ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

The current study aims to examine the effect of low morale and motivation on employees’ productivity and competitiveness. Low productivity and loss of competitiveness are outcomes of low morale and low motivation and may sometimes lead to further undesired symptoms such as absenteeism and sabotage. A questionnaire was designed to achieve the purpose of this purpose, and it was distributed to selected accounting and management employees working in different Jordanian business environments. The number of questionnaires analyzed were (276) questionnaires. Resolution data were analyzed using the statistical program Smart PLS (Partial Least Square). The study concluded that low morale and low motivation affect productivity and competitiveness, and it also recommends that management should work on increasing productivity by increasing employees’ satisfaction through re-engineering systems and processes and providing incentives, education and training.
Content may be subject to copyright.
International Business Research; Vol. 10, No. 7; 2017
ISSN 1913-9004 E-ISSN 1913-9012
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
1
The Effect of Low Morale and Motivation on Employees’
Productivity & Competitiveness in Jordanian Industrial Companies
Osama Samih Shaban1, Ziad Al-Zubi1, Nafez Ali1, Atalla Alqotaish1
1Faculty of Economics & Administrative Sciences, Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
Correspondence: Osama Shaban, Faculty of Economics & Administrative Sciences, Al-Zaytoonah University of
Jordan, P.O. Box 130, 11733, Amman, Jordan.
Received: April 26, 2017 Accepted: May 17, 2017 Online Published: June 7, 2017
doi:10.5539/ibr.v10n7p1 URL: https://doi.org/10.5539/ibr.v10n7p1
Abstract
The current study aims to examine the effect of low morale and motivation on employees’ productivity and
competitiveness. Low productivity and loss of competitiveness are outcomes of low morale and low motivation
and may sometimes lead to further undesired symptoms such as absenteeism and sabotage. A questionnaire was
designed to achieve the purpose of this purpose, and it was distributed to selected accounting and management
employees working in different Jordanian business environments. The number of questionnaires analyzed were
(276) questionnaires. Resolution data were analyzed using the statistical program Smart PLS (Partial Least
Square). The study concluded that low morale and low motivation affect productivity and competitiveness, and it
also recommends that management should work on increasing productivity by increasing employees’ satisfaction
through re-engineering systems and processes and providing incentives, education and training.
Keywords: low morale, low motivation, productivity, competitiveness, Jordanian industrial companies
1. Introduction
In general, high morale leads to high productivity; but there is not always a positive correlation between the two.
Close supervision, time studies, and scientific management can be applied in order to reach a high level of
productivity, but sometimes, we can reach a high productivity by low morale. However, it is doubtful whether
this combination can last (Rao, 2007). Renis Likert explains different combinations of morale and productivity
viz: high morale and low productivity; high morale and high productivity; low morale and high productivity; and
low morale and low productivity (Likert, 1932). We can say that managers have to work for improving the
morale of their employees, as high morale makes for a better working environment, and it helps the organization
to attain its goals easily.
Organizations want its employees to be more productive. But will motivation be enough to get things done? And
what motivates our behavior? Employees are considered the most important resources, and the winning card in
the hands of management. Low productivity may be traceable to poor employee motivation. The success and
effectiveness of any firm depend to a large extent, on how well employees are motivated. Theories of human
resource management, as well as theories of motivation, suggest that motivated employees tend to be more
creative and productive, and it is wise for any management to use these theories in order to increase productivity
and competitiveness (Stephen, 2014).
Competition can be defined as a contest between individuals or groups where they strive to attain and reach
particular goals (Ryckman & et al., 2009). The concept of competitiveness has been linked to early socialization
processes between parents and children. Parents often teach individualism to their children and this is often
characterized by making distinctions between themselves and others (Collier et al., 2010). Motivation and
competitiveness go hand in hand. Individuals who are extremely motivated are also extremely competitive as
they know the way and the means to accomplish their goals. On the other hand, other individuals use
competition in a negative way. These individuals use competition selfishly to achieve their goals without
considering the consequences to themselves and others (Collier et al., 2010).
Society places great emphasis and pressure on competition. There is a controlling focus on being competitive
and successful (Ryckman & et al., 2009). This kind of focus can cause low intrinsic motivation as individuals
may feel lost between the ways (please confirm) and the gains. This concept is known as the hidden cost of
http://ibr.ccsenet.org International Business Research Vol. 10, No. 7; 2017
2
reward; that is, reward is having the opposite effect on the individual. So, instead of motivating them to win, it
causes them lower intrinsic motivation (Abuhamdeh & Csikszentmihaly, 2009).
The current research problem focuses on how low morale and motivation of employees, who feel they are not
being recognized as valuable contributors to the system, and hence get no rewards for the good work that they do,
may lead to low productivity, loss of competitiveness, and sometimes, further undesired symptoms such as
absenteeism and sabotage.
In order not to lose focus of the study’s importance, the current research is going to cover all aspects of low
morale and motivation and their effects on productivity and competitiveness. These two important aspects are
attributed to employee’s negative psychology. From the researchers’ point of view, these two factors are very
important and are worth discussing.
The objectives of the current study aim to examine the effect of low morale and motivation on employee's
productivity and competitiveness. This research will try to attain the following objectives:
1- To stand on the causes of low morale and motivation;
2- To point out the effect of low morale and motivation on employee's productivity and competitiveness.
2. Literature Review
Morale is an elusive quality which involves feelings, emotions, attitude and perception towards the organization
and its members. Positive morale is usually characterized by discipline, confidence and willingness to perform.
Low morale can be attributed to many factors such as job insecurity, lack of fair compensation policy, uncertain
business conditions, and excessive outsourcing practices. Low morale affects company income, productivity,
financial competitiveness and organizational objectives (Sauermann & Cohen, 2008). Low morale is an outcome
of managerial behavior where managers address their employees from a top-down command and refuse to
communicate directly on workplace issues (Sauermann & Cohen, 2008). This kind of communication results in a
gap between employees and managers, which in turn leads to employee distrust, disrespect, and reduction of
morale and workforce motivation (Chungsup & et al., 2012). Low morale also causes employees to lose interest,
especially when managers don’t appreciate their efforts and the tasks performed (Zeynep & Huckman, 2008). A
costly indicator of low morale is high employee turnover. This happens when employees leave their jobs because
they feel unhappy and have no incentives to stay. The negative effect of employee turnover is disconcerting
because of its great implication both on financial and on productivity levels. Financially means the company has
to hire new employees either with payment of higher salaries or by additional recruiting expenses. At the
production level, the employees who leave will take with them the knowledge, skills and ability that helped
contribute to the goals, profit and performance of the organization (Lee & Liu, 2009).
Absenteeism is another costly indicator of low morale. Unjustified absenteeism increases cost and decreases
productivity (Abbot, 2003). According to an article in ‘The Leading Edge’, “dissatisfied employees who are
discontented with their bosses can have a high price tag”. (Abbot, 2003). Management should work on
controlling the effects of low morale through the understanding of their employees’ potentials and their core
work processes, understanding their abilities, enriching employees’ job and recognizing their achievements
(Ngambi, 2011).
The second perspective of this study is motivation. Motivation has been the core of many studies. Some studies
earlier carried out in the eighties and nineties of this century have discussed this concept extensively. Mitacheel
(1982), and Steers & Peter (1983), Baron (1991) stated that motivation is the internal process that activates,
guides and maintains behavior (Steers & Porter, 1983). At the beginning of the twentieth century, other
researchers such as Buchanan & Hueznski (2004), stated that motivation is “the cognitive decision making
process through which goal directed behavior is initiated, energized, directed and maintained (Bucharan &
Huczynski, 2004). Butler & Rose (2011) defined motivation as the course of movement, the inspiration behind
activity, and the feeling within an individual that makes him want to achieve personal need or expectation
(Bulter & Rose, 2011). Recently Osabiya (2015) defined motivations as “the driving force within individuals by
which they attempt to achieve specific goal in order to fulfill some needs or expectations” (Osabiya, 2015).
Achieving sustained high levels of performance is usually the aim of every organization. Employees are
considered the main tools of such aimed performance, and motivation is considered the means to achieve such
performance. In other words, high attention should be given to methods of motivating individuals in order to
achieve the desired goals.
http://ibr.ccsenet.org International Business Research Vol. 10, No. 7; 2017
3
The current research study links motivation with productivity. It indicated a positive correlation between
motivation and the level of productivity in many organizations. Companies that use motivation to enhance a
higher level of productivity are considered world class and compete globally, and this in-turn creates sustained
competitiveness (Stephen, 2014). Also, researches indicate that a person who is motivated works hard, sustains a
pace of hard work, and has self-directed behavior to achieve the desired goals. On the other hand, low motivation
with low productivity is often considered a problem. To fully understand motivation, studies state that, there are
two types of motivation: extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic motivation concerns tangible, real rewards that are
received by the employees, while intrinsic motivation is built inside the person and is natural to him (Bulter &
Rose, 2011). According to the individual’s psychology, there is an inherent set of needs through which an
individual can be satisfied through rewards for his work performance (Ozturk, 2012).
The other element concerning this study is productivity. Productivity is defined as the effective and efficient
utilization of all resources; material, labor, capital, information and time (ILO, 2017). Low productivity is
indicated through many signs which include poor quality of domestic outputs, lack of competitiveness of
products in international markets, shortages of skills, low production technology, poor industrial relations, and
poor human resource management. Research findings indicate that there is a link between motivation and
productivity in the industrial sector. When an employee’s needs are met, it means that he derives satisfaction
from the job and eventually, this creates a motivated employee (Nwasike, 1991). All motivation theories tend to
support the idea that a motivated worker willingly uses his ability in a constructive way to accomplish the tasks
assigned to him. A motivated employee’s work attitude is wholesome and tends toward high performance and
productivity (Stephen, 2014).
In General, high motivation and high morale lead to high productivity as it was mentioned in the introduction of
this research paper. However, there is not always a positive correlation between them. Close supervision, time
studies, and scientific management can be applied in order to reach a high level of productivity, Renis Likert as it
was stated earlier, mentioned different combinations of morale and productivity: high morale and low
productivity; high morale and high productivity; low morale and high productivity; and low morale and low
productivity. Managers have to work for improving the morale of their employees, as high morale makes the
work a better working environment, and it helps the organization to attain its goals easily (Likert, 1932).
The final element of the study variables is competitiveness. As earlier stated, motivation and competitiveness go
hand in hand together, competition is found in all aspects of life; even among brothers and sisters. Competition
has a great impact on the motivation of an individual. Some individuals use competition in a positive way. They
use it in order to gain personal growth and to help themselves in reaching their potential goals. Other individuals
use competition in a negative way. They use competition selfishly to achieve their goals without considering the
consequences on themselves and others (Collier et al., 2010). Individuals who are extremely motivated are also
extremely competitive as they know the way and the means to accomplish their goals.
3. Method
The primary data needed for the study objectives were collected through a survey conducted among different
Jordanian industrial companies. The total listed industrial companies in Jordan are 64 companies, with a total of
580 employees working at different managerial levels. The research study sample size is 295 employees which
were determined using the sample size formula at 95% confidence level, and 4% confidence interval, and a total
of 580 employees which constitute the study population.
A questionnaire designed for this purpose was distributed randomly to the working employees taking part in
actions and activities that has to do with carrying out businesses in their companies in November 2015, as well
as to different managerial levels. The number of valid questionnaires analyzed was 276 out of 295 distributed
which constitute 93.5% of total questionnaires distributed. The questionnaire was designed to feature 24
questions, with 9 questions specifically on low morale, 8 questions specifically on low motivation, and finally, 7
questions specifically on productivity and competitiveness. Resolution data were analyzed using the statistical
program Smart PLS.
Quantitative data were collected using self-administered questionnaires, in which the employees were asked to
state the likelihood (on a 5-point scale: [5] strongly agree; [4] agree; [3] neutral; [2] disagree; [1] strongly
disagree).
Other Data was collected from secondary sources. Secondary data is collected from articles published by the
well-known periodicals, books, and dissertations.
http://ibr.ccsenet.org International Business Research Vol. 10, No. 7; 2017
4
3.1 Statistical Analysis
The Statistical Package for Social Sciences- Smart PLS was applied in analyzing the data received; Statistical
Analysis tools include the followings:
1. Descriptive Statistics, mainly frequencies and percentages, were used to analyze sample characteristics
according to job, educational level, professional certificates, and experience.
2. Correlation, Inter-correlation, Regression, and Path Coefficient were used to analyze and describe study
variables from a statistical point.
3. Reliability Test using Cronbach’s Alpha was used to test the reliability of the scale.
3.2 Research Design
Figure 1. Research Design
The research design is formed out of three main elements that constitute the research design. The Model in
Figuret-1 shows the effect of low morale and low motivation on the Productivity and Competitiveness.
3.3 Study Hypothesis
H1: Low morale has an effect on low motivation.
H2: Low morale has an effect on Productivity and Competitiveness.
H3: Low motivation has an effect on Productivity and Competitiveness.
3.4 Data Analysis and Findings
3.4.1 Reliability Test
Cronbach’s Alpha was used to test the internal reliability of the measurement instrument. According to Uma,
Sekrran a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.60 or higher is considered acceptable (Sekrran, 2003). As shown in Table 1 the
Cronbach’s Alphas (α) ranged from 0.692 to 0.916, thus establishing the reliability of the survey questionnaire. It
is obvious that all values of alpha are acceptable and relatively high. This indicates that for each measurement of
a variable, the items are correlated and hence highly consistent. Table 1 shows the Cronbach's Alpha for each
scale:
Table 1. Cronbach’s Alpha
Cronbach's Alpha
Low Morale
0.825959
Low Motivation
0.692194
Productivity & Competitive ness
0.916212
3.4.2 Sample Characteristics
74% of the respondents were males and 26% were females; most of them were between the ages of 26 and 45
years. Most respondents had an average experience of more than 5 years. 67% of the respondents were Office
Clarks, 19% Deputy Managers, 9% Heads of departments, and, finally, 5% were executive managers. 70% of the
respondents had Bachelors’ degree, and the remaining 30% had other degrees. Demographic data is shown in
Table 2.
Low
Motivation
(MV)
Productivity &
Competitivenes
s
Low
Morale
(ML)
http://ibr.ccsenet.org International Business Research Vol. 10, No. 7; 2017
5
Table 2. Demographics Data for the Research Study
Variable
Group
Frequencies
Sex
Male
204
Female
72
Total
276
Age
Less than 25 years
46
From 26 years35 years
82
More than 36 years45 years
88
More than 46 years
60
Total
276
Professional Certificate
Bachelors' Degree
192
Other Degree
84
Total
276
Job Title
Executive
16
Head of Department
24
Deputy Manager
52
Office Clark
184
Total
276
Experiences
Less than 5 years
28
From 6 years 10 years
112
More than 11 years 15 years
90
More than 16 years
46
Total
276
3.4.3 Smart PLS Results
The structural model results are shown in Exhibit 2. Examining the path coefficients, the numbers in Table 3
enable us to determine that Low Morale has the strongest effect on Low Motivation (0.985), followed by Low
Morale on Productivity and Competitiveness (0.354). The effect between Low motivation and Productivity and
Competitiveness was (0.630). The results further show that the relationship between the three variables is
statistically significant. Based on their path coefficient scores, it would appear that the influence of Low Morale
and Low Motivation on Productivity and Competitiveness is significant. However, it seems very unlikely that the
hypothesized path relationship between Low Motivation and Productivity and Competitiveness which is (0.354)
is relatively weak compared to path relationship between Low Morale and Low Motivation (0.985), and Low
Morale on Productivity and Competitiveness (0.630) but still significant. This is as the findings of Smart PLS
rule explains that the path Coefficient is significant if it is above 0.015.
Table 3. Path coefficient
Path coefficient
Low Morale
Low Motivation
Productivity & Sustainability
Low Morale
0.985097
0.354857
Low Motivation
0.630448
Productivity & Competitive ness
The table above (please confirm this) shows the outcomes of R Square which represents the proportion of
variation in the responses that is explained by the original model using predictor values from the test data.
Moreover, the three constructs explain between 57% to 66% percent of the variance of the endogenous latent
construct Low motivation (R² = 0.570), and endogenous latent construct Productivity and Competitiveness
(R² = 0.664). According to R square results, it is considered moderate. Table 4 illustrates the R-square results
Table 4. R square
R Square
Low Morale
Low Motivation
0.570416
Productivity & Competitive ness
0.664157
The convergent validity assessment is associated with the Average Variance Estimated (AVE) value. The
evaluation of validity criterion in table 5 illustrates that the AVE values of Low Morale (0.531), Low Motivation
(0.508), and Productivity and Competitiveness (0.701) are all above the cutoff point of 0.50. Therefore, all
reflective constructs demonstrate high levels of convergent validity (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). Figure 2
illustrates THE Smart PLS results as a whole.
Table 5. AVE
AVE
Low Morale
0.531549
Low Motivation
0.508221
Productivity and Competitiveness
0.701575
http://ibr.ccsenet.org International Business Research Vol. 10, No. 7; 2017
6
Figure 2. Model Results
4. Conclusions & Recommendations
4.1 Conclusions
The results show that the relationship between the three variables is statistically significant. Based on their path
coefficient scores, it would appear that the influence of Low Morale and Low Motivation on Productivity and
Competitiveness is significant, so the research hypothesis stating that Low Morale and Low Motivation affects
Productivity and Competitiveness and makes on limiting its consequences.
The Real cause behind low employee morale can include uncertain business conditions, limited upward rewards,
job security issues, lack of fair compensation policy, and excessive outsourcing policy.
4.2 Recommendations
Management should ensure a positive work environment which encourages confidence, discipline, and
willingness to perform the job in the best possible manner.
Management should also work on strong and sustained compensation policies that bridge the gap
between the payrolls of the employees.
Management should work on increasing productivity by increasing employees’ satisfaction through
re-engineering systems and processes, providing education and training.
Encouraging practices that focus on learning of personal development competitive attitudes.
References
Abbot, J. (2003). Does Employee Satisfaction Matter? A Study to Determine Whether Low Employee Morale
Affects Customer Satisfaction and Profits in the Business to Business Sector. Journal of Communication
Management, 7(4), 333-339. https://doi.org/10.1108/13632540310807467
Abuhamdeh, S., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2009). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Orientation in the
Competitive Context: An Examination of Person-Situation Interactions. Journal of Personality, 77(5).
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00594.x
Bucharan, D., & Huczynski, A. (2004). Organization Behavior: An Introductory Text 5th ed., Harlow:
FT/Prentice Hall.
Bulter, M., & Rose, E. (2011). Introduction to Organizational Behavior, 1st Ed. London IPD.
Chungsup, L., Jarrod, S., Robin, H., & Laura, L. P. (2012). Staff Morale & Burnout: Prevention and Possible
Solutions. The Office of Recreation & Park Resources, University of Illinois: Department of Recreation,
Sport & Tourism.
http://ibr.ccsenet.org International Business Research Vol. 10, No. 7; 2017
7
Collier, S. A., Ryckman, R. M., Thornton, R., & Gold, J. A. (2010). Competitive Personality Attitudes and
Forgiveness of Others. The Journal of Psychology, 144, 535-543.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2010.511305
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and
Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50. https://doi.org/10.2307/3151312
Henry, S., & Wesley, M. C. (2008). What Makes Them Tick? Employee Motives and Firm Innovation NBER.
Paper No. 14443.
Lee, H. W., & Liu, C. H. (2009). The Relationship among Achievement Motivation, Psychological Contract and
Work Attitudes. Social Behavior and Personality, 37, 321-328. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2009.37.3.321
Likert, R. (1932). A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 22(140), 1-55.
Ngambi, H. C. (2011). The Relationship Between Leadership and Employee Morale in Higher Education.
African Journal of Business Management, 5(3), 762-776.
Nwasike J. (1991). Increasing Productivity in the Nigerian Public Sector. Proceeding of a National Conf. on
Productivity Abuja.
Osabiya, B. J. (2015). The Effect of Employees’ Motivation on Organizational Performance. Journal of Public
Administration and Policy Research, 7(4), 62-75. https://doi.org/10.5897/JPAPR2014.0300
Ozturk, E. O. (2012). Contemporary Motivation Theories in Educational Psychology and Language Learning:
An overview. The International Journal of Social Sciences, Vol.3, No.1 pp 33-46.
Rao, V. S. P. (2007). Human Resource Management. 2nd Ed. D.P. House, New Delhi. P203.
Ryckman, R. M., Thornton, B., & Gold, J. A. (2009). Assessing Competition Avoidance as a Basic Personality
Dimension. The Journal of Psychology, 143(2), 175-192. https://doi.org/10.3200/JRLP.143.2.175-192
Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1983). Motivation and Work Behavior. Ens. 3rd Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Stephen, I. D. (2014). Using Motivating Theories to Enhance Productivity in Cement Manufacturing Companies
in Nigeria: An Overview. The International Journal of Social Sciences, 20(1).
Uma, S., (2003). Research Method for Business: A Skill Building Approach. 7th Edition, John Wiley and Sons,
New York; 2003.
Zeynep, T., & Robert, S. H. (2008). Managing the Impact of Employee Turnover on Performance: The Role of
Process Conformance. Organization Science, 19(1), 56-68. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1070.0294
Copyrights
Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
... It is an internalised, introspective process that energises, directs, and supports positive behaviour (Beiu & Davidescu, 2018). Where there is no motivation, employee morale will likely be low and absenteeism may thrive (Shaban et al., 2017). ...
... These will undoubtedly have negative impacts on SAPS service delivery. Shaban et al. (2017) indicate that high motivation and high morale lead to greater productivity. Similarly, Tiwari (2014) indicates that high morale contributes to high levels of productivity and high returns to stakeholders and promotes employee loyalty. ...
... Similarly, Tiwari (2014) indicates that high morale contributes to high levels of productivity and high returns to stakeholders and promotes employee loyalty. High morale is usually characterised by discipline, confidence, and willingness to perform; whereas low morale can be attributed to many factors, such as job insecurity, lack of fair compensation, uncertain business conditions, and excessive outsourcing practices (Shaban et al., 2017). Morale is the most important psychological state of mind of a person, which is expressed as self-confidence, loyalty towards the organisation, and enthusiasm (Kandhakumar & Balasingh, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article explores the pervasiveness of employee absenteeism in the South African Police Service (SAPS) at the station level and the factors that contribute to it. Employee absenteeism is a critical problem for most organisations and the SAPS is no exception. While measures have been put in place to curb this problem in the SAPS by the police authorities, employee absenteeism has persisted and remains a significant problem for the SAPS in contemporary South Africa. A recent qualitative study, using a convenient sampling technique, found that absenteeism is not only prevalent, but has become entrenched within the SAPS, and that several institutional policies and privileges, such as sick, normal, and incapacity leave, are often abused for personal benefit. Absenteeism was found to be affected by ineffective communication between station commanders and employees. The implications of the findings for effective police efficiency in the country are discussed.
... Due to the pandemic, most workers have been exhibiting a lack of engagement [83]. Disengagement is concerned with the lack of motivation and attachment towards the achievement of organizational goals and objectives [97,98]. The risk and fear of contracting COVID-19 has also resulted in low morale among employees [99]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this research, we examined how COVID-19 impacts employee decision-making and performance, knowing that this virus has negatively affected public health, crippled economies, and transformed social and business environments across the globe. To quantitatively test our specific hypotheses regarding the effects of employees’ perceived risk of COVID-19 and psychological distress on negative performance outcomes, we surveyed 443 healthcare workers who were employed by a group of private hospitals in Zimbabwe. These essential workers were delivering day-to-day frontline services with high exposure to COVID-19 during the pandemic. We find that employees’ perceived risk of COVID-19 increases their disengagement, turnover intention, burnout, and low morale at a p < 0.05 significance level. These latter relationships are mediated by employees’ psychological distress at a p < 0.05 significance level. Our findings shed light on how the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting the cognitions and behaviors of the frontline workers who are vulnerable to this contagious disease. Turnover intentions are amplified among healthcare employees, due to their perceived risk of COVID-19 and the resulting psychological distress. Similarly, burnout becomes predominant as these workers worry about contracting the coronavirus due to the poor working conditions they face. As such, our research confirms that the pandemic has intensified the precariousness of work and challenge of managing employee performance, especially for frontline healthcare workers.
... The findings from Mohamed (2018), on causes of occupational stress among teachers who are working in Libyan Schools reveal that, the sources of the occupational stress among teachers include; teaching pupils who lack motivation, maintaining discipline, time pressures and workload, dealings with colleagues, being evaluated by others, inefficient management, ineffective organizations, conflict between individuals, poor physical environment and working conditions. It has been observed that teachers' working morale and commitment may be low due to occupational stress (Shaban et al., 2017). The findings from Mkumbo (2013) on prevalence of and factors associated with work stress in academia in Tanzania indicate that; lack of staff involvement in institutional reform processes and lack of necessary support systems related to their work are some of the sources of occupational stress among teachers in Tanzania. ...
... Although morale is somewhat an elusive concept, it was also defined as "a quality which involves feelings, emotions, attitude and perception toward the organization and its members. Positive morale is usually characterized by discipline, confidence and willingness to perform" (Shaban et al., 2017). The concept of morale emerged in the military setup (also known as "esprit de corps, " US Army, 1983). ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study uses a repeated measures design to compare two-time points across the COVID-19 pandemic. The first was conducted at the end of the "first wave" [T1] and the second was carried out on October 12-14 2020 (the last period of the second total general lockdown) in Israel. The participants (N = 805) completed the same questionnaire at both time points. The study examined the predictions of hope and morale at T2 by psychological and demographic predictors at T1. Results indicated the following: (a) The three types of resilience (individual, community, and national) significantly and positively predicted hope and morale. (b) Well-being significantly and positively predicted hope and morale. (c) Younger age significantly and positively predicts higher hope, but not morale. (d) A higher level of religiosity significantly and positively predicts higher hope and morale. (e) More right-wing political attitudes significantly and positively predict higher hope, but not moral. (f) More economic difficulties due to the pandemic, significantly and negatively predict hope and morale. We concluded that hope and morale can serve as significant indicators of the population's ability to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, they can serve as a "thermometer" for the general mood of the population and can be used by decision-makers to assess coping ability at varied stages of the pandemic.
... An online survey from 242 employees of public universities in northern Malaysia has proved that motivation has a significant positive effect on employee productivity (Hanaysha & Majid, 2018). The empirical study which involved 276 employees of private companies in Jordan has proved that low morale and low motivation affect productivity and competitiveness (Shaban, Al-Zubi, Ali, & Alqotaish, 2017). Based on the previous research, this study formulates its hypothesis of whether working motivation has a positive, significant impact on WFH productivity. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Compared to the productivity of the ofice as a workplace, the legitimacy of working from home (WFH) produc-tivity is still questioned by many organizations. This paper aims to examine the impact of personal, group, and organizational factors on the productivity of WFH personnel. This raises the question of whether motivation, digital leadership, and performance management are good predictors for WFH productivity? This paper is based on quantitative research which involved 824 respondents who are working from home for the first time. They worked for governmental institutions, state-owned, private, and multinational companies in 32 out of 34 prov-inces in Indonesia. Data analysis was conducted by using structural equation modelling and SmartPLS version 3. The analysis results revealed that WFH productivity is influenced directly by working motivation of the employee and the digital leadership capability of the supervisor. Performance management was influenced indirectly. By strengthening working motivation and digital leadership as mediators, performance management has an impact on WFH productivity.
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Abstract The present study examined the components of resilience among majority and minority groups in the Israeli society during the corona crisis (the Omicron variant). We examined factors that support resilience [societal (ex national) resilience, individual resilience, hope, morale, and optimism] and factors that inhibit resilience (anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, sense of danger, and perception of varied threats). In addition, we examined attitudes and adherence to COVID-19 vaccines as well as the willingness to vaccinate children. The most prominent results are: A. In the present study, the Jewish respondents reported significantly higher levels of national resilience, trust in state institutions, individual resilience, and morale compared to the Arab respondents. B. Arab respondents reported a significantly higher sense of danger, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms, compared to the Jewish respondents. C. The Jewish respondents reported that they perceive the following threats as more threatening, compared with the Arab respondents: the political situation in Israel, the security threat in the region (due to the threats from Hezbollah and Hamas), and the Iranian nuclear threat. D. The Arab respondents viewed the violence in the Israeli society, the economic situation, and the health threat, as more threatening, compared to the Jewish respondents. E. In comparison to the findings of the current study with those of a similar study conducted in March 2020, the following factors were found: • Societal resilience, sense of danger, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms, were lower in the current study, compared to the March 2020 study in both samples. • Individual resilience was found to be similar in both studies in both samples. • Morale was higher in the present study, in both samples. F. Jewish respondents reported that they are more supportive of the various corona guidelines - wearing masks indoors and presenting the green pass, compared to the Arab respondents. G. Significant gender differences were found concerning most of the study variables, among the Jewish respondents: men reported higher individual resilience, morale, and optimism, compared with women. Women reported a higher sense of danger and higher anxiety and depression symptoms, compared to men. H. In the Arab sample, no significant differences between the genders were found concerning these study variables. J. Parents in both samples evaluate the negative effect on young children (ages 5–12) as more severe, compared with children aged 13–18.
Article
Full-text available
related challenges, for example, stress (work pressure), medical issues related to physical and mental well-being and absence of inspiration (morale). Availing vacations has historically demonstrated a few constructive outcomes on workers. The point of this paper is to comprehend the structure of the relation between the beneficial outcomes of vacations on employee fulfilment. The 257 Indian IT representatives took an interest by finishing a subjective survey. Six key measurements (or elements) that are influenced by breaks (vacations) were distinguished and compared employment fulfilment (job satisfaction). A basic relationship among the measurements is conveyed using the Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) strategy. Furthermore, confirmatory data analysis (hypothesis testing) and regression analysis were performed on the data. The elements (measurements as stated above) were divided into clusters and employee fulfilment had the most elevated dependence power because of better job life harmony, inspiration, work pressure (stress) management which was further enhanced by means of advancement in physical wellbeing (health), creative cognition and executive administrative support. As per the regression analysis and hypothesis assessment implemented on the survey information, employee fulfilment was found to have a positive interrelationship with all the other elements, indicating refinement in employee fulfilment post-vacation in the sample populace. The present study aids in filling a different kind of perspective among executive levels of IT associations, enlightening them about constructive outcomes of breaks for the staff. Past studies established that taking some time off work improves elements like physical and mental well-being, motivation (inspiration), cognitive ability (creative thinking) in the workforce of several industries. So we endeavoured to supplement the current understanding related to vacations for employee fulfilment in the IT sector. Proposals for future examination are likewise recommended.
Article
In this study, organizational justice perceptions of seafarers in relation to their job belongingness and satisfaction levels were investigated. The outcomes of organizational behaviour and the relationships among these outcomes are more important in maritime than they are in other sectors because of the demanding conditions of the life onboard which requires seafarers to work and live at the same place with the same people for a long time. The number of studies about the relationship among these three outcomes in the maritime sector is scarce, so this research is expected to fill a gap regarding this. The study was conducted with 398 Turkish seafarers. According to the results, positive organizational justice perceptions of seafarers have a significant effect on their vocational belongingness and job satisfaction levels, which will be called internal customer satisfaction levels of seafarers in this study. It is also found that internal customer satisfaction of seafarers has positive effect on their vocational belongingness. Although relations among various organizational outcomes in the maritime sector are significant due to their effective role on the smooth-going of the relations onboard, they have not been widely studied so far, so the further studies may focus on closing this gap with surveys administrated with a wider group of seafarers.
Book
Full-text available
The African Journal in Education and Transformation (AJET), ISSN 2788-6379 is an open-access, peer-reviewed and multidisciplinary bi-annual Journal offering graduate scholars the opportunity to participate in research output to address the shift from elite to mass participation in higher education and emerging opportunities that make higher education more responsive to competing demands of SA society. The Journal avails a platform for novice to experienced Researchers to journal detailed accounts of various research projects across various functional areas. The key focus areas of AJET is in the following functional areas:- • Education • Social Sciences • Management Sciences • Economics • Law • Built Environment All article submissions by email to research@hetn.org.za
Article
Full-text available
Morale affects the well-being of employees, influencing quality of workplace performance, labour productivity of employees, quality of work life and eventually profitability of business enterprises. The Corporation whose workplace is reviewed in this study is a State Owned Entity that experienced acute operational and performance problems due to financial distress, underperformance and governance challenges after the extended closure of its medical production facility. Failure to meet organisational performance targets on a continual basis, reduction in government grants and high staff turnover due to layoffs and triggered workplace disputes. This study aims to explore factors that influence or contribute to low employee morale at the corporation. A qualitative research approach was followed using purposive random sampling across the Corporation’s workplace targeting employee Respondents across various business units, job levels, gender, race and level of experience. Data collection took place through structured, standardised and open-ended interviews with thematic and content analysis methodology utilised for data analysis. From the findings of study it becomes clear that inconsistencies in leadership styles, poor or lack of management communication of organisational objectives, poor communication between employees and management, poor treatment of employees, adverse remuneration practices as well as economic and social factors influence and contribute to low employee morale. The study recommends the implementation of employee value proposition, best-fit employee recruitment, fair and equitable reward systems, the recreation of management communication channels, introduction of leadership development programs and the creation of better workplace conditions to improve employee morale, employee job satisfaction and ultimately employee labour productivity.
Article
Full-text available
In all kinds of educational settings, motivation is admitted as one of the most prominent affective factors, and numerous studies in the literature have demonstrated the effect of it on teaching and learning process. Because of this remarkable effect, several theories on the definition of it and motivation types have been presented by the scholars. This study provides an overview regarding the contemporary motivational theories in educational psychology and language learning which have theoretically illustrated the research studies on motivation.
Article
Full-text available
The study seeks to unravel the factors that affect construction workers' motivation and the corresponding effect of the identified motivational factors on workers' performance and overall productivity. The survey revealed that, among the top ten critical factors (teamwork, work based on contract, supervision based on leadership by example and provision of equipment) had great effect on motivation as well as impact on productivity. More so communication, love and belongingness, opportunity to undertake challenging task, identification with goal and overtime were among the critical factors.
Article
Full-text available
We examine the impact of employee turnover on operating performance in settings that require high levels of knowledge exploitation. Using 48 months of turnover data from U.S. stores of a major retail chain, we find that, on average, employee turnover is associated with decreased performance, as measured by profit margin and customer service. The effect of turnover on performance, however, is mitigated by the nature of management at the store level. The particular aspect of management on which we focus is process conformance--the extent to which managers aim to reduce variation in store operations in accordance with a set of prescribed standards for task performance. At high-process-conformance stores, managers use discipline in implementing standardized policies and procedures, whereas at low-process-conformance stores, managers tolerate deviations from these standards. We find that increasing turnover does not have a negative effect on store performance at high-process-conformance stores; at low-process-conformance stores, the negative effect of turnover is pronounced. Our results suggest that, in settings where performance depends on the repetition of known tasks, managers can reduce turnover's effect by imposing process discipline through standard operating procedures. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Organization Science is the property of INFORMS: Institute for Operations Research and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Article
The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
Article
The University of South Africa (UNISA), like many other institutions of higher education, is facing new challenges, including budget cuts, a new funding formula, changes in technology, mergers, new leadership, and a call for increased research productivity and graduation rate. All these challenges have contributed to dampened staff morale and have led to some resistance and apprehension. The aim of the study reported in this article was to explore the morale, commitment, satisfaction and perceptions of staff of UNISA's College of Economic and Management Sciences (CEMS) and to explore the relationship between leadership and morale. A self-administrated web-based survey approach was used in a census to collect information among all 604 CEMS staff members. A 42.1% response rate was obtained. The results revealed an overall satisfaction index of 62 and that of CEMS leadership of 61. The study revealed that there is a relationship between leadership and morale, and those leadership competencies such as communication, fostering trust and team building set a clear direction for the college impact on morale. It is recommended that morale surveys should be conducted to obtain the requisite information before developing strategies that relate to employee morale, retention and performance.
Article
Economists studying innovation and technological change have made significant progress toward understanding firms' profit incentives as drivers of innovation. However, innovative performance in firms should also depend heavily on the pecuniary and nonpecuniary motives of the employees actually working in research and development. Using data on more than 1,700 Ph.D. scientists and engineers, we examine the relationships between individuals' motives (e.g., desire for intellectual challenge, income, or responsibility) and their innovative performance. We find that motives matter, but different motives have very different effects: Motives regarding intellectual challenge, independence, and money have a strong positive relationship with innovative output, whereas motives regarding job security and responsibility tend to have a negative relationship. We also explore possible mechanisms underlying the observed relationships between motives and performance. Although hours worked (quantity of effort) have a strong positive effect on performance, motives appear to affect innovative performance primarily via other dimensions of effort (character of effort). Finally, we find some evidence that the role of motives differs in upstream research versus downstream development.
Article
Is employee morale affecting customer satisfaction and therefore the bottom line? This paper describes a piece of exploratory research carried out in the business-tobusiness (B2B) sector in the UK to determine whether employee satisfaction does ultimately affect profits. There is a great deal of literature that supports this argument. The results of the research, however, actually indicated an inverse relationship in one industry in particular. The focus industries were technology, processing and business banking. This correlates with a recent similar study in the retail industry. The results showed that morale can be very low, yet employees work hard in order to keep their customers loyal and to maximise company profits. This is despite fear of redundancy, high workloads and long hours.
Article
Recently the business environment has changed greatly. Banks must increase operational efficiency and service quality to build competitive advantages. The priority for upgrading service quality is to improve employees' work attitude. Staff of banks were selected as subjects to explore the influences of achievement motivation, psychological contracts, and work attitudes. Results were: 1) Achievement motivation significantly influences psychological contract. 2) Psychological contract significantly influences work attitude. 3) Achievement motivation significantly influences work attitude. 4) Achievement motivation significantly influences work attitude through psychological contracts. It is recommended that when managers select staff, they should consider individuals with more achievement motivation, and who are willing to fulfill psychological contracts since they have a better work attitude.
Article
The project conceived in 1929 by Gardner Murphy and the writer aimed first to present a wide array of problems having to do with five major "attitude areas"--international relations, race relations, economic conflict, political conflict, and religion. The kind of questionnaire material falls into four classes: yes-no, multiple choice, propositions to be responded to by degrees of approval, and a series of brief newspaper narratives to be approved or disapproved in various degrees. The monograph aims to describe a technique rather than to give results. The appendix, covering ten pages, shows the method of constructing an attitude scale. A bibliography is also given.