The tuning fork and the " Soundtherapy "


The knowledge of the magic effect of the 440 Hz is really ancient. “The music cannot improve without science”. Pronounced fifty years ago, nowadays this sentence appears almost obvious. John Pierce, the pioneer of musical electronic, well explains the meaning of this sentence The “sound therapy” stimulates the capacity of the human body to heal itself; in fact, through the irradiance of the sound it would happen the Energetical System, phenomenon called in this way by “specialists”
Masala D., Merolle V., Senses Sci 2017: 4 (2) 365-370
doi: 10.14616/sands-2017- 2- 365370
The tuning fork and the “Soundtherapy”
Daniele Masala1, Valentina Merolle2
1University of Cassino and Southern Lazio
2Free contributor of the L.A.P.A.SS. - University of Cassino and Southern Lazio
*Corresponding author: Prof. Daniele Masala, Department of Human, Social and Health Sciences, University of Cassino
and Southern Lazio, Italy; e-mail:
Article history
Received: February 13, 2017
Accepted: May 28, 2017
Published: June 1, 2017
The knowledge of the magic effect of the 440 Hz is really ancient. “The music cannot improve without science”. Pronounced fifty
years ago, nowadays this sentence appears almost obvious. John Pierce, the pioneer of musical electronic, well explains the meaning
of this sentence The “sound therapy” stimulates the capacity of the human body to heal itself; in fact, through the irradiance of the
sound it would happen the Energetical System, phenomenon called in this way by “specialists”.
Keywords: soundtherapy, magnetotherapy, tuning fork’s story, 440 Hz frequency.
Born in 1935, the English osteopath Sir Peter Guy
Manners (departed August 21th, 2009) is considered,
without doubt, the father of the “therapy of the sound”
or “sound therapy”, from which it derives the “tuning
fork therapy”.
While traveling all over the world (with the aim to find
new methods out for the treatment of the patients), Sir
Manners discovered step by step a variety of alternative
branches of knowledge, which inspired him and took
him to specialise in Natural Medicine and
Magnetotherapy, and, then, graduating to the Academie
Diplomatique de la Paix (a naturopathy school mail
order) and the Bio-energetic Medicine’s honorary
certificate in Moscow (this one not recognised by the
scientific community too) [1].
During that years, thanks to the meeting with the Swiss
Hans Jenny, Sir Peter started a research in a relatively
new area: “the therapeutic application of the sounds”.
From the 1960s, Manners was exclusively focused on the
use of audible voiced frequencies in several treatments.
Sir Peter Manners founded the Bretforton Hall Clinic, a
specific clinic in Evesham, in the Worcestershire, and it
was here where he realized the first therapeutic
equipment. The point of Manners was that the
“soundtherapy” stimulated the capacity of the human
body to heal itself; in fact, through the irradiance of the
sound it would happen the Energetical System,
phenomenon called in this way by “specialists”. The
diseases Sir Peter Manners has been studied and treated
are: chronic inflammation, bone calcification, arthritis’
pains, anti-aging treatment, and even bacterial/
viral/bloody/ tumor infections (these last two just
according to the engineer Benedick Howard) [2].
According to G. C. Peyton, a Bio-energetic and Cimatic
Medicine, Manners discovered more than six hundred
Senses Sci 2017; 4 (2) 365370
different healing frequencies; each of them is related to a
different part of the body, a specific tissue, a specific
organ, a specific gland, a particular pathology, a specific
emotional or psychic status. According to other sources,
the quantity of the programs present in the equipment
for the soundtherapy would even be higher than seven
hundred. Moreover, each program would count a
combination of five different frequencies. In the range of
usable patterns, it would also include frequencies come
from the Flowers of Bach: these are “eterical body” ’s
frequencies and frequencies for phantom “activations”
and “spiritual purifications” of the DNA. The
methodology, anyhow, would have the same result for
every part of the body: it should be necessary to “get the
organs or the interested part of the body listen” the
specific frequency of their own wealth status, and, in this
way, allowing the disharmonic area’s resynchronization
between each part of the body and their own benefic
normal frequencies.
To explain in details the soundtherapy’s principle of
operation (also called cimatic therapy, cimatherapy or
bio-resonance), Manners’ words could be helpful:
“Generally, when you think about a sound you think
about something has to be listened to. In the cimatic
therapy, it is not exactly like this: it is literally to
transmute and translocate precise sonorous frequencies in
the tissues and in the structures of the human body.
Every part and every organ of the body produces an
harmony, a sound; this sound is very small and very tiny
This tuning fork, actually, are not so different from
that one used by musicians. Essentially, the variability is
limited to the dimensions, and, consequently, there is an
increasing of the notes spectrum which could be
reproduced. The definition of “therapeutic” indicates
simply a different usage of them. At this point, we have
to take a step back to find out what the musical tuning
fork is and when it came out.
Pythagoras used to say: “The geometry of the shapes is
solidified music”. We are substantially made of materia
(atoms, molecules, particles ect…), altogether with a
vibrant energy. We have to say that more discovered kind
of vibrations in nature all of them are multiple of eight.
In fact, 432 is a multiple of 8, as well as 72 (the
percentage of water in the human body, or percentage of
water in the planet, or still, the cycle of regular heartbeats
for a minute). The frequency of 8 Hz corresponds to the
infrasound produced by our brain when it is powerfully
active (this frequency is called “Alfa”, that leads to a
synchrony of both brain’s hemispheres, the right one
with the left one. Even the ear, as well as other organs of
the body, has a multiple of 8 as a frequency. The
replication frequency of our DNA is even to 256 cycles
(multiple of eight and corresponding to the “C” note in
the tuning fork 432 Hz). We are made and organized on
the basis of specific frequencies that has to be respected in
the musical practice. In this way, it could be found out
the naturality which has been negated in the past. Some
recent researches have demonstrated that these
frequencies are much more natural frequencies, but, more
important, they have value in term of wealth or, better to
explain, they are able to “re-agree” to the listening,
reactivating the natural vibration of the body, and, in this
way, healing physical and psychic “disharmonies”. Here,
we are talking about something that has to do with the
musictherapy: music is actually a powerful way for the
human being. After testing to tune different instruments
with different highnesses, I can say that the guitar tuned
with the tuning fork 432 Hz offers a warmer and more
relaxing sound. I definitely tune my musical instruments
with this tuning fork! [4].
“The music cannot improve without science”.
Pronounced fifty years ago, nowadays this sentence
appears almost obvious. John Pierce, the pioneer of
musical electronic, well explains the meaning of this
sentence [5]. It is not a case that the first thing done by
thousands of musicians is to tune their musical
instruments with a frequency of 440 Hz’ sound as model,
denominated “reference tuning fork”.
Every frequency agrees and is tuned, let’s say it is
harmonized, with each other frequency which has the
first frequency’s multiple or under multiple value.
Therefore, all the multiple or under multiple
frequencies gives the same note off, on every different
octave. For example, if you duplicate the 261 Hz of a
piano’s central C, you will obtain a frequency of 522 Hz,
which is the frequency of the higher octave C. The sound
is the same but more acute, and the two notes altogether
resound out. These two notes, then, are “harmonic” to
each other. (n.d.t.). This is the working principle of the
octaves, which music and math co-operate together in.
On the basis of this principle, it is possible to combine
together the astronomical and musical formulas [6].
In the Middle Age it was already come to know music
has a strong link with the sciences, and because of it,
music was included in the so called “quadrivium”: the
four most important matters in school, altogether with
arithmetic, geometry and astronomy. At that times, this
famous Pythagoras’ sentence ruled: “The secret of
harmony lies in the magic power of numbers”. This
concept explanation comes from the verification that the
perfect consonant intervals of eighth, fourth and fifth
correspond to notes that have frequencies with whole
small numbers ratios with each other. (C-C', 1:2; C-G,
2:3; C-F, 3:4, con 1+2+3+4=10, the magic number) [7].
The knowledge of the magic effect of the octave is
really ancient. One of the mysterious inscriptions on the
capital in Cluny’s Abbey in France recites: “Octavus
Sanctus Omnes Decet Esse Beatos” – “The octave teaches
the Holy Beatitude”. Then, the unit for the measure of
the frequency, the Hertz, indicates the oscillations for a
Masala D., Merolle V.
second; therefore, affirming that the frequency of 194,18
Hz is twenty-four octaves higher than a cycle for a day, it
means that duplicating 24 times the frequency of an
oscillation in a day you will obtain 194,18 oscillations for
a second (twenty-fourth harmonic). It corresponds to the
basic “A” obtained on the chromatic scale starting from
the “G”, 194,18 Hz [8].
Talking about it, there is much more to say:” Musica
est exercitium arithmeticae occultum nescientis se
numerare animi”, that means “Music is an arithmetic
exercise of the mind which counts without knowing how
to count”. Leibniz wrote these words, in the eighteen
century, maybe inspired from the Pythagorean idea that
“the secret of harmony lies in the magic power of the
numbers” [9].
However, when exactly is the tuning fork officially
born? According to Sir John Hawkins (London, March
29, 1719 – London, May 21, 1789; musicians, essayist
and pioneer of a new range of studies, that is musicology;
father of the writer Laetitia Hawkins, he was a writer too,
and also magistrate, president of the tribunal in
Middlesex and, from 1772 onwards baronet too) (10),
the shape of the modern tuning fork has been invented in
1711 by John Shore: he was a trumpet player who took
place in Friedrich Haendel orchestra and he was one of
the 24 musicians in Queen Anna’s orchestra; he has
become famous for the trumpet solo during George I’s
ceremony of coronation in 1714 and he also was a
member of the real band for many years [11].
In Italy, this instrument is called “TUNING FORK ”
and also “corista”, when in France they use to call it
“fourche” or “fourchette”; in German, instead, it is called
“stimmgabel”. At that times, the issues to be solved to
obtain a pure and stable source of elastic vibrations were
to succeed to obtain a pure sound: in other terms, a
sound without higher harmonics for a long period of
time. However, these conditions had not been satisfied,
at least, contemporary by any other instrument.
Nowadays, the term TUNING FORK , which has
different meanings in music, generally indicates an
acoustical instrument able to generate a standard note
which tuning the musical instruments with. The most
common and also the most ancient TUNING FORK is
a sort of fork made in steel that, when it is hit, it
produces a pure, without harmonics sound; sometimes
this sound is amplified, especially if the basis of the fork
is located on a surface shaped like a harmonic box.
Taking into consideration the Galilean experience
regarding the “quotes produced by the chisel”, quoted in
the Discourses and mathematic demonstrations about two
new sciences (1638), perhaps it is not wrong to attribute
to Galileo the original idea either of the first graphical
method of sonorous vibrations’ recording and of the best
method to produce it through a tuning fork forerunner.
A chisel, used by hand and vibrating because scraping a
metallic surface, it can be considered as a shaft with a
knot on a side and free on the other side; the tuning fork,
indeed, can be in theory considered as well as a particular
kind of shaft. The birth of the tuning fork could be
linked to the union between the knowledge about the
vibrant metallic shafts and a common object confirmed
capacity to vibrate and produce sounds: the springs (e.g.
to stoke the fire), shaped like and surely much more
ancient than the tuning fork [12].
Obviously, the oscillation frequency of the tuning fork
depends either on the elastic material which it is made of,
and on the length and also on the distance between the
branches of the fork itself. Nowadays, the most used
tuning fork is that one in “A” up over the central “C”:
this A has a frequency oscillation of 440 Hz and, then, it
corresponds to the A on the fourth octave of the piano
The first historic tuning forks had a frequency of 415
Hz (Renaissance instruments), but analyzing several
Greek and Egyptian instruments, we can notice a
similarity with the 432 Hz’s tuning fork. Verdi used to
tune his own orchestra with the “A” at 432 Hz as well,
and because of this principle, he decided that in Italy it
would have been this one the highness for the TUNING
FORK [14] . He was so convinced about it that, by
permission of a musical commission of the period, he was
given a Legislative Decree which standardized the
TUNING FORK to the 432 oscillations for a second’s
A. This Decree is still exposed in the Milan Conservatory
“Giuseppe Verdi” [15].
The generalized use of the tuning fork as an instrument
for producing a sound with fixed acoustic frequency did
not follow his invention, as we can notice from the
scientific literature of eighteen century, e.g. in the pages
of the course (1751) by the abbot Jean Antoine Nollet
(December 19, 1700 – April 25, 1779, a French
theologian and physician). These pages take in evidence
how the issue of conservation of an acoustic frequency
example had not been resolved in the middle of the
century. Until over the end of the 18 century, all the
suggested methods to obtain fixed frequencies for
scientific usages, were essentially based on the usage of air
tools. It is true that in 1751 Haendel used to use a
“tuning fork example” to be used for the musical
executions. At the beginning of nineteen century it is
dated sources in which it is explained the usage of the
tuning fork like an instrument for the production of
example frequencies in the physic laboratories. During
that period of time, instead, it was used to study the
propagation of the sound and the resonance of bodies; in
the same period of time, the scientific literature suggests
the usage of tuning fork only to tune musical
instruments, like in the famous script by the French
physician and mathematician Jean Baptist Biot (Paris,
April 21, 1774 – Paris, February 3rd, 1862) [16].
The running to the increasing of the “A” began with
the Russian and Austrian musical bands (Wagner times),
Senses Sci 2017; 4 (2) 365370
after analyzing the effect of the sounds on the human
being. In particular, it has been noted that, during the
war, one more acute tuning fork (between 440 and 450
Hz) gets the soldiers to be instable and aggressive, a very
useful behavior to fight. Later, the Nazis adopted this
kind of effect on human mind to incite the army as best
they could do it [17].
The Minister of the propaganda Joseph Goebel
imposed the its adoption in the whole Europe for artistic
aims, but this decision raised several protests in France
(in fact, he ignored a contrary referendum, promoted in
France by 25.000 musicians) [18]. Later, during some
phantom conferences made by phantom experts as well,
the 440 Hz tuning fork has been completely confirmed
for global musical practice. Therefore, a too much acute
tuning fork uses to get soldiers too much irritable and
aggressive in the fight. This phenomenon gets us to
understand how and how much the history, the politics
and the historical events deeply influence our musical
world. In particular, the sound tuned on the 440 Hz’s
would create “Beta” brainwaves… during its normal daily
activity, our brain produces a series of infrasound, and in
the specific, this kind of Beta sound is a status for
infrasound (between 14 and 30 Hz), related to anxiety,
danger and reaction. In other words, what it is confirmed
by several scientists, artists and researchers is that the
choice of 440 Hz is one of the worst “legitimated”
mistake of the musical history. The Canadian musician
and musical science academic Graham H. Jackson (music
teacher in the school of Rudolf Steiner “Wadorf”) spoke
about Maria Renold experiences (pianist and sonic
researcher) on the effects of the different tunings. In the
book “Intervalli, Scale e Toni”, she talks about her
experiences, in which she used to entertain her guests
with concerts in both tunings (440 e 432 Hz). After 20
years, over 2000 people had been tested and interviewed,
and the 90% of them preferred the tuning on the 432
Hz, because the music got them to be transported: “in a
deeper way, they have the sensation to be wrapped by the
music itself that looks like to raise from the center of the
room”. This result gets value to the concept that a
produced and determined by a “fair-temporary” scale
sound (it means 256 Hz’ C and 432 Hz’ A), it refers to
the “eterical free tune” cited by Rudolf Steiner in several
of his scripts: this is, in other words, a sort of additional
harmony that resonates and tunes with the instrument. It
seems to be true that Mozart compositions are the only
ones able to keep their harmonicity on also with the 440
Hz tuning [19].
Recently, the researches have had the result that the
440 Hz oscillations (it is probably not well known how
this frequency is the result of an arbitrary choice, made in
London in 1953, deciding, in this way, to make uniform
all the musical composition on this sound; later, it
happened the European solution n. 71 of June 30, 1971)
[20] it takes to a notable increasing of the brain’s left side
hemisphere, causing a very huge increasing of Beta status
and causing also a disparity of brain electrical
conduction. The 432 Hz, instead, multiple of 8 Hz,
produces brain equilibrium (alfa/beta), vital for our
somato-psychic wealth. The ordinary brainwaves have a
frequency variation from 14 and 40 Hz, and in this
range, only a limited number of brain cells’ dendrites
operate and the flow of information is thousand and
thousand times weaker [21].
For definition, the tuning forks have always been used
in the musical field as precision and intonation purity
reference point. This is very relevant in the therapeutic
area, where the equilibrium which it has to interact with
is really delicate and important [22].
At this point, we can affirm that the “tuning fork
therapy” is a holistic matter, in which “energetic
activations” of specific parts of the body are carried out,
through the usage of “therapeutic tuning forks”.
Moreover, the tuning fork therapy is part of the called
“sound therapy”, defined in this way: “treatment based
either on the discover that human blood cells react to
voiced frequencies, modifying their own shape and color
and on the hypothesis that sick or in mutation phase’s
cells can be healed and harmonized by the sound. This
therapy has been developed and supported by the French
Fabien Maman, a musician, acupuncture doctor,
composer, researcher and bio-energetic, who could be
considered the father of “sound vibrational therapy” [23].
Like musician and composer, Maman has created his
own original compositions in the biggest concert rooms
of the world, e.g. the Carnegie Hall, the Opera in Tokyo,
the Olympia in Paris and the Filarmonica in Berlin.
Moreover, in 1980, he has been the addressee of “Grande
Prix de Composition Francaise” (Big Price of French
composition). In 1977, Fabien became an acupuncture
doctor, linking the acupuncture with the music. He
created the famous system which uses the tuning fork
instead of needles in acupuncture points [24].
Attracted in the first place by the martial art of Aikido,
in 1975, Maman had the possibility to study with the
teacher Nakazano in Paris. While he was studying with
the Japanese teacher, Maman began to learn his teacher’s
acupuncture methodology, based on the classic style Nan
Jin. Linking his passion for music together with the
classic knowledge of acupuncture and the meridian
equilibrium art, Fabien Maman conceived a methodology
to treat acupuncture channel disequilibrium with
different tuning fork and bells placed on the person.
According to Maman, the tuning fork handle
communicates the vibrations to the meridian, in other
words to the DNA’s cells, while the resonance of the
forks (the opposite side) communicates the same message
to the opposite part of the meridian – the magnetic field -
with the aim to delete the cause of the negative scheme,
which, with the time passing by, could duplicate itself on
Masala D., Merolle V.
the body of the person. For many teachers, this original
method has become the inspiration about how to use the
sound therapy in their own researches. The application of
the sound therapy to the acupuncture theory has been a
really perfect combination. Working as acupuncture
doctor, Maman discovered that the association of tuning
fork with the acupuncture is extremely powerful, without
using the needles; in this way, he can be considered
without doubt one of the fathers of “sound vibrational
therapy” [25].
Through his own created equation, E=M* (C^2),
Albert Einstein demonstrated that materia and energy are
the two aspects of the same universal substance, which is
the cause of the whole life and which we are made of.
“Vibrational therapy” means that all the organisms
depend on a really light vital force, which creates
synergies through a particular structural combination.
Each material structure, then, can be considered like a
complex system of vibrations: crystals, flowers, plants,
animals, the whole creation has its own vibrational field,
as well as the human being and his organic parts. Thanks
to many discovers made by several researchers and thanks
to the discovers carried out by the quantum physics, it
has possible to translate these vibrational fields in math
codes. Each of them is specific for each organ and part of
human body. This discover would permit to keep on
conducting very accurate studies about the person wealth,
and so, identifying which are the possible ways to
operate. The “vibrational quantum medicine” is, then, a
very important support for the analysis of physics and
emotional disturbances that get the organs and/or the
person’s psycho-emotional area involved into [26].
In the first period of 80’s, through a series of
revolutionary biology experiments conducted in the
Jussieu University in Paris, Maman demonstrated the
effects of the acoustic sound on the human cells and their
own energy fields: in this way, he discovered that,
through a series of acoustic sounds the tumor cells tend
to blow up, while the healthy cells could get stronger and
get enriched [27].
This his own sound theory, then, referred to a
treatment based on the discover that human blood cells
reacted to the voiced frequencies, modifying their own
colour and shape and on the hypothesis that sick or in
mutation phase’s cells can be healed and harmonized by
the sound [28]. Fabien Maman’s research about the
sound and the cells linked with the acupuncture indicates
that any kind of musical system adopted for the tuning
fork has to be based on a coherent music scale, and this
one has to be based on classic musical traditions. The
coherence between the notes leads to harmony; the
incoherence leads to caos. This theory means that the 12
tuning forks set of Fabien Maman is perfectly tuned on
the chromatic scale of the piano; and, then, his research
about the sound and the cells gets these 12 notes perfectly
combined with the Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture’s
principal 12 organs. Finally, it means that there is a
mathematic relation between each note, and in this
relation, it can happen the healing through the sound.
The classic tuning forks of Fabien Maman uses the
chromatic scale of the piano tuned on the chromatic scale
of “A” at 220 Hz : A, A#, B, C, C#, D, D#, E, F, F#, G,
G# [29].
The therapeutic tuning fork on 128 Hz serves, for
example, to heal contractures, muscle aches or bone
aches. This frequency is especially helpful to heal local
pains and, then, it is used in the contracture or painful
areas. To get large the contact area of the vibration, it is
used an accessory with wide extremity (optional).
Commonly, there are two systems to “play” this tuning
fork: to hit a prong (one of the two spikes of the fork) on
the back of the hand, or using a special metal and rubber
made drum stick (optional).
The therapeutic tuning fork at 136,1 Hz is used, instead,
to ri-equilibrate the internal organs, stimulating the
reflected points and their correspondents on the
meridians, mapped by the Chinese traditional medicine.
The therapeutic tuning fork is used on the points of
acupuncture, in the shiatsu therapy, reflexology, digital
pressure and auriculo-therapy [30].
In physiology, the sensitivity examined getting a tuning
fork vibrate in correspondence of a not covered by
muscles bone surface (malleolus, iliac spine, olecranon,
acromion ect…) is called “pallestesia” (from Greek word
πάλλω “to vibrate” and the ending -estesia). This is a
kind of deep perception of the nervous system, a complex
sensitive mode, that comprehends the tact and the speedy
alternation of pressure’s stimulations. The loss of the
pallestesia happens because of posterior nervous roots’
wounds and spinal marrow’s posterior cordons wounds,
and, therefore, it happens oblique wounds of the spinal
marrow. Getting a tuning fork vibrate in correspondence
of these wounds, it can be diagnosed the integrity or loss
of the pallestesia in a patient, if he succeeds to percept the
vibrations or not (the loss could be caused by brain cortex
wounds, internal capsule wounds, posterior nervous
roots’ wounds or spinal marrow’s posterior cordons
wounds or oblique wounds of the same).
The pallestesia seems slightly compromised until the
total loss in all the neurological diseases which take spinal
marrow’s posterior cordons wounds (dorsal tabe,
funicular mielosis ect…). The skinny sensitive structures
able to register the pallestetic stimulations are the Pacini’s
corpuscles (impression and perception); the transmission
happens in the marrow dorsal horns, goes up along the
dorsal columns until arriving to the thalamic nucleus.
The loss of pallestesia is a kind of sensitivity that tends
to decrease with the old age. But this one is not the only
diagnostic application of the tuning fork in medicine. For
the Rinne test, for example, it is used a high frequency
tuning fork (as the 512 Hz’ one) which is placed on the
Senses Sci 2017; 4 (2) 365370
mastoid process in order to get the patient feels the sound
through the bone transmission; when the patient does
not feel the sound anymore, the tuning fork is placed
closed to the ear (without touching it). Since the
transmission of the sound through the air is higher than
through the bone, a replacement of the sonorous
perception keeps out a conductive alteration (the system
od conduction is integer). The same process and result
happens when it is made the Weber test, necessary when
the patient has a monolateral aural deficit: it is used the
same high frequency tuning fork (512 Hz) placed on the
meridian of the forehead. If there is any kind of
conductive deficit, there is a higher intensity of sound in
the sick ear; instead, if there is a neurosensorial deficit,
there is a higher intensity perception in the heal ear [31].
5. Andrea Frova. Musica è contare con la mente senza
sapere di contare. Dipartimento di Fisica
dell’Università La Sapienza di Roma – introduzione
6. Hans Cousto – “I tuning fork dell'ottava cosmica”
2013, Creative Commons Licence pag. 1 -
Attribuzione Non commerciale
7. Frova A. Musica è contare con la mente senza sapere
di contare. Sapere, Agosto 2001; Edizioni Dedalo,
pag. 2
8. Hans Cousto. I tuning fork dell'ottava cosmica.
2013, Creative Commons Licence pag. 3 –
Attribuzione Non commerciale
9. Andrea Frova. Musica, una passione matematica.
Sapere, psicoacustica, Agosto 2001 – pag. 70
10. (autore)
11. Matthew Spring. The lute in Britain – A history of
the instrument and its music. Oxford Early Music
Series, pag. 407
03.htm - (Daniele Rebuzzi)
14. http://lezioni.strumenti-
15. Il suono
oria-del-tuning fork /?doing_wp_cron
oria-del-tuning fork /?doing_wp_cron
22. http://www.tuning fork
23. http://tama-
25. http://tama-
29. http://tama-
30. fork
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The present study aims to see whether music (cheerful and sad) tuned to different frequencies (432 Hz vs. 440 Hz) cause different effects on the listener’s emotions. In the research, the effects of cheerful and sad music samples at different frequencies were examined within the framework of variables such as Heart Rate Variability (HRV), emotions felt and mood. The study was carried out with a total of 51 participants (31 women comprising 60.8% of the study group, and 20 men comprising 39.2% of the study group) who have not received music education. The average age of the participants is 22.19 (S = 1.08, range = 20-25). In the study, the activation levels of the autonomic nervous system were assessed using Heart Rate Variability (HRV), whereas the moods of the participants before listening music were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) scale. Finally, The Geneva Emotional Music Scales (GEMS) was used to assess the potential emotions and mood state to appear after listening music. All music samples used in the study (one cheerful and one sad per participant) were chosen by the relevant participant. The conversion of the samples recorded at 440 Hz tuning frequency, to 432 Hz was carried out with a Max/MSP patch designed specifically for the study. The findings of the study show that the cheerful and sad music tuned to different frequency levels (432 Hz vs. 440 Hz) do not induce significant variation in sympathetic and parasympathetic activation levels. However, regardless of the tuning, the participants who listened cheerful music reported higher levels of relaxation after listening. Moreover, again regardless of the tuning, according to GEMS results, the participants experienced higher levels of sublimity compared to unease, and also higher levels of unease compared to vitality. The analysis regarding cheerful music, in turn, found that the participants, this time, experienced higher levels of vitality compared to sublimity, and higher levels of sublimity compared to unease. In the most comprehensive analysis with no reference to the cheerful or sad character of the sample, the participants who listened 440 Hz pieces reported rather negative mood after listening music compared to the participants who listened 432 Hz pieces. Moreover, men were observed to report even higher levels of negative mood after listening 440 Hz pieces, compared to their mood after listening 432 Hz pieces. All the findings thus reached imply that different tunes lead to variation in reported moods, even though they do not bring about changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic activation levels. Keywords: Emotion, mood, frequencies, 432 Hz vs. 440 Hz, music, autonomic nervous system.
Musica è contare con la mente senza sapere di contare. Sapere
  • A Frova
Frova A. Musica è contare con la mente senza sapere di contare. Sapere, Agosto 2001; Edizioni Dedalo, pag. 2
I tuning fork dell'ottava cosmica
  • Hans Cousto
Hans Cousto -"I tuning fork dell'ottava cosmica" 2013, Creative Commons Licence pag. 1 -Attribuzione Non commerciale
Musica è contare con la mente senza sapere di contare. Dipartimento di Fisica dell
  • Andrea Frova
Andrea Frova. Musica è contare con la mente senza sapere di contare. Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Università La Sapienza di Roma -introduzione
Musica, una passione matematica. Sapere, psicoacustica, Agosto
  • Andrea Frova
Andrea Frova. Musica, una passione matematica. Sapere, psicoacustica, Agosto 2001 -pag. 70