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Why do audiences choose to keep watching on live video streaming platforms? An explanation of dual identification framework

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Abstract

Live video streaming has been a global economic and social phenomenon in recent years. Many streaming platforms such as Twitch and YouTube Live have been founded and demonstrated unprecedented growth across the world. Yet, researchers have paid insufficient attention to understanding the massive participation behavior exhibited by live video streaming audiences. Based on social identity theory, this paper aims to explain audiences’ continuous watching behavior intention via a dual identification framework including identifications with streaming broadcasters and audience groups. Analysis of data collected from two live streaming platforms in mainland China indicates that audiences’ identification with broadcasters and audience groups are positively associated with their continuous watching intention. Broadcaster identification is driven by individual experience including experience of parasocial interaction, actual and ideal self-congruity, whereas group identification is enhanced by co-experience consisting of participation, cognitive communion, and resonant contagion. In addition, live streaming genres partially moderate the impact of identification on continuous watching intention. Theoretical and practical implications as well as limitations and suggestions for future research are provided.

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... In recent years, the widespread use of live streaming has attracted academic research. Current research focuses on viewer's motivation to watch live streaming and the purchase decision process (Bründl and Hess, 2016;Hamari and Sjöblom, 2017;Hu et al., 2017;Chen and Lin, 2018) and examine the impact of live streaming on viewer's purchase intention (Sun et al., 2019;Zhou F. et al., 2019;Zhang et al., 2020). Different from traditional marketing media, social presence is the most significant advantage of live streaming (Xue et al., 2020), so the role of social presence has been widely mentioned in the research on live streaming (Hu et al., 2017;Xie et al., 2019;Liu et al., 2020). ...
... Current research focuses on viewer's motivation to watch live streaming and the purchase decision process (Bründl and Hess, 2016;Hamari and Sjöblom, 2017;Hu et al., 2017;Chen and Lin, 2018) and examine the impact of live streaming on viewer's purchase intention (Sun et al., 2019;Zhou F. et al., 2019;Zhang et al., 2020). Different from traditional marketing media, social presence is the most significant advantage of live streaming (Xue et al., 2020), so the role of social presence has been widely mentioned in the research on live streaming (Hu et al., 2017;Xie et al., 2019;Liu et al., 2020). Nevertheless, we discover that there are still limitations in the research on social presence in live streaming. ...
... Scholars have studied the motivation of viewers in watching live streaming from different perspectives, and various theories concentrate on motivational drivers such as emotional (Xu et al., 2019;Lim et al., 2020) cognitive (Hilvert-Bruce et al., 2018;Xu et al., 2019), utilitarian (Ma, 2021), hedonic motivations (Hilvert-Bruce et al., 2018;Yu et al., 2018;Xu et al., 2019;Ma, 2021), socialization motivation (Hilvert-Bruce et al., 2018;Wongkitrungrueng and Assarut, 2018;Hou et al., 2019;Ma, 2021), social cognitive (Lim et al., 2020), social identification (Hu et al., 2017;Zhou F. et al., 2019), and the fit between streamers and viewers (Park and Lin, 2020). Scholars generally agree that viewers are influenced by social identification in live communities (Hu et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Live streaming commerce as a popular marketing method has attracted wide attention, but little is known about why consumers continue to watch live streaming. To fill this research gap, this study draws on social presence theory to examine the impact of sense of community, emotional support, and interactivity on viewers’ social presence, which, in turn, influences their live streaming watching. Furthermore, the moderating role of streamer attractiveness is also investigated. The authors collected survey data from 386 live streaming viewers and used the structural equation model to test the research model. The results reveal that sense of community, interactivity, and emotional support positively affects viewers’ social presence, leading to viewers’ watching live streaming. Furthermore, streamer attractiveness plays a significant moderating role between social presence and live streaming watching. This study provides a unified theoretical framework to explain the intention to watch live streaming based on social presence theory.
... There are two major types of LSE [23]: (1) LSE hosted by key opinion leaders (KOLs) and (2) brand self-built LSE (BLSE), with a salesperson as the broadcaster. In KOL-based LSE, firms can entice a large number of customers to watch [42] as the social influence of KOLs means they can attract customer attention efficiently [20]. Further, they can generate celebrity and conformity effects [47], resulting in a massive number of impulsive purchases. ...
... Moreover, previous studies on LSE have focused only on KOL-based LSE, investigating how factors related to people (i.e., KOLs and customers) [42] and products (e. g., product price and scarcity) affect the purchase intention and engagement behaviors of customers [20]. However, this ignores the impact of IT-based atmospheric cues in BLSE. ...
... Existing LSE research has identified several antecedents to purchase intention [20,42], including factors related to KOLs (e.g., celebrity attractiveness and trustworthiness), customers (e.g., perceived values), and products (e.g., product credibility). However, such investigations have only emphasized people-and product-related factors in the KOLbased context, ignoring the significance of contextual elements (atmospheric cues) in BLSE. ...
Article
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Brands' self-built live streaming e-commerce has emerged as an embryonic and effective way of supporting customer purchase decisions. Moreover, the question of how small- and medium-sized enterprises can leverage IT-enabled factors to survive in the big arena has become a pressing concern. Extant research primarily focuses on broadcaster- and product-related factors by emphasizing psychological mechanisms and ignoring contextual factors from a holistic perspective. To address these research gaps, the complex interaction effects between IT-based atmospheric cues are explored in this paper using a mixed-methods approach. Drawing on affordance theory, we also integrate IT-based features with customer perceptions to further investigate the influencing mechanism of innovative decision-making contexts on customers' quick decisions.
... Regardless of the online or offline society, individuals' shared interests, knowledge and shared language are always the basic foundations of their harmonious coexistence (Hu et al., 2017). Referring to the previous definition of social integration (Adachi, 2011;Goswami, 2012), social integration in the context of topic-based VCs should be considered " the common social concept that is shared by VC audiences with different cognitive preferences and value orientations." ...
... As the perception of close relationships with others, intimacy is the psychological premise for audiences to accumulate trust and reciprocal ties in topic-based VCs (Hsu et al., 2015). Meanwhile, as the perception of like-mindedness with others, VC audiences' cognitive communion is also an important prerequisite to build common knowledge, create shared languages, and construct a versatile semantic environment among topic-based VCs (Stokburger-Sauer et al., 2012;Hu et al., 2017). ...
... Individuals who disclosed their information in topic-based VCs could cultivate their intimacy with others, and then strengthen and consolidate their trust and reciprocal ties among VCs. Such relational capital could make VC audiences further experience their like-mindedness between themselves and others and perceive high cognitive communion (Hu et al., 2017). In short, individuals who want to perceive cognitive communication should first accumulate certain trust or reciprocal relationships in VCs based on their intimacy. ...
Article
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Introduction: With the normalization of COVID-19 prevention and control, a large number of intergenerational audiences with different cognition preferences and value orientations have started to pour into non-acquaintance virtual communities (VCs) to address their social needs by disclosing their own thoughts, feelings and experiences toward certain topics. To avoid the negative impacts of self-disclosure, this study introduced the concept of social integration into cyber society among non-acquaintance VCs, such as the topic-based VCs. Our theoretical model considers both the psychological antecedents and consequences of VC audiences' social integration and our findings have implications for public online (and even offline) social life. Moreover, this research could play a guiding role in improving VC audiences' social integration status in future online learning and telecommuting scenarios. Method: To assess the theoretical model constructed in this manuscript, we conducted an online survey in two different topic-based VCs among Microblog and yielded 472 useable responses from intergenerational audiences, among which 28.81% were born before 1985, 26.67% were born from 1985 to 1995, and 48.52% were born after 1995. Our sample consisted of 208 individuals from Health Regimen VC and 264 individuals from Star Chasing VC, 200 (42.37%) were men and 272 (57.63%) were women. Results: Our structural equation model (SEM) indicated that individuals' self-disclosure in topic-based VCs might not directly guide them to acquire social integration. However, intimacy and cognitive communion derived from VC audiences' self-disclosure might not only enhance their social integration, but also improve their psychological well-being. In addition, VC audiences' social integration mediated the relationship between intimacy and psychological well-being, and the relationship between cognitive communion and psychological well-being. Moreover, VC audiences' intimacy was found to have a direct influence on their cognitive communion. Conclusion: In the context of topic-based VCs, audiences' self-disclosure could significantly foster their intimacy and cognitive communion with others, and both intimacy and cognitive communion are conductive to VC audiences' social integration. Thus, audiences in topic-based VCs who wish to improve their psychological well-being need to disclose themselves and build corresponding psychological foundations (i.e., intimacy and cognitive communion) to enhance their social integration. Meanwhile, topic-based VCs should pay attention to the cultivation of intimacy and cognitive communion among audiences while encouraging them to reveal themselves.
... Viewers' intentions with regard to watching LS programs may play a critical role in generating ongoing revenue. They result from the accumulated online traffic and lead to product/service sales in the future that reflect viewers' behavioral intentions [51,52]. According to a study by Lv et al. (2022) [17], two types of behavior are classified among viewers of tourism LS, namely, immediate buying behavior and continuous watching intention. ...
... The former has been regarded as a short-term behavior, and the latter has been denoted as the long-term behavioral intention. The related concepts were adapted from their study and prior research [17,51,52] and modified to fit the context of the present study. Watching intention refers to viewers' ongoing preference for live streams and may be regarded as a proxy for viewers' loyalty, being important for buying behavior [17,51,52]. ...
... The related concepts were adapted from their study and prior research [17,51,52] and modified to fit the context of the present study. Watching intention refers to viewers' ongoing preference for live streams and may be regarded as a proxy for viewers' loyalty, being important for buying behavior [17,51,52]. Faced with increasingly fierce competition in the LSC market, securing and maintaining viewers' watching intentions should be a focus of related enterprises and sellers [52]. ...
Article
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Previous studies have investigated how customer purchase intention is influenced by live streaming. However, no study has investigated the effect of service marketing mix (7Ps) on consumer shopping behavior from sellers’ perspectives. The present study is designed to shed light on the relationships among the 7Ps and the customers’ purchase intention through watching the broadcasters’ show. An integrative marketing-oriented model is proposed and tested using data collected from 330 customers (including 237 shoppers for apparel and 93 customers for seafood) through Facebook live shopping platforms. The research results reveal that promotion, placement, and physical evidence have positive effects on customers’ purchase intention. In addition, the watching intention had a positive effect on purchase intention. It is also found that watching intention has a full mediation effect on the relationship between the 7Ps marketing mix and the purchase intention. The implications of the findings and issues for future research are also discussed.
... Live streaming refers to a new social media form that integrates multiple communication technologies (Deng et al., 2021). This communication mode allows streamers to transmit audio and video from talent shows, video games, daily life records, and other settings in real-time to viewers via social media platforms, accompanied by a live chat room (Gong et al., 2020;Hu et al., 2017). Recently, live streaming has gradually become more widely applied in social commerce (s-commerce) contexts where social networking sites support interaction to facilitate online transactions and enhance consumers' online shopping experiences . ...
... Continuous watching intention refers to viewers' enduring, sustained preference for live streams; this attribute can be regarded as a proxy of viewers' loyalty (Hou et al., 2019;Hu et al., 2017). In the tourism research field, tourists' attitudinal loyalty manifests revisit intention or recommendation intention, which is also named word-of-mouth (Nilplub et al., 2016). ...
... Thus, continuous watching intention is more important than immediate buying behavior. Faced with increasingly fierce competition in the online travel market, securing and maintaining viewers' continuous watching intentions would be a focus for tourism enterprises that use live streaming as a marketing channel (Hu et al., 2017). ...
... On live stream platforms, performers create attractive content and share relevant information to effectively engage audiences (Hu et al., 2017). Physical attractiveness plays an important role in live stream shows, as audiences tend to agree with the opinion of attractive performers and are more willing to comply with their suggestions (Van de Sompel and Vermeir, 2016). ...
... Specifically, we confirmed that SA could positively affect EA and SL; and that PSI can also positively affect EA and SL. In doing so, we agreed with previous studies regarding KPop performers' physical attractiveness (Hu et al., 2017) and talents (Pratamasari, 2017), as well as the enhanced effects of intimacy and closeness achieved through parasocial interactions in live stream shows (Xiang et al., 2016;. Our results further suggest that SA has a stronger effect on both EA and SL, compared to PSI. Surprisingly, we found no evidence regarding the impact of NE on EA and SL. ...
Article
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Live stream platforms have transformed the production and consumption of music, allowing KPop music to expand globally. Successful KPop idols are contrasted with large numbers of retired KPop performers, some of whom live in undesirable conditions. Drawing on the attachment theory, loyalty theory, and parasocial interaction theory, this study focuses on a unique group, comeback KPop performers, to examine how they acquire empathetic attachment and sustained loyalty from audiences through live stream shows, and the antecedents (i.e., sustained attractiveness, nostalgic experience, and parasocial interactions) of these two variables. Answering these questions seems important because comeback KPop performers have to interact with audiences without the financial and marketing support from entertainment agencies. The structural equation modeling of 288 responses from 176 Chinese and 112 Korean KPop audiences confirmed that empathetic attachment and sustained loyalty are positively associated with audience purchase intentions; sustained attractiveness and parasocial interactions function as antecedents of these two factors. The findings shed light on the comeback KPop performers who co-create value with audiences through live stream platforms, with theoretical contributions to the three theories mentioned above and managerial suggestions to KPop entertainment agencies, comeback KPop performers, and managers of live stream platforms.
... According to Sirgy (2018), self-congruity will impact purchase motivation by satisfying selfconsistency, self-esteem, social consistency, and social approval needs. Hu et al. (2017) indicated that broadcaster identification and group identification drive live streaming platform viewing behavior. Parasocial interaction and self-congruity increase continuance intention. ...
... According to Hu et al. (2017), live video streaming became economic globalization and social phenomenon. Several streaming platforms, such as Twitter and YouTube Live, continue growing in popularity. ...
... This positively associates with continuous watching intention, meaning, the more a viewer identifies him-or herself with the streamer, the more the viewer watches the broadcaster. It is implied that this is a new phenomenon compared to other types of social media (Hu et al., 2017). The scope in which the audience recognizes or has a positive attitude towards the streamer, the more the perceived worthiness of the streamer increases which encourages the viewer to interact during a live stream (Chen & Lin, 2018). ...
Chapter
Gamification is seen as an important factor for people to use different services, this also applies to social live streaming services (SLSSs). In China, there are around 200 SLSSs available, and the most successful of them apply a wide range of gamification elements. The general SLSS YouNow, which is mostly used by the younger generation, is a SLSS with the most applied gamification elements outside of China. However, it remains unclear if and to what extend gamification elements motivate female and male streamers differently. We empirically investigate this question by applying a survey with 94 streamers (female N = 48; male N = 46). The results indicate that YouNow is seen favorable by the streamers, but female streamers have a more positive view of it. Furthermore, male and female streamers are inclined to spend real money to further their motives. Overall, female streamers are more motivated by gamification elements than male streamers. Female streamers prefer Levels, the Progress Bar, Badges; male streamers favor Coins, Gifts, and Levels.
... Haimson et al. 2017 studied what makes consumers' live events engaging and show that immersion, immediacy, interaction, and sociality were important to the engagement of watching live events [9]. Hu et al. 2017 illustrate that individuals' personal experience and coexperience could significantly affect the broadcaster identification and group identification, which then have a significant impact on individuals' continuous live streaming watching intentions [11]. Cai et al. 2018 explore the relationship between hedonic and utilitarian motivations and shopping intention [5]. ...
Chapter
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In an attempt to curtail and prevent the spread of Covid-19 infection, social distancing has been adopted globally as a precautionary measure. Statistics shows that 75% of appointments most especially in the health sector are being handled by telephone since the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. Currently most patients access health care services in real time from any part of the World through the use of Mobile devices. With an exponential growth of mobile applications and cloud computing the concept of mobile cloud computing is becoming a future platform for different forms of services for smartphones hence the challenges of low battery life, storage space, mobility, scalability, bandwidth, protection and privacy on mobile devices has being improved by combining mobile devices and cloud computing which rely on wireless networks to create a new concept and infrastructure called Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC). The introduction of Mobile cloud computing (MCC) has been identified as a promising approach to enhance healthcare services, with the advent of cloud computing, computing as a utility has become a reality thus a patient only pays for what he uses. This paper, presents a systematic review on the concept of cloud computing in mobile Environment; Mobile Payments and Mobile Healthcare Solutions in various healthcare applications, it describes the principles, challenges and opportunity this concept proffers to the health sector to determine how it can be harnessed is also discussed.
... For instance, Gandolfi (2016) argued that streamers themselves are the key motivation for someone to watch, and that related online debates can deal with serious topics and issues. Hu et al. (2017) observed that the viewer exchange with the streamer can entail parasocial interaction and active participation. Hamilton et al. (2014) claimed that communication during online live streaming is usually chaotic, but it can also embed relevant conversational dynamics and exchanges. ...
Article
Live streaming platforms like Twitch.tv count millions of viewers and performers, pointing to novel practices and interactions. Instructional applications of this phenomenon are rising with thematic channels and shows aimed at teaching and debating a variety of subjects ranging from art to programming. However, few research publications have specifically explored trends in pedagogical strategies and learning behaviours of viewing audiences. This study responded to this need by analysing computer science shows on Twitch.tv. A total of 40 hours of live streaming were analysed within a Community of Inquiry framework using the concepts of social affordances, computational thinking, and teaching style. Data collected from both expert and novice streamers included streamers' actions, on‐screen activity, and online discussions. Results pointed to specific tactics employed by both performers and viewers for exploring computer science issues and dynamics together, with instances of peer‐tutoring, construed learning, and significant transparency, even when top‐down instruction was staged. Practitioners notes What is already known about this topic Live streaming is a popular media practice all around the world, with Twitch.tv as the leading hosting platform. A rising number of live streaming shows are focusing on education and learning topics, from STEM to art. What this paper adds A first exploration of instructional streaming focused on computer science education. An analysis of best practices in instructional streaming in terms of community building, teaching style, and computational thinking processes. A better understanding of how communities of inquiry can be hosted on Twitch.tv. Implications for practice and/or policy Practitioners can harness this study's results for informing better educational streaming. Educators may refer to this article's highlights for selecting and evaluating educational streaming shows. Policy makers will be able to use this article's insights for monitoring and re‐applying effective computer science activities in other educational environments. What is already known about this topic Live streaming is a popular media practice all around the world, with Twitch.tv as the leading hosting platform. A rising number of live streaming shows are focusing on education and learning topics, from STEM to art. What this paper adds A first exploration of instructional streaming focused on computer science education. An analysis of best practices in instructional streaming in terms of community building, teaching style, and computational thinking processes. A better understanding of how communities of inquiry can be hosted on Twitch.tv. Implications for practice and/or policy Practitioners can harness this study's results for informing better educational streaming. Educators may refer to this article's highlights for selecting and evaluating educational streaming shows. Policy makers will be able to use this article's insights for monitoring and re‐applying effective computer science activities in other educational environments.
... The net connection between "people" and "consumers" can effectively promote consumers' willingness to watch. The streamer has an important dominant position in live streaming e-commerce (Hu et al., 2017). Live streaming solves the problem of information overload to a certain extent. ...
Article
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The virtual display of products in e-commerce brings new problems of information asymmetry, and the overload of digital information also increases the difficulty of consumers' purchasing decisions. The real-time interaction between the streamer and the consumer during live streaming e-commerce will promote consumers' understanding of the product, reduce information asymmetry, and increase consumers' purchase intention. However, why do people trust the untouchable and unfamiliar streamers from live streaming e-commerce to purchase online? To understand this phenomenon, based on the perspective of the information asymmetry theory and parasocial relationship theory, this research identified how social capital affected purchase intention in live streaming e-commerce. Through a questionnaire survey of live viewers, the purchase intention model constructed by empirical testing was used. The findings showed that the streamer's professionalism, the reciprocal expectation of live streaming, and the viewer's parasocial relationship could effectively increase the viewer's purchase intention. The occurrence of a streamer's negative public events could significantly reduce the viewer's purchase intention. The scale of live streaming and the streamer's commitment had no significant impact on the viewer's purchase intention. Trust played an intermediary role between the streamer's professionalism and parasocial relationship and the viewer's purchase intention.
... Consequently, a viewer is more likely to continue watching a live-streaming channel when building and maintaining strong parasocial relationships with the streamer. Meanwhile, Hu et al. (2017) examined factors predicting viewers' continuous watching intention, finding that audience's identification with the gaming streamer was positively associated with their behavioral loyalty toward the streamer. Thus, a hypothesis querying the relationship between parasocial relationships and streamer loyalty is proposed: H 3 : Parasocial relationships will have a positive effect on streamer loyalty. ...
Article
This study explores if and how perceived Esports streamer credibility influences the audience’s attitude toward the brand endorsed by the streamer. Results from a survey conducted with US adults ( N = 277) show the significant and positive relationship between streamer credibility and brand attitude while identifying parasocial relationships and streamer loyalty as two factors mediating the impact of streamer credibility on brand attitude. Structural equation modeling analysis is used to reveal how perceived expertise and trustworthiness of an Esports streamer affect viewer attitudes toward the promoted brands, with theoretical and practical implications outlined.
... In terms of theory or practice, the live commerce platform is essentially an interactive platform of electronic (Cai and Wohn, 2019; Sun et al., 2019) [9,10], which provides a cocreating value environment for enterprises and customers [7,11]. Consumers, as value cocreators, gain practical value, entertainment value, and social value by watching live videos, interacting with streamers and other users, and forming an information pool by giving gifts and comments, providing more possibilities for customer engagement [12]. ...
Article
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Live streaming commerce, which has led to the emergence of new forms of social commerce called live streaming, has already improved the performance of many social commerce streamers. Live streaming commerce is an emerging business model that has blended the functions of e-commerce and live webcasting. The total sales volume will increase when the streamers and the customers communicate in the real-time interaction platform. In live streaming commerce, customer engagement behavior has been beneficial for realizing the value of live streaming commerce, which scholars have studied and valued. However, internal and external factors often affect customer engagement behavior, and most of the existing research focuses on only one aspect. This article will analyze internal and external influencing factors (internal influencing factors are based on self-efficacy theory, and external influencing factors are based on value-based adoption models) and their interactions to get a broad conclusion. To understand customer engagement behavior in the live streaming commerce with comprehensive research, the article constructs a customer engagement model in the live streaming commerce environment and uses structural equations for empirical testing. In applying self-efficacy theory, it is committed to distinguishing the functional logic between general self-efficacy and special self-efficacy and understanding the mechanism of special self-efficacy, namely, the influence mechanism of live streaming self-efficacy on perceived value and customer engagement in specific situations. The research results show that general self-efficacy positively influences perceived usefulness, perceived entertainment, and live streaming commerce self-efficacy, while perceived usefulness, perceived entertainment, and live streaming commerce self-efficacy positively affect perceived value, live streaming commerce self-efficacy, and self-efficacy. Perceived value has a positive and significant impact on customer engagement behavior. This research explains the influencing factors and mechanism of customer engagement in the live streaming commerce environment from the internal and external perspectives, enriches the theoretical research on customer engagement, and provides practical guidance for customer engagement behavior in the live streaming commerce environment.
... Next to boredom, socializing, and with this the human-human interaction is a frequently found motivation to use live streaming services for both, streamers [19] as well as viewers [18]. Viewers' intentions to continuous watching are led by their experience of the interaction, mainly the social identification with the streamer and the coexperience with other viewers [20]. The ties between a streamer and his or her audience form the performer's social capital. ...
... Moreover, while located in various geographical regions, participants can observe the sun's different positions in different time zones and hear a variety of accents. This high level of interactivity between participant-host and participant-participant in live streaming significantly increases guests' engagement and willingness to continue using the platform (Hu et al., 2017). Lastly, to the authors' best knowledge, there are no comparable platforms with such variety as Airbnb. ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has fostered a new form of virtual tour, the Airbnb peer-to-peer online experiences, allowing individuals to register as hosts and provide live, interactive video sessions to a small group of global audiences online. This study aims to unpack this innovative business model and examine its potential impact on the tourist experience and tourism destination. Our research shows that the online offerings of the Airbnb experience are multi-dimensional, ranging from educational and entrainment to cultural immersion. While Airbnb peer-to-peer model can provide numerous opportunities to enable local entrepreneurship, it can create significant long-term challenges for other businesses, presenting an urgent need to systematically examine its wide societal implications for the tourism industry.
... As pointed out by Gandhi et al. (2021) and Cabeza-Ramirez et al. (2021), among others, a prominent core of the literature on the live streaming of video games indicates that knowledge, entertainment and social motivations are determinants of the time spent using this type of service. Although the hypothesis regarding the information-seeking motivation (H4d) was not supported in our analysis, this was probably because information-seeking motivations related to video games (learning strategies and staying up-to-date about video games) were measured separately from those related to the platform, with the latter proving to be among the best predictors via the viewers identifying with streamers or specific videogames (Hu, Zhang, & Wang, 2017). Nor do we find evidence of a relationship between users' feelings of belonging and their viewing time (H4e). ...
Article
Video games have become an everyday part of the lives of thousands of users. While playing video games is relatively common, enjoying video games through live streaming platforms is becoming increasingly popular, with users experiencing the game in a much more social and interactive way. However, recent academic research on the subject has focused on studying the two activities independently. To bridge this gap, the present study proposes a theoretical model that explores the connections between gaming and viewing. More specifically, this paper aims to examine whether the motivations for playing video games and expectations of positive outcomes—e.g., making new friends, professionalizing the hobby, or increasing competences and skills—lead to increased time spent playing and viewing, which may ultimately lead to potentially problematic uses. To validate the conceptual model, data were collected from 954 players and viewers and a partial least squares structural equation model was applied. The results suggest that positive expectations about the use of video games are directly related to time spent playing, but negatively related to time spent watching. Moreover, potential problematic uses are determined more by an increase in time spent playing than in time spent watching, with watching being treated as a complementary activity to gaming.
... Majority of the existing studies have used the context of live streaming usage intentions rather than ESAs in particular. The focus of these studies is divided across social live streaming services (Chen & Lin, 2018, Hilvert-Bruce, Neill, SjÖblom & Hamari, 2018, online videos game streaming (SjÖblom & Hamari, 2017), video or music entertainment streaming apps (Oyedele & Simpson' 2017;Hu, Zhang, & Wang, 2017;Kinnally & Bolduc, 2020); and more recently live streaming of sports (Kim & Kim 2020). While these studies significantly contribute to the growing body of literature on live streaming usage behavior, it is essential to examine whether the findings of these studies can be extended and validated, specifically in the context of subscription based video streaming apps. ...
Article
Rise of internet and penetration of smartphones have made digital content accessible though Entertainment Streaming Apps (ESA). With the flexibility of time and place, ESA platforms are changing the dynamics of entertainment consumption. The current study explored the determinants of actual usage of ESA using the theory of planned behavior, flow theory and factors affecting entertainment related technology adoption including engagement, content, entertainment value, convenience value and monetary value. Data is collected through an online survey from 215 Indian ESA users and the proposed framework is empirically tested using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The findings of the study contribute to the growing body of literature on streaming apps adoption and usage by expanding the understanding of the factors that explain its usage behavior.
... Live streaming e-commerce refers to a marketing model in which streamers (sellers or their employees) rely on live streaming platforms to conduct online live streaming, and provide consumers with products descriptions and information through interpersonal communications and product trials, thereby promoting consumers' purchase intention (Hu et al., 2017). Prior studies have found that the immediacy, interactivity and immersiveness of live streaming makes it more attractive to consumers than traditional online shopping modes (Liang et al., 2011;Haimson and Tang, 2017;Cai et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Given that “cross-border e-commerce + live streaming” has become an important driver of global trade but limited attention has been paid to this area, this study examines the impacts of live streaming features on the consumers’ cross-border purchase intention from the perspectives of consumers’ overall perceived value and overall perceived uncertainty based on the SOR theory. In addition, through investigating the moderating effects of saving money, this study reveals the impacts of amazing bargains in live streaming commerce. A total of 272 samples were collected by a questionnaire survey to test the proposed research model. The results show that live streaming features significantly increase consumers’ overall perceived value and purchase intention, and significantly reduce consumers’ overall perceived uncertainty; in addition, saving money further increases the impact of live streaming features on consumers’ overall perceived value. This study provides a theoretical basis and reference for cross-border e-commerce platforms and merchants to effectively leverage live streaming to influence consumers’ perception and purchase intention.
... However, extant literature still lacks a comprehensive explanation for livestreaming addiction. Limited studies have tried to figure out this question from two aspects: on the one hand, the factors of individual traits, such as escape from loneliness , information seeking (Hilvert-Bruce et al., 2018), flow experience (Chen and Lin, 2018), perceived value (Singh et al., 2021), and Big Five personality traits (Cheng et al., 2019); on the other hand, a social relationship between broadcasters and audiences, such as the parasocial interaction between broadcasters and audiences (Lim et al., 2020), the social identification of the co-viewers, and the sense of community within the streaming room (Lim et al., 2012;Hu et al., 2017). ...
Article
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With the rapid development of livestreaming marketing in China, consumers spend an increasing amount of time watching and purchasing on the platform, which shows a trend of livestreaming addiction. In the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, the addiction exacerbated by a surge of boredom caused by home quarantine. Based on the observation of this phenomenon, this research focused on whether state boredom could facilitate consumers’ livestreaming addiction and explored the associated mechanisms of this relationship. Based on three studies, this research found that state boredom had a positive effect on consumers’ livestreaming addiction, and this relationship worked through the mediating effect of consumers’ sensation seeking. We further verified a moderated mediation effect of consumers’ life meaning perception, where the indirect effect of state boredom on consumers’ livestreaming addiction via consumers’ sensation seeking existed for high and low levels of life meaning perception, but in opposite directions. The conclusions provided theoretical and practical implications of livestreaming marketing and healthy leisure consumption.
... Research has found the role of wishful identification to be a predictor of the strength of the parasocial relationship and viewer loyalty for live streamers specifically (Lim, Choe, Zhang, & Noh, 2020). In turn, wishful identification is an important predictor of viewer loyalty and whether or not viewers develop a parasocial relationship with the streamer (Hamilton, Garretson, & Kerne, 2014;Hu, Zhang, & Wang, 2017;Lim et al., 2020). In other words, some parasocial relationships with streamers may be stimulated by wishful identification. ...
Article
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Parasocial relationships have traditionally been conceptualized as one-sided, non-reciprocal relationships with media figures. However, the proliferation of online media "microcelebrities" via live streaming has shifted the nature of parasocial relationship away from the classic one-sided relationship and towards a "one-and-a-half" sided relationship characterized by the potential for reciprocal communication, strong community affiliation, fandom cultures, wishful identification, high emotional engagement, and increased presence. This paper explores the theoretical and practical implications of this shift, specifically within the context of live streaming on Twitch.
... We believe that live streaming is in its infancy as a social commerce platform, and the number of purchases conducted through live streaming is growing significantly [60]; however, few research works have investigated this topic, especially marketing and consumer behavior fields. Numerous studies on live streaming as social commerce have revealed that live streaming commerce integrates social commerce attributes into real-time interactions to generate purchases [15,38,61]. Therefore, as streamers conduct sales activities with viewers via real-time interactions through live streaming on social media, we conceptualized live streaming as a social commerce platform. ...
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The concept of consumer-brand identification (CBI) is central to our understanding of how, when, and why brands help consumers articulate their identities. This paper proposes and tests an integrative theoretical framework of the antecedents of CBI. Six drivers of CBI, a moderator, and two consequences are posited and tested with survey data from a large sample of German household consumers. The results confirm the influence of five of the six drivers, namely, brand-self similarity, brand distinctiveness, brand social benefits, brand warmth, and memorable brand experiences. Further, we find that all five of these antecedents have stronger causal relationships with CBI when consumers have higher involvement with the brand’s product category. Finally, CBI is tied to two important pro-company consequences, brand loyalty and brand advocacy. Theoretical and managerial significance of the findings are discussed.
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The long-term viability of virtual communities depends critically on contribution behavior by their members. We deepen and extend prior research by conceptualizing contributions to virtual communities in terms of small friendship group-referent intentional actions. Specifically, we investigate cognitive, emotional, and social determinants of shared we-intentions and their consequences for member contribution behavior to the small friendship group to which they belong within a larger community. Using multiple measurement sources and a longitudinal quasi-experimental design, we show that group norms and social identity, as well as attitudes and anticipated emotions, contribute to the development of behavioral desires, which in turn influence we-intentions. In addition, subjective norms are less effective than either group norms or social identity in encouraging contribution behavior. Finally, members' experience levels positively moderate the relationship between we-intentions and contribution behaviors, and differences between collectivistic versus individualistic orientations moderate the effects of social identity and anticipated emotions on the desire to contribute to one's friendship group in the virtual community. Tests for methods biases were conducted, as well as rival hypotheses. These findings have significant research and managerial implications.
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What motivates young adults to start using the popular microblogging site Twitter? Can we identify any systematic patterns of adoption or is use of the service randomly distributed among internet users of this demographic? Drawing on unique longitudinal data surveying 505 diverse young American adults about their internet uses at two points in time (2009, 2010), this article looks at what explains the uptake of Twitter during the year when the site saw considerable increase in use. We find that African Americans are more likely to use the service as are those with higher internet skills. Results also suggest that interest in celebrity and entertainment news is a significant predictor of Twitter use mediating the effect of race among a diverse group of young adults. In contrast, interest in local and national news, international news, and politics shows no relationship to Twitter adoption in this population segment.
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Social media services such as YouTube and Flickr have become online necessities for millions of users worldwide. Social media are online services that enable users to share contents, opinions, and perspectives that support communication with other users. Social media places an emphasis on the shared experience between users, which we call co-experience. However, the online characteristics of social media increase psychological distance between users, which, in turn, results in a decrease in the quality of co-experience. Hence, as the goal of this study, we theoretically modeled and empirically verified the antecedents and user experience-based consequences of psychological distance in a social media-enhanced real-time streaming video service. In order to reduce psychological distance, we introduced two system elements: inhabited space (the degree of being situated in context and in a meaningful place) and isomorph effects (the degree of preserving the structure of a user’s actions). We constructed a social media-enhanced real-time streaming video service prototype and conducted a field experiment with actual social media users. The prototype, which streamed a live baseball game, enabled users to simultaneously view the game from remote locations and to interact with each other through cheering tools. The results indicate that inhabited space and isomorph effects reduce psychological distance between users, and this, in turn, enhances co-experience. This paper ends with theoretical as well as practical implications of the study.
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In this exploratory study, data were gathered from 258 telephone respondents indicating the existence of a para‐social interaction by the viewing audience toward local television newscasters.
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This paper proposes a social identity perspective of customer–brand relationship and integrates brand identity and identification with value, trust and satisfaction in predicting brand loyalty. Two studies' empirical results support this path to brand loyalty framework. The results offer several theoretical implications. First, this research confirms the presence of significant direct and indirect effects of brand identity and brand identification on traditional antecedents of brand loyalty (i.e. perceived value, satisfaction, and trust). Second, the research suggests that social identification perspective of brand loyalty can integrate with other perspectives to model the consumer's psychological path to brand loyalty. Third, the research confirms the pivotal role of brand identification in brand loyalty development and stresses the mediation effect of brand identification on the effects of brand identity on the path to brand loyalty.