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Abstract

Sexual assault on university campuses has garnered increased attention in recent years. A systematic review was conducted to identify the factors associated with bystander intervention regarding sexual assault on university campuses. Currently, no published systematic reviews exist within this area. Twenty-eight studies were reviewed according to four major bystander factors: rape myth and date rape attitudes; bystander efficacy; bystander intent; and bystander behavior. There was a heavy emphasis on bystander intent and behavior throughout. Three important limitations were identified: (1) all empirical research has been conducted in the USA, yet bystander intervention programs exist outside of the USA, in countries such as the UK, (2) a majority of the studies employed quantitative methodologies and so failed to capture important details such as bystanders' perceptions of sexual assault or what other factors influence the likelihood of intervening, and (3) there were limited attempts to control for factors such as social desirability. This area of research is still in its infancy. Future research should examine in greater detail the factors inhibiting and facilitating bystander intervention. Finally, research outside of the USA is important in developing the literature in this area to effectively inform bystander intervention programs.

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... Recent work adapted original models of bystander behavior (Latané & Darley, 1970) to highlight the unique set of challenges bystanders face when helping in situations where SV has the potential to occur, is occurring, or has already occurred (Banyard, 2015;Burn, 2009;McMahon & Banyard, 2012;Moschella et al., 2018;Storer et al., 2016). Much of this literature focuses on situational facilitators and barriers that influence bystanders' intent to help, rather than actual behavior (Bennett et al., 2014;Labhardt et al., 2017). However, intentions are not always accurate predictors of behavior (Ajzen et al., 2004). ...
... Victimization history is thought to increase bystander behavior due to increased empathy for victims and responsibility to intervene (Casey et al., 2017). Among college and community samples, prior victimization is associated with certain types of bystander intentions and behavior related to sexual and relationship violence, including offering support to other victims of SV Beeble et al., 2008;Cascardi et al., 2018;Labhardt et al., 2017;Nabi & 1 3 Horner, 2001;Palmer, 2016). Given the high rates of SV among community college students (Cantor et al., 2015;Howard et al., 2019;Voth Schrag & Edmond, 2018), more research is needed to explore the relationship between victimization history and bystander intentions and behavior. ...
... Contrary to prior research, victimization history was not related to bystander intentions (Beeble et al., 2008). However, previous victimization was associated with bystander behavior, which has been well documented in the existing literature (Cascardi et al., 2018;Labhardt et al., 2017;Nabi & Horner, 2001;Palmer, 2016). Casey and colleagues (2017) theorized that victimization history increases bystander behavior due to increased empathy for victims and responsibility to intervene. ...
Article
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Sexual violence (SV) is a public health problem on college campuses. Research suggests that bystanders can effectively prevent and respond in situations of SV. There is no research to date concerning correlates of bystander behavior (e.g., gender, perceptions of SV) on community college campuses. However, there are notable differences between students enrolled in two- and four-year colleges. We conducted two exploratory studies across seven community colleges in one northeastern state to examine correlates of bystander intentions and behavior. In Studies 1 and 2, the majority of respondents identified as women, heterosexual, and White. We administered online surveys that inquired about demographics, peer attitudes, knowledge of sexual consent, history of victimization, and intent to help (Study 1) or self-reported bystander behavior (Study 2). The first study (n = 1,067) demonstrated that gender (i.e., identifying as woman), less accepting peer attitudes toward SV, and greater knowledge of sexual consent and awareness of campus SV were significantly associated with bystander intentions. The second study (n = 1,506) indicated that age (i.e., younger than 25 years old), greater knowledge of sexual consent, and victimization history were associated with bystander behavior. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
... These programs encourage peer bystanders to intervene when they notice somebody who is the recipient of sexual violence and show promise in reducing sexual violence on campuses (see Kettrey & Marx, 2019). Labhardt et al. (2017) conducted a systematic review of bystander interventions on college campuses, and they found that most of the research projects were quantitative studies that had been undertaken in North America. They nevertheless identified three relevant factors that might influence bystander behavior. ...
... Second, "peer attitudes" (Labhardt et al., 2017, p. 21) appear to influence personal attitudes and subsequent bystander behavior but Labhardt et al. (2017) do not define peer attitudes. Most authors of the relevant papers they reviewed do not provide clear definitions either, except Banyard et al. (2014) who state they investigated descriptive norms (an individual's perception of how people typically behave in a setting, i.e., what does happen; Cialdini et al., 1990) and Fabiano et al. (2003) who followed a social norms approach (see Perkins & Berkowitz, 1986). ...
... Despite the relative scarcity of international, and absence of Australian, research regarding the efficacy of peer bystander intervention programs in nightlife settings and in the face of evidence that some peer bystander interventions can be counterproductive (see Graham, Bernards, Osgood, et al., 2014) Australia has started introducing bystander programs (e.g., Australia Says No More). Given the immaturity of the research in this field in Australia we decided to undertake a qualitative study as suggested by Labhardt et al. (2017) and Kania and Cale (2021) to better examine and understand young Australians' perceptions of the factors that influence bystander decision making in nightlife settings. ...
Article
Unsolicited sexual behaviors that constitute sexual violence appear to be commonplace in nightlife settings in many countries and bystander intervention might be a way to eliminate them. However, few researchers have investigated the barriers and facilitators that affect Australian bystanders’ likelihood to help, and these should be considered in the planning of bystander intervention programs. Using a grounded theory approach, we interviewed fourteen men and women about their perceptions of factors that might influence bystander behavior in Australian nightlife settings. The categories identified suggest that it is difficult for nightlife patrons to notice and identify sexual violence occurring around them. Further, nightlife patrons respect other patrons’ right to engage in sexual behavior and will not intervene unless the recipient has been harmed by the behavior. Patrons are, also, much more likely to help when the recipient is a friend or a woman. Traditional bystander intervention programs on their own might not sufficiently address these barriers. Programs will also need to address patrons’ perceptions of sexual violence and the prevailing social and gender norms in nightlife settings regarding sexual behavior.
... To address the problem, many institutions have adopted bystander intervention workshops as a primary prevention strategy, based on the premise that harassment is often witnessed by others who have the power to intervene before, during, or after the event (e.g. Labhardt et al., 2017). To date, most of the work has been conducted in North America with a paucity of data from other regions of the world. ...
... For example, endorsement of masculine gender norms relates to the acceptance of several inaccurate myths around rape (e.g. blaming the victim rather than the perpetrator), which could impede bystander intervention (Labhardt et al., 2017;Leone et al., 2020;Martini & De Piccoli, 2020). Those who endorse rape myths may fail to take responsibility for intervening , and downplay the seriousness of sexual assault (LeMaire et al., 2016). ...
... Those who endorse rape myths may fail to take responsibility for intervening , and downplay the seriousness of sexual assault (LeMaire et al., 2016). There is a notable lack of research investigating rape myth acceptance outside the U.S (Labhardt et al., 2017;Yapp & Quayle, 2018), with a paucity of studies from Latin America too (although see Hernández et al., 2015;Janos & Espinosa, 2015). Moreover, we could not find any studies focusing on the relationships between rape myths and bystander behaviour in Latin America. ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research, mainly in the United States, has identified several barriers to acting as a bystander in sexual harassment at university campuses. Despite the high frequency of harassment in Latin America, there is a dearth of studies investigating barriers to bystander behaviour in this context. In this pilot study, we report findings exploring harassment and bystander behaviour in university staff and students in Ecuador, a Latin American country characterised by masculine social norms and high levels of gender-based harassment. In an on-line survey, 129 staff and students from universities in different regions of Ecuador answered questions about perceptions of seriousness of harassment, rape myth acceptance, actual incidences of being a perpetrator, victim, or a bystander, and the likelihood and difficulties of bystander action. Women and those who scored higher in rape myth acceptance reported more intervention difficulties. In addition, women and those who had previously perpetrated harassment rated their likelihood of intervening lower. Finally, perceptions of harassment as a serious problem in campuses related to a higher likelihood of intervening as a bystander. We discuss the results in terms of practical applications in devising culturally appropriate bystander intervention workshops.
... Für den englischsprachigen Raum schlagen Edwards und Banyard (2018) eine Einteilung in Ansätze für (1) potentiell Betroffene (engl.: victims), (2) potentielle Täter_innen (engl.: perpetrators) und (3) potentielle Bystander (dt.: Zuschauer_in, umstehende Person) vor. Bystander sind dabei außenstehende Personen, die das Geschehen mitbekommen (können), aber nicht direkt einer Opfer-Täter_innen-Dichotomie zuzuordnen sind (Labhardt et al. 2017;McMahon et al. 2014;Senn und Forrest 2016). ...
... Diese Multiplikator_innen-Arbeit ist bei fundiertem Training (Fallon et al. 2002;Webb und Vulliamy 2001) aus verschiedenen Perspektiven zielführend: Erstens kann sie (zukünftige) Lehrkräfte in ihrer Position als verantwortliche Fachkräfte ansprechen. Die angestrebte präventive Kultur (Labhardt et al. 2017) kann somit durch die institutionelle Verankerung effektiver erreicht werden. Zweitens existiert bereits ein engerer Kontakt zu den Kindern und Jugendlichen, wodurch ein Vertrauensverhältnis geschaffen und beibehalten werden kann, was wiederum für eine Offenbarung von Betroffenheitserfahrungen essentiell ist (Orchowski et al. 2013). ...
... Darüber hinaus fehlen in der Evaluationsforschung weitgehend Untersuchungen zu universitären Veranstaltungen. Diese sind jedoch von besonderer Wichtigkeit im Hinblick darauf, dass die Prävention sexualisierter Gewalt sowohl strategischer, langfristiger Maßnahmen als auch eines strukturell präventiven Klimas (Heiliger 2000;Labhardt et al. 2017) bedarf. Um dies in Schulen zu verwirklichen, müssen Lehrkräfte adressiert werden, wofür die Lehramtsausbildung eine naheliegende Möglichkeit bietet. ...
Article
Zusammenfassung Einleitung Angesichts hoher Prävalenzen und schwerwiegender Konsequenzen von sexualisierter Gewalt sind evidenzbasierte Präventionsansätze notwendig. Eine Variante stellen hierbei universitäre Seminare für angehende Lehrkräfte dar, da diese als potentielle Multiplikator_innen verschiedene präventive Schutzfunktionen einnehmen können. Forschungsziele Da empirische Wirksamkeitsbelege hier jedoch weitgehend fehlen, war das Ziel dieser Studie die Evaluation eines universitären Seminars zur Prävention sexualisierter Gewalt. Dazu wurden aus der Bystander- und der Selbstwirksamkeitsforschung verschiedene Wirksamkeitskriterien abgeleitet: Vorurteile, Rollenambiguität, Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung, Klarheit der Grenzeinschätzung und sorgenvolle Emotionen. Methoden Im Rahmen eines quasi-experimentellen Designs wurden einer Interventionsgruppe, die am Seminar teilnahm (N = 22; M Alter = 22.5, SD = 3.14), und einer Kontrollgruppe (N = 17; M Alter = 24.29, SD = 2.37) Fragebögen vorgelegt. Ergebnisse Die Interventionsgruppe zeigte nach der Teilnahme signifikant weniger Vorurteile (d = -.74) und höhere Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung (d = .89). Es fanden sich Hinweise darauf, dass das Seminar die Rollenambiguität senkt (η2 = .57) und die Klarheit der Grenzeinschätzung steigert (d = 1.07). In Bezug auf die sorgenvollen Emotionen wurden keine Effekte gefunden. Schlussfolgerung Die Ergebnisse weisen auf eine Wirksamkeit des universitären Seminars hin. Praktische Implikationen zur Weiterentwicklung des Ansatzes sowie methodische Limitationen wie subjektive Messinstrumente, Stichprobengröße und Langfristigkeit der Effekte werden diskutiert.
... relationship between the victim and bystander) and contextual (e.g. peer attitudes) variables to be important to bystander intervention (Labhardt et al., 2017). However, many studies included in the review focused upon both SV and physical violence contexts without evidencing a clear distinction between the two. ...
... A search of PsycInfo, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete, and Psychological and Behavioural Sciences Collection databases was conducted in November 2019 to locate published empirical articles. Search terms were refined until all relevant studies from a similar systematic review (Labhardt et al., 2017) appeared in the search results (see Supplemental Appendix A for search terms). In November 2019 and March 2020, 'hand-search' steps were taken to identify additional studies. ...
... First, this review has shown that generally, being female is associated with an increased likelihood of bystander intervention in SV contexts. This aligns with previous reviews for other violent contexts (Debnam & Mauer, 2021;Labhardt et al., 2017). However, the current review has also shown that these differences are not always present, and that in SV contexts, when considering specific actions, male bystanders are more likely to intervene through confronting the perpetrator and seemingly more likely to undertake actions which are more of a risk to their safety in comparison to female bystanders. ...
Article
This article presents a systematic review of the available literature which has investigated the role of key variables in facilitating or inhibiting bystander intervention (including direct intervention, tertiary and secondary prevention) in sexual violence (SV) contexts. Studies exploring the role of individual, situational and contextual variables were grouped to provide a narrative overview of bystanders' personal characteristics as well as the immediate and wider contexts which may be influencing their bystander behaviour. A systematic search of published literature from four electronic databases identified 2526 articles that were screened, of which 85 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies focused upon the role of individual variables, in particular gender of bystander. This body of work finds females are more likely to intervene than males; however, not all studies report these differences and in some cases, this is influenced by the type of intervention behaviour being considered. Regarding situational variables, the most commonly researched variable was the presence of other bystanders, although the role of this variable as inhibiting or facilitating was not clear. Finally, the most commonly researched contextual variable was social norms towards intervention, which has consistently shown greater bystander intervention when there is a belief that peers support such behaviour. Very few studies considered the interaction between these variables. Therefore, it is important for future research to consider this gap in the literature so that we can obtain a more well-rounded understanding of variables that can inhibit and facilitate bystander intervention in SV contexts.
... Sexual assaults involving the use of drugs are more likely to involve interactions in parties or bars [65]. Visiting pubs or nightclubs significantly increases the rate of sexual victimization [106]. Physical determinants from the typical party setting usually involve noise, which may reduce close and intimate communication [87]. ...
... Social environment of college campuses. Sexual assault is a generalized problem at high school and university [106][107][108]. The majority of rapes of women on college campuses occur when the victim is too intoxicated to resist [71], thus suggesting that DFSA is more frequent than forcible sexual assaults [108,109]. ...
... Perception about the role played by drugs in sexual relationships. Young people consider drugs to be facilitators of sexual intercourse and to help them in their search for effects related with sexual interaction [104,106,120]. As such, many youths value the use of drugs in order to achieve sexual goals positively due to their relaxing and disinhibiting effects [98,113,120]. ...
Article
Full-text available
An innovative approach towards the holistic and multidisciplinary study of the victimization of women by drug-facilitated sexual assault has been developed. This phenomenon constitutes a significant problem given the narrowing of the gender gap in drug use over the last few decades and the widespread presence of psychoactive substances worldwide. As violence against women and drug misuse intersect in this phenomenon, this intersectional nature emphasizes the need for a novel approach that enables us to go beyond the studies carried out to date. Consequently, a multidimensional strategy incorporating a gender-sensitive approach has been implemented. The study was aligned with approaches recommended by international authorities concerning sustainable development, thus meeting current global challenges. Furthermore, the study was structured based on an ecological model divided into multiple influence levels and integrating the triangular theory of violence. As a result, a new ecological working framework was built as a multilevel platform useful for understanding and preventing the victimization of women by drug-facilitated sexual assault.
... Banyard (2011) schlägt explizit eine Brücke zur Gestaltung von Communities und fordert einen stärkeren Einbezug des situativen und sozialen Kontextes (S. auch Storer, Casey & Herrenkohl, 2016). Das BIM wird aber als unterkomplex kritisiert (Labhardt et al., 2017, Helfferich, Doll & Kavemann, 2019 Rollen wie z. B. settingspezifische "Autoritäten" , an deren Positionen Interventionsverpflichtungen gebunden sind, wie z. ...
... So sind "Rape cultures" -bzw. deren Skripte -durch Vergewaltigungsmythen in Verbindung mit spezifischen Männlichkeitsvorstellungen (Labhardt et al. 2017, S.13, Carlson, 2008 sowie Loyalitäten unter Männern (Casper, Witte & Stanfield, 2018) gekennzeichnet. Die qualitativen Studien von Carlson (2008) und Helfferich, Doll & Kavemann (2019 fassen die Bystanderfrage als Auseinandersetzung zwischen männlichen Beschützern und männlichen Gefährdern und damit als Angelegenheit unter Männern. ...
Article
Sexuelle Übergriffe und deren Verhinderung werden als ein regelhaftes soziales Geschehen unter Jugendlichen untersucht, das in Kenntnis oder im Beisein von wei- teren Personen (Bystander) stattfindet. Aus 19 Episoden zu sexuellen Übergriffen auf Partys und bei Zusammentreffen von Gleichaltrigen, erzählt von weiblichen Jugendli- chen, wird ein wiederkehrendes Ablaufschema herausgearbeitet: Den hartnäckigen körperlichen Übergriffen auf der einen Seite steht die Verantwortung auf der anderen Seite gegenüber, das Nicht-Wollen klar, deutlich und effektiv zu kommunizieren. Ob der Übergriff abgewendet werden kann, hängt von der relativen Macht zu handeln ab sowie davon, welche Seite ihre Deutung der Situation durchsetzen kann (Deu- tungsmacht) und welche Seite auf welche unterstützenden Dritten zurückgreifen kann (Organisationsmacht). Die Regeln des Ablaufs sind so eingebettet in die durch Macht und Geschlecht strukturierten Beziehungen unter den Jugendlichen. Die Episoden stammen aus 13 qualitativen Interviews, die mit weiblichen Jugendlichen (14 bis 20 Jahre) in Einrichtungen der Stationären Jugendhilfe im Rahmen des Forschungs- projekts „Schutz-Prozesse: Partizipative Ansätze im sozialen Umfeld“, gefördert vom BMBF, 2018-2020 geführt und mit einer Agency-Analyse ausgewertet wurden.
... The combination of high rates of sexual assaults on campuses and individual differences in intervention efficacy have led to the rise of bystander intervention programs (DeGue, 2014;Labhardt et al., 2017;Peterson et al., 2018). These programs often include teaching bystander intervention skills such as interrupting a situation, creating a distraction, recruiting others to assist with intervention, directly confronting the perpetrator or assisting the victim, and enlisting the help of authorities. ...
... To help reduce rates of sexual assault, college administrators and other organizations are focusing on the helpful role of prosocial bystanders (DeGue, 2014;Labhardt et al., 2017;Peterson et al., 2018). While many of these programs promote diverse strategies to assist both in the moment to prevent assault and afterward to reduce the negative impact of an assault, lacking are studies exploring the quality of responses or how factors such as alcohol intoxication influence helping strategies. ...
Article
Alcohol's effects on bystander responses to potential sexual assault situations are understudied. In this mixed-methods study, we examined quality of bystander responses in intoxicated versus sober people. Participants were 121 young adults (ages 21–29, 50% female) randomly assigned to consume alcoholic beverages or soda water. After drinking, participants listened to a sexual assault vignette and completed a semistructured interview assessing how they would respond if they had witnessed the situation. Nearly all participants reported they would directly intervene if faced with the situation. Intoxicated participants and men were significantly less likely to use high-quality bystander intervention strategies than were sober participants and women. Results suggest that alcohol intoxication may negatively impact the likelihood that bystander intervention efforts will be helpful.
... As Labhardt, Holdsworth, Brown, and Howat (2017) point out, correlates with self-reported behavior have been studied and suggest success, but the actual effects of these programs on behavior remain largely unsubstantiated. Universities need to, as per the WH task force, conduct program evaluations. ...
... Aside from the methodological limitations stemming mainly from a relatively small data set and the inability to extrapolate causational variables from aggregate measures, a number of other weaknesses should be noted. This study does not depart from the tradition of studies focused solely on the United States (Labhardt et al., 2017) nor do we include variables for other underrepresented groups mentioned by the WH task force (e.g., international students, students of color, and students with disabilities, p. 8). We also do not include variables that measure the substantive experiences of victims with school programs and services. ...
Article
By presenting institution-level variables of 118 universities across 50 states and the District of Columbia, we provide a descriptive overview of the types of programs and sexual assault-related data. Specifically, we examine correlations between policies and practices related to sexual assault prevention and reports of rape. As expected, we found that universities with policies pertaining to affirmative consent, alcohol, and inclusive definitions of assault, combined with practices like mandatory training and transparency with campus climate survey findings, also have higher reports of sexual assault.
... The exposure to sexual assault victims may be productive for specific genders, races, and ethnicities, but may also have null or even adverse effects on RMA for others. Finally, self-efficacy may play an important role in this model as it has been empirically demonstrated to impact engagement in social movements (Lee, 2010) and mitigate adverse sexual experiences (Hahn et al., 2020;Labhardt et al., 2017;Voller et al., 2015). How self-efficacy functions with knowing sexual assault victims and RMA across a multicultural sample may increase understanding of how gender, race, and ethnicity interact with messages like #MeToo. ...
... Considering self-efficacy's role in social movements (Hoffmann & Lutz, 2019), exploring its connection to knowing sexual assault victims can shed light on how and why social movements to end sexual violence lack gender/racial/ethnic representation (Crenshaw, 2010;Mitchum, 2012;Onwuachi-Willig, 2018;Tambe, 2018). Although the self-efficacy of female students was generally unrelated to female-oriented rape myths (Hahn et al., 2020), our data support continuing research like that of Labhardt et al. (2017) as self-efficacy can generate among women when several factors coalesce in situations involving sexual victimizations, such as the presence of active bystanders, together with peer support and low-risk situations. Our results also suggest that male students and people and students of color are an untapped audience. ...
Article
Full-text available
Knowing a sexual assault victim and general self-efficacy (GSE) were examined as predictors of rape myth acceptance (RMA) among university students. Where knowing a sexual assault victim was associated with greater rejection of rape myths among female students, most notably White females, a null effect occurred on male students, except for Black males whose RMA increased. Higher self-efficacy predicted the overall rejection of rape myths differently among identity intersections, most prominently with victim blaming. Knowing a sexual assault victim moderated GSE and RMA for male students and Latinos. These findings offer practical and critical implications as universities grow in diversity.
... The TPB posits that personal attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) predict behavioral intention (Ajzen, 1991). "At its core, the TPB is concerned with the prediction of intentions" (Ajzen, 2011(Ajzen, , p. 1115; given that much of the bystander research focuses on behavioral intentions as a primary outcome (Katz & Moore, 2013;Labhardt et al., 2017), and that intentions have been shown to correlate with intervention behavior (Banyard, 2008), understanding antecedents of students' bystander intention may help guide programmatic initiatives. ...
... When examining bystanders' intention to intervene, researchers have found that women have higher intention to intervene than men (Banyard & Moynihan, 2011;Brown et al., 2014;Hoxmeier, Acock et al., 2020). Further, women report more positive attitudes about the helpfulness of bystander intervention (Hoxmeier, Acock et al., 2020), tend to have greater bystander efficacy (Banyard, 2008;Labhardt et al., 2017), and more bystander behaviors (Banyard & Moynihan, 2011) than men. Men have also been found to report more missed opportunities to intervene (Brown et al., 2014;Hoxmeier, Acock et al., 2020). ...
Article
Research indicates that people who engage in heavy episodic drinking (HED) report less intention to intervene and intervention behavior to prevent sexual violence. Researchers have also found gender differences across bystander intention, bystander confidence, and intervention behavior. However, research in this area could benefit from use of an evidence-based health behavior theory. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) posits that personal attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) predict behavioral intention. Substantial evidence supports the utility of the TPB for predicting behavioral intention in a variety of health-related behaviors, yet few researchers have applied this theory when predicting bystander intention to prevent sexual violence. Undergraduate students ( N = 395) from a southern university (77% female; 70% White, Non-Hispanic) completed a modified Sexual Assault Bystander Behavior Questionnaire and the Daily Drinking Questionnaire. Our findings did not reveal significant differences in attitudes, subjective norms, PBC, nor intention based on HED; however, there were significant differences based on gender, with women indicating more positive attitudes and supportive subjective norms regarding bystander intervention. Multiple regression analysis indicated that theoretical antecedents of intention positively predicted bystander intention, however, the relations were not moderated by prior engagement in HED. These findings support the utility of the TPB for predicting bystander intention to intervene; however, they do not support previous research examining how HED influences bystanders’ intention to engage in prosocial actions.
... Additionally, the overall variance explained by the models was low, suggesting that other factors beyond demographics are contributing to bystander opportunity and prosocial behaviors. Although gender has been a consistent correlate of bystander outcomes (i.e., intentions or behavior), students' gender is often used in models of relationships between individual characteristics alongside other demographic (i.e., racial identity or age) or psychosocial (i.e., attitudes) variables (see Labhardt et al., 2017 for a review), and sexual orientation is rarely explored. Thus, it is difficult to determine how our findings compare with previous scholarship. ...
Article
Bystander intervention education has proliferated as a popular strategy to address campus interpersonal violence, including intimate partner and sexual violence, which remain major public health concerns. Much of the work on bystander engagement, however, is cis- and heteronormative (i.e., centered on those individuals whose gender identity aligns with their biological sex at birth and/or who identify as heterosexual), thus failing to capture the experiences of students who identify as gender or sexual minorities (GSM), a population at increased risk for interpersonal violence. Research has demonstrated that cisgender females face an increased likelihood of victimization, which is related to greater awareness of intimate partner and sexual violence and results in more prosocial intentions and prosocial behaviors. The question remains whether this extends beyond cisgender females. The current study is a secondary analysis of data collected in a web-based sexual assault prevention course designed for undergraduate students and implemented at their respective institutions. Data from 474,395 undergraduate students, aged 18–23 years, were used to answer the research question. Results indicate that students’ bystander intervention opportunities and prosocial behaviors differ based on GSM status. For example, although cisgender bisexual women, transwomen, and genderqueer/gender nonconforming (GNC) students were more likely to report having the opportunity to intervene in sexual assault situations, relative to cisgender heterosexual women, the latter two groups were less likely to intervene. Further, cisgender gay and bisexual men, as well as transmen and genderqueer/GNC students were more likely to report having the opportunity to intervene in dating abuse situations, relative to cisgender heterosexual men, and cisgender gay men were more likely to report having intervened. Given the call for centering research on minoritized student experiences, this research is a vital step toward recognizing the diversity of those experiences for GSM students, a population at risk for victimization.
... Qualitative research has assisted in identifying potential facilitators and barriers to prosocial bystander behavior by conducting interviews and focus groups with students (Bennett et al., 2014). Systematic reviews of both quantitative and qualitative analyses of bystander behaviors and interventions (Labhardt et al., 2017;McMahon, & Banyard, 2012) as well as the efficacy of bystander programs with youth (Storer et al., 2015) have been published. Jouriles et al. (2018) and Kettrey and Marx (2019) expanded on Katz and Moore's (2013) work by conducting quantitative meta-analyses about bystander intervention programs to prevent sexual violence during college. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bystander interventions focus on framing violence as a community problem and encourage all community members to act as prosocial bystanders if they witness a dangerous situation. Research has demonstrated there are multiple barriers and facilitators that might discourage or encourage an individual to act as a prosocial bystander. A qualitative interpretive meta-synthesis (QIMS) of existing literature was conducted to determine university students’ perspectives on bystander facilitators and barriers. A systematic search of the literature was completed to identify articles that included university students’ perspectives on bystander facilitators and barriers, utilized a qualitative methodology, and contained participant quotations in the published article. The search yielded 181 articles and after screening 10 articles were included in the QIMS. The original themes and participant quotations were qualitatively coded to develop five new themes: (1) the impact of alcohol, (2) beliefs about responsibility, (3) peer perceptions, (4) indicators and situational dilemmas, and (5) the role of friendship and group impact. The results of this synthesis reveal important implications for the continued development of bystander intervention programs for universities. By incorporating the perspectives of university students, bystander intervention programs may be more effective at encouraging students to be prosocial bystanders by confronting perceived barriers to intervention.
... It has been found that if one person stands up, more are likely to do so, but if no one helps, people are left wondering what the right thing to do is (Fischer et al., 2011). Other barriers to bystander intervention models include: unconscious racial bias (Katz, Merrilees, Hoxmeier, & Motisi, 2017), rape myth acceptance, bystander efficacy, alcohol use/intoxication, peer perceptions, perceptions of sexual assault severity, and gender of the bystander (Labhardt, Holdsworth, Brown, & Howat, 2017), with males less likely to intervene (Leone & Parrott, 2019). Jackson Katz' (1995) Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP Program) is a widely disseminated sexual violence prevention model in sports, which utilizes a bystander-based approach. ...
... Over the past decade, bystander interventions have emerged based on findings that bystanders rarely intervene, despite the fact that a third of sexual assaults are witnessed by a bystander (Burn, 2009;Planty, 2002). Such programmes encourage young adults to intervene to prevent a violence-permissive culture, including sexually violent acts, and to better support sexual victims following a sexual assault (DeKeseredy, Hall-Sanchez, & Nolan, 2018;Labhardt, Holdsworth, Brown, & Howat, 2017). These programmes have focused exclusively on college-age young adults, but peers (and peer interventions) could play a role in preventing RV across the lifespan. ...
Chapter
This chapter takes a developmental approach to understanding the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual assault in adulthood by a different perpetrator, known as revictimisation (RV). A developmental framework will enhance our understanding of these mechanisms, and has the potential to inform system responses—including forensic approaches—to both CSA and RV across the victims’ lifespans. We will present a review of the developmental psychology framework and its relevance to understanding responses to psychologically traumatic experiences. Next, we will consider existing theories and explanatory models of revictimisation. Drawing upon tenets from developmental psychology and existing theories of CSA-RV mechanisms, we will present a new model that accounts for the dynamic interactions between the effects of CSA and an individual's ecological context, and their potential contributions to risk for RV across the course of development. Using this model, empirical research about correlates of CSA and RV will be assessed from the developmental perspective. Finally, we will identify the implications of a developmental understanding of CSA and RV for future research and intervention within the forensic, therapeutic, and prevention contexts.
... Many studies point to the generation of risk for sexual victimization in contexts related to alcohol consumption, because of an increased likelihood of contact between intoxicated women and potential assailants in the absence of capable guardians (26,27,78,79). The prevalence of leisure settings reached 91% (28) and 42% (23) in Spanish studies of alleged DFSA cases. ...
Article
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The victimization of women by opportunistic drug-facilitated sexual assault in leisure contexts was studied in this work by applying a novel approximation. A multifocal analytical strategy based on an intersectional gender-sensitive approach was used to analyse the evidence coming from both forensic case studies and contextual studies about sexual interrelation and drug use. The process of victimization comprises social changes affecting consumption patterns and sexual interaction, intersecting in the hegemonic recreational nightlife model. However, victims experience a range of situations that make it difficult for them to self-acknowledge themselves as such. Widespread myths about the victimization process add to the social questioning faced by victims, stemming from gender-based double standards which condition the expected female behaviors regarding the use of drugs and sexual interaction. The victims usually experience amnesia, lack of injuries and emotional harm, which make difficult the self-acknowledgement as a victim of sexual assault and the reporting of the episode suffered. Consequently, it is an urgent public health need to implement a new viewpoint about the victimization of women by opportunistic drug-facilitated sexual assault in leisure contexts, able to increase awareness of the severity of this form of sexual violence. Society must recognize the existence of this problem within itself to help victims to acknowledge themselves as such, lodge a complaint and seek adequate help. The lack of this social support feeds the perpetuation of the victimization process, which exacerbates the risk of locking victims into spirals of cyclical re-victimization and favors both the underreporting as well as inadequate coping strategies. In addition to focusing on the need to increase awareness of the severity of female victimization by opportunistic drug-facilitated sexual assault in leisure contexts, other recommendations include the use of the term “take advantage”, the development of specific criminal approaches, and the in-depth knowledge of the phenomenon via victimization surveys. These steps are necessary for developing well-targeted and evidence-based preventive measures consistent-with-reality.
... Some students might be reluctant to acknowledge that they failed to respond in a risky situation or to endorse barriers to intervention. Underreporting may have reduced the magnitude of the associations among the variables; however, research on bystander intervention has relied on self-report measures (for a review, see Labhardt, Holdsworth, et al., 2017), and there is evidence supporting their reliability and validity (e.g., Banyard, Moynihan, et al., 2014;Yule & Grych, 2017). Third, the measure of bystander behavior used in the study assessed only a subset of the types of situations that can occur at each phase of assault, and respondents did not describe their individual experiences. ...
Article
Despite substantial evidence demonstrating a relation between gender-based beliefs and violence against women, there has been little research examining whether sexist attitudes are related to prosocial bystander behavior. Understanding psychosocial influences on bystanders’ behavior could inform bystander training programs on college campuses, and so the current study examined the unique and joint effects of three gender-based attitudes (rape myth acceptance, hostile sexism, and benevolent sexism) and empathy in predicting bystander behavior and perceived barriers to intervention in situations that undergraduates ( N = 500; 70% female; M age = 18.86 years) had experienced in the prior year. Benevolent sexism was the only gender-based attitude consistently associated with bystander behavior and perceived barriers. After accounting for participant empathy, benevolent sexism uniquely predicted less intervention in post-assault situations, greater perceived barriers in pre- and post-assault situations, and greater Failure to Perceive Responsibility and Skill Deficit barriers across situations. Associations between gender-based attitudes and bystander behavior also differed for men and women, with rape myth acceptance predicting greater Failure to Perceive Responsibility barriers and benevolent sexism predicting greater Skill Deficit barriers for women but not men. These results suggest that existing bystander education programs can be improved by explicitly addressing benevolent sexist beliefs and promoting empathy for victims of assault.
... Bystander studies routinely find that females/women are more likely to report intervening and often report higher rates of bystander behavior than males/men. 40 Some studies have found female students display higher levels of trust in their school response than male students. 17 Greater trust may empower female students to be more comfortable intervening, secure in the knowledge their school will support their decision to help. ...
Article
Objective: This study is an examination of college students’ bystander behaviors in relation to several exosystem factors related to their institution, including trust in their college’s support systems, perceived procedural justice by campus police, and perceived procedural justice by campus administrators. Participants: Online surveys were completed by 223 students at a mid-sized public institution in the Northeastern U.S. Methods: Responses were analyzed using an OLS multiple regression to examine bystander behaviors in relation to their perceptions of institutional exosystem factors. Results: Students who felt more favorably about both campus police and campus admin were more likely to have intervened in the past as a bystander; trust in school had no effect. Conclusions: Perceptions of institutional leaders and representatives are important to consider as influential motivators for bystander behavior. School personnel trainings and policies which increase visibility of staff as trustworthy and fair should be part of comprehensive campus antiviolence efforts.
... Psychologically, subscription to such myths functions as an interpretative schema (i.e. a way of processing information surrounding allegations of sexual violence), and thus serves to both bias and predispose judgements of who is lying and telling the truth (for a detailed discussion see Bohner et al, 2009). Research examining the existence and influence of such myths is now vast and empirical evidence is reliable enough to conclude that widespread endorsement of rape myths span varied societies, cultures, and distinct groups (see Debowska, Boduszek, & Willmott, 2017;Grubb & Turner, 2017;Johnson & Beech, 2017;Labhardt et al, 2017;Towl & Walker, 2019;Ward, 1995). Given the pervasiveness of rape myths, concerns continue to surround whether they prejudice juror judgements and decisions during trial. ...
Chapter
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Steeped in tradition and historical significance, criminal justice systems throughout the world have long considered jury trials an essential feature of a fair and just due process. Despite vast procedural variation between jurisdictions and long-established criticisms surrounding the use of lay participation within legal disputes (discussed in Chapter 5), juries continue to be utilised in some format in more than forty countries across the world (see Kaplan & Martin, 2013). Today jury trials account for just a small proportion of criminal cases that are heard before a court (approximately 1% in England and Wales), though in recent decades some countries have sought to introduce the approach within their legal systems. Japan, South Korea and Russia all now make use of lay decision makers in some way and most recently Argentina introduced jury trials for serious criminal cases (Hans, 2008; 2017).
... The purpose of the present study was to expand the current body of BI research related to the context in which the BI behaviors take place. In particular, while research into BI focused on offline contexts has made great strides and continues to grow and advance (see Banyard, 2015;Labhardt, Holdsworth, Brown, & Howat, 2017), bystanding behaviors within the online domain have received comparatively little attention. Considering this, the current study was undertaken with an eye toward answering three primary research questions about BI directed at online victimization. ...
Article
Research shows that a large percentage of college students have experienced online victimization. However, bystander intervention behaviors directed at online contexts are absent from both the online victimization and bystander intervention research. With a sample of undergraduate college students, the current study explores the frequency and predictors of bystander intervention behaviors in response to online situations. Results show that a majority of students intervened during the past academic year when faced with the opportunity. Individuals with high self-control, who previously experienced online victimization, and/or witnessed positive peers’ norms offline are more likely to intervene.
... There have been a number of reviews of the effectiveness of these kinds of bystander intervention programs (e.g., DeGue et al., 2014;Jouriles et al., 2018;Katz & Moore, 2013;Labhardt, Holdsworth, Brown, & Howat, 2017;Mujal, Taylor, Fry, Gochez-Kerr, & Weaver, 2019;Storer, Casey, & Herrenkohl, 2016). The reviews recognize that there are considerable challenges in being able to determine the effectiveness of such programs. ...
Article
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Many violence prevention programs include a focus on the role of bystanders and third parties in violence prevention training. Central to this work has been the classic social psychological research on the “bystander effect”. However, recent research on bystander behavior shows that the bystander effect does not hold in violent or dangerous emergencies. Meta‐analyses of the literature show that the presence of others can facilitate as well as inhibit intervention in emergencies. Studies of real‐life bystander behavior captured on CCTV cameras shows that some bystander intervention is the norm and that the likelihood of bystanders being victimized is low. One reason for the limited effectiveness of violence reduction programs may be their approach to bystanders. We argue that violence reduction programs should: recognize that some intervention is likely (although it may not always be successful); see the group as a route to successful intervention rather than a threat to the likelihood of any single individual becoming an intervener; inform bystanders of the real risks of victimization; utilize the power of social relations between bystanders, victims, and perpetrators to enhance successful intervention; seek to deliver bystander intervention training in situ, rather than away from the context of the aggression or violence.
... The implementation of these approaches is in its infancy in the United Kingdom and further work and evaluation is needed. For example, U.K. bystander intervention programs have been based on U.S. data, despite a lack of evidence around the factors that facilitate (or inhibit) bystanders from intervening and the inevitable cultural distinctions (Labhardt, Holdsworth, Brown, & Howart, 2017). In rolling out responses, as well as ensuring that collaborations with external stakeholders are prioritized, programs on campus must be culturally sensitive and based on a nuanced understanding of the factors that influence harassment and assault. ...
Article
Almost nothing is known about “unwanted sexual attention” and women’s navigation of it when in bars and nightclubs. Using focus group discussions, this article addresses that gap. It develops knowledge of the behaviors that constitute unwanted, the safety strategies used to manage them, and examines how these practices underpin gender performance in night-time spaces: environments renowned for the dilemmas they pose to women. We then use these data to develop the concept “feisty femininity” to highlight a neglected form of femininity that overtly resists unwanted encounters. This femininity can arguably play a role in efforts aimed at ending gendered violence.
... As bystander programming is relatively novel, evaluation research is still building a foundation, but some results seem roughly consistent across the wide variety of programs and illustrate the promise of this approach (DeGue et al., 2014;Labhardt, Holdsworth, Brown, & Douglas, 2017;Storer, Casey, & Todd, 2016). Reviews and meta-analyses generally show moderate but significant positive effects on bystander knowledge and attitudes (including reduced rape myth acceptance, an important corollary of perpetration), efficacy, and intentions, especially among peer presenters (Evans, Burroughs, & Knowlden, 2019;Jouriles et al., 2018;Katz & Moore, 2013;Kettrey & Marx, 2019a, 2019bStorer et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Men's relationships to gender‐based violence (GBV) have long been an area of sociological inquiry, but until recently men have primarily been framed as perpetrators of violence against women. More recently, research on men and GBV has broadened to include studying men as victims/survivors, as investigators and law enforcement officers, as passive or active bystanders, and as allies in working to address this social problem. We review this research in an effort to bridge these divergent bodies of work; we identify methodological trends and gaps in existing research, make recommendations for improved theoretical and methodological robustness, and suggest that research perspectives on men and GBV have shifted over time as wider understandings of gender and masculinities become more hopeful and more inclusive. While we see optimism and promise in new directions of GBV research, we urge ongoing research to retain the wisdoms and critical perspectives that marked the beginnings of GBV inquiry.
... Finally, our findings with alcohol consumption contradict more recent studies that suggest alcohol consumption is associated with a decrease in bystander-related factors (Ham et al., 2019;Leone & Parrott, 2019). Our findings may differ from more current work because our sample includes only women, who tend to be more likely to engage in bystander behavior than men (Labhardt et al., 2017). Thus, the impending effects of alcohol may be mitigated by gender; yet, only to a certain extent as consuming too much alcohol, regardless of gender or victimization history, may make it difficult for people to engage in bystander behavior as they are too intoxicated to recognize risk or act. ...
Article
Sexual assault victimization (SAV) histories may impede, increase, or have no effect on women’s risk recognition. Yet, even though risk recognition is a component of bystander intervention, the effect of SAV on bystander behaviors is understudied. For example, how different SAV histories, such as the severity of the assault and if women were revictimized since entering college, have not been examined with bystander behaviors; we intended to address this gap in the literature. Building on recent work, we also examined the potential interactive effects of alcohol consumption and SAV history in predicting bystander behaviors. College women ( n = 560) completed a web-based survey on alcohol consumption, SAV experiences since entering college, and bystander behaviors in alcohol-involved settings. We found that the effect of SAV history on bystander behavior varied based on alcohol consumption. As women’s alcohol consumption increased so did their self-reported engagement in bystander behaviors. For non-victims, increased alcohol consumption had a greater positive effect on their bystander behaviors than victims. However, after a certain quantity of alcohol was consumed, both victims and non-victims reported decreased bystander behavior. Finally, alcohol consumption did not interact with severity of SAV or revictimization status in predicting bystander behavior. Findings suggest alcohol consumption may be more influential on bystander behaviors for women with no history of SAV; however, consuming a greater quantity of alcohol is related to a decrease in bystander behavior—regardless of SAV history. Given these findings, more work is needed to explore when and how alcohol impedes, and potentially encourages, bystander behavior. How SAV histories relate to bystander behaviors also warrants further research.
... A bystander intervention approach to violence reduction assumes that all members of the community have a role to play in preventing sexual and relationship violence and that bystanders can be trained to intervene effectively to interrupt these behaviors (for reviews of the bystander violence prevention approach see Banyard, Plante, & Moynihan, 2004;Jouriles, Krauss, Vu, Banyard, & McDonald, 2018;Labhardt, Holdsworth, Brown, & Howat, 2017). In contrast to programs that specifically target either potential victims or perpetrators, bystander-training programs generally take a broader community approach to violence prevention (Banyard et al., 2004). ...
Article
Extant literature suggests that men may be less likely than women to engage in prosocial bystander behavior to interrupt sexual and relationship violence. However, there has been little consideration of the influence of masculine gender role discrepancy and masculine discrepancy stress (i.e., stress that occurs when men perceive themselves as falling short of traditional gender norms) on men’s bystander beliefs and behaviors. The current study fills an important gap in the literature by assessing the influence of masculine gender role discrepancy and masculine discrepancy stress on a range of prosocial bystander behaviors through their influence on the bystander decision-making process. Participants were 356 undergraduate men recruited from two different Southeastern U.S. universities who completed online surveys assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy, consequent discrepancy stress, bystander decision-making, and bystander behavior in sexual and relationship violence contexts. Path models indicated significant conditional indirect effects of masculine gender role discrepancy on proactive bystander behaviors (i.e., behaviors related to making a plan in advance of being in a risky situation) and bystander behavior in drinking situations across levels of masculine discrepancy stress. Specifically, men who believed that they are less masculine than the typical man reported more pros to intervention in sexual and relationship violence than cons, and thus reported intervening more, but only if they were high in masculine discrepancy stress. Findings suggest that bystander intervention programs should explicitly address and challenge rigid expectations of what it means to be “manly” to transform gender expectations perpetuating sexual and relationship violence.
... A synthesis of the campus sexual violence perpetration research addressing predictors of perpetration and other research elements (such as sampling and study design) is currently lacking. Other reviews on campus sexual violence have focused on factors such as victimization (Fedina et al., 2016), campus bystander intervention programs (Jouriles et al., 2018;Katz & Moore, 2013;Labhardt et al., 2017), and campuslevel variation in sexual violence (Moylan & Javorka, 2018). Recently, reviews have addressed the issue of research on campus sexual and domestic violence perpetration and victim-related demographics (Voth Schrag, 2017) and perpetration rates of campus sexual violence (Anderson et al., 2019;Hernández-Romero et al., 2019). ...
Article
Understanding the research on predictors of campus sexual violence perpetration is critical for primary prevention efforts directed at preventing perpetrators from offending. This study systematically reviewed 29 research articles to understand common predictors of campus sexual violence perpetration as well as the research and study design of these articles. Personality factors, attitudes, and negative life experiences were the most investigated predictors of campus perpetration, while other factors, such as sexual behavior and past perpetration, received less empirical attention. Less than half of the studies examined either moderators or mediators of sexual violence perpetration; among these, attitudes were most frequently studied. Most of the studies in this review used cross-sectional, observational data with participants at large, public universities. The samples were largely White, undergraduate students. These findings indicate that more research is needed to understand predictors of campus sexual violence perpetration with increased attention to understudied risk factors. Future research should be conducted at more diverse institutions with more diverse samples.
... Prior social marketing literature in prosocial behaviors largely suggested that individuals appeared to be more likely to offer help when they have closer relationships with victims (Labhardt et al. 2017). However, this study found different effects of social distance when different emotions are involved. ...
Article
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Guided by the appraisal-tendency framework and construal level theory, this study investigates how emotional appeals (guilt vs. shame) and social distance frames (distant vs. proximal) influence college students’ attitude toward bystander action campaign and intention to intervene in sexual violence situations. The findings indicated a two-way interaction effect between these two message factors on campaign attitude and behavior intention. Additionally, self-efficacy was found to be the mediator that underlying the proposed match-based effects. The findings provide theoretical implications into persuasive communication in the context of campus sexual violence bystander intervention and offer practical insights to advertisers and social/health marketers.
... Yet, findings on bystander interventions have been mixed and only a handful address alcohol or drug prevention. 39,40 Our data also suggest that for these programs to be effective they need to not only address substance misuse problems without putting blame on survivors, but also they should move upstream to address the larger social and physical risk environment that facilitates social interactions, which lead to incapacitated sexual assault at parties and other social settings. Given the relationship between marijuana use and incapacitated sexual assault found in this study and other studies, 7,9 future research is needed to better understand the situational contexts in which use of marijuana may facilitate sexual assault that may differ from alcohol and other drugs. ...
Article
Background: Research has documented multilevel risk factors associated with experiencing incapacitated sexual assault among undergraduate women. Less is known about multilevel risk factors associated with nonincapacitated sexual assault. This study examines and compares the different settings, coercion methods, and relationships in which incapacitated and nonincapacitated sexual assaults occur among undergraduate women. Materials and methods: Our sample included 253 undergraduate women who reported experiencing sexual assault during college on a population-based survey of randomly selected students at two colleges in New York City in 2016 (N = 1671, response rate = 67%). We examined event-level data on their most significant sexual assault incident since entering college. Using multivariable statistical analysis, we identified situational contexts associated with incapacitated and nonincapacitated assault incidents adjusting for binge drinking, illicit drug use, and other confounding sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. Results: Almost half (47%) of women who experienced sexual assault reported being incapacitated due to alcohol or drugs during the most significant incident. Being at a party before the event and "acquaintance" perpetrators were associated with incapacitated sexual assault after adjusting for binge drinking and other confounders. Meeting a perpetrator through an Internet dating app or indicating the perpetrator was an intimate partner were each associated with nonincapacitated assault incidents. Perpetrator use of physical force and verbal coercion were also associated with nonincapacitated assault incident. Conclusions: The different situational contexts associated with incapacitated and nonincapacitated sexual assaults have important implications for the design of prevention strategies that will effectively target the diverse risk environments in which campus sexual assault occurs.
... These findings highlight the deleterious effect of peers who verbally disrespect and sexually objectify women on both the likelihood and speed of intervening in SA. A growing body of research indicates that men's perception of their peers' attitudes towards intervention is a significant predictor of their willingness to intervene (for review, Labhardt, Holdsworth, Brown, & Howat, 2017). The present study extends these findings by demonstrating that the presence of male peers who engage in "locker-room talk" wherein they create a misogynistic peer norm decreases the likelihood of bystander intervention. ...
Article
The present study utilized a laboratory paradigm to examine the extent to which bystander behavior for sexual aggression is independently and jointly influenced by situational misogynistic peer norms and men's adherence to hegemonic male norms. Participants were a racially diverse college sample of self‐identified heterosexual men (N = 104) between the ages of 18–35. Men completed a measure of hegemonic masculinity and engaged in a laboratory paradigm in which they and three male confederates watched a female confederate, who reported a strong dislike of sexual content in the media, view a sexually explicit film which they could stop at any time. Prior to the woman viewing the film, participants were randomly assigned to a peer norm manipulation wherein the male confederates set a misogynistic or ambiguous norm. Results indicated the presence of a misogynistic peer norm decreased the likelihood and speed of intervention. Among men exposed to misogynistic, compared to ambiguous, peer norms, men who strongly endorsed the status male role norm were less likely to display prosocial bystander behavior. Findings indicate that exposure to peers who sexually objectify and disrespect women decreases prosocial bystander intervention. Further, these findings provide evidence that misogynistic peer norms heighten men's adherence to a hegemonic masculinity that men should attain social status, thereby deterring bystander behavior for sexual aggression.
... In the qualitative work presented we wanted to embrace the complexity of the 'sketchy sexual situations' and examine individual responses in-depth in an attempt to create a 'thicker' understanding of a complex phenomenon. This was a need articulated by a recent review of bystander intervention research (Labhardt et al., 2017). With this goal of 'illuminating social discursive practices,' we followed the recommendations of The APA Publications and Communications Board Task Force Report on Qualitative Methods (Levitt et al., 2018, p. 28) in its recommendations regarding qualitative methodology. ...
Article
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Sexual assault on college campuses has become a major concern. A common response has been to provide bystander intervention training, which research shows may provide short-term attitude change without reducing the number of assaults. Current curricula and research may neglect the very factors that could play a part in students’ desire and ability to intervene, one of which may be moral motivations. For this qualitative study, we interviewed students (n = 38) who identified as having been bystanders to a ‘sketchy sexual situation’ to understand, from a moral perspective, their decisions to intervene or not. In exploring narratives, we used Moral Foundation Theory to categorize the moral reasoning of participants and explore the voices and motivations that adhere to these categories. Through a thematic/discourse analysis we identified additional discourses. Implications for changes to bystander intervention training are discussed.
... When faced with a new or existing health concern, it is important to review existing literature and data to develop a promising strategy based on available evidence to increase the chance of achieving intended health outcomes. For example, while bystander intervention has not been researched as a strategy for this exact context, it has shown effectiveness for other health topics such as sexual violence prevention (Labhardt et al., 2017). Borrowing this concept, bystander intervention skills can be used to encourage students to approach peers who are not following Public Health guidelines such as mask wearing. ...
Article
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Student Affairs professionals are essential for enhancing student health and well-being. The Standards of Practice for Health Promotion in Higher Education is a guiding document, essential to Health Promotion work (American College Health Association, 2019). Through examples, this article illustrates how the application of the Standards of Practice can help Student Affairs professionals advocate for important of health promotion processes, create healthy environments, and achieve student health outcomes.
... Additionally, it is important to note masculinity-specific barriers to bystander behavior (Brown et al., 2014;Labhardt et al., 2017). For example, alcohol consumption is perceived as a sign of masculinity (Fugitt & Ham, 2018), which may encourage excessive drinking, limiting men's ability to be attuned to their friends' ability to consent to or perceive consent from a potential partner. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent that alcohol consumption affected participants’ perceptions of their own and their friend’s ability to consent to sex in a non-bar drinking environment. We interviewed 176 people at tailgates in dyads about their own and their friends’ alcohol consumption, intoxication symptoms, and ability to consent. Participants reported consuming a mean of 4.6 drinks and had a breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) of .075 on average, but few thought they or their friend had diminished cognitive function. Accordingly, 92.6% indicated they could consent to sex and 81.8% indicated their friend could consent to sex. Number of drinks people reported consuming, self-reported intoxication levels and symptoms, and BrACs were not significantly related to participants’ perceptions of their own or their friends’ ability to consent to sex. However, gender pairing of the dyad was significant; those in man–man pairs were more likely than those in woman–woman pairs to indicate their friend could consent and they would allow their friend to have sex if approached by an interested party. Participants also indicated that they did not perceive themselves or their friends to be “too intoxicated” as common reasons why they believed they and their friend could consent. Because alcohol-facilitated sexual assault is common among college students, we recommend sexual assault prevention educators focus on raising awareness regarding alcohol’s negative cognitive effects, particularly related to consent communication.
... Research on the relation between prior victimization and helpful bystander behavior is scant (Labhardt, Holdsworth, Brown, & Howat, 2017). Palmer (2016) found that past SA victimization was associated with helping someone after an assault had already taken place. ...
Article
The Bystander Behavior (for Friends) Scale (BBS) offers a promising method of studying prosocial bystander behavior in the context of sexual assault and intimate partner violence. The underlying structure of the BBS has only been studied in the development sample, which was predominantly White and from one university in the Northeast region of the United States. This single sample raises questions about the replicability and generalizability of the factor structure. In addition, confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) methods, which are favored for binary data, were not used in the developmental sample. There also is limited research on individual characteristics that may relate to engagement in different types of bystander behavior. The primary aims of the current study were to (a) use CFA to evaluate the factor structure of the BBS in a sample of university undergraduates recruited from four universities and (b) test associations between prior victimization (general and family-specific) and BBS factors. University undergraduates (n = 556) from four U.S. universities comprised the sample. Weighted least squares CFA confirmed the original four-factor model of the BBS, namely, Risky Situations, Accessing Resources, Proactive Behaviors, and Party Safety. The Proactive Behaviors factor was positively associated with both general and family-specific prior victimization. The Risky Situations and Party Safety factors were positively associated with general prior victimization but were not associated with family-specific prior victimization. The Accessing Resources factor was not associated with either general or family-specific prior victimization. The BBS is multidimensional, and the factor structure is robust. The different associations between certain types of bystander behavior and prior victimization highlight the potential value in considering the BBS factors separately.
... Although substantial research has been dedicated to understanding the demographic and psychosocial correlates of prosocial intervention response (see Banyard, 2011), as well as the effectiveness of training programs on intervention behavior (see Jouriles, Krauss, Vu, Banyard, & McDonald, 2018;Katz & Moore, 2013), both lines of inquiry often failed to examine potential differences in intervention behavior based on students' racial identity. Current research generally suffers from a lack of diversity in the study samples (Labhardt, Holdsworth, Brown, & Howat, 2017), despite the diversity of most campus communities. Scholars suggest that individuals' definition of interpersonal violence is informed, in part, by sociocultural influences (Sokoloff & Dupont, 2005;Yoshihama, 1999). ...
Article
Although substantial research has been dedicated to understanding the demographic and psychosocial correlates of bystander intervention behavior related to sexual violence, as well as the effectiveness of bystander training programs, both lines of inquiry often fail to examine potential differences in bystander intervention opportunities and behavior based on students’ racial identity. Indeed, current research generally suffers from a lack of diversity in the study samples. Given this gap in the literature, the purpose of this study is to examine whether—and how—students’ racial identity (White, non-Hispanic, African American, Asian American, Hispanic and multiracial) is associated with their reported intervention opportunities and prosocial response as bystanders to sexual violence risks. In the fall of 2014, undergraduate students (N = 9,358) completed web-based surveys to assess bystander intervention opportunities and behavior for six high-risk situations. Tests of independence revealed racial identity was significantly associated with bystander opportunities for four of the six situations, and logistic regression revealed that White students had significantly higher odds of reporting these intervention opportunities, compared with students of color. Tests of independence revealed that racial identity was not significantly associated with bystander intervention behavior, although logistic regression analysis revealed Asian American students had significantly lower odds of reporting prosocial intervention response for one situation, compared with White counterparts. In response to growing concerns about campus sexual violence, institutions of higher education are increasingly adopting bystander training programs to engage students as prosocial helpers who can intervene in risk situations. In line with these findings, research of this nature should include samples that reflect the diversity of their campus communities, explore what types of opportunities students of color identify as potential for intervention, and ensure these situations are captured in bystander behavior measures used in the field.
... The content of these programs ranges from short lectures during orientation to day-long workshops; they may be focused on individual approaches to sexual consent or focus on bystander intervention (Jozkowski & Humphreys, 2014;Vladutiu et al., 2011). While an individual approach might discuss personal risks for sexual assault, bystander intervention programming trains students how to interrupt situations that could lead to sexual assault (for review see: Labhardt et al., 2017). The bystander approach also focuses on changing social norms on a campus by encouraging all students to be responsible for the problem of sexual assault. ...
Thesis
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Research suggests one in five women will experience sexual assault during their college careers. However, college’s sexual assault prevention education (SAPE) programs vary widely in their length, content, and effectiveness. There is currently no validated scale to measure students’ sexual consent intentions as taught in SAPE. This dissertation sought to create a valid and reliable scale to measure sexual consent, called Adherence to Sexual Consent – Behavioral Intentions (ASC-BI). Additionally, many SAPE programs are atheoretical; therefore, this work examines if theory of planned behavior (TPB) provides decent explanation of ASC-BI. Two samples were collected including a national sample of 500 undergraduate MTurk workers and a local sample 369 IU students. Participants completed the survey online via a Qualtrics survey. Results suggested a 5-factor solution for ASC-BI provided good fit; factors include seeking consent, giving consent, refusing unwanted sexual activity, accepting refusal, and sexual communication. Additionally, results suggested the TPB provides a good model for explaining ASC-BI. TPB cognitions, including attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioral control, fully mediated the relationship between SAPE messages and ASC-BI. Finally, positive attitudes towards consent were a better predictor of ASC-BI compared to rape myth acceptance. Results provide practioners and researchers with a valid tool for measuring sexual consent intentions. Additionally, results suggest practioners should include TPB cognitions as mediating variables when assessing effectiveness of SAPE and focus on positive attitude change instead of eliminating rape myths.
... These findings support Prochaska and DiClemente's (18) proposed non-linear process of change. The consequences of taking action may affect future behavior and confidence (26). Following an intervention, any negative reactions from the victim, perpetrator, or others, such as anger or negative personal feelings about the intervention, may reduce self-efficacy. ...
Article
Background Bystander training programs aim to encourage third‐party witnesses to intervene in high‐risk sexual situations; however, these programs rarely focus on training bystanders to effectively intervene when intoxicated. This is not surprising due to the limited evidence on the proximal effects of alcohol on bystander intervention for sexual aggression. To this end, the aim of the present study was to test the effects of men's self‐reported intent to help strangers and acute alcohol intoxication on the likelihood and speed of sexual aggression intervention. Methods Participants were 74 men who completed a measure of intent to help (Session 1) and were randomly assigned to consume alcohol or a no‐alcohol control beverage (Session 2). Next, they engaged in a novel laboratory paradigm in which they and 4 other confederates (2 men, 2 women) watched a female confederate, who reported a strong dislike of sexual content in the media, view a sexually explicit film which they could stop at any time. Bystander intervention was operationalized as whether and how quickly participants stopped the film. Results Findings indicated that (i) intent to help strangers predicted faster sexual aggression intervention and (ii) intent to help strangers predicted a higher likelihood and faster rate of sexual aggression intervention among sober, but not intoxicated, men. This latter finding suggests that among men who endorsed a high willingness to intervene in sexual aggression, alcohol intoxication decreased intervention behavior. Conclusions Results demonstrate that alcohol functions as a barrier to intervention for men who would otherwise intervene. Findings are interpreted using an integrative framework for intoxicated sexual aggression intervention and highlight the need for bystander training programs to incorporate alcohol interventions to reduce heavy drinking and psychoeducation to train bystanders how to intervene when intoxicated.
Article
Präventionsprogramme gegen sexuelle Übergriffe und Gewalt im Jugendalter, die bei eingreifenden Dritten (Bystandern) und Gruppenprozessen ansetzen, sind in Deutschland noch kaum entwickelt, und über die Faktoren, die das Verhalten von Bystandern beeinflussen, ist wenig bekannt. Angesichts der Bemühungen um die Implementierung von Schutzkonzepten in pädagogischen Kontexten und um die Gestaltung von sicheren Umgebungen gewinnt aber die Einbindung weiterer Akteur_innen über Opfer und Täter_innen hinaus immer mehr an Bedeutung. Dieser Beitrag liefert erste explorative Grundlagen für eine am sozialen Umfeld von Jugendlichen ansetzende Prävention sexueller Übergriffe. Als exemplarische Konkretisierung wird der Kontext der Partys gewählt, weil diese Form jugendlicher Geselligkeit als besonders risikoträchtig für sexuelle Grenzverletzungen gilt. Es wurden junge Frauen zwischen 14 und 19 Jahren, die in Einrichtungen der stationären Jugendhilfe leben, in Interviews gebeten, von Übergriffen auf Partys zu berichten. In ihren Erzählungen wurden unterschiedliche Positionen Dritter identifiziert, und Party als soziales Gefüge wurde einer Beschreibung zugänglich gemacht. Zentrales Ergebnis sind Erkenntnisse zu Hürden für, Verpflichtungen zur und Chancen von Intervention. Sie werden hergeleitet aus den Deutungen der befragten Mädchen von Party als Zusammenspiel von an Geschlecht gebundenen Machtrelationen und Handlungschancen. Diese Deutungen bestimmen die Wahrnehmung und Einordnung einer Situation als sexuell riskant, die Entscheidung zu intervenieren sowie die Intervention selbst. Aus den Ergebnissen werden Vorschläge abgeleitet, wie Programme für eine Prävention im sozialen Umfeld den Zusammenhang von Geschlecht, Macht und sexueller Gewalt unter Jugendlichen in spezifischen Settings aufgreifen und die Interventionshürden systematisch abbauen können. Als Material dienen fünf „Umfeldanalysen“ (im Interview verbal kommentierte und mit Kärtchen auf einem Blatt festgehaltene Positionen von auf einer Party anwesenden bzw. handelnden Personen über Opfer und Täter_innen hinaus) und weitere 13 Episoden zu sexuellen Übergriffen auf Partys, die in den Interviews berichtet wurden. Die Umfeldanalysen sind Teil der qualitativen Einzelinterviews mit jungen Frauen aus der Studie „Prävention von Re-Viktimisierung bei sexuell missbrauchten Jugendlichen in Fremdunterbringung“ (PRÄVIK; SoFFI F. / DJI, gefördert durch das BMBF 2014 bis 2017).
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Research shows that bystander training has the potential to reduce violence and abuse. It is not clear how and why the training works. We evaluated bystander training to find out what works. We found that interactive techniques, such as group discussions, ‘the video’, and the use of real‐world examples were the best ways of delivering the training because they stood out and were remembered by participants. These findings add to the paucity of research on what works in bystander training, and in doing so, raises implications for the design and delivery of future training.
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Purpose: Half of British university students experience assault and harassment behaviours; few report them. Bystander intervention training has been recommended as a means of reducing these behaviours, but there is little evidence about their potential effectiveness in UK contexts. This study sought to understand UK students’ attitudes towards reporting and intervening in sexual assault, harassment, and hate crimes. Design: A mixed methods cross sectional survey (N=201; 75.6% women) was conducted in one British university. Open text data were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings: Students considered harassment and assault unacceptable, and were confident to intervene in and likely to report incidents. However, fear of backlash was a barrier to intervening and reporting, and they felt that victims should decide whether to report incidents. Students perceived perpetrators as being ignorant about what constitutes consent, harassment, and assault. They identified a need for university community education about this and how to report incidents and support peers. Research limitations/implications: This cross sectional survey was conducted at one UK University. The data might not reflect other students’ attitudes, and may be subject to response bias. Practical implications: University community bystander training should be acceptable, report and support systems might be utilised by students. This may have potential to reduce prevalence and increase reporting. Originality: This is the first study to investigate UK student attitudes to prosocial bystander behaviours.
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Grounded in the self-persuasion paradigm (an indirect persuasion approach, which places people in situations that motivate them to change their behavior), this study evaluated a brief, online intervention to reduce sexual aggression perpetration and increase prosocial bystander behaviors among heterosexual male college students ( N = 241) in the United States. Students were randomly assigned to three conditions: (a) a self-persuasion intervention, (b) a social norms control condition, and (c) a control condition focusing on sense of belongingness. The self-persuasion intervention integrated three social psychological theoretical perspectives on attitudinal and behavioral change—cognitive dissonance (e.g., creating a personalized video message for incoming male college freshmen to explain the importance of consent in sexual contact), self-affirmation (e.g., reflecting on one’s core values and how they are congruent with sexual consent), and personal relevance (e.g., writing about personally relevant reasons to always seek consent when having sexual contact). Participants in the self-persuasion condition reported greater prosocial bystander behaviors (e.g., intervening in situations to prevent sexual aggression) 6 months after the intervention as compared with those in the other two conditions; however, there were no significant difference in the rate of self-reported sexual aggression perpetration across conditions. The positive effect of the self-persuasion intervention on prosocial bystander behaviors was mediated by reduced self-perceived likelihood to commit sexual aggression and moderated by in-group solidarity with other college students. That is, the intervention had the most positive effect on prosocial bystander behaviors among participants with a lower sense of in-group solidarity. These findings are discussed in light of the promise of self-persuasion for future sexual aggression prevention work.
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Purpose – It is recommended that universities implement bystander interventions to disrupt the interpersonal violence and abuse that students experience in this context. Yet, there are few evaluations of bystander interventions in the UK. Building on an existing evaluation carried out on a bystander intervention at a university in 2017/18, the purpose of this research was to evaluate the intervention. Design/methodology/approach – Using a one-way repeated measures design, analysis of variance was used to analyse pre- and post-intervention data gathered from 121 students, during 2018/19. Findings – As the aims of the session were met, it can be inferred individuals who participate in the bystander intervention have the potential to disrupt interpersonal violence and abuse. Research limitations/implications – The small sample size and design of the survey limited the research. Further evaluations of bystander interventions are needed in the UK that utilises large samples and a validated survey. Practical implications – This paper notes the importance of engaging many students in a cohort to participate on a bystander intervention. Originality/value – This study adds to the paucity of evaluations of bystander interventions in the UK. Knowing that the intervention has the potential to disrupt interpersonal violence and abuse builds the momentum for other similarly designed interventions to be implemented in universities in the UK.
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We examined predictors of rape myth acceptance (RMA) and bystander attitudes among college women (n = 137). Participants completed self-report measures of RMA, bystander attitudes, sexist beliefs, gender-conforming attitudes, sexuality attitudes, sexual knowledge, and just world beliefs. Stepwise multiple regression analyses indicated that RMA was predicted by hostile sexism, sexual attitudes, and post-assault report bystander attitudes, and bystander attitudes. Bystander attitudes were predicted by the “It wasn’t really rape” rape myth subscale, masculine norm conformity, and hostile sexism.
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Using a survey of college students in the US, this study examines whether the way students attribute responsibility is associated with perceived risk of sexual assaults and willingness to engage in preventive behaviours. We then link news media use to attributions of responsibility to examine whether media use is related with risk perceptions and preventive behaviours through the mediation of attributions of responsibility. Attributing responsibility to victims was correlated with perceiving a lower risk, while finding colleges responsible was related with perceiving a greater risk. Such relationships were moderated by gender, suggesting that attributions of responsibility might have different effects between male and female students. Attributions of responsibility were also associated with helping victims and taking protective measures. Finally, news media use was positively correlated with blaming victims, while negatively associated with finding perpetrators responsible, and these attributions of responsibility mediated the link between media use and the outcome variables. Clinical Impact Statement This article will assist educators and professionals in designing strategies for sexual assault prevention by explaining how attributing responsibility to victims, perpetrators, or colleges is related to college student's perceived risk and willingness to engage in preventive behaviours.
Chapter
Numerous sexual assault prevention efforts for boys and men have been developed by researchers and practitioners from different disciplines, as well as federal, state, and community organizations. For these sexual assault prevention programs to be successful they must be grounded in a sound understanding of what causes a behavior (i.e., etiology) as well as a sound theory of what can change that behavior (i.e., mechanism of change, behavior change theory, theory of change) in addition to knowledge of environmental and other factors. This chapter therefore reviews knowledge of perpetrator etiology, which can be used to refine and strengthen existing prevention approaches. Some of the individual drivers of sexual aggression discussed in prominent theories include deviant cognitions, an impersonal sexual orientation, impulsivity, narcissism, perceived peer support for sexual aggression, adherence to traditional masculine norms, and ascription to rape myths. Some theories of sexual aggressive behavior also attend to the notion that whether proclivity to engage in sexual aggression is acted upon can depend on environmental disinhibiting triggers or releasers in the environment, such as alcohol use, the presence of peers who are perceived as supportive of sexual aggression, or—alternatively—a lack of bystanders with the potential to intervene. Given that sexual assault prevention efforts which address individual-level drivers of sexual aggression are only one part of a comprehensive prevention approach, approaches which attend to predisposing factors for sexual aggression among boys and men must also attend to risk and protective factors that influence the expression of sexual aggression across the social ecology.
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Data suggests that sexual assault and harassment continue to be significant concerns within the U.S. military. Given such findings, the Department of Defense and the component military services have recently developed several initiatives aimed at preventing sexual violence within their ranks. A number of these programming efforts are modeled after prevention initiatives in other communities such as college campuses. In this article, the authors discuss major issues that are important for the military as they move forward to augment their sexual assault prevention efforts. Previous prevention work both within and outside of the military will be discussed in the context of the reviewed issues. The article concludes with a list of recommendations.
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This paper extends earlier work examining the relationship between status and group membership as sources of influence. It is argued that shared group membership facilitates status generalization, the carrying over of status in one domain to influence in another unrelated domain. In the first experiment, where interaction partners were differentiated by a highly relevant task ability, the partners' group membership (same or different) had no effects on influence. In the second experiment, partners with a high level of relevant task ability were equally influential regardless of group membership, but partners with high ability on an irrelevant task were more influential if they were ingroup members than if they were not. Findings are discussed in relation to status characteristics theory and the concept of social status.
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For several decades, investigators have attempted to identify factors that explain why some men perpetrate sexual assault in college. However, despite a strong emphasis on men as the perpetrators of sexual assault, current reviews have yet to analyze different masculinities in relation to sexual assault offending. In the present narrative review, we critically examined college sexual assault research published between 1950 and 2015 and identified 3 distinct approaches to examining masculinities: sex comparisons, men's attitudes toward women and violence, and constructs informed by the normative and gender role strain paradigms of the psychology of men. Findings revealed that (a) studies of sexual assault perpetration focusing on men and masculinities are relatively rare in the extant literature; (b) sex differences in perpetration rates are complex; (c) men's attitudes toward women and violence are strong predictors of sexual assault perpetration, and also the most common approach to studying masculinities in relation to sexual assault offending, but they may be limited in their definition; and (d) research examining men's sexual assault perpetration using constructs central to the psychology of men is generally underdeveloped and underrepresented. Future directions for research are discussed, including a need for more investigations focusing on ethnic and sexual orientation diversity, broader definitions of masculinity, and more inquiry using normative and gender role strain constructs.
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The College Date Rape Attitude Survey (CDRAS), a measure intended to assess attitudes related to risk for committing rape in adolescents and young adults, was examined to determine the principal component structure of rape-related attitudes in data collected on an undergraduate college sample. Results provide evidence that responses to the instrument are reliable with regard to internal consistency, and that the CDRAS measures four rape-related attitudes: Entitlement, Blame Shifting, Traditional Roles, and Overwhelming Sexual Arousal. The CDRAS could be used to elicit information about student's attitudes , which could then be used to develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention specific to the needs of that population.
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This study examined male bystanders’ responses to risk for party rape. Undergraduate men (N = 77) imagined attending a party (either alone or with 3 friends) where a sober man led an intoxicated potential victim (either a man or woman) into a bedroom. After random assignment to 1 of these 4 conditions, participants completed measures of behavioral inaction and barriers to action. Bystanders in groups were more inactive than lone bystanders. Compared to bystanders who saw a woman at risk, bystanders who saw a man at risk reported greater inaction and greater barriers to action, including risk uncertainty, lack of responsibility to help, and skills deficits. Results highlight social factors that inhibit male bystanders’ prosocial responses to high-risk situations.
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Because of its high prevalence and serious consequences for victims, sexual violence is a significant problem on college campuses. Sexual assault prevention programs based on the bystander intervention model have been shown to be effective; however, current programs are limited in terms of ease of distribution. To address this issue, we developed and evaluated "Take Care," an online bystander intervention program. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evaluation of an online bystander intervention program designed to prevent sexual violence. Ninety-three participants (80.6% female, 19.4% male) recruited from social psychology classes at a mid-size university were randomly assigned to view one of two online programs: Take Care or a control program on study skills. Before viewing the programs, participants completed measures of bystander behaviors and feelings of efficacy for performing such behaviors. Measures were administered again post-intervention and at a two-month follow-up assessment. Participants who viewed Take Care reported greater efficacy for engaging in bystander behaviors at post-treatment and two months following treatment, compared to those who viewed the control program. In addition, participants who viewed Take Care reported performing relatively more bystander behaviors for friends at the two-month follow-up assessment, compared to participants who viewed the control program. These results suggest that sexual violence prevention programs may be effectively adapted to an online format.
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Studies have shown that people differ in their likelihood of intervening as a bystander in situations of violence, but it is unclear how these actions relate to the use of alcohol. Two studies (N = 1,525) examined the relationship between alcohol use and pro-social bystander interventions in situations of physical and sexual coercion. Studies 1 and 2 provided cross-sectional evidence that alcohol use, along with alcohol expectancies, predicted patterns of bystander interventions, depending on gender. Discussion centers on the importance of including alcohol as another facet in understanding the role of pro-social bystander interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.
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The present research examined bystander responses to potential party rape scenarios involving either a friend or a stranger at risk. Undergraduate students (N = 151) imagined attending a party and seeing a man lead an intoxicated woman (friend or stranger) into a bedroom. After random assignment to conditions, participants reported on intentions to help, barriers to helping, victim blame, and empathic concern. As expected, based on their shared social group membership, bystanders intended to offer more help to friends than to strangers. Bystanders also reported more personal responsibility to help and more empathic concern when the potential victim was a friend rather than stranger. Observing a friend versus stranger at risk did not affect audience inhibition or perceived victim blame. Compared with women, men reported more blame and less empathic concern for potential victims. However, there were no gender differences in bystander intent to help or barriers to helping. In multivariate analyses, both responsibility to help and empathic concern for the potential victim uniquely predicted bystanders' intent to help a woman at risk for party rape. Results suggest that promoting social identification with peers at risk could increase bystander intervention.
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Objective: To address acknowledged limitations in the effectiveness of sexual and relationship abuse prevention strategies, practitioners have developed new tools that use a bystander framework. Evaluation of bystander-focused prevention requires measures, specific to the bystander approach, that assess changes over time in participants’ attitudes and behaviors. Few measures exist and more psychometric analyses are needed. We present analyses to begin to establish the psychometric properties of four new measures of bystander outcomes and their subscales. Method: We collected data from 948 first-year college students on two campuses in the northeastern United States. Items assessing attitudes and behaviors related to bystander helping responses in college campus communities for situations where there is sexual or relationship abuse risk were factor analyzed. Results: Measures of readiness to help (assessed specifically with scales representing taking action, awareness, and taking responsibility), intent to be an active bystander, self-reported bystander responses, and perceptions of peer norms in support of action all showed adequate reliability and validity. Conclusion: This study represents a next step in the development of tools that can be used by researchers and practitioners seeking both to understand bystander behavior in the context of sexual and relationship abuse and to evaluate the effectiveness of prevention tools to address these problems. The measures investigated will be helpful for prevention educators and researchers evaluating the effectiveness of sexual and relationship abuse education tools that use a bystander intervention framework. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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Objective: The purpose of this study is to further investigate the factor structure and strength of the Bystander Attitude Scale-Revised and Bystander Behavior Scale-Revised (BAS-R and BBS-R). Participants: First-year students (N = 4,054) at a large public university in the Northeast completed a survey in 2010 as part of a larger longitudinal study of a sexual violence bystander education intervention program on campus. Methods: Exploratory structural equation modeling was used to analyze survey responses to the BAS-R and BBS-R. Results: For BAS-R, the best fit was a 4-factor model: (1) high-risk situations, (2) postassault support for victims, (3) postassault reporting of perpetrators, and (4) proactive opportunities. BBS-R was a 2-factor model: (1) intervention opportunities before, during, or after an assault, and (2) proactive opportunities. Conclusion: The BAS-R and BBS-R provide reliable tools that can be utilized to evaluate sexual violence bystander programs.
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This study examined relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity, reasons for using Internet pornography, frequency of using Internet pornography during the last year, and the degree to which participants believed they were both confident in their efficacy and were willing to intervene to help prevent a sexual assault from occurring. Students volunteered to take an online survey as one of several options for course credit in a research participation system in a School of Education at a midwestern public university. Men’s extrinsic religiosity was positively correlated with their use of Internet pornography and negatively correlated with willingness to intervene as a bystander. Men’s intrinsic religiosity was negatively correlated with how many reasons they had for using pornography and negatively correlated with their use of pornography. Women’s extrinsic religiosity negatively correlated with their bystander efficacy. Women’s intrinsic religiosity was negatively correlated with their reasons for using pornography and their use of pornography. Women’s use of pornography was negatively correlated with bystander efficacy. A regression revealed that three religiosity variables and two pornography variables predicted 19% of the variance in women’s bystander efficacy.
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Most North American universities offer sexual assault prevention programs focusing on attitude change. However, the few program outcome evaluations suggest that these programs may not be effective. This review summarizes the research on sexual assault program evaluation. It is apparent that the most promising avenue for sexual assault prevention may be self-defense training, which is presently not an integral component of typical prevention programs. The substantial body of research on risk factors for sexual assault is also reviewed, and it is concluded that existing rape prevention programs could be improved by focusing on these factors.
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The College Date Rape Attitude Survey (CDRAS), a measure intended to assess attitudes related to risk for committing rape in adolescents and young adults, was examined to determine the principal component structure of rape-related attitudes in data collected on an undergraduate college sample. Results provide evidence that responses to the instrument are reliable with regard to internal consistency, and that the CDRAS measures four rape-related attitudes: Entitlement, Blame Shifting, Traditional Roles, and Overwhelming Sexual Arousal. The CDRAS could be used to elicit information about student's attitudes, which could then be used to develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention specific to the needs of that population.
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This article explains why rates of sexual assault remain high on college campuses. Data are from a study of college life at a large midwestern university involving nine months of ethnographic observation of a women's floor in a "party dorm," in-depth interviews with 42 of the floor residents, and 16 group interviews with other students. We show that sexual assault is a predictable outcome of a synergistic intersection of processes operating at individual, organizational, and interactional levels. Some processes are explicitly gendered, while others appear to be gender neutral. We discuss student homogeneity, expectations that partiers drink heavily and trust their party-mates, and residential arrangements. We explain how these factors intersect with more obviously gendered processes such as gender differences in sexual agendas, fraternity control of parties, and expectations that women be nice and defer to men. We show that partying produces fun as well as sexual assault, generating student resistance to criticizing the party scene or men's behavior in it. We conclude with implications for policy.
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This study examined correlates of pornography acceptance and use within a normative (nonclinical) population of emerging adults (individuals aged 18—26). Participants included 813 university students (500 women; M age = 20 years) recruited from six college sites across the United States. Participants completed online questionnaires regarding their acceptance and use of pornography, as well as their sexual values and activity, substance use, and family formation values. Results revealed that roughly two thirds (67% ) of young men and one half (49%) of young women agree that viewing pornography is acceptable, whereas nearly 9 out of 10 (87%) young men and nearly one third (31%) of young women reported using pornography. Results also revealed associations between pornography acceptance and use and emerging adults' risky sexual attitudes and behaviors, substance use patterns, and nonmarital cohabitation values. The discussion considers the implications of pornography use during the transition to adulthood.
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Bystander intervention is described as a promising approach for social workers engaged with groups labeled “at risk” for perpetrating sexual violence. An exploratory study was conducted with one at-risk group, student-athletes, to determine their willingness to intervene as bystanders in situations involving sexual violence. A survey was administered to 205 participants, focus groups held with nine teams, and individual interviews conducted with 22 student-athletes. Results indicate that the closeness of the team bond is the most significant predictor for willingness to intervene. Many student-athletes reported a willingness to intervene in situations involving sexual violence but need further skill development to do so effectively. Implications for social workers implementing the bystander approach with at-risk groups are discussed, such as skill development and utilization of the strengths perspective.
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A national household probability sample of 4,023 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years was interviewed by telephone about substance use, victimization experiences, familial substance use, and posttraumatic reactions to identify risk factors for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders- (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) defined substance abuse/dependence. Age and ethnicity data were available for 3,907 participants. Major findings were (a) adolescents who had been physically assaulted, who had been sexually assaulted, who had witnessed violence, or who had family members with alcohol or drug use problems had increased risk for current substance abuse/dependence; (b) posttraumatic stress disorder independently increased risk of marijuana and hard drug abuse/dependence; and (c) when effects of other variables were controlled, African Americans, but not Hispanics or Native Americans, were at approximately 1/3 the risk of substance abuse/dependence as Caucasians. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reviews research that attempts to replicate and extend B. Latané and J. M. Dabbs's (1970) discovery that the presence of other people inhibits an individual from intervening in an emergency. Particular attention is paid to the nature of the precipitating incident, the ambiguity of the helping situation, laboratory vs field settings, characteristics of the Ss, victims, and other bystanders, and the amount and kinds of communication among bystanders. It is concluded that, despite the diversity of styles, settings, and techniques among the studies, the social inhibition of helping is a remarkably consistent phenomenon; however, victims are more likely to receive assistance when only a single individual witnesses the emergency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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College men’s exposure to pornography is nearly universal, with growing viewing rates nationwide. Substantial research documents the harmful effects of mainstream, sadomasochistic, and rape pornography on men’s attitudes and behavior related to sexual assault. The present study surveyed 62% of the fraternity population at a Midwestern public university on their pornography viewing habits, bystander efficacy, and bystander willingness to help in potential rape situations. Results showed that men who view pornography are significantly less likely to intervene as a bystander, report an increased behavioral intent to rape, and are more likely to believe rape myths.
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This study examined factors that may influence attributions of rape victims. Three hundred and three university students completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of dispositional empathy and a vignette depicted either a date rape or a stranger rape situation. Subjects rated the extent that they blamed the rape victim as well as the degree to which they identified with the victim and perpetrator. Results indicated that male students blamed the victim to a greater extent than did female students; students consistently attributed more blame to the victim in date rape situations than they did in stranger rape situations; and, while empathy was not associated with students' attributions, perceptions of similarity to the rape victim and perpetrator were both related to attributions of blame. These findings are consistent with the notion of “judgmental leniency” presented in Shaver's defensive attribution theory (1970). Implications for rape prevention efforts and future research are also discussed.
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Objective: Innovations in violence prevention mobilize peers as active bystanders, yet little is known about what motivates helping in such contexts. We examined correlates of actual helpful behavior (rather than only attitudes) related to the prevention of sexual and intimate partner violence among college students at one university in the United States. Method: Four hundred and six (406) undergraduate students at the University of New Hampshire completed self-report surveys. We assessed attitudes (e.g., rape myth acceptance, bystander confidence) in relation to self-reported helping behavior. Results: Different predictors were significant for the self-report measures of attitude compared to behaviors. Students who self-reported a greater sense of responsibility for ending sexual and relationship violence and greater expressed confidence as a bystander and perceptions of greater benefits of stepping in to help, self-reported greater helping behavior. We found some differences in correlates of helping behavior by type of helping behavior. Conclusions: Correlates of helping differ when actual behaviors performed in the community compared to attitudes were assessed. Prevention strategies that increase community members' sense of responsibility for ending violence, build confidence in helping, and support norms that encourage active bystanders are needed to increase helping behavior to ameliorate this widespread community problem.
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An experiment was conducted to investigate the idea that an important motive for identifying with social groups is to reduce subjective uncertainty, particularly uncertainty on subjectively important dimensions that have implications for the self-concept (e.g., Hogg, 1996; Hogg & Mullin, 1999). When people are uncertain on a dimension that is subjectively important, they self-categorize in terms of an available social categorization and, thus, exhibit group behaviors. To test this general hypothesis, group membership, task uncertainty, and task importance were manipulated in a 2 × 2 × 2 between-participants design (N = 128), under relatively minimal group conditions. Ingroup identification and desire for consensual validation of specific attitudes were the key dependent measures, but we also measured social awareness. All three predictions were supported. Participants identified with their group (H1), and desired to obtain consensual validation from ingroup members (H2) when they were uncertain about their judgments on important dimensions, indicating that uncertainty reduction motivated participants towards embracing group membership. In addition, identification mediated the interactive effect of the independent variables on consensual validation (H3), and the experimental results were not associated with an increased sense of social awareness and, therefore, were unlikely to represent only behavioral compliance with generic social norms. Some implications of this research in the study of cults and "totalist" groups and the explication of genocide and group violence are discussed.
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Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)
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Objective: This study evaluates the effectiveness of bystander sexual assault prevention education when the training of peer educators and delivery of prevention workshops were embedded in the undergraduate curriculum. Method: Participants were 827 undergraduate students (intervention, n = 518; control, n = 309). In a quasi-experimental design, students completed online surveys at 3 time points (baseline, 1-week postintervention and 4-month follow-up). Outcome measures included efficacy, readiness to change, intentions, perceived barriers to intervention, and behavior related to bystander interventions to sexual assault. Results: The intervention was effective in increasing students' bystander efficacy, improving readiness to intervene by decreasing beliefs consistent with precontemplation and increasing those related to action, increasing intention to intervene, decreasing perceived skills deficits and concern about what others would think, and increasing proactive bystander behavior. The effects of the intervention were present for men and women and were observed in friendship and stranger contexts. All effects were maintained to 4-months without a booster. Conclusions: Integrating the preparation of peer educators and bystander-type sexual assault prevention workshops into the undergraduate curriculum can produce positive changes in male and female students' confidence, readiness, and capacity to act as prosocial bystanders for friends and strangers, and increase some bystander behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Previous research has identified that exposure to the crime drama genre lowers rape myth acceptance and increases sexual assault prevention behaviors such as bystander intervention. However, recent content analyses have revealed marked differences in the portrayal of sexual violence within the top three crime drama franchises. Using a survey of 313 college freshmen, this study explores the influence of exposure to the three most popular crime drama franchises: Law & Order, CSI, and NCIS. Findings indicate that exposure to the Law & Order franchise is associated with decreased rape myth acceptance and increased intentions to adhere to expressions of sexual consent and refuse unwanted sexual activity; whereas exposure to the CSI franchise is associated with decreased intentions to seek consent and decreased intentions to adhere to expressions of sexual consent. Exposure to the NCIS franchise was associated with decreased intentions to refuse unwanted sexual activity. These results indicate that exposure to the specific content of each crime drama franchise may have differential results on sexual consent negotiation behaviors.
Article
Evaluations of bystander intervention education programs demonstrate that this approach results in students’ increased willingness to intervene in prosocial ways to prevent sexual violence (e.g., Moynihan, Banyard, Arnold, Eckstein, & Stapleton, 2010). These programs often focus on first-year college students, though theories and research on student development raise questions about when students are best trained as bystanders (Bennett, Banyard, & Garnhart, 2014). While some authors argue that bystander intervention is more effective for older secondary school students (Polanin, Espelage, & Pignott, 2012), other researchers highlight how traditional-aged students in their early years of college are focused on forming new relationships, a stage of growth that may make the bystander role of confronting or challenging peers difficult (e.g., Bowman, 2010). Bystander intervention has generally been treated as a monolithic construct, where individuals are encouraged to step in and “do something” to prevent sexual violence. Viewing bystander intervention in this way is more applicable in the field of social psychology, where it has been studied in situations that are typically fairly straightforward, such as witnessing a crime or a health emergency. In the field of sexual violence, however, the bystander situation is more complicated. Sexual violence occurs on a continuum that includes different types of opportunities for individuals to take action, ranging from emergency situations to low-risk opportunities to address sexist behavior that supports sexual violence (Stout, 1991). In higher education, bystander programs have been critiqued for emphasizing how to intervene without first helping students recognize when they can intervene. McMahon and Banyard’s (2012) conceptual model includes a “continuum of opportunity” for preventing sexual violence on campus in both reactive and proactive ways. High-risk bystander opportunities occur directly before a sexual assault where there is a high level of harm facing the potential victim, such as witnessing a potential perpetrator giving alcohol to render someone incapacitated in order to have sex with that individual (McMahon & Banyard, 2012). In low-risk opportunities, derogative attitudes toward women may be expressed by the bystander’s peers (e.g., using sexist language, telling rape jokes) but do not present immediate risk to any potential victims. In opportunities to respond during or after an assault, bystanders may know or suspect that a sexual assault is occurring, such as directly observing the assault or hearing about it after it occurs. Proactive opportunities are “positive actions that students can take to demonstrate a commitment to addressing sexual violence” and can include taking a class to learn more about sexual violence or becoming a peer educator on campus (McMahon & Banyard, 2012, p. 10). It is important for the field to begin to distinguish among these various types of bystander opportunities because they may be perceived differently by students and therefore may require different types of skill building. Designing appropriate bystander educational efforts for students as they enter college requires understanding the base of knowledge and behavior they already possess. To date, however, research into this question is sparse. In this article we examine the patterns of bystander behavior reported by incoming college students to provide a better view of the landscape into which bystander-focused prevention on college campuses is placed. Study participants were recruited from students attending a new student orientation program at a large public university in the Northeast. The current data were collected as part of a larger longitudinal study, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Students were invited to complete a paper-and-pencil survey and were entered in a raffle to win TVs and iPads. A total of 6,003 new students entered the university and 4,386 students completed the survey, for a 73% response rate. A total of 299 participants failed to correctly answer two reliability check questions, and an additional 417 participants had duplicate participant codes; all of these participants were removed from the data set prior to data analysis, for a final sample size of 3,670. This total included 46.9% males and 52.9% females (0.2% missing). Among the sample, 47.2% were White, 26.7% Asian or Asian American, 5.7% Black/African American, 7.5% Latino, 5.3% Multiethnic, 2.0% Middle Eastern, and 5.3% Other (0...
Chapter
Social desirability bias refers to the tendency of research subjects to give socially desirable responses instead of choosing responses that are reflective of their true feelings. The bias in responses due to this personality trait becomes a major issue when the scope of the study involves socially sensitive issues such as politics, religion, and environment, or personal issues such as drug use, cheating, and smoking. Whenever possible, it is desirable to measure the extent of the bias present in responses to a survey by incorporating a socially desirable scale in the survey. A number of methods to address this issue are suggested in the literature. Use of a well-trained interviewer or collection of data through methods that do not require presence involvement of an interviewer can help avoid this bias to some extent. Properly identified options to questions vulnerable to social desirability effect is another means of tackling this issue. Keywords: social desirability bias; social desirability scale; response bias; demand effects; social norms
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In contrast to the large body of research examining the negative effects of idealized media images on girls' and women's body image, little research has investigated whether media images can positively impact body concept among females. Using a between-participants experimental design, this study examined how images of performance athletes, sexualized athletes, sexualized models, and nonsexualized models impacted adolescent girls' and college women's tendency to self-objectify. Participants were 350 adolescent girls and 225 college women who completed a measure of body objectification after viewing photographs. As expected, performance athlete images prompted less self-objectification, suggesting the need for more of this imagery in mainstream media.
Article
Prior research documents that perceived peer norms are related to bystanders' intentions and intervention behaviors in the context of sexual violence. Given the popularity of bystander intervention programming, it is important to know if variables like gender, race, or year in college impact intervention attitudes/behaviors or interact with perceived peer norms. Also relatively unexplored is the question of missed opportunities for intervention. For our final sample of 232 college students (66% female, 36% Black), screened by age, race, and missing data from an initial pool of 315 respondents, perceived peer norms supporting intervention positively predicted willingness to intervene against sexual violence (bystander intentions) but did not independently predict bystander behaviors or missed opportunities for intervention. Although women reported greater bystander intentions than did men, and Black participants reported more bystander behaviors than did White participants, gender, race, and year in college often interacted with peer norms and with each other in complex ways. Specifically, the predicted positive relationship between peer norms and bystander behaviors was observed only among Black students in at least their second year of college, and the predicted negative relationship between peer norms and missed opportunities was observed only for Black men. These nuances in factors that influence bystander actions have important implications for tailoring prevention tools on college campuses.
Article
Rape myth acceptance which are false beliefs regarding the incidence of sexual assault, and are more prevalent among males, may influence how victims are treated. Acceptance of the just world belief (JWB), which argues that individuals believe that people get what they deserve, may be a predictor of rape myth acceptance. The present study examined the relationship among gender, belief in a just world, and rape myth acceptance. Findings suggest that while gender remained a significant predictor of rape myth acceptance the relationship between just world belief and rape myth acceptance was more complicated than hypothesized. Suggestions for future research are discussed.
Article
Objective: A growing body of literature has examined the ways that bystander intervention can be helpful for situations involving sexual violence. The current study examined the little researched questions of how the relationship between the bystander and the victim and the bystander and the perpetrator impacts bystander perceptions (whether the situation is a problem and how safe it would be to intervene). Method: In the present study, 545 undergraduate students were randomly assigned by gender to vignettes (low and high severity) in which they had a relationship with the victim (stranger or friend) and a relationship with the perpetrator (stranger or friend). Participants were asked to fill out questionnaires about bystander perceptions (i.e., whether they perceived the situation as a problem, whether they felt the situation was safe to intervene). Results: The relationship with the victim and/or the perpetrator differentially impacted bystander perceptions, such that having a relationship with the victim was associated with more positive bystander perceptions whereas having a relationship with the perpetrator was mixed. Moreover, consistent with prior research, participants identified the situation as more of a problem and less safe to intervene in the high severity than the low severity condition. Conclusions: Bystander intervention programs aimed at preventing sexual violence need to include content that helps participants think throug