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The paper analyzes the monument of Le Menec at Carnac, in Brittany, France. It advances a number of propositions, key among them being that the strings of stones at Le Menec are not linear parallel alignments but converging arcs. These stones and strings performed a variety of cultural functions. Arcs acted as a Theme Park for celestial objects and their orbits. It is suggested that Le Grand Menec, Kermario, Kerlescan, and Le Petit Menec represented the four seasons. The paper also suggests that the stones' shadows were used as part of sundials. Each stone was used as a computing device, and collectively they constituted a proto Neolithic supercomputer.
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... A central feature of this paper, the role of shadows in Archeology and Neolithic Architecture, has been first recognized and elaborated by the author in two previous papers. One was on Carnac's Le Grand Menec monument, cited in [1]; the second was on Gobekli Tepe's structures C and D (Layer III) cited in [2]. These two papers constituted a dual effort: first, to analyze the role that shadows apparently played in the design of Neolithic monuments and demonstrate that shadows of standing stones in specific and structures in general were an integral part of the monuments' architectonic design; and second, to bring the subject to the forefront of archeological research and make it a branch of the studies in Neolithic Architecture. ...
... The reader is directed to the references in [5] for more information on certain isolated efforts to deal with shadows in monumental Architecture. In so far as how the expected shadows cast by monoliths have directly affected the architectural design of the monuments themselves during the Neolithic (and beyond, down to the design of monuments in Classical Greece) the reader is referred to the papers in [1] and [2] written by this author. It is an extension of these two specific papers that this paper is written. ...
... In two specific cases examined in some detail by this author, it was found that the positioning of monoliths (orthostats and pillars in the case of Gobekli Tepe's structures, see [2], and strings of free standing stones in the case of Carnac' Le Menec and its allied monuments, see [1]) the architect wanted to convey information to the relevant public at the time, i.e., pass on cultural messages associated with the various social functions performed by these monuments. Moreover, due to these shadows, the architect designed the monument to accommodate the shadows' movements, their daily as well as the annual dynamics. ...
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The paper presents both an introduction to the theory of shadows and their mathematics, with a concentration in the cast-off shadows from megalithic Neolithic monuments. It is addressing lengths of shadows' dynamics above the Tropic of Cancer at the Northern Hemisphere. A companion paper presents the length of shadows' dynamics at and below the Tropic of Cancer here: https://www.academia.edu/32426535/The_Dynamics_of_Shadows_at_and_below_the_Tropic_of_Cancer_in_the_Northern_Hemisphere
... That search could be in part responsible for the shape of the major 2-d arcs of the monument (also manifested in 3-d, by utilizing the ground's slopes) in Le Menec's form. See [1] on the formation of arcs in 2-d and 3-d and the implications this design has for the monuments at Carnac. A number of the triangles involved are probably different ways of approximating (and possibly deriving) both Pythagorean triples and primitive Pythagorean triples (PPTs), among a plethora of other triangles of a different (lesser or greater, depending on the point of view) import. ...
... Indeed, by any standard, Le Menec is a striking case of a monument employing built capital stock and amount of land of that magnitude. Addressing the question why would these Neolithic people go to such extreme lengths of utilizing land and resources to construct a monument of this scale is an issue extensively elaborated in [1]. Observing the Moon for a few minutes at the tip of Le Grand Menhir Brize from a few miles away simply isn't a good enough justification in terms of social and economic benefits to lead a social group towards incurring such extraordinary costs of constructing a monument of that size. ...
... The setup of the stones in the form seen today (in spite of their numerous possible dislocations by many agents and agencies during the intervening millennia) may still provide enough clues to demonstrate that they have been set up by their original architect as an attempt to systematically study specific triangles, their angles, edges' lengths and their associated circles. This paper must be read in conjunction with a companion paper by the author, see [1]. Without employing any jargon from Archeology or technical terms from Mathematics, it is written neither for archeologists nor mathematicians, but for the general public with a College level Mathematics background. ...
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A conjecture is advanced in this paper, which is a sequence to the paper by the author "In the shadows of Carnac's Le Menec Stones: a Neolithic proto supercomputer". It states that on the strings of stones at Le Menec, there are primitive Pythagorean triples embedded in them, measured in modular lengths. These triples may have determined the size of the monument. The modulus is estimated to be 3.60 meters.
... A central feature of this paper, the role of shadows in Archeology and Neolithic Architecture, has been first recognized and elaborated by the author in two previous papers. One was on Carnac's Le Grand Menec monument, cited in [1]; the second was on Gobekli Tepe's structures C and D (Layer III) cited in [2]. These two papers constituted a dual effort: first, to analyze the role that shadows apparently played in the design of Neolithic monuments and demonstrate that shadows of standing stones in specific and structures in general were an integral part of the monuments' architectonic design; and second, to bring the subject to the forefront of archeological research and make it a branch of the studies in Neolithic Architecture. ...
... The reader is directed to the references in [5] for more information on certain isolated efforts to deal with shadows in monumental Architecture. In so far as how the expected shadows cast by monoliths have directly affected the architectural design of the monuments themselves during the Neolithic (and beyond, down to the design of monuments in Classical Greece) the reader is referred to the papers in [1] and [2] written by this author. It is an extension of these two specific papers that this paper is written. ...
... In two specific cases examined in some detail by this author, it was found that the positioning of monoliths (orthostats and pillars in the case of Gobekli Tepe's structures, see [2], and strings of free standing stones in the case of Carnac' Le Menec and its allied monuments, see [1]) the architect wanted to convey information to the relevant public at the time, i.e., pass on cultural messages associated with the various social functions performed by these monuments. Moreover, due to these shadows, the architect designed the monument to accommodate the shadows' movements, their daily as well as the annual dynamics. ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents both an introduction to the theory of shadows and their mathematics, with a concentration in the cast-off shadows from megalithic Neolithic monuments. It is addressing lengths of shadows' dynamics above the Tropic of Cancer at the Northern Hemisphere. A companion paper presents the length of shadows' dynamics at and below the Tropic of Cancer here: https://www.academia.edu/32426535/The_Dynamics_of_Shadows_at_and_below_the_Tropic_of_Cancer_in_the_Northern_Hemisphere_update_1
... However, it is quite likely that the various almost perfect natural geometric forms, that may also be found in geological formations, have endowed observers with the ability to conceive abstract mathematical ideas and do Geometry (Euclidean or otherwise). The author has expanded on this view in a number of his papers on archeological subjects, see for example, ref. [16], [17]. For more on this see also Note 1 at the end of the paper. ...
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His contributions to Symbolic Logic, and by extension to Epistemology, are only comparable to those by Aristotle. In the photo, Gödel is shown in his "Incompleteness Theorems" days. Source of photograph: reference [A] Nature is in an incessant process of adjusting, self-correcting imperfections of its own making. "Most often things go well, but at times they go awry", reflected the observer. The paper is dedicated to my wife Catherine and to our two daughters Daphne and Alexia 3 Abstract Preface
... [1. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. ...
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