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Mixing the Kykeon


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Hypotheses advanced in The Road to Eleusis1 concerning the possible composition and method of preparation of the kykeon are evaluated in light of published criticism. Objections to the Eleusis theory are countered, and based on a largely overlooked aspect of the chemical hydrolysis of ergot alkaloids, a new hypothesis is suggested that reinvigorates the Eleusis debate. In part 2 of this essay, organic chemist Daniel M. Perrine provides further considerations that build upon the new idea, and a technical discussion of the practicality and realisability of the “Ergine Hypothesis” paves the way for new chemical and psychopharmacological research. In part 3, co-author of The Road to Eleusis Carl A. P. Ruck re-examines the Eleusis mythologies and ritual practises from which appear a much expanded understanding of the entheo-pharmacology of the ancient world.
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from the pages of
ELEUSIS: Journal of Psychoactive Plants and Compounds
New Series 4, 2000
Mixing the Kykeon
Hypotheses advanced in The Road to Eleusis1 concerning the possible composition and
method of preparation of the kykeon are evaluated in light of published criticism. Objections
to the Eleusis theory are countered, and based on a largely overlooked aspect of the chemical
hydrolysis of ergot alkaloids, a new hypothesis is suggested that reinvigorates the Eleusis
debate. In part 2 of this essay, organic chemist Daniel M. Perrine provides further
considerations that build upon the new idea, and a technical discussion of the practicality and
realisability of the “Ergine Hypothesis” paves the way for new chemical and
psychopharmacological research. In part 3, co-author of The Road to Eleusis Carl A. P. Ruck
re-examines the Eleusis mythologies and ritual practises from which appear a much expanded
understanding of the entheo-pharmacology of the ancient world.
Part 1
by Peter Webster (
In The Road to Eleusis, R. Gordon Wasson, Albert Hofmann and Carl A. P. Ruck
attempted to resolve a long-standing debate concerning the famous Eleusinian Mysteries of
ancient Greece. Earlier suggestions attributed variously to Karl Kerényi, R. G. Wasson, or
Robert Graves had proposed that the autumnal phase of the rite might have involved the use
of a psychoactive drug, and it was the task of The Road to Eleusis to propose a testable theory
as to the nature of the kykeon, the revered sacramental potion that would have been a likely
vehicle for such a substance.
The principal hypothesis proposed by the three authors suggests that the ergot species
Claviceps purpurea, collected by the hierophantic priests from its natural and common
parasitisation of barley growing in the Rarian plain adjacent to Eleusis, was the probable
source of psychoactive ingredient for the elixir. C. purpurea and related parasitic fungi
produce lysergic acid alkaloids, among which are several known psychedelic compounds as
well as other important pharmaceuticals.
The partaking of the kykeon marked the climax of the famous autumnal ceremony at
Eleusis, performed for nearly two thousand consecutive years and whose initiates included
essentially all the great names of Greek antiquity. Claims for the potency and revelatory effect
of the kykeon and the profound nature of the secrets revealed at the Eleusinian celebration are
widespread in Greek literature and historical writings, so there can be little doubt that the rite
Mixing the Kykeon
was of major importance to the course of Greek civilisation or that the potion must have been
more than a symbolic sacrament like the Christian Eucharist of bread and wine: the kykeon
surely contained a powerful psychoactive substance similar to one of the major vision-
inducing and psychedelic plant alkaloids that Western science has only recently re-
Albert Hofmann, writing in The Road to Eleusis, further suggested that the hierophants
might have processed the C. purpurea ergot with a simple water extraction, dissolving off the
water-soluble alkaloids containing ergonovine and methylergonovine, the principal
hypothesised psychoactive compounds. Ergonovine, also known as ergometrine or
ergobasine, is a psychoactive lysergic acid amide similar in structure to, but far less potent
than lysergide, or LSD. The proposed water-extraction process would also supposedly have
prevented the toxic ergopeptine alkaloids of C. purpurea, abortifacient and dangerously
vasoconstrictive but not at all psychedelic, from entering the potion. Ergopeptine alkaloids
such as ergotoxine and ergotamine were the agents responsible for the recurring plagues of
ergotism known throughout European history, so it may safely be assumed that they were
somehow excluded from the kykeon.
Hofmann also proposed an alternate hypothesis that the kykeon might have been prepared
from another species of ergot (Claviceps paspali), growing not on barley (or only rarely) but
on wild grasses of the region such as Paspalum distichum. The hypothesis appeared attractive
because C. paspali produces a much more psychedelic blend of alkaloids than C. purpurea,
similar to that contained in the redoubtable Western hemisphere psychedelic plant of the
Aztecs, ololiuhqui. In addition, the toxic ergopeptine alkaloids are largely if not completely
absent in this ergot species.
This paper examines these hypotheses in light of more recently published material, and
introduces additional considerations in an attempt to take the Eleusis debate to a level from
which further research might lead to a breakthrough. New hypotheses concerning the
composition of the kykeon and the ways it might have been prepared are advanced. We will
attempt to evaluate what is known and suspected about the possible composition of the kykeon
employing several important clues gleaned from Greek literature and modern research. Such
clues need to be kept in mind during the evaluation of kykeon hypotheses, for considered apart
from these clues, even the proposal that an ergot was the psychoactive ingredient can be
doubted, and the way left open for the suggestion of several other possible psychoactive
plants as the key ingredient. Indeed, certain authors have done so, in a paper to be discussed
The Clues
The fact that the Rite was practised like clockwork for large numbers of communicants (a
thousand or more, in later years), and for nearly two millennia must require that the
psychedelic entity employed was of constant characteristics and dependability, that sufficient
quantities could be easily obtained every year independent of varying conditions, and that the
method of preparation was also little subject to the vagaries of error or changing conditions.
Other facts relevant to the kykeon and the Rite, and the two hierophant families which
controlled and kept secret the recipe for the sacrament for nearly two millennia, are several.
Of special importance is the fact that the recipe was successfully kept secret for this very long
period, when documentation shows that many would probably have desired to discover its
particulars. The kykeon, or perhaps the secret of its preparation, was apparently stolen on at
least one occasion for use at Athens “cocktail parties,” profaning the sacred rite and its potion.
If the kykeon could have been simply duplicated, if it were obvious which ingredients were
Mixing the Kykeon
used and how they were prepared, it would presumably have not been necessary to steal it,
and its profane use might well have become common. We must assume not only that the
recipe was effectively kept secret, but more importantly that some critical feature of the recipe
was easy to keep secret. Perhaps the true identity of the active ingredient, but more likely the
way in which it was processed or prepared was the key secret. Such processes must of course
have been simple and reproducible, in line with technical abilities of the time, yet not easily
observed by spies nor intuited by outsiders.
Further clues can be gleaned from Greek literature, and pertaining to the characteristics
of ergot and the way and frequency with which it infests its hosts, and similar botanical
characteristics of other proposed active ingredients such as Psilocybe mushrooms. I shall
introduce these further clues as necessary during the discussion to follow.
The Objections
Recently, objections have been raised concerning the ergot hypothesis, most notably in
an article by Ivan Valencic in Jahrbuch fur Ethomedizin und Bewusstseinsforschung: “Has
the Mystery of the Eleusinian Mysteries Been Solved?”. The main complaints of the author
are as follows, in the order in which they appear in the article:
Objection 1. The proposed psychoactive ingredients of C. purpurea,
ergonovine and methylergonovine, are not exceptionally psychedelic when
ingested as synthesised compounds.
Objection 2. Preparations of C. purpurea itself have not been made and
pharmacologically tested which demonstrate it might have been sufficiently
psychoactive to have provided the undoubted powerful psychedelic reaction to
the kykeon.
Objection 3. These same proposed active ingredients, at the doses necessary to
produce the moderate psychoactive effects they are capable of producing, also
produce significant discomfort, cramping, and lassitude. Presumably the effect of
the kykeon was a quite enjoyable experience or it wouldn’t have been sought
after by rich Athenians to entertain guests, nor would the experience of the
sacrament at Eleusis have been written about so glowingly by everyone who
partook of the Rite and its potion.
Objection 4. In addition, ergonovine at these dose levels is capable of
producing spontaneous abortion, and since women were often initiates in the Rite
and no such problems were ever described, we must doubt that the full story has
been discovered in the C. purpurea hypothesis as advanced in The Road to
Objection 5. Concerning the C. paspali variant of the hypothesis, it is objected
that this fungus is known to produce tremors in cattle grazing on infected grass,
and, similarly to C. purpurea, that no one has processed the fungus into a
preparation shown to be psychedelic to a degree in agreement with the properties
of the kykeon.
Objection 6. The reference to the composition of the kykeon in the Homeric
Hymn to Demeter is obviously incomplete, or even false, the recipe given there
containing only water, barley, and a type of mint known to be at most only
slightly psychoactive. It is thus proposed that this formula was merely a red
Mixing the Kykeon
herring, a way to deceive and disguise the true recipe. Barley may have had
nothing to do with the true ingredients. Thus other psychedelic entities such as
Psilocybe mushrooms or even opium must be considered as possibilities.
These would appear to be important reservations. And as the author points out, both the
C. purpurea and C. paspali hypotheses are conspicuously testable, yet the only testing that
has been accomplished has not produced very promising results. (An overview of several self-
experiments with the proposed ergot alkaloids is given in Valencic's article, as well as in part
2 of this essay.) Let me work backwards through these objections, and bring to bear the clues
I have mentioned.
It is only possible to entertain objection 6 if we believe that the lack of positive results of
testing the two ergot hypotheses precludes further experimental developments. Indeed, this
appears to be Valencic’s position as he concludes that the ergot hypotheses are “not very
likely,” and he “agree[s] with Robert Graves and Terence McKenna that there exists also
reasonable possibility that psilocybian mushrooms might have helped to produce the
astonishment and ecstasy in ancient initiates…” Given that the references to barley and mint
in the Hymn to Demeter fit well in several respects with the C. purpurea hypothesis, and that
further evidence from Greek literature as discussed by Carl Ruck in The Road to Eleusis also
implicates barley and mint, more than mere “doubts” should be required before insinuating
that the recipe of the Hymn to Demeter was mere fabrication. The best and most believable
lies or deceptions are ones closest to the truth, and even better are deceptions which actually
are the truth disguised by the way of telling, or by leaving out some critical detail. If the
Hymn to Demeter specifies barley, it is very likely that the kykeon has something to do with
barley.2 Psilocybe mushrooms have no relationship with barley whatsoever. And the mint
specified in the recipe also would support the ergot hypothesis, since mint is a known remedy
for the slight nausea often encountered with various lysergic acid compounds including the
psychedelic ones as well as ergotamine taken as a remedy for migraine. The preponderance of
evidence indicates we must further explore the ergot hypothesis, rather than abandon it for
other possible psychedelic plants.
The proposal that the barley-mint recipe was a total fabrication designed to conceal the
true secret also begs the question of why barley and mint would have been chosen as the
fictitious ingredients. Why not other herbs, or plants, or even rare substances that were
generally unavailable? Why implicate a principal foodstuff if in reality there were not the
least connection? The barley-mint recipe cannot be abandoned so easily. In addition, some
facts relevant to Psilocybe mushrooms, discussed below, make this alternate hypothesis rather
Objection 5 has recently become a moot point, as it has been convincingly shown that C.
paspali was almost certainly not present in ancient Greece, neither its host paspalum grass.3
C. paspali might well have made a suitably psychoactive potion due to its alkaloidal content,
very similar to the Aztec psychedelic, ololiuqui. Although several self-experiments with
ololiuqui (seeds of two species of morning glory) or with its purified alkaloids ergine and
isoergine have been inconclusive (see the mentioned examples in part II of this paper), I can
personally assure readers that the alkaloids of ololiuqui are, when prepared correctly, quite
capable of producing the entire range of powerful psychedelic effects. Ergine and its
stereoisomer isoergine are the two principal psychoactive compounds of ololiuqui, and also
the major alkaloids found in C. paspali, yet they are not found in C. purpurea. But the story
of ergine and isoergine might be more important than has previously been suspected, as will
be evident from what follows here.
Mixing the Kykeon
Objections 1 through 4 all depend on the assumption that ergonovine and
methylergonovine are the active principles resulting from the processing that was required to
make the kykeon from C. purpurea. But self-experiments with these compounds, and the lack
of other suitably psychoactive chemical candidates in C. purpurea, seem nearly to disqualify
the ergot hypothesis from serious consideration. We seem to be at an impasse, with the best
hypothesis marred by experimental weaknesses, and alternate hypotheses rapidly diverging
from our most solid clues.
Although one might imagine that C. purpurea naturally parasitising barley in ancient
Greece contained a more psychoactive blend of alkaloids than has been found in C. purpurea
grown and tested in recent times, the fact that the psychedelic kykeon was so reliable for so
long would indicate a corresponding long term reliability of content of the fungus which
should thus have continued into the present, i.e., today’s C. purpurea is very probably quite
similar in its alkaloidal spectrum to that of the same fungus parasitising barley in ancient
Greece. Thus some suggestions that the known variability of ergot with varying hosts and
growth conditions might resolve the question is unconvincing. Similarly unconvincing are
proposals that the Eleusinian priests had discovered and cultivated some other species of
Further Considerations
Following are some further observations which should guide hypothesis formation: facts
and probabilities drawn from what we know about ancient Greece, the Rite, the biology and
chemistry of ergot and other proposed psychedelic plants, and other sources.
Relatively large amounts of the ingredient were needed,4 at a certain time of year, on
demand. This fact argues against wild mushrooms or wild ergots such as C. paspali, and in
favour of the hypothesis that the priests harvested the item from a plentiful, known, reliable,
naturally-occurring and nearby supply. It is possible, however, that they had discovered how
to augment supplies by simple procedures.5 Even with modern agricultural techniques, C.
purpurea remains a common infestation of cereal grains, thus we may assume that this ergot
was also common in the barley of the Rarian harvest, no doubt a large one. Thus even with a
mild ergot infestation, sufficient quantities should have been obtainable. The grain harvest,
and consequently the possibility to select out the ergot therein, occurs in late spring or
summer, just in time for the September Eleusis celebration. The separation of ergot from the
grain might also have been easy for the priests to do without undue observation, or without
raising suspicions of what it was to be used for. A “purification” of the harvest in which
“malformed grains” (see again footnote 1) as well as other contaminating material were
removed might have been a cover-story.
However, as discussed above, C. purpurea, in its natural state, contains an alkaloidal
content that is at best only moderately psychoactive, and with unfavourable toxic side-effects.
C. paspali would have been a far more likely candidate on the basis of its alkaloid content,
but is now ruled out. In fact, we might have ruled out naturally-occurring C. paspali on the
basis of availability: Growing wild, it probably wouldn’t have been reliable or copious
enough to produce the quantities necessary, and collecting large amounts would have entailed
scouting the countryside at great length, an activity easily observed by spies, and thus the
recipe become easily known. Similarly, if C. purpurea were the active ingredient, and easy to
process with a simple water extraction as suggested by Hofmann, could the secret so easily
have been kept for so long?
Psilocybe mushrooms are ruled out, however. Several aspects of the Rite and what we
know about wild mushrooms make the Psilocybe hypothesis unlikely. The rite was held every
Mixing the Kykeon
year and at a precisely defined time in the month of September. Thousands of specimens of
even the strongest Psilocybe mushrooms would have been needed, at a time of year when the
climate of Greece was just barely subsiding from the summer heat and dryness. Although
cooler mountainous areas of 1000 meters in altitude are within ten or twenty kilometres of
Eleusis, it is very unlikely that such vast quantities of an uncommon wild mushroom could
have been located so early in the year, like clockwork and in advance of the autumn rains, or
that the hierophants could have collected such quantities every year and transported them
back to Eleusis without the secret of their activity escaping. And as anyone who has collected
wild mushrooms knows, they seldom appear on-schedule, in such dependable quantities, even
when an area known to produce a certain variety has been identified.
If it is proposed that a Psilocybe species growing on the dung of domesticated herbivores
might have been the kykeon’s secret, again we run into trouble. In the typical summer climate
of Greece, herbivores’ excretions would have dried so quickly in the heat that the hierophants
would have had to irrigate them to even hope that mushrooms would appear, and they would
have been lucky to produce even a handful under those conditions. And once again, it would
have been a difficult operation to keep secret. After autumn rains, in November and
December, animal dungs might well have produced their fungal consequences, too late for the
rite unless we hypothesise that December’s Psilocybe was stored for the following year:
Again, a highly unlikely hypothesis for reasons too obvious to mention. But this observation
does indicate another argument for ergot: the easily-dried sclerotia of ergot are quite capable
of being stored, retaining their alkaloids for considerable periods, and certainly could have
been stored for at least a year without preservatives, in containers of minimal size easily
secreted in the confines of the temple. Thus stored ergot might have augmented supplies in
lean years.
And of course the idea that the hierophants had perfected the cultivation of Psilocybe
mushrooms is even more fantastic. I doubt that such a hypothesis even needs to be criticised.
But one final argument might indicate that there weren’t even any Psilocybe of note growing
in Greece at the time. As noted in The Road to Eleusis, (p. 42) the Greeks were well
acquainted with a wide range of inebriants and herbs, and how to prepare “wines” suitable for
many purposes. If Psilocybe mushrooms had been common enough to use for the kykeon, they
would no doubt have long been known and written about, and their secret impossible to keep.
Neither the Psilocybe hypothesis, nor the hypotheses of naturally-occurring alkaloids of
Claviceps purpurea, nor naturally-occurring Claviceps paspali, nor of course any of the other
hypotheses that the kykeon was some kind of alcoholic beer made from barley, or that it was
merely symbolic, etc. etc., will suffice.
We seem to have shown that C. purpurea is the most likely kykeon candidate while
simultaneously proving its insufficiency to deliver a safe dose of alkaloids powerful enough
to produce the full range of psychedelic effects. What is amiss? The most straightforward
hypothesis is that the Greek priests had discovered some way to transform naturally-occurring
supplies of C. purpurea: they must have found a technologically-simple process to alter the
alkaloidal spectrum of ergot. At first this surely sounds like an impossible idea, yet some
ergot alkaloid research of the 1930s, recently confirmed and until now overlooked by the
various participants in the Eleusis debate, provides the key.
Ergine and Isoergine
Years ago, with the threat of my impending draft into the U.S. Army for an extended tour
of Southeast Asia, I decided instead to “go on the lam,” and departed for Mexico with the
intention of researching the distribution and chemistry of some of the famous Central
American psychoactive plants such as ololiuqui. It was during the course of these
Mixing the Kykeon
investigations that I prepared astonishingly powerful extracts of ololiuqui, alluded to above. I
had also been interested in the possibility of hydrolysing the alkaloids of ololiuqui in an
attempt to prepare pure lysergic acid. This is a simple process, requiring only that the
extracted ergine / isoergine content of the seeds be boiled for some time with a strong base
such as potassium hydroxide. Although my researches were ended prematurely by unfortunate
events, an important result for the present question was that I became well-acquainted with
the chemical literature concerning lysergic acid, its production via hydrolysis, and the various
conversions possible when treating ergot alkaloids in differing conditions.
I learned from the early chemical literature that the base-catalysed hydrolysis of
ergopeptine alkaloids typical of C. purpurea apparently proceeded via a two-step process, the
first and most rapid step resulting in ergine6 which was then more slowly hydrolysed to
lysergic acid. The discovery of ergine was in fact accomplished in such a manner: Early work
in the 1930s had found that treating ergotoxine (a mixture of three ergot alkaloids from C.
purpurea extracts) with a base such as potassium hydroxide, yielded both lysergic acid and
ergine.7 The details of the various experiments indicated that longer reaction times and higher
temperatures favoured the complete transformation to lysergic acid, while short reaction times
and lower temperatures resulted in significant amounts of ergine. Subsequent unpublished
work by myself indicated the strong dependence of the hydrolysis on temperature, but weak
dependence on base concentration.
Over the years I gradually forgot about these results until recently, musing over the
objections to the theory of The Road to Eleusis, the “Ergine Hypothesis” suddenly appeared
to me as a possible key to countering the objections. The hierophantic priests might well have
discovered how to achieve a partial hydrolysis of the mostly toxic alkaloids of C. purpurea,
resulting in an extract of ergot containing a blend of psychedelic compounds closely similar to
the Aztec’s ololiuqui. The partial hydrolysis might thus also eliminate the toxic ergopeptine
alkaloids, converting them to psychoactive ergine and isoergine.
But how were the hierophants to accomplish this feat, seemingly not duplicated until the
20th Century? It must have been a technologically simple procedure, and employed common
ingredients, yet been easy to keep secret. Although potassium hydroxide was surely not
available to the Greeks, the ashes of wood fires certainly were, and in fact a mixture of wood
ash in water results in a solution of potassium of reasonably strong basicity. Is it possible that
merely digesting powdered ergot with wood ash and water (and possibly wine containing
10% or so of ethanol to improve the solubility of the alkaloids), heating the mixture for a
short period and then filtering off the liquid might have been the method of mixing the
kykeon? I decided to ask the opinion of a colleague, an associate professor of chemistry at
Loyola College in Maryland, and author of The Chemistry of Mind-Altering Drugs.
Footnotes to part 1:
1. The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries, R. Gordon Wasson, Carl
A.P. Ruck, Albert Hofmann. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 1978. Republished in a Twentieth
Anniversary Edition with additional material, Hermes Press, 1998.
2. It should be remembered that the appearance of ergot on its host has all through history
led to the conclusion that ergot was merely malformed or sun-burned or “rusted” grains of the
cereal host in question. It wasn’t until the 20th Century that ergot was generally recognised as
another species altogether, a fungal parasite of the grain on which it appeared. Thus the
Greeks very probably also made this error.
Mixing the Kykeon
3. See Francesco Festi & Giorgio Samorini, “Claviceps paspali and the Eleusinian
Kykeon: A Correction.” The Entheogen Review, Volume VIII, Number 3, Autumn 1999.
4. A quick calculation of quantities necessary: Total alkaloid yield of C. purpurea may be
about 1%, most of it ergopeptines with only a few percent ergonovine. The dose of ergine /
isoergine (the active ingredients according to the arguments to follow concerning the method
of preparation) should be between 1 and 5 mg as it has been recorded that its potency is about
1/10 that of LSD. Thus, per 1000 Eleusis participants we require up to 5 gm total alkaloids,
corresponding to 0.5 kg of ergot. Modern yields of ergot from cultivation on rye can yield
hundreds of kilograms per hectare. Thus it seems reasonable that the Greek priests could
easily have harvested enough ergot from the nearby barley fields. Ripe ergots can easily be
collected from the grain in the field, as they fall off the grain head even with strong wind. By
contrast, the ergonovine hypothesis of The Road to Eleusis would require far greater
quantities of C. purpurea since ergonovine only represents a small fraction of the alkaloid
content of the fungus.
5. A likely possibility is that the priests had discovered how to spread an ergot infection
using a water solution of the honeydew produced. Early in the growth of ergot on grain, the
fungus causes the production of droplets of a sticky syrup on the grain heads, and insects
attracted to this exudation transmit the ergot mycelium therein to other developing heads of
grain. A solution of a few drops of honeydew in a litre of water produces a mixture that when
shaken or sprayed onto other developing grain heads readily spreads the infection.
6. The process also produces isoergine, for in basic solution all such amides of lysergic
acid rapidly approach an equilibrium mixture of the two associated stereoisomers.
7. References for the technical articles mentioned are to be found in the second section of
this paper.
Mixing the Kykeon
Mixing the Kykeon
Part 2
by Daniel M. Perrine, Ph.D.
Entheo-pharmacological Considerations
In agreement with what Peter Webster has discussed in the preceding portion of this
article, it seems to me that it is quite possible that a “potion” containing as its main active
ingredient lysergamide (ergine, the active entheogen in ololiuqui) and free from any more
toxic alkaloids, could be reliably produced from ergot harvested from Claviceps purpurea
infected barley using materials and processes available to the ancient Greeks. That is, such a
procedure seems chemically possible for reasons which will shortly be presented in detail —
although, of course, this possibility cannot be truly proved without actually carrying out a
series of experiments in which ergot would be processed as hypothesized. Chemical
possibility is, of course, not historical fact or even historical plausibility, but it can at least
establish historical possibility.
A first objection to the suggestion that the Eleusinian mysteries owed some of their
powerful effects and passionate loyalty to the entheogenic action of lysergamide in the kykeon
is that lysergamide is not really a very good entheogen, certainly not when compared to the
psilocybin in nanacatl or the mescaline in peyote. Indeed, the few documented descriptions of
ololiuqui intoxication are far less dramatic than those employing LSD, mescaline, or
psilocybin. Here is the full record, as far as I have been able to ascertain:
1. In 1955, Humphrey Osmond1 took 60 to 100 seeds and experienced, according to
Schultes and Hofmann, “a state of apathy and listlessness, accompanied by increased
visual sensitivity. After about four hours, there followed a period in which he had a
relaxed feeling of well-being that lasted for a longer time.”2
2. Hofmann compares the effects of ololiuqui rather unfavorably with those of LSD in his
book, LSD: My Problem Child 3 His description is as follows: “After the discovery of the
psychic effects of LSD, I had also tested lysergic acid amide [lysergamide] in a self-
experiment and established that it likewise evoked a dreamlike condition, but only with
about a tenfold to twentyfold greater dose than LSD. This effect was characterized by a
sensation of mental emptiness and the unreality and meaninglessness of the outer world,
by enhanced sensitivity of hearing, and by a not unpleasant physical lassitude, which
ultimately led to sleep.” As for the effects of the Mexican morning-glory seeds, he
continues: “The psychic effects of ololiuqui, in fact, differ from those of LSD in that the
euphoric and the hallucinogenic components are less pronounced, while a sensation of
mental emptiness, often anxiety and depression, predominates. [Such]...weariness and
lassitude are hardly desirable an inebriant.”
3. Solms, in a systematic comparative study of the psychopharmacology of lysergamide,
confirmed Hofmann’s impressions, concluding that it “induces indifference, a decrease in
psychomotor activity, the feeling of sinking into nothingness and a desire to sleep… until
finally an increased clouding of consciousness does produce sleep.”4
Mixing the Kykeon
4. Hofmann also tested the effects of isoergine (which is formed in much smaller amounts
with ergine in the basic hydrolysis of ergot shortly to be described) and found that 2.0 mg
orally produced a syndrome not very different from ergine, characterized by sensations of
“tiredness, apathy, a feeling of mental emptiness and the unreality and complete
meaninglessness of the outside world.”5
These seem to be the effects of ergine and/or isoergine when taken in the context of a
scientific, clinical effort to disclose their psychopharmacology; and we can therefore presume
that these would also be the effects of our hypothesized κυκεώv under the same conditions.
For the process we will describe would transform all the ergot alkaloids into ergine or
isoergine. Even ergobasine (lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide, found in small amounts in
ololiuqui and in some samples of ergot from Central Europe) would be converted to ergine.
The only other likely psychoactive ingredient in the κυκεώv would be wine.6
But these rather humdrum effects of ergine taken in the context of a dispassionate clinical
experiment by volunteers already well-acquainted with the overwhelming visual and
psychological effects of LSD and psilocybin by no means preclude the possibility, even the
likelihood, that a potion containing ergine could powerfully catalyze and amplify the religious
experience of the Eleusinian communicants of ancient Greece. Among the most important
reasons for affirming this are the following:
Clinical versus Ritual Setting
There is no doubt that ololiuqui has been valued for centuries as a sacred entheogen in
Oaxaca by curanderos of the Zapotec, Chinantec, Mazatec, and Mixtec tribes. And the
principle psychoactive agent in ololiuqui (Rivea corymbosa, Ipomoea violacea) is just what
we propose to have been the active agent in the kykeon: ergine (with smaller amounts of
isoergine).7 If, to the vague and directionless alteration of mental state provided by ergine in
the jejune setting of the research clinic, there is added the governing mind-set of religious
belief coupled to the external setting of a centuries-old ritual, participants can and do
experience a many-fold entheogenic intensification of the awe and dread felt before an
ecstatic theophany of the mysterium tremendum et fascinans.
Indeed, other pharmaka with far less likely a priori plausibility if judged solely by their
clinical psychopharmacology have been exploited for millennia in various cultures for their
entheogenic effects: I am thinking particularly of Amanita muscaria (which despite its likely
identity with the archetypical Vedic entheogen, soma, produces in secular settings only a
bizarre state of incoherent delirium) and the presently much-despised Nicotiana, which “is not
generally considered to be a hallucinogen. Yet, like the sacred mushrooms, peyote, morning-
glories, Datura, ayahuasca, the psychotomimetic snuffs, . . . tobacco has long been known to
play a central role in North and South American shamanism, both in the achievement of
shamanistic trance states and in purification and supernatural curing. Even if it is not one of
the “true” hallucinogens . . . tobacco is often conceptually and functionally indistinguishable
from them. We know that Indians from Canada to Patagonia esteemed tobacco as one of their
most important medicinal and magical plants and that some employed it as a vehicle of
ecstasy.”8 Of course, many of these groups used tobacco or tobacco extracts in massive
dosages in order to deliberately provoke a near-death experience. Yet, even in moderate
amounts, and despite endless condemnation from Christian missionaries and Surgeons
General, tobacco continues to be revered to this day as an integral part of the peyote
ceremony by many adherents of the Native American Church.
Mixing the Kykeon
The kykeon was drunk after a nine-day fast. It was perhaps the sole beverage/food which
broke that nine-day fast, and the drinking of the kykeon took place at the peak of a most
solemn religious ritual.9 Probably few or none of the readers of this article have carried out a
strict fast for nine days in the integral context of a life-transforming religious observation, and
still less likely have any of them followed this by consuming, at the approach to the Holy of
Holies, a dreaded sacrament with potent mind-altering effects. Peter Webster has given
testimony to being himself deeply affected by ololiuqui. Let me add my own testimony to the
effects of set, setting, and fasting:
About a quarter of a century ago, in the company of a dozen or so other recently-ordained
Jesuits my age, I entered upon the consummatory event of the Jesuit spiritual training, the
second and final 30-day Ignatian retreat. During the first part of Ignatius’s Spiritual Exercises,
which are the guide for this retreat, the “exercitant” is expected to unceasingly consider his
utter unworthiness before God of aught but damnation, all the while living in total silence and
solitude except for attendance at Mass and brief colloquies with one’s director. Following
these directives to excess, I soon fell prey to the Moloch of Christianity’s most negative
doctrines. By the third day, I had ceased eating, attending services, or talking with my
director, walking alone instead for miles each day lashing myself with doubts and despair.
After more than three days of eating nothing, I reached a rather grim metastable state at the
nadir of resigned desperation: if I could never attain the love of/for God, I would simply go
through the dead motions of devotion during the rest of the retreat. It was dawn. For the first
time in four days, I ate, with total absence of any appetite: one slice of toast and a cup of
sugarless black coffee. As I stared then blankly at the blank pages of my retreat journal, I was
suddenly and overwhelmingly “transported.” In some indescribable way and for what seemed
like only a few seconds, I was suspended from the world of space and time and experienced
myself in the immediate presence of “God.” I say “God” because It was nothing at all like
anything my imagination had ever before constructed. But it was true with an ineluctable
certitude I have never been able to doubt. And it was probably the most pivotal moment of my
life: whatever I have done since (including leaving the priesthood many years later) can be
traced in some sense back to this experience; everything I have thought since of myself or
“God” has been radically different. Was it the set and setting? Of course. Was it the fasting? I
doubt that it would have occurred had I not fasted those four days — but then, I would never
have fasted those four days (it was a completely spontaneous lack of interest in eating, not a
planned exercise) had I not been gripped by an overpowering mind set which was completely
reinforced by the setting.
Perhaps the experience was even to some extent the “entheogenic” effects of black coffee
and toast. In the early part of the last century, week-long fevers could leave a sick person
delirious and emaciated, and Thomas De Quincey writes in 1822, by way of comment on his
own opium habit, that “Some people have maintained, in my hearing, that they had been
drunk upon green tea; and a medical student in London, for whose knowledge in his
profession I have reason to feel great respect, assured me, the other day, that a patient, in
recovering from an illness, had got drunk on a beef-steak.”10 I purchased a few seconds of
Eternity with four days of fasting and a cup of black coffee; had I paid with nine days, ergine,
and Pramnian wine, might I not have bought an hour?
I am certain that the duration and perhaps even the depth of this experience (although the
second aspect seems much less quantifiable than the first) would have been greatly intensified
if, say, I had drunk a cup of peyote tea instead of black coffee. Indeed, when I try to imagine
what would have been the likely outcome of such a switch in beverages I am terrified and find
myself quite grateful that only coffee was available. As Huston Smith says, “awe is not
fun,”11 and the experience was sufficiently awesome as it was.
Two reasons convince me that an entheogen would have powerfully intensified the
duration and particularly the likelihood of such an experience (for in-depth experiences of this
Mixing the Kykeon
sort are not that common, even among the many earnest Jesuits who have made this final
retreat — at least not among the Jesuits I knew and know from my generation). The first is
that I am now able to extrapolate backwards in time from a number of quite beautiful,
awesome — even occasionally terrifying — religious theophanies which I experienced years
later under the influence of entheogens.12 The psychological and spiritual set and setting of
these later experiences could not approach the once-in-a-lifetime situation of the retreat
experience described above (although it was intentionally and earnestly religious), and so I
was all the more impressed that the simple ingestion of a plant or chemical could invoke in
such ordinary circumstances so profound an emotional and religious response.
The second reason is of course the famous “Good Friday Experiment” of Walter Pahnke,
the “Miracle at Marsh Chapel,” where a group of seminary professors and students, under
double-blind conditions, were given either psilocybin or an active placebo13 immediately
before a three-hour Good Friday service. Those receiving the true entheogen experienced an
intensity of religious emotion and exaltation greatly exceeding in statistical significance the
experience of the controls, and they evaluated their experience just as highly when they were
interviewed in a long-term follow up by Rick Doblin some 25 years later.14 This is as close to
a scientific demonstration of the efficacy of entheogens in intensifying and facilitating
religious experience as has yet been conducted. And yet, one can only guess how much even
this profound entheogenic catalysis of a religious setting might have been still more amplified
had it been experienced following a multi-day fast!
Sacred versus Profane Setting
No one disputes that ergine unmistakably and profoundly alters everyday consciousness
— the only dispute concerns whether this alteration has, considered in isolation, properly
“entheogenic” qualities. But as a matter of fact, even those psychoactive agents which by
general consensus produce an alteration of consciousness most closely resembling and most
likely productive of religious ecstasy (mescaline, psilocybin, LSD) fail, in the vast majority of
cases, to produce anything like a religious experience when taken in a totally profane context.
I am thinking of the hundreds of first-hand written accounts the college students I teach have
given me over the years describing their use of psilocybe mushrooms or LSD. I would
characterize fewer than 20% as empathogenic, and fewer than 10% as entheogenic. Doubtless
the common use of large amounts of alcohol at the same time has much to do with this, but I
suspect the usually banal intra- and interpersonal context, a context augmented by a nearly
total absence of prior religious experience in any depth, is what succeeds in quenching so
utterly the sacred flame. All of which is to say that entheogens, even the best of them, cannot
create the “divine within” in and of themselves (to this extent, “entheogen” is a misnomer or
an overstatement) absent anything at all numinous in set or setting. Odi profanum vulgus, et
arceo admonishes Horace.
It may seem to the reader that the arguments I have been making here could be turned on
their head: if set and setting are so important to religious experience, why is there any need to
hypothesize the presence of an entheogenic drug in the kykeon at all? Why? Because herbs,
drugs, and potions were widely investigated in the ancient Greco-Roman world; because the
kykeon was regarded with awe and dread as having an intrinsic psycho-spiritual potency (in a
culture in which the distinction between divine or demonic possession and psychopharmaco-
logical alterations of consciousness barely existed: for most people, there was only the
former, even with regard to Dionysian alcohol); and, consequently, because in such a cultural
context the hierophants of a so deeply a revered and successful initiatory rite as that of Eleusis
must have devoted their best efforts over the millennia of its existence to endow the kykeon
with the most powerful and appropriate pharmaka they could find. Reflecting again on the
Mixing the Kykeon
results of Walter Pahnke’s study, it is clear that when an appropriately intense set and setting
are present, nearly every participant who receives an entheogen experiences an unforgettably
transformative theophany. On the other hand, those who experience only set and setting have
such intense experiences relatively rarely. The stories and testimony from the Eleusinian
participants, filtered through the darkening lens of history, seem to suggest that mystical and
near-mystical experiences were so usual that we must postulate the synergetic and catalytic
effects of an entheogen.
For all the numerous descriptions of entheogenically catalyzed religious experience
suggest that the triad of set, setting, and drug (which last of course becomes an “entheogen”
only in virtue of a particular context of set and setting) operate as independent variables, since
each is indispensable. Yet despite this independence, they act in consort to affect and effect
the final outcome not merely as their arithmetic sum but (particularly in the case of
entheogenic drugs) in a deeply interpenetrating synergisis. Participants at Eleusis came away
convinced that they had seen and experienced (“hierophant” means one who makes the Holy
itself manifest, to be seen),15 in a numinous revelation, that they were individually destined for
happiness after death. This is extraordinary in Greco-Roman religiosity, otherwise striking for
its near hopelessness regarding the fate of the individual after death: Immortalia ne speres,
admonishes Horace again; and yet “the Mysteries of Eleusis, . . . both to the community and
to the individual, . . . supplied confidence in the face of all-devouring death.”16 And the
experience commanded immense loyalty: quite astonishingly, the secrets of the Eleusinian
mysteries were never divulged. It seems to me that Something, something well beyond the
sacrifice of a few animals and the attendance at a solemn ritual, must be invoked to account
for this: what better Something than that central feature of so many primordial religions
throughout the world — an entheogenic sacrament? And hence, abandoning all semblance of
etymological propriety, and employing the argot of the pharmaceutical corporations, we
might christen the generic drug ergine, when employed exclusively as an entheogen, as
Due credit should be given to Peter Webster for his laudably tenacious and accurate
memory. When he first suggested to me that ergine could be isolated by alkaline hydrolysis of
ergot alkaloidal material, I was somewhat skeptical — why, if the other peptide bonds of
ergot had been hydrolyzed, would not the amide linkage of ergine itself be hydrolyzed and the
product be lysergic acid itself? Other organic chemists I proposed this to felt likewise. But
Peter was right: ergine, not lysergic acid, was in fact the first characteristic ergot compound to
be isolated in pure form. In 1932, Sidney Smith and Geoffrey Willward Timmis of the
Wellcome Chemical Works in Dartford, UK, were the first workers to report a non-trivial
product from the degradation of ergot alkaloids.17 The crystalline compound resembled the
ergotinine or ergotoxine from which it was isolated in that it was an alkaloid which displayed
all the characteristic color tests for the presence of an indole ring system. However, when its
effect on rabbit uterine contractions were tested it was disappointingly found to be over 400
times less potent than ergotoxine. They named the compound ergine; later, it would be shown
to be the simple amide of lysergic acid.
Two years later, Jacobs and Craig at the Rockefeller Institute in New York confirmed the
results of Smith and Timmis and found that by using aqueous instead of methanolic alkali
they could get a better yield of a new substance, lysergic acid.18 Later communications
between these groups in England and the U.S. allowed a determination that ergine was indeed
the simple amide of lysergic acid.19 Since the yield was greater and since lysergic acid proved
to be a far more useful starting-point for further studies either of ergot itself or of any new
derivatives with its properties, little further attention was given to the procedure of Smith and
Timmis; instead, all efforts were directed to improved methods of isolating the commercially
Mixing the Kykeon
important lysergic acid. (Indeed, these efforts continue to this day, and in the course of
writing this article, Peter Webster put me in touch with Vladimír Kren, a highly regarded
ergot researcher from the Czech Institute of Microbiology, who sent us a preprint of an article
disclosing a procedure for maximizing the yield of lysergic acid from ergot.20) It appears that
preoccupation with the production of lysergic acid has led to some chemists to forget that
simpler and milder versions of these same procedures will result in the production of ergine
and it is precisely these simpler and milder conditions which would be accessible to the
hierophants of Eleusis.
How did the experimental conditions of Smith and Timmis (ST), in which ergine was
produced from ergotinine, differ from those of Jacobs and Craig (JC), in which lysergic acid
was produced from ergotinine? Fundamentally, the difference was a matter of concentration
and temperature. ST refluxed ergotinine for one hour in a 1.0 M solution of potassium
hydroxide (KOH) in methanol, which boils at 65° C, while JC refluxed ergotinine for an hour
in a 1.4 M solution of KOH in water, which of course boils at 100° C. The reason that ST
used methanol is that pure crystalline ergotinine21 is insoluble in water and unreactive even in
boiling aqueous KOH. JC found that the resinous material remaining after ergotinine was
rapidly dissolved in methanolic KOH and then evaporated would slowly dissolve with
liberation of ammonia in boiling aqueous 1.4 M KOH. Martínková, Kren, et al. have been
able to maximize the production of ergine/isoergine from ergotamine by using a less
concentrated solution of KOH. They produce a mixture consisting principally of ergine and
isoergine (total: 10.3 g) with relatively small amounts of lysergic acid/isolysergic acids (total:
1.65 g) from 30 g of ergotamine by refluxing for two hours in a 0.60 M solution of KOH, the
solvent being a 1:3 mixture of water:ethyl alcohol.22 These results can be compared to a
standard procedure for producing lysergic acid from ergotamine as given in Shulgin’s
TIHKAL, where 3.5 g lysergic acid is obtained by stirring 10 g ergotamine in a 1.2 M aqueous
KOH at 70° C for 3 hours.23
We suggest that conditions of solubility, pH, and temperature which would be equivalent
in effect to ST’s process, and result in the conversion of ergot to ergine, could be readily
obtained by boiling crude ergot for several hours in water to which the ashes of wood or
other plant material, perhaps barley, had been added. These are, of course, conditions easily
achieved by the hierophants of Eleusis. Why would these conditions produce ergine? Wood
ash contains potassium carbonate (pearlash), a strong base which for millennia was the usual
material used to produce soap from animal or vegetable fats — an hydrolysis process
(saponification) almost identical to the hydrolysis of the amide bonds of ergot. Wood ash has
a pH of about 12, while the 0.60 M KOH used by MK has a pH of almost 14. But the Greek
priests would have employed water as a solvent, since distilled methanol or ethanol was then
unknown, and the resulting higher temperatures (and quite likely longer cooking times, which
would tend to concentrate both product and alkali reagent) would compensate for the less
concentrated base. As for the solubility problem encountered by ST and JC, we suggest that it
would not obtain when crude ergot was used instead of crystalline ergotinine. This is because
crude ergot contains from 30-35% fatty acids24 which would both solubilize the ergot
alkaloids of their own accord and even more so by virtue of the micelles formed when these
fats were saponified by the hot pearlash.25
Why would the hierophants consider ashes as a suitable ingredient in a sacred potion?
We suggest the possibility that some sort of symbolism involving the resurgence of life from
inanimate ashes may be involved. Kerényi points to a symbolic cluster of images surrounding
birth in death, birth in fire, the ashes of the cremated votaries — all linked to the hope of life
after death.26 Persephone herself was looked upon as the goddess of fire, for “through her
power the evil element was transformed into a kindly one.”27 Perhaps also the ashes
symbolized the immortality which Demeter wished to bestow on the little prince Demophoön,
who was able to thrive and grow without food as long as she secretly placed him each night in
the fire like a log. When Demophoön’s mother, Metaneira, observes Demeter’s strange action
Mixing the Kykeon
and protests it, Demeter takes the boy from the fire — but now he is doomed with the rest of
mankind to death. “Unknowing are ye mortals and thoughtless: ye know not whether good or
evil approaches.”28 An augmenting motive to any of the preceding is simply the reverence
naturally felt towards the ashes remaining after a whole-burnt offering to the gods on a sacred
altar. These are not ashes to be simply disposed of as one would ordinary hearth ashes; they
partake of the sacral nature of the offering, and it is natural to attempt to incorporate them in
some further sacral function. The same instinct can be seen at work in the custom, observed to
this day in the Roman Catholic tradition, of reserving the ashes of the palms blessed on Palm
Sunday to be used on Ash Wednesday of the following liturgical season.
Would a potion containing enough ashes to hydrolyze ergot alkaloids be too basic and
caustic to drink? We suggest several possibilities: most simply, a solution of potassium
carbonate, if allowed to stand exposed to the air for a few days, would absorb enough carbon
dioxide from the air to be turned into the relatively harmless potassium bicarbonate.
Alternatively, as we have suggested earlier, a final addition of wine to the kykeon would
neutralize the ashes, and this seems reasonable since in Homer the kykeon always contains
wine. But in the Eleusinian myth, Demeter pointedly refuses to accept any wine to assuage
her grief, since it would be “contrary to themis,” against nature. This is thought to be more
than just an expression of her unwillingness to drink a beverage of joy while still in grief for
her daughter; rather, she declines because wine comes from Dionysus, and the rape of
Demeter’s daughter occurred on the Nysan Plain, where the Dionysian ground opened.29
Indeed, the kykeon is possibly the Eleusinian drink in part because it stood as an alternative in
opposition to Dionysian wine. A third possibility, then, is that the final mixture was
neutralized (more effectively in any case since it is more acidic) by the addition of vinegar,
which as spoiled wine, might not offend Demeter and/or might even be symbolic of
participation in her grief.
We finally come to the most technical part of this discussion, which is a mechanism
justifying the chemical transformation of ergot peptide alkaloids into ergine/isoergine and
non-toxic secondary products. For this I owe much to discussions with Professor David
Nichols of Purdue University, whose numerous discoveries and internationally acknowledged
expertise in the realm of psychedelic chemistry, and whose much greater familiarity with the
chemistry of lysergic acid, make him far more qualified to address this issue than I.
We feel that the mechanism shown in Scheme 1 accounts adequately for the known
experimental facts. We show ergotamine with a hydrogen bond forming an eight-membered
ring from the carbonyl at C-18 to the hydroxyl group at C-12’ since Ott, Hofmann, and Frey
have given persuasive evidence that this corresponds to the internal structure of the natural
alkaloids.30 There are three mechanisms which could be invoked to account for the partial
hydrolysis of ergotamine to ergine. The first and simplest would be an attack by hydroxide at
the amide N of lysergic acid (the N bonded to C-18), which would cleave off ergine in one
step. However, as Dr. Nichols points out, this would involve an SN2 attack at a quite hindered
center. A more accessible point of attack would be the removal by base of the proton of the
C-12’ hydroxyl, which would induce a cascade effect essentially similar to what we have
pictured in Scheme 1. However, part of the data provided by Ott et al. supporting the
existence of an intramolecular hydrogen bonding at this center is the reduced acidity of this
hydroxyl group at C-12’ relative to the unnatural aci isomers, where epimerization at the C-2’
center excludes the possibility of hydrogen bonding to the lysergic acid carbonyl for steric
reasons. (Nonetheless, the OH in question is still considerably more acidic than an ordinary
alcohol due to the cumulative electron withdrawal of a nitrogen and an oxygen on C-12’.) In
any case, a third point of attack is possible that obviates both of these difficulties, and that is
what we have drawn in Scheme 1, where solvent hydroxide removes a proton from the
methyl group attached to C-2’, thereby initiating a cascade of reactions (probably more or less
simultaneous) involving the intramolecular hydrogen bond and leading to the enol tautomer of
ergine, 1, which rapidly rearranges to ergine. The other product of this cleavage is 2, which
Mixing the Kykeon
should rapidly form 3 by extracting a proton from the solvent to regenerate hydroxide ion. 3
should itself be quite easily hydrolyzed in mild base to pyruvic acid and L-phenylalanyl-L-
proline lactam, a harmless dipeptide formed from two essential amino acids. Under the mild
conditions we envisage it is unlikely that any significant quantities of lysergic acid itself
would be formed, since the amide bond of ergine would be hydrolyzed only very slowly by
potassium carbonate. In any case, lysergic acid itself has almost no psychotropic effects.
Scheme 1
Footnotes to part 2
1. Osmond, H., Ololiuqui: The ancient Aztec narcotic. Remarks on the effects of
Rivea corymbosa (ololiuqui). J. Ment. Sci., 101:526-537.
2. Schultes, R. E.; Hofmann, A., The Botany and Chemistry of Hallucinogens.
Springfield, IL, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1973 [Henceforward BCH],
3. Hofmann, A., LSD, My Problem Child: Reflections on Sacred Drugs, Mysticism,
and Science, trans. J. Ott, Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher, 1983, pp. 124-126.
4. Solms, H., Relationships between chemical structure and psychoses with the use
of psychotoxic substances,” J. Clin. Exp. Psychopath. Quart. Rev. Psychiat.
Neurol., 17:429-433, 1956; quoted in BCH, p. 153.]
5. Hofmann, A., The active principles of the seeds of Rivea corymbosa and Ipomoea
violacea. Bot. Mus. Leafl., Harvard U., 20:194-212, 1963]; quoted in BCH, p.
L-phenylalanyl-L-proline lactam
pyruvic acid
Mixing the Kykeon
6. The κυκεώv which “fair-tressed Hecamede” mixes for Nestor and his comrades in
the Iliad (xi. 624-641) contains barley-groats, grated goat cheese, and Pramnian
wine. In the Odyssey, the κυκεώv which Circe mixes to transform Odysseus’s
companions into swine (Odyssey, x. 234-235) similarly consists of “cheese,
barley-meal, and Pramnian wine” — but she has added a drug (φαρµακov) to
bewitch them. Later, Odysseus is able to rescue them by first taking the antidote
“moly” provided him by Hermes (Odyssey, x. 290, 316-320). Interestingly, the
unusual word “moly” (µώλυ) is probably related to the Sanskrit mulam, a root,
with the compound mula-karma, meaning the “magical use of roots.” As well as
making likely the presence of wine (or vinegar) in the Eleusinian sacrament, these
citations show that an interest in drugs and potions added to a κυκεώv is as old as
the earliest Greek literature.
7. Schultes, R. E., “An Overview of Hallucinogens in the Western Hemisphere.” In:
Flesh of the Gods: The Ritual Use of Hallucinogens, Furst, P. T., ed., Prospect
Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1972, p. 20.
8. Wilbert, J., “Tobacco and Shamanistic Ecstasy among the Warao Indians of
Venezuela.” In: Flesh of the Gods: The Ritual Use of Hallucinogens, Furst, P. T.,
ed., Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1972, p. 55.
9. Kerényi, C., Eleusis: Archetypal Image of Mother and Daughter, trans. Manheim,
R., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967, p. 177.
10. De Quincey, T., Confessions of an English Opium-Eater, Ticknor, Reed, &
Fields: Boston, 1853 [reprint of the 1822 edition], p. 73.
11. Quoted in: O’Reilly, D., “Drugs were his door to the sacred,” The Philadelphia
Inquirer, Sunday, June 18, 2000. Huston Smith, a widely-respected historian of
religions who himself experienced a profound mescaline-catalyzed theophany at
Harvard in the 1960s, was being interviewed about his recent book, which
provides perhaps the best and most balanced evaluation of the phenomena of
entheogen-altered or entheogen-induced religious states: Smith, Huston, Cleans-
ing the Doors of Perception: The Religious Significance of Entheogenic Plants
and Chemicals, New York: Tarcher/Putnam, 2000.
12. I wish I could say this with the same aplomb with which William James discusses
his use of nitrous oxide and ether. But unfortunately, the present legal and
emotional climate is not as open-minded as it was in his day. And so I feel
compelled to add by way of legal exculpation, and while emphasizing that the
United States Constitution still grants the presumption of innocence, that
entheogenic experiences do not necessarily involve the violation of any law, even
laws which are arguably adjudged as excessive and immoral. (Cf. Husak, D.,
Drugs and Rights, [Cambridge Studies in Philosophy and Public Policy, D.
MacLean, Ed.], New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.) This is because
1) in some countries some entheogens are legal which are illegal in the United
States; 2) some entheogens which are generally illegal in the United States are not
necessarily illegal in all circumstances; and that 3) a number of quite effective
entheogenic chemicals have never been declared illegal in any country — some
of these are easily synthesized and others can be ordered from most of the major
chemical supply houses.
Mixing the Kykeon
13. Pahnke, W., “Drugs and mysticism: An analysis of the relationship between
psychedelic drugs and the mystical consciousness.” Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard
University, 1963. The experiment is also described in: Pahnke, W., “Drugs and
mysticism,” The International Journal of Parapsychology, viii, (1966), pp. 295-
313; reprinted in: Psychedelics: The Uses and Implications of Hallucinogenic
Drugs, Aaronson, B.; Osmond, H., Eds., Garden City, NY: Anchor Doubleday,
pp. 145-165. The “active placebo” was nicotinic acid, which provokes a harmless
flushing of the skin, tachycardia, and a rush of pounding blood to the head —
symptoms which, although not very different from those caused by a cup of black
coffee on an empty stomach — might suggest to the suggestible that they had
taken a psychoactive drug. Using an active placebo was Pahnke’s supererogatory
effort to completely level the playing field between placebo and psychedelic.
(Such probative integrity is rarely employed today: when, for example, a new
drug with purported antidepressant effects is first tested on depressed subjects it
is thrown into competition against a look-alike sugar pill which can have no
psychic effect except through the subject’s imagination. Nonetheless, those given
placebo always show significant improvement over baseline, though not as much
improvement as those given the genuine antidepressant. Such is the power of that
most addictive of placebos, Hope.) However, in Pahnke’s experiment, so intense
and unique were the effects of high-dose (30 mg) psilocybin that within an hour it
became apparent who had received the entheogen to both the controls and to the
recipients of the active drug. See the discussion and evaluation by Rick Doblin
cited below.
14. Doblin, R., “Pahnke’s ‘Good Friday experiment’: A long-term follow-up and
methodological critique,” Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 1991, 23, 1-28.
15. Kerényi, C., Eleusis, p. 90-91.
16. Kerényi, C., Eleusis, p. 16.
17. Smith, S.; Timmis, G. M., “The Alkaloids of Ergot. Part III. Ergine, a New Base
obtained by the Degradation of Ergotoxine and Ergotinine,” J. Chem. Soc., 1932,
18. Jacobs, W. A.; Craig, L. C., “The Ergot Alkaloids: II. The Degradation of
Ergotinine with Alkali. Lysergic Acid,J. Biol. Chem., 104 (1934), 547-551.
19. Jacobs, W. A.; Craig, L. C., “The Ergot Alkaloids: III. On Lysergic Acid,” J.
Biol. Chem., 106 (1934), 393-399.
20. Martínková, L.; Kren, V.; Cvak, L.; Ovesná, M; Prepechalová, I., “Hydrolysis of
lysergamide to lysergic acid by Rhodococcus equi, J. Biotechnol. In press.
21. Ergotinine is actually an equimolar eutectic mixture of ergocornine, ergocristin-
ine, and ergocryptinine isolated by Tanret from ergot in 1875 (Compt. Rend. 81,
891), but this was only discovered a decade later by Stoll and Hofmann (Helv.
Chim. Acta, 26 [1943], 1570).
22. Martínková, L.; Kren, V.; et al., ut supra. These workers intentionally maximize
the production of an ergine/isoergine mixture because they have developed a
Mixing the Kykeon
high-yield enzymatic procedure for converting this mixture into d-lysergic acid.
23. Shulgin, A.; Shulgin, A, TIHKAL: The Continuation, Berkeley, CA: Transform
Press, 1997, pp. 490-491.
24. Buchta, M.; Cvak, L., “Ergot Alkaloids and other metabolites of the genus
Claviceps.” In: Ergot: The Genus Claviceps, Kren, V.; Cvak, L., Eds.,
Amsterdam: Harwood Academic, 1999, pp. 173-200. Cf. p. 194.
25. In modern times soap is made by treating fats with sodium hydroxide, NaOH, a
base essentially as strong as KOH. But this process was developed by Leblanc
and Chevreul only around 1790. Soap has been known since at least 300 BC, but
had always been made by the much slower process of employing the potassium
carbonate in wood ash, commonly called pearlash. After the Leblanc’s work it
became evident that soap could also be made from “lixivated pearlash” or potash,
which was made by adding calcined limestone (lime, calcium hydroxide, CaOH)
to the pearlash and precipitating out calcium carbonate. Lime was well-known to
the Romans, who used it extensively in mortar for construction purposes, and
oddly enough, the process of lixiviation was also known — it is mentioned by
Pliny, who also discusses soap. But lixiviated pearlash appears not to have been
applied to the production of soap until modern times. Indeed, the ancients did not
use soap for cleansing; the usual process was to rub olive oil onto the skin after a
bath, and then to scrape off the excess oil and dirt. Soap was used to some extent
medicinally as a laxative, but primarily as an ointment for giving a bright hue to
the hair — “rutilandis capillis.” Pliny, Historia naturalis, xxviii. 51. There are
numerous studies which have confirmed that micelles can greatly augment the
rate of chemical reactions, particularly those which involve two phases as would
be the case with our relatively insoluble material.
26. Kerényi, C., Eleusis, p. 92-93.
27. Kerényi, C., Eleusis, p. 101.
28. Kerényi, C., Eleusis, pp. 40-41.
29. Kerényi, C., Eleusis, p. 40.
30. Ott, H.; Hofmann, A.; Frey, A. J., “Acid-catalyzed isomerization in the peptide
part of ergot alkaloids,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 88, (1966), 1251-1256.
Mixing the Kykeon
Mixing the Kykeon
Part 3
by Carl A. P. Ruck
Barley-groats, water, and fresh mint. Alphi (or more fully, alphiton), hydor, and glechon
(also called blechon). These are the known ingredients for the Eleusinian potion, the mixed
drink or kykeon; these were the elements publicly announced and not part of the secret.
Symbolically, the two plants represent various dichotomous antitheses that the aqueous
kykeon mediates. First, the botanical, with the cultivated agricultural foodstuff as opposed to
the wild gathered herb, the former the staff of life, the latter supposedly soporific. And the
socio-political, with the sanctioned nuptial rite replacing illicit abduction and concubinage.
And the religious, with the incorporation of the older chthonic deities into the Hellenized
family of celestial Olympians. And both plants, in the pharmacopoeia of the midwife, the
latter an abortifacient, the former an aid in parturition, inducing uterine contractions.
Cultivars, it was thought, are the product of human scientific intervention, without which
they will revert to their poisonous inedible avatars. Sometimes, this is actually true. Thus the
olive requires repeated pruning to prevent it from sending up a thicket of sprouts from its
rootlets and returning to its fruitless natural state. The vine, too, needs pruning since it fruits
only on new growth; and in ancient lore, its avatar was seen in the ivy, its sinister mimic,
whose leaves and diminutive berries supposedly deranged the mind in their natural state,
unlike the sophisticated intoxicant manufactured from the crushed grapes of the cultivar. An
example from the New World is Indian corn, which if left unattended, drops its cobs of
kernels to sprout all in the same spot, too close to grow without crowding each other out and
becoming increasingly stunted like the original grasses from which it is hybridized. More to
the point is the barley of the Eleusinian potion whose avatar was seen in the grassy weed that
invades the tended plowland, the grain called tares, cockle, or darnel, Lolium, with the
botanical epithet temulentum, 'drunken Lolium,' whose drunken toxicity derives from the
ergot Claviceps purpurea, 'purple club-head,' descriptive of the enlarged deformed kernels
formed by the dried sclerotia of the fungus, which spreads its poisonous contamination to the
barley. In Greek, the weedy grass is named solely for these deformed kernels as aira or
'hammer.' The ergot itself was called 'rust' or erysibe, a metaphor that occurs also in English.
As such, the botanic rust had its analogue in the destructive oxidization of iron that corrupts
the metal utensils, returning them to the original ore. Demeter, the goddess of grains, could
have the epithet Erysibe, for Greek deities often bear apotropaic names of their more sinister
personae, just as Persephone is called the 'killer of Deadly Perse,' as the goddess who has
displaced her more fearsome aspect as Perse.
It is only when we distance ourselves from the Eleusinian Mystery that we can expect to
find mention of the ergot potion. Melampous, called 'black-foot' and the founder of a family
of shamans, was a medicine-man, expert in understanding the speech of animals, birds, and
insects, a gift he had received when two serpents licked his ears as he lay asleep. While
attempting to win a herd of estrual cows as the bride price for the maiden Pero, named as the
'leathern food-pouch' like the pera in which was hidden some secret of the Eleusinian
Mystery, Melampous was held prisoner by the 'Jailer' Phylakos, but he was able to gain his
release by curing his captor's son of impotence. He learned from an old vulture, who had
witnessed the event years ago, that Phylakos had inadvertently frightened his son when he
approached him while gelding rams, bloody knife in hand. Phylakos had plunged the knife
into an oak tree and gone to comfort the terrified child. It had lain there forgotten, rusting.
Melampous scraped off he rust and administered it as a potion.
Mixing the Kykeon
The symbolism of the rust is its mediation between primitivism and culture. From it can
be extracted via alkaline hydrolysis, as we have seen, the visionary agent for the Eleusinian
initiation. Pearlash or potash, called tephra and spodos in Greek, was known as an eye salve
at least as early as Aristotle; and a century earlier, we know that the alkaline fluid called konia
('ash-water') was used for washing. There was also a konia derived from holy water and the
ashes from sacrificial burnings that was used as a medicine. Hence, the procedure was within
the expertise of the ancient pharmacologist, an art whose divine patroness was the third of the
Eleusinian deities, Hekate. The Melampous myth also indicates a transition from human
offerings to animal substitutes, for Iphiklos, the son of the Jailer, was probably not mistaken
that the knife was originally intended for him and not the ram. Fiery immolation of human so-
called volunteers and funeral pyres are frequent in the traditions of Eleusis. And in particular,
Demeter, before teaching the Mystery, had laid the Queen's son Demophoön, lulled to sleep
with poppy juice, nightly in the hearth like a log to burn off his mortality, intending to make
him celestial, like the daughter Persephone, whose contamination with flesh she had not yet
come to accept. This event of the myth was commemorated each year at the Eleusinian rite by
the 'boy from the hearth,' a child from a noble Athenian family whose initiation was funded at
public expense. The secret agency of the potash would, therefore, not be without significance,
as the mediation between body and soul, the reconciliation of chthonic and celestial realms.
As to when the potion was drunk, there are those who would imagine it prepared well in
advance and perhaps sipped sometime while on route to the sanctuary on the day of the
initiation; this view is intended to allow time for the barley-groats to ferment slightly,
producing some kind of weak beer. If, however, it were prepared in advance and in the
possession of the initiates, it could hardly be a secret; nor were the Greeks, who were never
interested in beer, although they knew of it, likely to interpret a mild alcoholic intoxication as
an entheogenic experience, especially since wine, in other circumstances, or more exactly,
strong ancient Greek wine fortified with herbal inebriants, offered precisely that in the rites of
the god Dionysos. The only supposed evidence for the mixing of the kykeon in advance is a
papyrus fragment of a comedy of Eupolis where a foreigner is seen with barley-groats
(krimnon) on his upper lip while still in Athens; the circumstances, however, are probably the
affair of the Profanation of the Mysteries, which involved exactly this, the drinking of the
kykeon illegally at home as a recreational inebriant, since certain well-placed Athenians with
connections to the Eleusinian priesthood had apparently learned the secret of the potion. And
indeed, Eupolis's foreigner is described as being overtaken by a hallucinatory fever (epialos,
like a nightmare) while on the way to the marketplace because of the kykeon he had drunk.
The ten-day fast imposed upon the candidates for the initiation has also been called into
evidence to help explain how some mild inebriant could have induced the visionary
experience that by all testimony occurred at the Eleusinian sanctuary. This fasting, however,
could hardly have been total, but just the avoidance of certain foods; and the offering of the
mystic sacrificial pigs, washed in the sea, would certainly imply a day of feasting during this
period of the fast. The vessel for mixing the kykeon was emblematic of the initiation ritual;
both metal and ceramic exemplars still exist, the latter imitating in clay the style of the
former. Ninnion's tablet depicts the procession that left Athens in the morning of the final day
to walk the Sacred Road to the village of Eleusis. The women carry the vessel on their heads,
with boughs of myrtle inserted in its handles: the symbolism of the myrtle indicates that the
potion is a mediation, both as the rite of marriage, which will supplant the abduction of
Persephone and unite the chthonic realm with the celestial and also as the redemption of
Semele, since this is the plant with which Dionysos paid for his dead mother's resurrection.
Appropriately, therefore, the initiates are led by Iakchos, who is Dionysos personified as the
call that leads them into the netherworld. The potion, however, was not drunk from the kykeon
vessel (nor is its style suitable for this purpose), but from cup-sized jugs, which the men in the
procession carry in their hands. Each of the events along the way suggests that the Mystery
procession was a mimesis of a journey to the otherworld, whose gateway awaited them in the
Cave of Plouto beside the great Hall of Initiation at Eleusis. As they left the plain of Attica,
the bridge over the River Kephisos and the ritual of the gephyrismos (or 'bridging') was
Mixing the Kykeon
practice for the narrow and dangerous passageway whose final locale would be the deep
subterranean channel at the back of the Cave. Similarly, at the shallow saline lake called the
Rheitoi or 'Streams' that marked the boundary of the Rarian plain in which lay the Eleusinian
acropolis, the narrow bridge required that their carts be left behind and everything for the
ceremony now be carried by hand. Here they were met by the hereditary priesthood of the
Krokonidai, whose name suggests they are descended from the Athenian King Ion, Apollo's
son via the krokos flower (supposedly the 'crocus') and after whom this month of Boëdromion
('Aid,' our September) was named for the alliance he made with Eleusis. The Krokonidai tied
a 'string' or kroke to the right hand and left foot of each initiate, for such bows are emblematic
of the joining between the realms. Their journey would be reversible, replacing earlier rites of
human immolation. Hence, they had rested in Apollo's grove of laurel trees or daphne at the
crest of Mount Aigeleos, before descending to the Rheitoi; and Artemis's temple lay still
ahead of them at the entrance to the Eleusinian enclosure, beside the Well, the 'Well of
Flowers,' the 'Virgin's Well,' where Demeter had rested when she first arrived at Eleusis,
beyond whose watery surface at the base of the narrow shaft now resided her abducted
daughter. (The grove of Apollo's entheogen, the temple of Artemis: because these were the
two deities most implicated in the older rites of human sacrificial offerings.) There the
initiates danced until nightfall, then passed with torches into the forbidden sanctuary, each
accompanied by a sponsor, the mystagogue, up the incline, past the 'Laughless Rock,' which
none would dare sit upon for fear of becoming stuck, like Theseus when he visited
Persephone, and on into the Hall or Telesterion of 'Completion,' such being the metaphor in
Greek for what we call by the Latin of initiation or beginning.
Inside, but certainly not the exaggerated thirty thousand of them as has been claimed, for
the Hall could accommodate perhaps only a thirtieth of that, they ranged themselves along the
peripheral steps, sitting probably, not standing all packed together, and watched as the
priestesses danced in the darkness with lanterns and incense burners on their heads. The
Mystery Baskets or Cista Mystica were opened, whatever they contained hidden until now
from profane view. Then the kykeon was mixed. Barley. Mint. Water. One of the Eleusinian
priests called the Hydranos was specifically responsible for the water, for this would have to
be prepared in advance, with its hydrolyzed visionary agent from the ergots that, we may
surmise, had been specifically encouraged to grow by contaminating some portion of the crop
with the 'honey dew' of Claviceps purpurea, the sweet exudation of its ascospores. "I have
opened the basket; I have drunk the potion," was the final password. The unused portion of
this special water figured in the rite, probably now just as the initiates prepared for their
spiritual descent into the netherworld to encounter the Goddess. Two round urns on unstable
bases where emptied, with the chant, no doubt repeated again and again by the whole
congregation, Hye kye, "Rain conceive." After their descent, she would surface back up with
them all, amidst a brilliant light, a fire that supposedly (although it may be just a metaphor)
could be seen from miles away, as the Hierophant opened the door on the antique temple
within the great Hall, at the moment of her giving birth to the Mystery child Brimos, who is
otherwise known in the Eleusinian myth as Triptolemos, the prince to whom Demeter
entrusted the Mystery and the sacrament of cultivating barley. Brimo, as Persephone now was
called, had given birth to Brimos, a son named after her in the older matrilineal fashion: the
'Terrible Queen with her Terrible son.' This Queen is ultimately the reunion of the three
phases of the goddess, as maiden, mother and crone, represented as Hekate, three women in
one, and the patroness of witchcraft and herbalism; and the son similarly triform as the 'Triple
Warrior' Triptolemos. With the conclusion of the Initiation, the winter rain would begin and
the seed of Persephone would be hidden in the plowland to fruit again six months hence.
The mint in the potion, Mentha pulegium or pennyroyal, in addition to its symbolism as
the wild antithesis to the cultivated barley, may have functioned merely to scent the drink, for
without infusion in boiling water it would not be likely to release enough of its toxins -- and it
is specifically denoted as fresh mint; hence the potential abortifacient was surpassed by the
superior magic of the ergot's birthing drug. It is possible, however, that the pennyroyal
functioned in some way either to calm nausea (which is one of its uses in herbal
Mixing the Kykeon
pharmacology) or to potentiate or catalyze in some way the psychoactive toxins of the
hydrolyzed ergot. This would require further experimentation to determine. Pennyroyal,
commonly called fleabane and fleawort, also would have been noted for its apotropaic effect
on flies; hence its botanic name of pulegium, from pulex, 'flea.' In concentration, the terpenoid
ketone pulegone from pennyroyal is lethal for humans.
This greater Initiation was called the 'Vision,' the epopteia, something that even a blind
man could see, as is testified by the votive of Eukrates, found in the excavation of the
sanctuary, who without eyes saw, like everyone else, the Resurrection of Persephone. It was
the culmination of the rite that had begun six months earlier in February, in the month of
'Flowering' called Anthesterion. That was the Lesser Mystery, so-called, the myesis or
'Closing of the Eyes' and being lulled to rest. It was the time to plant the other crop1 that
would fruit at the end of summer. If one observed the ground carefully at that time, the ergots
from the winter crop, which readily detach from the ears of barley and which for centuries
would be thought to be nothing more than sun-baked kernels amongst the healthy grains,
display their other mode of propagation, as the mycelia of the sclerotia, like any other fungus,
send up their fruiting bodies, the mushroom caps with their spore-bearing gills. It is as if these
special kernels of barley had become the seed of the wild and seedless mushroom. This
Mystery was the rite of death that was prelude to the resurrection. In myth, it was the
Abduction of Persephone as she plucked a special flower that was called the narkissos, a word
from the Minoan language that was assimilated into Greek and which is the root for our word
'narcotic.' Similarly, the place where she found the narkissos was called Nysa in the myth, a
word that persists into modern Greek as nystazo, to 'get drowsy.'
It is unlikely that every initiate could attend the public part of this rite since the
dangerous winter seas would not be navigable until at least a month later, although on
occasion the rite was performed out of season to accommodate personages of importance. It is
probable that versions of the ceremony were enacted in locale Eleusinian sanctuaries. Nor is it
likely that the narkissos aspect of the fearsome rite was enacted by anyone more than just the
titular Sacred Queen of the city of Athens, who experienced a hierogamos or 'Sacred
Wedding' with the god Dionysos as some kind of maenadic ritual with her female attendants
in the temple in the Swamps, also considered as a part of her house called the 'bull stall.' This
was the transmutation of a ritual that went back to Minoan religion and had once required the
offering of human victims. In Athens, some aspect of the rite was enacted at the so-called
'Hunting Preserve,' the mystery sanctuary of Agrai, on the banks of the River Ilissos, where as
late as the mid-eighteenth century there still stood a temple of Artemis. In myth, it was
remembered as the place where the nymph Oreithyia (or 'mountain ecstatic female') was
abducted from her sisterhood of maidens called the 'drug-ladies' or Pharmakidai to establish
Athens' own special family relationship with the world beneath the earth. These maidens were
also known as the Hyakinthidai or 'hyacinth ladies,' in commemoration of the Hyakinthos
whom Apollo 'unwillingly' (for such is always the ruse in human immolation) escorted to
Paradise. Both the narkissos and the hyakinthos are flowers from the pre-Greek language, as
is also the name of the river. In this essay, I summarize for the purpose of clarity and
directness ethobotanical and metaphoric items that are documented in other writings (most
recently, RUCK & STAPLES & HEINRICH 2000).
The narkissos flower figures prominently in Minoan art, on a sacrificial knife and wall
paintings and a golden ring, probably the emblem of a shamanic priestess, depicting women
as 'bee ladies' experiencing a vision, and even a ceramic plate showing a Persephone snake-
goddess with her flower. We can identify it as Pancratium maritimum, the sea daffodil, of the
amaryllis family. Its ethnopharmacological traditions (as well as its botanical family, which
includes the toxic daffodil, whose poisons from the bulb can be absorbed through the skin,
and the autumn crocus (Colchicum sps.), the latter associated with Medea and Prometheus)
suggest psychotoxicity. Some fifteen species of amaryllis are toxic. Pancratium trianthum,
because of its entheogenic properties is reputedly often found growing around shrines and
sacred areas (EMBODEN 1979: 79, fig 44). It bears lily-like flowers of pink and white stripes
Mixing the Kykeon
on a naked scape. The bushmen of Dobe, Botswana, know this bulbous perennial as kwashi, a
powerful sacred hallucinogen, capable of producing vivid and colorful visions. The bulb is
not eaten, but rather it is slashed open and pressed onto self-inflicted wounds on the foreheads
of participants. (One might compare the ritual flagellation of Spartan youths with squills.) The
intoxicating principle is transported directly into the circulatory system, creating an
immediate reaction. A related species is Pancratium speciosum, used by the Caribs of the
West Indies under the name of ognon or gli as a powerful emetic. Some species are quite
narcotic and are purported to have caused death by paralysis of the central nervous system;
still others are classified as cardiac poisons. As always, ethnopharmacological expertise is
essential for the ritual use of toxins.
The botanical name of Pancratium means the 'all-powerful,' like Christ as the Pankrator
in Byzantine art, for its numinosity was assimilated in Christian mystery rites as the plant
called chreston, an ancient corruption of Christ's name as the 'good' instead of the 'anointed' in
Greek. It still goes by the name of the Virgin Panaghia in modern Greek. But somewhere
along the way it also assumed the sanctity of the hoama or Soma which the Iranian Magoi
used in their shamanic initiations, which is to say that it was assimilated to Amanita muscaria,
the fly-agaric mushroom. This fungal sacrament persisted in Gnostic Christian sects, often
labeled as heretical, most notably amongst the Manichaeans, whose rites, which thrived in the
orient, were repeatedly reintroduced into western Europe by the Crusades. The role of fly-
agaric in Eleusinian lore can no longer be denied now that the plant elevated between the two
goddesses, and apparently extracted from the Mystery wallet or pera, on the bas-relief from
Pharsalia, Thessaly, in northern Greece, has been definitively identified as a large mushroom.
Fly-agaric in Greek mythopoeia is involved with the Gorgon Medusa and the hero
Perseus, as well as the mooing of estrual cows and the purple-red heifer maiden Io, who is
herself a female version of the same name as the Athenian king Ion, both with names that are
cognate with 'violet,' a holy plant in Greek ethnobotany and involved with the linguistic root
for 'drug,' as in the word for drug-man, iatros. This entheogen of the primordial times was
hidden away from profane view, hidden until it was revealed on the night of the Great
Initiation, within the rockrose, kisthos, after which the Cista Mystica or mystery hamper of
the Eleusinian rite is named, a wild rose with single petals. Hence the prominence of rose
motifs in the decoration of the sanctuary. Some claimed that it was the phallus of Dionysos
that lay hidden within; others that it was a kteis; with either, it was emblematic of fly-agaric, a
hermaphroditic phallus that penetrates its own vulva as it grows, like the Baubo creature who
first served the potion to Demeter. The rose, itself, resembles the opium poppy flower, for that
entheogen is well attested in Minoan religion; and after its assimilation to the Hellenized rite,
it, too, enclosed the secret. The opium capsules, moreover, resemble little pomegranate fruits,
another Eleusinian motif; one common weed in fields of grain is called the pomegranate
poppy because of the likeness of its capsules. The pomegranate itself as it fruits on its tree
resembles apples, like the golden apples of the Hesperides, which one ancient vase painting
identifies explicitly as mushrooms, for as the pomegranate hangs on its bough, the long calyx
gives the red fruit a stipe like fly-agaric.
The fly-agaric is so named because of its attractiveness to flies, who seek out its toxins
and were thought to be killed by it, although actually they revive after the experience. It
would have been noted that the honey dew of the ergotized barley is similarly attractive to
flies; it was long thought that it was just the sap of the grain exuded when the insects bore into
the kernels. Fleabane, of course, represents the antithesis, repelling flies.
As for what the ordinary initiate could expect to experience at the myesis, we have only
the traditions of the Purification. The rite is difficult to separate from the other aspects of the
Anthesteria, which was a three-day wine festival (open to all and not restricted to the
candidates for initiation) to which the ghosts of departed family members were invited.
Orestes was said to have visited Athens during the festival, pursued by the netherworld
sisterhood of Furies and the ghost of his mother Clytaemnestra, whom he had murdered,
under orders from Apollo. He was exonerated and cured of his madness. Similarly, Herakles
Mixing the Kykeon
was purified of the murder of his wife and children. Anyone guilty of murder was offered the
same ritual purification in preparation for the greater initiation; but certainly not many
candidates could have been murderers.
Perhaps we get closer to the meaning with Melampous, the same shaman who discovered
the rust potion. Another of his spectacular cures was the daughters of Proitos, the Proitidai.
They had gone mad, becoming consubstantial with the fly-agaric (for such is the common
experience of those who partake of the sacramental food): they grew bald with scabby patches
on their skin, like the white fragments of the shattered universal veil adhering to the fly-
agaric's cap, and went mooing like cows in heat. Such estrual mooing was thought to be
caused by the goading of the gad-fly or oistros (which gives us our word estrus) and which
was also called the myops, 'squint-eye,' as in myopia, metaphorically appropriate for the
myesis. He purified them at a temple of Artemis in Arcadia on the River Lousios. One of them
died, but the other two he and his brother married, as replacements for Pero, the Mystery
wallet, whom both of them had claimed as wife in the affair of the rust potion.
The purification of Herakles, Orestes, and the Proitidai is always depicted as involving
the sacrifice of a pig, for the animal offering was the substitute for human immolation; while
the candidate sat, head shrouded, enthroned, the thronosis, on the 'fleeceling of a ram,' which
is another metaphor for fly-agaric. The ordinary initiate, however, probably began this
indoctrination for the Greater Initiation simply by becoming at peace with the revenant spirits
and by feasting on the slaughtered pigs -- the pig offered in sacrifice as a token substitute for
the death and myesis experienced by Persephone.
Footnote to Part 3
1. As would be expected, two crops were planted. The times of planting do not
correspond exactly to the two Mysteries, which appear to be religious preliminaries for the
actual plantings. Hesiod's Works and Days directs that the winter crop of Demeter's grain
(presumably barley) should be planted when the voice of the migratory crane is first heard,
i.e., mid November (448), whether or not the rains have begun. The field should have been
plowed in the spring and left fallow. If you wait for the winter solstice to plant, it is too late
for the spring harvest. The winter crop should be planted when the cuckoo first calls, i.e.,
March (486), if it has rained within three days as much as the height of an ox's hoof, which
will assure a crop as good as the winter one. This crop is winnowed when Orion first rises at
dawn, i.e., July (587).
EMBODEN WILLIAM, 1979, revised and enlarged edition, Narcotic Plants, Collier
Books, division of MacMillan Publishing, New York.
Apples of Apollo: Pagan and Christian Mysteries of the Eucharist, Carolina Academic Press,
Durham, NC.
... This special drink was described as "a hallucinogenicaphrodisiac potion" that was consumed during the long "Dionysian festivals and orgia". Its active hallucinogenic ingredient was probably thujone (in Artemisia absinthium), a cannabinoid receptor agonist, while it might have also contained other psychoactive plants and herbs, such as magic mushrooms (Webster, 2000), ergot compounds and LSA (kykeon; Ruck, 2000Ruck, , 2001Ruck, , 2013Ruck, , 2006aRuck, -b, 2009), opium, (Ritter, 2008;Gimpel, 2006;Lachenmeier, 2006aLachenmeier, , 2006bAzar, 2006;Daniélou, 1992;Sayin, 2014). It is interesting to note that another cannabinoid receptor agonist, cannabidiol, has recently been found to effectively control the disturbing dreams/nightmares--i.e. ...
... One of the most important details of these rituals, which the historians and anthropologists always ignored, is that the famous drink kykeon or, probably, absinthe was one of the main aphrodisiac agents in the magical potion that these dancing people drank during these festivals. Wasson, Hoffman and Ruck, hypothesized that kykeon contained ergot alkaloids (from C. purpureae) Ruck, 2008Ruck, , 2013, however, others objected that kykeon contained psilocybin (Webster, 2000); most probably kykeon contained some psychoactive substances which could be LSA, psilocybin or DMT or some others. Sexual freedom and liberated sexual practices were also a part of the Dionysian Orgia, such that the term orgy comes from the orgia of the Dionysian Festivals ( Figure 11). ...
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Abstract: Psychoactive plants which contain hallucinogenic molecules that induce a form of altered states of consciousness (H-ASC) have been widely used during the religious rituals of many cultures throughout the centuries, while the consumption of these plants for spiritual and religious purposes is as old as human history. Some of those cultures were shaman and pagan subcultures; African native religions; Bwiti Cult; South American native religions; Amazon Cultures; Central American Cultures; Mexican subcultures; Aztec, Maya and Inca; Wiccan and witch subcultures; Satanists; American Indians; Greek and Hellenistic cultures; Sufis; Hassan Sabbah’s Hashisins; Hindu, Indian and Tibetan cultures; some of the Nordic subcultures etc. Some of the psychoactive ingredients of the plants that were used during these religious rituals were; narcotic analgesics (opium), THC (cannabis), psilocybin (magic mushrooms), mescaline (peyote), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga), DMT (Ayahuasca and phalaris species), Peganum harmala, bufotenin, muscimol (Amanita muscaria), thujone (absinthe, Arthemisia absinthium), ephedra, mandragora, star lotus, Salvia divinorum etc. The main purposes of the practice of these plants were: spiritual healing; to contact with spirits; to contact with the souls of ancestors; to reach enlightenment (Nirvana or Satori); to become a master shaman, pagan or witch; to reach so-called-other realities, etc. Such “psychedelic-philosophical plant rituals” changed participating persons’ psychology, philosophy and personality to a great degree. In these two successive articles, the consumption of psychedelic plants during religious rituals is reviewed and it is hypothesized that the images, figures, illusions and hallucinations experienced during these “plant trips” had a great impact on the formation and creation of many figures, characters, creatures, archetype images that exist not only in the mythology, but also in many religions, as well, such as angels, demons, Satan, mythological creatures, gods, goddesses etc. In the Middle East and Anatolia, within many hermetic and pagan religions, Greek and Hellenic cultures psychoactive plant use was a serious part of the religious rituals, such as Dionysian rituals or Witch’s’ Sabbaths. Although the impact of the “psychedelic experience and imagination” was enormous to the configuration of many religious and mythological characters, and archetypes, this fact has been underestimated and even unnoticed by many historians and anthropologists, because of the quasi-ethical trends of “anti-drug-brain-washed Western Societies”. Today, it may be perceived as very disturbing for many believers that their belief systems and religious figures are actually just a result of the imaginations of the “human brain and psyche”, which were very elevated and altered by psychedelic plants that are totally banned today. What those chemicals did in the brain was actually induce the consciousness to recognize the inner self, to unravel the subconscious and the collective unconscious, to open some of the doors of perception, to disentangle entoptic images and perhaps explicate some unknown functions of the brain and the human psyche which may have many other means to contact other –hypothetical— realities! Since the research on the psychedelic nature of the brain will unravel many facts about the consciousness of the brain and human psyche, we invite the authorities again to ponder deeply the banning of research on psychoactive plants and psychedelic drugs! KEY WORDS: psychoactive plant, entoptic, phosphene, religious ritual, opium, THC, Cannabis, DMT, ayahuasca, Peganum harmala, phalaris, magic mushroom, psilocybin, peyote, mescaline, ibogaine, thujone, Arthemisia absinthium, Salvia divinorum, Dionysian ritual, mandragora SexuS Journal ● 2017 ● 2 (5): 201-236
... This special drink was described as "a hallucinogenic-aphrodisiac potion" that was consumed during the long "Dionysian festivals and orgia". Its active hallucinogenic ingredient was probably thujone (in Artemisia absinthium), a cannabinoid receptor agonist, while it might have also contained other psychoactive plants and herbs, such as magic mushrooms (Webster, 2000), ergot compounds and LSA (kykeon; Ruck, 2000Ruck, , 2001Ruck, , 2013Ruck, , 2006aRuck, -b, 2009), opium, etc. (Ritter, 2008;Gimpel, 2006;Lachenmeier, 2006aLachenmeier, , 2006bAzar, 2006;Daniélou, 1992;Sayin, 2014). It is interesting to note that another cannabinoid receptor agonist, cannabidiol, has recently been found to effectively control the disturbing dreams/nightmares -i.e., hallucinations during REM sleep--and associated abnormal parasomnia behaviors -viz. ...
... One of the most important details of these rituals, which the historians and anthropologists always ignored, is that the famous drink kykeon or, probably, absinthe was one of the main aphrodisiac agents in the magical potion that these dancing people drank during these festivals. Wasson, Hoffman and Ruck, hypothesized that kykeon contained ergot alkaloids (from C. purpureae) Ruck, 2008Ruck, , 2013, however, others objected that kykeon contained psilocybin (Webster, 2000); most probably kykeon contained some psychoactive substances which could be LSA, psilocybin or DMT or some others. Sexual freedom and liberated sexual practices were also a part of the Dionysian Orgia, such that the term orgy comes from the orgia of the Dionysian Festivals (Figure 7). ...
Full-text available
Psychoactive plants that induce a form of altered states of consciousness (hallucinogen-induced ASC (H-ASC)) have been widely used during the religious rituals of many cultures throughout the centuries. Some of the psychoactive ingredients of the plants that were used during these religious rituals were opium, cannabis (tetrahydrocannabinol), psilocybin, mescaline, ibogaine, dimethyltryptamine, Peganum harmala, bufotenin, muscimol, thujone, ephedra, mandragora, Salvia divinorum, etc. The main purposes of these plants were spiritual healing; to contact with spirits; to contact with the souls of ancestors; to reach enlightenment (Nirvana or Satori); to become a master shaman, pagan, or witch; and to reach so-called-other realities. In most of the ancient religious rituals such plants were consumed as a part of the traditional shamanic or pagan culture for many centuries and most of the religious figures and images in the ancient and modern religious systems are a result of these hallucinogenic substances and H-ASC mind states.
... This special drink was described as "a hallucinogenic-aphrodisiac potion" that was consumed during the long "Dionysian festivals and orgia". Its active hallucinogenic ingredient was probably thujone (in Artemisia absinthium), a cannabinoid receptor agonist, while it might have also contained other psychoactive plants and herbs, such as magic mushrooms (Webster, 2000), ergot compounds and LSA (kykeon; Ruck, 2000Ruck, , 2001Ruck, , 2013Ruck, , 2006aRuck, -b, 2009), opium, etc. (Ritter, 2008;Gimpel, 2006;Lachenmeier, 2006aLachenmeier, , 2006bAzar, 2006;Daniélou, 1992;Sayin, 2014). It is interesting to note that another cannabinoid receptor agonist, cannabidiol, has recently been found to effectively control the disturbing dreams/nightmares -i.e., hallucinations during REM sleep--and associated abnormal parasomnia behaviors -viz. ...
... One of the most important details of these rituals, which the historians and anthropologists always ignored, is that the famous drink kykeon or, probably, absinthe was one of the main aphrodisiac agents in the magical potion that these dancing people drank during these festivals. Wasson, Hoffman and Ruck, hypothesized that kykeon contained ergot alkaloids (from C. purpureae) Ruck, 2008Ruck, , 2013, however, others objected that kykeon contained psilocybin (Webster, 2000); most probably kykeon contained some psychoactive substances which could be LSA, psilocybin or DMT or some others. Sexual freedom and liberated sexual practices were also a part of the Dionysian Orgia, such that the term orgy comes from the orgia of the Dionysian Festivals (Figure 7). ...
Full-text available
Psychoactive plants which contain hallucinogenic molecules that induce a form of altered states of consciousness (HASC) have been widely used during the religious rituals of many cultures throughout the centuries, while the consumption of these plants for spiritual and religious purposes is as old as human history. Some of those cultures were shaman and pagan subcultures; African native religions; Bwiti Cult; South American native religions; Amazon Cultures; Central American Cultures; Mexican subcultures; Aztec, Maya and Inca; Wiccan and witch subcultures; Satanists; American Indians; Greek and Hellenistic cultures; Sufis; Hassan Sabbah's Hashissins; Hindu, Indian and Tibetan cultures; some of the Nordic subcultures etc. Some of the psychoactive ingredients of the plants that were used during these religious rituals were; narcotic analgesics (opium), THC (cannabis), psilocybin (magic mushrooms), mescaline (peyote), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga), DMT (Ayahuasca and phalaris species), Peganum harmala, bufotenin, muscimol (Amanita muscaria), thujone (absinthe, Arthemisia absinthium), ephedra, mandragora, star lotus, Salvia divinorum etc. The main purposes of the practice of these plants were: spiritual healing; to contact with spirits; to contact with the souls of ancestors; to reach enlightenment (Nirvana or Satori); to become a master shaman, pagan or witch; to reach so-called-other realities, etc. Such "psychedelic-philosophical plant rituals" changed participating persons' psychology, philosophy and personality to a great degree. In these two successive articles, the consumption of psychedelic plants during religious rituals is reviewed and it is hypothesized that the images, figures, illusions and hallucinations experienced during these "plant trips" had a great impact on the formation and creation of many figures, characters, creatures, archetype images that exist not only in the mythology, but also in many religions, as well, such as angels, demons, Satan, mythological creatures, gods, goddesses etc. In the Middle East and Anatolia, within many hermetic and pagan religions, Greek and Hellenic cultures psychoactive plant use was a serious part of the religious rituals, such as Dionysian rituals or Witch's' Sabbaths. Although the impact of the "psychedelic experience and imagination" was enormous to the configuration of many religious and mythological characters, and archetypes, this fact has been underestimated and even unnoticed by many historians and anthropologists, because of the quasi-ethical trends of "anti-drug-brain-washed Western Societies".
... Water-soluble psychoactive alkaloids from C. purpurea (ergot) include ergonovine and methylergonovine (Webster et al., 2000, p. 2). These alkaloids are believed to constitute the kykeon elixir of the greater Greek Eleusinian mysteries (Wasson et al., 2008). ...
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Historical documents relating to early Mormonism suggest that Joseph Smith (1805–1844) employed entheogen-infused sacraments to fulfill his promise that every Mormon convert would experience visions of God and spiritual ecstasies. Early Mormon scriptures and Smith’s teachings contain descriptions consistent with using entheogenic material. Compiled descriptions of Joseph Smith’s earliest visions and early Mormon convert visions reveal the internal symptomology and outward bodily manifestations consistent with using an anticholinergic entheogen. Due to embarrassing symptomology associated with these manifestations, Smith sought for psychoactives with fewer associated outward manifestations. The visionary period of early Mormonism fueled by entheogens played a significant role in the spectacular rise of this American-born religion. The death of Joseph Smith marked the end of visionary Mormonism and the failure or refusal of his successor to utilize entheogens as a part of religious worship. The implications of an entheogenic origin of Mormonism may contribute to the broader discussion of the major world religions with evidence of entheogen use at their foundation and illustrate the value of entheogens in religious experience. (PDF) The entheogenic origins of Mormonism: A working hypothesis. Available from: [accessed Oct 30 2019].
... For instance, paintings and sculptures depict stylized humanoids with mushroom features (Froese, Guzmn, & Guzmn-Dvalos, 2016), peyote bulbs stored in southwestern Texas caves have been radiocarbon dated to 3780-3660 BC (El-Seedi, De Smet, Beck, Possnert, & Bruhn, 2005), and classic psychedelic alkaloids have been found in both artifacts and human skeletal remains (Guerra-Doce, 2015). It also has been speculated that the ritualistic sacrament soma, mentioned in the ancient Indian Rig-Veda texts, contained psilocybin mushrooms, fly agaric, and/or other psychoactive plants (Levitt, 2011;McKenna, 1993), and the ancient Greek drink kykeon, used as a ceremonial rite for millennia in Eleusis, may have contained ergoline alkaloids, including lysergic acid amides (Webster, 2000). Nevertheless, the prevalence of classic psychedelic use prior to the 20th century is unknown. ...
The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrative review and offer novel insights regarding human research with classic psychedelics (classic hallucinogens), which are serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) agonists such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin. Classic psychedelics have been administered as sacraments since ancient times. They were of prominent interest within psychiatry and neuroscience in the 1950s to 1960s, and during this time contributed to the emergence of the field of molecular neuroscience. Promising results were reported for treatment of both end-of-life psychological distress and addiction, and classic psychedelics served as tools for studying the neurobiological bases of psychological disorders. Moreover, classic psychedelics were shown to occasion mystical experiences, which are subjective experiences reported throughout different cultures and religions involving a strong sense of unity, among other characteristics. However, the recreational use of classic psychedelics and their association with the counterculture prompted an end to human research with classic psychedelics in the early 1970s. We provide the most comprehensive review of epidemiological studies of classic psychedelics to date. Notable among these are a number of studies that have suggested the possibility that nonmedical naturalistic (non-laboratory) use of classic psychedelics is associated with positive mental health and prosocial outcomes, although it is clear that some individuals are harmed by classic psychedelics in non-supervised settings. We then review recent therapeutic studies suggesting efficacy in treating psychological distress associated with life-threatening diseases, treating depression, and treating nicotine and alcohol addictions. We also describe the construct of mystical experience, and provide a comprehensive review of modern studies investigating classic psychedelic-occasioned mystical experiences and their consequences. These studies have shown classic psychedelics to fairly reliably occasion mystical experiences. Moreover, classic-psychedelic-occasioned mystical experiences are associated with improved psychological outcomes in both healthy volunteer and patient populations. Finally, we review neuroimaging studies that suggest neurobiological mechanisms of classic psychedelics. These studies have also broadened our understanding of the brain, the serotonin system, and the neurobiological basis of consciousness. Overall, these various lines of research suggest that classic psychedelics might hold strong potential as therapeutics, and as tools for experimentally investigating mystical experiences and behavioral-brain function more generally.
... The common weed in fields of grain is tares (darnel, Lolium temulentum), which as its Latin nomenclature indicates (temetum, 'intoxicating drink') has the popular assumption that it induces drunken dizziness and altered vision (Plautus,Miles Gloriosus,(315)(316)(317)(318)(319)(320)(321)(322)(323)Fasti,1.69), although in itself the plant is devoid of toxicity and was considered suitable only for making a cheap substitute for bread. It is always, however, infested by the fungal growth of ergot (Claviceps purpurea), a source of LSA (lysergic acid amide, a natural substance similar to LSD, extractable with appropriate procedures from the complex of multiple potentially lethal toxins) (Webster et al., 2000;Ruck, 2006, pp.171-187), and identical with the main psychoactive chemical found naturally in Mexican morning glory seeds (Turbina/Rivea corymbosa), employed in indigenous Mesoamerican shamanism as the sacrament called ololiuqui. The enlarged ergotinfested kernels resemble the red kernels of spelt, and the tares weed not only was a wild growth that had to be weeded from the fields, but its infestation of toxicity also spread to the cultivated barley and seemed to pose a recidivist threat to reverse the hybridization and return the grain crop to its primitive antecedents. ...
Archaeological evidence indicates that naturally occurring megalithic structures that resemble mushrooms throughout the region identified as Thrace in antiquity were the foci of religious observances, sometime with the fungal likeness of the stone structures intensified by human intervention. Thrace was considered the probable origin of Dionysian rites. Wine was recognized in antiquity as the product of fungal growth and the drink was a cultivated version of wild intoxicants, among which was the mushroom. The rituals in celebration of the deity commemorated his primordial identity as resident in these wild plants and mediated his evolution into the intoxicant grown upon the cultivated grapevine, and the wine itself was fortified beyond its alcoholic content by the addition of these wild antecedents of viticulture. The legendary wine of Thrace was particularly potent through the addition of a psychoactive mushroom. The rituals of the women known as bacchants enacted the fantasies of root-cutters in commemoration of the deity in his persona that predated viticulture. This fungal persona represents the same intoxicant that was known to the Persians as haoma and represents the spread of an Indo-European sacrament into the Classical world, with its association of lycanthropy and the bonding of warriors into brotherhoods as packs of wolves, better known in its manifestation in late antiquity among the Nordic peoples as berserkers. In Greece, Apollo originally presided over such wolf packs, but as he evolved into Classical theology as a member of the Olympian family, Dionysus assimilated that association, inasmuch as he better represented the mediation with the past through his magical drink that combined both the wild and the cultivated intoxicants. This freed Apollo from the burden of the past, allowing him to become transmuted from wolf to light, the basis of pseudo-etymological derivations of his identity in antiquity.
... Nevertheless, ergot often figured in medieval potions and the common nucleus of the ergot alkaloids is lysergic acid. In 2000, Peter Webster and Daniel Perrine revised the theory, identifying the active agent as ergotamine, a vascular dilator commonly prescribed in sub-threshold amounts combined with caffeine for the treatment of migraine (Webster, Perrine, andRuck, 2000. Ruck, 2006). ...
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In 1957, R. Gordon Wasson, a professional banker and amateur mycologist, inadvertently launched a profound cultural change that has come to be called the Psychedelic Revolution, by publishing an account of his experience with a Mazatec shaman in Hautla de Jiménez in the mountains of central Mexico. The article appeared in Life magazine and was intended as publicity for his forthcoming Russia, Mushrooms, and History, in which he and his Russian-born wife Valentina Pavlovna pursued their lifelong fascination with their dichotomous attitudes toward fungi, which had led them to suspect a cultural taboo upon a sacred object. In 1968 he traced this taboo back to the Vedic Soma, which he identified as a psychoactive mushroom. The identification, if correct, implied that there should be evidence for a similar sacred role for the mushroom in other regions in antiquity where the migrating Indo-European people settled. In 1978, he proposed such a role for the visionary potion that was central to the mystical experience of the Greek Eleusinian Mystery, that was celebrated annually for two millennia at a sanctuary near Athens. The possibility that the ancient Greeks indulged in chemically altered consciousness is antithetical to Europe's idealization of Classical antiquity and the proposal was largely ignored. Mushrooms, however, were fundamental to social norms and religious observances in the celebration of Dionysus, and figured in other Mystery cults and in the foundational traditions of many cities, including Mycenae and Rome. The Soma sacrament as the Persian haoma was proselytized to the West by the Zoroastrian priests of Mithras and became a major cohesive indoctrination for the Emperors, army, and bureaucrats who administered the Roman Empire. It survived the Conversion to Christianity in the knighthoods of late antiquity and the medieval world, and was assimilated to the Eucharist of certain of the ecclesiastical elite.
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Ari Aster’s Midsommar (2019) is rife with fluids. Tears, potions, blood and the incandescent presence of flames flow throughout the film as expressions of grief, vengeance, and pagan otherworlds. Through these excesses, I open a discussion of underworld rites and the magical women who reside there. Banshees, Furies, and the ghostly May Queen herself offer a set of methodologies, such as Keening or the ingestion of entheogens, that play a key role in the movement of Aster’s film while acting as counterpoints to sanctioned emotive containments. In order to discuss these fluidic excesses, I borrow the terms bloom-spaces and shimmerings from affect theory, both of which point towards extreme variation. How do we as individuals express love, or mourning, or grief, or vengeance within a neoliberal affective space that requires us to keep up the appearance of being contained: self-sufficient, self-caring? What does it mean to spill? The concatenation of potions and Keening in Midsommar lies, ultimately, in their abilities to heal; they are expressed as ancient rites which, like the locals in Aster’s Hårga, seem anachronistic, storybook-like, yet are, by the end of the film, the most real, and the most, literally, alive. In the final scene, the viewer is left with Dani, extended by a costume of living, breathing flowers that has become a second skin, her total metamorphosis as vengeful May Queen.
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In some recent scholarship it has been suggested that ancient Greeks commonly drank beer. However, a careful examination of ancient sources, both for negative evidence (the lack of references to beer-making and beer-drinking among Greeks) as well as for positive evidence (the mentions of beer as a foreign product), supports the commonly held belief that Greeks in the archaic and classical periods did not regularly drink beer. There is also no evidence that kykeon was a type of beer.
I have reported four experiments with ololiuqui ( Rivea corymbosa ), a narcotic used by the Aztecs. This is the first time, to my knowledge, that the psychological effects of the seeds this plant have been discussed in a medical journal. The active substance or substances present are not known. I found that I required about six times the thirteen seeds which Schultes reported as the dose commonly used by the Indians, though he emphasizes that dosage seems to vary. The accounts gleaned from the Indians give only a partial description the experience produced by ololiuqui. This consists of apathy and anergia combined with some degree of heightened visual perception and an increase in hypnagogic phenomena. There is no confusion, indeed one is very acutely aware, though time perception is altered. After about four hours this is replaced by a period of alert, calm, relaxed well-being lasting many hours. A condition which I have not seen described before and which is very pleasant. I think ololiuqui requires further and fuller study, and I hope that this small reconnaissance will arouse enough interest to encourage larger and better equipped expeditions into this strange territory.
Relationships between chemical structure and psychoses with the use of psychotoxic substances
  • H Solms
Solms, H., Relationships between chemical structure and psychoses with the use of psychotoxic substances," J. Clin. Exp. Psychopath. Quart. Rev. Psychiat. Neurol., 17:429-433, 1956; quoted in BCH, p. 153.]