zmienną niezależną były zdolności emocjonalne, zmienną pośredniczącą kompetencje emocjonalne, a zmienną zależną samopoczucie. Badani to 144 studentów w wieku od 18 do 32 lat (M = 20,59; SD = 1,82). Do pomiaru inteligencji emocjonalnej zastosowano dwa testy: Skalę Inteligencji Emocjonalnej-Twarze (SIE-T) autorstwa Anny Matczak, Joanny Piekarskiej i Elżbiety Studniarek oraz Test Rozumienia Emocji (TRE) autorstwa Anny Matczak i Joanny Piekarskiej. Kompetencje emocjonalne szacowano za pomocą samoopisowego kwestionariusza PKIE autorstwa Anny Matczak i współpracowników. Natomiast samopoczucie mierzono z wykorzystaniem Kwestionariusza Symptomów Depresyjnych (KSD) autorstwa Anny Matczak i Katarzyny Martowskiej. Okazało się, że kompetencje emocjonalne są mediatorem związku między inteligencją emocjonalną a samopoczuciem. Z badań wynika również, że samo posiadanie wysokiego potencjału emocjonalnego (zdolności emocjonalnych) nie gwarantuje dobrego samopoczucia. To nabyte kompetencje emocjonalne, czyli umiejętności radzenia sobie w różnych sytuacjach o charakterze emocjonalnym mogą w istotny sposób przyczyniać się do lepszego samopoczucia jednostki. Zarazem warunkiem koniecznym, choć niewystarczającym, kształtowania się tychże kompetencji jest inteligencja emocjonalna. Rezultaty badań potwierdzają odmienność konstruktów, jakim są zdolności i kompetencje emocjonalne oraz wskazują na znaczenie kompetencji emocjonalnych dla dobrostanu jednostki. Słowa kluczowe: inteligencja emocjonalna, kompetencje emocjonalne, samopoczucie, zdolności do rozpoznawania emocji na twarzy, zdolności do rozumienia emocji Abstract: The study was focused on relations between the abilities to recognize facial emotions, emotion understanding abilities, emotional competencies and well-being. It was expected that the relation between emotional intelligence and well-being is mediated by emotional competencies. Statistical software IBM SPSS AMOS 21 was used to test mediation models involving emotional abilities as the independent variable, emotional competencies as the mediator variable, and well-being as the dependent variable. The participants were 144 students aged between 18 and 32 (M = 20.59; SD = 1.82). Two tests were used to measure emotional intelligence: Emotional Intelligence Scale-Faces
... It is also linked to the working environment and more specifically to work success, for which self-awareness, self-management, cognitive awareness and social relationship management play an important role. Emotional intelligence promotes well-being and help people make the most of their positive emotions (Szczygieł & Mikolajczak, 2017). ...
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Gender equality is a fundamental human right and is essential for the existence of peaceful societies, with human resources that are fully utilized and sustainable development. Emotional Intelligence is not gender biased and it is an integral key to successful personal and working life. In (Drigas & Papoutsi, 2021) there was an attempt to construct a reliable and valid measurement instrument of emotional intelligence with 81 items, based on the theoretical nine-layer pyramid model of emotional intelligence. The sample was consisted of 520 teachers (129 males and 391 females) from primary and secondary school grade and the data was collected with the Nine Layer Pyramid Model Questionnaire for Emotional Intelligence. Among other results we examined gender differences in emotional intelligence. The results revealed some differences between the two genders on emotional intelligence with women scoring higher on overall emotional intelligence. This article also provides an overview of the prevailing emotional intelligence status of both sexes as it emerges through research, beliefs about emotions between women and men, and suggestions for avoiding stereotypes and proper interventions for raising emotional both men and women. Finally, a reference is made to technology in its various forms, including Information and Communication Technology (ICT), which is also associated with emotional intelligence and has great potential to empower women worldwide and promote gender equality
... High levels of EI is associated with higher levels of positive emotions (Sanchez-Alvarez et al., 2016). It is related to the abilities in up-regulating positive emotions and down-regulating negative emotions through the use of various adaptive emotion regulation strategies (e.g., greater use of strategies to prolong and enhance positive emotions) Szczygiel & Mikolajczak, 2017). When people experience positive emotions, they are more confident in their own intelligence and capabilities, which can motivate learning and facilitate approach-oriented behaviours that promote the accrual of learning skills and resources for achieving higher academic goals (Fredrickson, 2001;Pinxten et al., 2014). ...
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Emotional intelligence (EI) is foundational to students’ success in the university. However, past studies on EI in the higher education context have mostly focused on how EI is related to academic achievement neglecting student engagement and other learning-related outcomes (e.g., generic outcomes). In this study, we examined whether and how individual differences in EI influence students’ learning, engagement, and achievement during their first year at university. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods design was used to garner both quantitative and qualitative insights. We recruited and followed up with 560 first-year students in Hong Kong. The quantitative findings revealed a strong EI gradient with more emotionally intelligent students having higher levels of learning, engagement, and achievement. Qualitative findings corroborated the quantitative results and further showed that emotionally intelligent students are goal-directed, assertive, and self-regulated. Taken together, this study sheds light on the importance of EI for the optimal functioning of first year university students. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
... Ευρήματα ερευνών δείχνουν ότι η συναισθηματική νοημοσύνη έχει σημαντικό αντίκτυπο στην επίτευξη σε διάφορους τομείς της ζωής (π.χ., Bar-On & Parker, 2000. Ciarrochi, Forgas & Mayer, 2001. Druskat, Sala & Mount 2005. Geher, 2004. Szczygieł & Mikolajczak, 2017. Υποτίθεται, εξάλλου, ότι ορισμένες από τις βασικές συναισθηματικές και κοινωνικές συνιστώσες της συναισθηματικής νοημοσύνης μπορεί να οδηγήσουν σε καινοτόμες και δημιουργικές λύσεις προβλημάτων, οι οποίες συμβάλλουν στη χαρισματικότητα εν γένει (Bar-On, 2007). Η συναισθηματική νοημοσύνη, λοιπόν, παρουσιάζει υψηλή συσχέτιση με την ικανό ...
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... This can in part be mediated by socioeconomic status where greater access to resources may improve happiness scores (77), highlighting the reciprocity of the relationship between IQ, resource access, and happiness. There is also a clear, documented relationship in humans between happiness and emotional intelligence where people with higher emotional intelligence will report greater happiness scores, potentially through being able to better regulate negative emotions and capitalize on positive ones (78)(79)(80). Greater emotional regulation correlates with improved happiness and socioeconomic status (81). Emotional intelligence has even been demonstrated to compensate for low IQ (82) and can be a greater predictor of overall well-being than IQ (83). ...
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... 26,27 The results of some studies have demonstrated that individuals with higher emotional intelligence were more satisfied with their lives, which could be attributed to their positive attitudes towards their daily lives as well as to their ability to perceive emotions more efficiently. 28,29 Also, higher emotional intelligence and better perception of one's feelings and those of others are associated with reduced stress. 30 Stress is, in turn, an important factor associated with 31 Some researchers stated that high emotional intelligence could improve communication skills. ...
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