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Morphology and Morphometry of Raw Camel Hair of Some Sudanese Camel types in Kordofan States

Authors:
  • Lusail University

Abstract and Figures

Sudan has a high camel population of different types which have an untapped potential of hair fiber yield, however Hair is an important camel byproduct in many camel producing countries. Due to that this study aimed to identify the morphology and morphometry of different camel’s hair fiber types in Kordofan region in Sudan which is important in handicraft and traditional uses.
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Nova Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences Page: 1
Nova Explore Publications
Nova Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences
DOI: 10.20286/nova-jmbs-060101
Vol.6 (1) 2017:1-8
www.novaexplore.com
Research Article
Morphology and Morphometry of Raw Camel Hair of Some Sudanese Camel types
in Kordofan States
Egbal Abu shulukhP
1
P, Marwa-Babiker Abd Elgader P
2
P, Mohamed Osman EisaP
3
P, Ismail El FagirP
4
P
1
PDepartment of meat Production, College of Animal Production, University of Bahri, Khartoum-North, Sudan.
P
2
PDepartment of Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bahri, Khartoum-North, Sudan.
P
3
PDepartment of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Omdurman Islamic University, Sudan.
P
4
PDepartment of Diary Production, College of Animal Production, University of Bahri, Khartoum-North, Sudan.
Corresponding Author: Egbal Sulieman Abu shulukh, Department of meat Production, College of Animal Production, University of
Bahri, Khartoum-North, Sudan. E-mail: Egbal121@gmail.com
Received: 2017.01.19 Accepted: 2017.03.26
Abstract
Background: Sudan has a high camel population of different types which have an untapped potential of hair fiber yield, however Hair
is an important camel byproduct in many camel producing countries. Due to that this study aimed to identify the morphology and
morphometry of different camel’s hair fiber types in Kordofan region in Sudan which is important in handicraft and traditional uses.
Material and methods: The raw materials of dromedary hair were collected from Kabbashi, Dar-Hamid and Hamari camels’ types.
One hundred and forty-four camels (72 males, 72 females), were divided into four equal age groups (one, two, three years and adult).
The samples of hair were taken from the left and right mid-side of the abdominal region. The Measurements were done using the light
microscope processing software.
Results: The thickness of hair fibres was given different values not related to the sex or camel age. Morphology of the hair fibres
showed different shapes in their cortex and medulla, some fibres had a dark cortex and pale medulla. However, other fibres had a light
cortex and dark medulla. Also, some fibres had fragmented medulla, with an appearance which was not related to the camel area, age
or sex. Measurements of camel hair fibres showed that the mean fibre diameter (μm) was high in Dar-Hamar camels 73.54 + 2.44 μm,
compared with 58.30 + 2.44 μm, and 57.80 + 2.44 μm, in Dar- El Kabbabish and Dar-Hamid camels respectively in different age
groups and both sex.
Conclusion: The light microscope processing software analysis showed that the fibers of the dehaired dromedary hairs had a relatively
low average diameter in camel kids and this value increased with age, so the hair of camel kids can be used for handicrafts and the
fleece of adult Camels can be used for making Tents.
Keywords: camel hair, morphometry, morphology, Kordofan
Introduction
Camel hair fibers belong to the category of specialty hair fibers. Specialty hair fibers are the rare animal fibers which have unique
characteristics such as luster, softness, warmth and natural colour (1). Both coarse (strong outer hair) and soft (fine fibers) are found in
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dromedary camel. Great variations are found between camel fibers not only among flocks and individual animals but also between
body positions on the same animal (2).
The most common colour of camel hair is reddish brown with variants from brown to grey. The white fleece is very rare but is most
valued(3). Camel hair and cashmere share many properties, except for the fact that camel hair is a bit coarser (3). Camel hair had two
basic qualities, the coarse outer hair and the inner down fiber. The fine down fibers range in diameter from 19 to 24 microns and have
a length of about 2.5 to 12.5 cm. The coarse fibers have a diameter of 20 to 120 microns and a length of up to 37.5 cm (3). The scales
of camel hair have an irregular mosaic pattern, also they are smooth (4).
Some reports say that camel hair has a regular diameter and a smooth surface. The cuticle of the fiber is somewhat less dense
compared to the rest of the length of the fiber (4).The pigment distribution is sparse near the medulla in the finer fibers, yet dense near
the medulla in the coarser fibers. Other characteristics of camel hair are its strength of 1.79 grams/denier, luster, smoothness, water
repellency, warmth, fineness (9.55 denier), and lightweight (5). It was reported that the absence or presence of medulla can be used as
a criteria t o distinguish between different types of smooth hair fibers, but most of the coarse wool types contain a high percentage of
the medulla (6).
Similar to cashmere and yak hairs, camel hair also belongs to specialty fiber and is often more expensive due to its scarcity and
luxurious texture, (7).
The aim of this study was to test some quality characteristics of camel hair (morphology and fibre softness) in relation to age, sex and
type of camel in Kordofan region - Sudan.
Material and Methods
One hundred and forty four (72 males, 72 females) camels from the Dar-Hamid, Kabbashi and Hamari types from Kordofan region -
Sudan (latitudes 12N - 16N) were used in this study. The Camels were divided into four equal age groups (one, two, three years and
adult). The data for this study were collected during the period from April to June 2015. The samples of hair were taken from the left
and right mid-sides of the abdominal region of the camel body.
Measurements were done according to (8) using the light microscope processing software that included the outer diameters of hair
fiber and medulla using Olympus microscope (PX51Germany). The objective lenses X10 and X10 were used to measure the
thickness, fibre diameter (three times) and one time for the medulla. Complete randomised design was used in this experiment, and the
collected data were tabulated and subjected to statistical analyses using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Results
The shape and thickness of camel hair fibre and its medulla were differing from animal to another in the same area. Dar-Hamid female
samples showed four types of hair fibre shapes; the first type was in the one -year old animals. Here the upper part of the hair fibres
(cortex and medulla) were similar in their diameter, while the lower part had a pale colour and a fragmented medulla. The diameter of
the hair fibre ranged between 29.92-31.68 μm (Fig.1 a). In the 3 - years old animals, the medulla was dark and located centrally (63.36
μm) (Fig.1 b), the hair fibre diameter ranged between 96.80-61.60 μm. In the 5 years old animals, the medulla was fragmented and the
cortex was dark (Fig.1 c). The diameter ranged between 139-142.6 μm. In the 6 year old animals, the medulla was dark and located
centrally, its diameter ranged between 51.04-58.08μm and the fibre cortex was pale (103.8 μm), (Fig.1 d).
Dar-Hamid male camel samples showed two types of fibre shapes; the first type showed an interrupted medulla in the 1 - year old
animals (Fig.2 a and b) and the diameter of hair fibre ranged between 68.64-70.40 μm. The second type was found in the 3 -years old
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animals and also in the older group (6 years) (Fig.1 b, Fig. 2 d), the fibre cortex was dark and its medulla was disappearing (Fig.2 c),
the diameter of fibre was 88.00-103.80 μm.
In Kabbashi camels there were differences in the thickness of the hair fibres and the shape of the cortex and medulla between the
different animals in the same age and sex groups (Fig.3). In the 6 - year old - male camels the hair fibre was dark in colour and its
medulla was not clear (Fig.4). The fibre diameter was 107.40-117.90 μm.
Hamari female camel’s hair fibres showed a peculiar shape; the medulla was pale lined with dark cortex (Fig.5 a, c and d). However,
some fibres had less lightening medulla and dark cortex (Fig. 5 b). The fibre diameter was 47.52 μm in the 1- year old animals, 139.0-
142.6 μm in the 4 years - old animals and 95.0-172.5 μm in the 5 - years old. However, in Hamari male camels, the hair fibres were
dark without clear medulla (Fig.6 a, c and d). Other fibres showed light cortex and dark medulla (Fig.6 b).The hair fibre diameters
were 45.76-51.04 μm, 105.6 μm, 114.4 μm and 116.2 121.4 μm in the 1, 2, 3 and 4 years old animals respectively and (Fig.7)
displays the interaction between areas, ages and sex on camel hair fiber diameters / μm.
Fig.1. (a, b, c and d) Photomicrographs of Dar-Hamid- camel, female samples: a, 1 year old; the hair fiber is thin and dark, medulla is
incomplete. b, 3 years old; showing dark cortex with very dark medulla. c, 5 years old; showing dark cortex with light and fragmented
medulla. d, 6 years old; showing light cortex with dark medulla. Arrows (medulla), Arrowheads (cortex). (X10).
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Fig.2. (a, b, c and d) Photomicrographs of Dar-Hamid- camel, male samples: a and b 1 year old; showing hair fiber with interrupted
medulla (arrows) c, 3 years old; showing dark hair fibres (arrowheads). d, 6 years old; showing dark cortex (arrowhead) with dark
medulla (arrow). (X10).
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Fig. 3. (a, b, c and d) Photomicrographs of Kabbashi camels: a and b showing 4 years old female samples in two different animals;
dark hair fibre cortex. Diameter is 80.96 μm in a and 44.00-100.30μm in b. c and d showing two samples of 4 years old male; c similar
to that in b and d showing dark fibres. Their diameters ranges between 84.48-126.7μm. (X10).
Fig. 4. Photomicrograph of Kabbashi male camel, 6 years old; showing dark hair fibres (arrows). (X10).
Fig.5. (a, b, c and d) Photomicrographs of Hamari female camels samples: a1 year old, b, 4 years old, c and d, 5 years old; a, c and d
showing dark cortex (arrowheads) and light medulla (arrow), b showing less lightening medulla (arrowheads) and dark cortex
(arrows). (X10).
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Fig.6. (a, b, c and d) Photomicrographs of Hamari male camels samples: a,1 year old, b, 2 years old, c, 3 years old and d, 4 years old;
a, c and d showing dark hair fibres (arrowheads), b, showing light cortex (arrowhead) and dark medulla (arrow). (X10).
Fig.7. The interaction effect between areas, ages and sex on camel hair fiber diameters (μm).
44.6 39.7 57.3 50.1 61.2 54.9 79.6 79
43.7 37.5
50.8 44.2
68.6 59.7
86.2 71.7
51.2 43.7
87.8
54.6
84.8 70.5
103 92.7
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
fiber diameters/ μm
Dar-Hamar
Dar-Hamid
Dar- El Kabbabish
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Discussion
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding morphometrical measurements of the hair fibre of camel in Kordofan
states - Sudan, at light microscopy level.
The current investigation of the morphology of camel hair fibres included camels in three different areas (Dar-Hamid, Kabbashi and
Hamari type), different sex and different age groups, but the hair samples were obtained from the same body region (left and right
mid-side of the abdominal region). The thickness of hair fibres showed different values not related to the sex or camel age. There was
a limited observation of an increase in hair fiber diameter with age.
Morphology of the hair fibres showed different shape in their cortex and medulla, some hair fibres had a light cortex and dark
medulla. However, Hamari and Dar-Hamid female camel’s hair fibres showed dark cortex and pale medulla. Also, some samples had
fragmented medulla, with an appearance that was not related to the age or sex and maybe the absence of medulla was related to
smoothness. Camel hair fibres were divided to four shape categories, however, variation among fibres within the same category was
observed (2) .The arrangement of camel hairs and their follicles differed from that of the other mammals (9), such as Cashmere type
hair fibres which measured 14-20 micron, cashgora 21-23 micron and more 23 microns as mohair (10), which contradicts with the
results we found. The measurements of camel hair fibres in the three areas had different values, the mean fibre diameter /μm were
high in Dar-Hamar 73.54 + 2.44 compared with 58.30 + 2.44 and 57.80 + 2.44 in Dar- El Kabbabish and Dar-Hamid respectively in
all age groups and both sex and it was lighter than that reported by (11). The average thickness of the Tunisian camel hair was 40.26
μm (3) which agreed with the results of this study. The coarse fibers had a diameter of 20 to 120 microns. Figure .7 shows the
interaction between areas, ages and sex on camel hair fiber diameters (μm) which reached maximum value in Dar-Hamar adult males,
(103 μm) and minimum value in Dar-Hamid One year Females (37.5 μm) and that could be due to the variation of age and sex in the
three areas.
Conclusion
The morphology of the camel hair fibres showed several variations in their fibre diameter and its medulla shapes and that appearance
was not related to the camel area, age or sex. There are differences between groups, within the same group and even in the hair fibres
of the same animal.
Acknowledgements:
This work has been funded by the Ministry of Higher Education, Sudan through the University of Bahri. The Authors wish to thank
the Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Sudan for their help in morphometry measurements.
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... This general appearance, especially the presence of such a noticeable medulla and the brown pigmentation, is not consistent with sheep wool. However, it is found in modern dromedary hair fi bres, both in the standard reference sample and other modern Sudanese camels (Abd Elgader et al. 2017). Both warp and weft threads of the loincloth Textile A exhibit the same fi bre characteristics, indicating a homogenous fi bre content throughout the weave. ...
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This article focuses on a loincloth found in situ on the skeleton of an Early Medieval male buried on the Nubian island of Sai, in northern Sudan, dated to the seventh to ninth centuries BCE. This loincloth differs from most contemporary textile production because it was woven in a triangular form and probably using threads made from dromedary wool. It exhibits several phases of repair and reuse until its burial with the body. This garment therefore illustrates the textile expertise and clothing practices of the ancient Nubians, as well as the cultural role of textiles in funerary rituals.
... see DNA quantity ranges in [42][43][44]). Similarly, the variability among individual camels in extracted DNA amount from different starting amounts of tail-hair follicles could be explained by morphological variation in hair follicles between camel types, age, or sex [45]. ...
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Effect of blending camel kid hair with merino wool on performance of resultant yarn and fabric has been studied. Camel hair (CH) has been blended with merino wool (M) in three different ratios, viz. 25:75, 75:25 and 50:50 on khadi hand spinning system. Knitted fabric samples are then prepared on circular hand knitting machine. Properties of yarn and knitted fabric are also evaluated. It is found that the blending of merino wool with camel hair improves fineness and strength of yarn. Performance of CH75:M25 knitted fabric is found better in terms of strength and warmth, whereas CH25:M75 fabric shows higher abrasion resistance and better knitting performance and hand.
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This paper is concerned with a group of animal fibers collectively known as ″specialty fibers.″ They are mohair, cashmere, camel hair, alpaca, and Angora rabbit. Because specialty fibers are expensive and are often blended with wool, there is a need to be able to distinguish between the two groups. Certain lustrous wools are even in diameter and have long scales like mohair, but there are visible differences in scale thickness and brightness. Cashmere and camel hair are fine and somewhat uneven in diameter, cashmere having wide scales and camel amost convex ones. Alpaca and Angora rabbit fibers have distinctive scale and medulla features of their own. Results of an experimental study are presented in which SEM was used for the determination of fiber structures.
Relationships among Physical, Chemical and Industrial Characteristics of Different Dromedary Camel's Hair Types
Helal a,. Relationships among Physical, Chemical and Industrial Characteristics of Different Dromedary Camel's Hair Types. Journal of American Science 2015;11(2):67-75.
Luxury fibres : rare materials for higher added value
  • Philippa Watkins
  • Alexandra Buxton
Philippa Watkins, Alexandra Buxton. Luxury fibres : rare materials for higher added value. Special report (Economist Intelligence Unit (Great Britain)) n., editor. London ; New York, N.Y., USA London ; New York, N.Y., USA : Economist Intelligence Unit, ©; 1992.
Guide to the Identification of Animal Fibres Leeds: Wool Industries Research Association.; 1978. 5. Humphries, Mary. Fabric reference. Upper Saddle River
  • Hm Appleyard
Appleyard, Hm. Guide to the Identification of Animal Fibres. 2nd Edition ed. Leeds: Wool Industries Research Association.; 1978. 5. Humphries, Mary. Fabric reference. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall; 1996.
Wool Technology and production. 1st Edition ed. Cairo: General Authority for books and scientific equipment
  • Merhi Fi
  • Abdulsalam Ma
Merhi Fi, Abdulsalam Ma. Wool Technology and production. 1st Edition ed. Cairo: General Authority for books and scientific equipment 1971.
American National Standards Institute. Standard method of test for diameter of wool and other animal fibers by microprojection
American Society for, Testing,Materials,American Standards Association, American National Standards Institute. Standard method of test for diameter of wool and other animal fibers by microprojection. [Philadelphia]: [American Society for Testing and Materials]; 1964.