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The Latest Developments in Glass Science and Technology

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The aim of this study is to give detailed information about the latest developments/ applications in the glass science and technology. In this aspect, smart glass, security glass, thin glass, amorphous metal, electrolytes, molecular liquid, colloidal glass, glass added polymer, glass-ceramic, fiberglass, double glazing, Dragontrail glass, Gorilla glass, fluorescent lamp, glass to metal seal, glassphalt, heatable glass, lamination, nano channel glass, photochromic lenses, night vision glasses, glass cockpit, porous glass, self—cleaning glass and bioactive glass were mentioned.
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ISSN:2148-3736
El-Cezerî Fen ve Mühendislik Dergisi
Cilt: 4, No: 2, 2017 (209-233)
El-Cezerî Journal of Science and
Engineering
Vol: 4, No: 2, 2017 (209-233)
ECJSE
How to cite this article
Karasu, B., Bereket, O., Biryan, E., Sanoglu, D., The Latest Developments in Glass Science and TechnologyEl-Cezerî Journal of Science and Engineering,
2017, 4(2); 209-233.
Bu makaleye atıf için
Karasu, B., Bereket, O., Biryan, E., Sanoglu, D., Cam Bilimi ve Teknolojisindeki En Son GelişmelerEl-Cezerî Fen ve Mühendislik Dergisi 2017, 4(2); 209-233.
Research Paper / Makale
The Latest Developments in Glass Science and Technology
Bekir KARASU, Oguz BEREKET, Ecenur BIRYAN, Deniz SANOĞLU
Anadolu University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 26555, Eskişehir
TÜRKİYE, bkarasu@anadolu.edu.tr
Received/Geliş: 18.11.2016 Revised/Düzeltme: 25.01.2017 Accepted/Kabul: 14.02.2017
Abstract: The aim of this study is to give detailed information about the latest developments/ applications in
the glass science and technology. In this aspect, smart glass, security glass, thin glass, amorphous metal,
electrolytes, molecular liquid, colloidal glass, glass added polymer, glass-ceramic, fiberglass, double glazing,
Dragontrail glass, Gorilla glass, fluorescent lamp, glass to metal seal, glassphalt, heatable glass, lamination,
nano channel glass, photochromic lenses, night vision glasses, glass cockpit, porous glass, selfcleaning glass
and bioactive glass were mentioned.
Keywords: Glass, Science, Technology, Innovation, Application
Cam Bilimi ve Teknolojisindeki En Son Gelişmeler
Özet: Bu çalışmanın amacı cam bilimi ve teknolojisindeki en son gelişmeler hakkında detaylı bilgi sunmaktır.
İlgili bağlamda, güvenlik camı, ince cam, camsı metal, elektrolitler, moleküler sıvı, koloidal cam, cam katkılı
polimer, cam-seramik, cam lifi, izolasyon camı, Dragontrail camı, Gorilla camı, flüoresan lamba, cam-metal
sızdırmazlığı, cam katkılı asfalt, ısıtılabilir cam, tabakalama, nano kanallı cam, fotokromik lensler, gece görüş
camları, cam pilot kabini, porlu cam, kendi kendini temizleyebilen cam ve biyo-aktif camdan bahsedilmiştir.
Anahtar kelimeler: Cam, Bilim, Teknoloji, Yenilik, Uygulama
1. Introduction
Glass is a non-crystalline solid being usually transparent and has widespread practical,
technological, and decorative usage in things like window panes, tableware, optoelectronics and etc.
Scientifically, the term "glass" is often defined in a broader sense, encompassing every solid that
possesses a non-crystalline (that is, amorphous) structure at the atomic scale and exhibits a glass
transition when heated towards the liquid state [1]. Glass will transmit, reflect and refract light;
these qualities can be enhanced by cutting and polishing to make optical lenses, prisms, fine
glassware, and optical fibres for high speed data transmission by light. It can be coloured by adding
metallic salts, and can also be painted. These qualities have led to the extensive use of glass in the
manufacture of art objects and in particular, stained glass windows. Although brittle, silicate glass is
extremely durable, and many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures.
Because glass can be formed or moulded into any shape, and also because it is a sterile product, it
has been traditionally used for vessels: bowls, vases, bottles, jars and drinking glasses. In its most
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solid forms it has also been used for paper weights, marbles, and beads. When extruded as glass
fibre and matted as glass wool in a way to trap air, it becomes a thermal insulating material, and
when these glass fibres are embedded into an organic polymer plastic, they are a key structural
reinforcement part of the composite material fiberglass. Some objects are so commonly made of
glass that they are simply called by the name of the material, such as drinking glasses and reading
glasses [2]. These sorts of glasses can be made of quite different kinds of materials than silica:
metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, and polymers. For many
applications, like glass bottles or eyewear, polymer glasses (acrylic
glass, polycarbonate or polyethylene terephthalate-PET) are a lighter alternative than traditional
silicate-based glass [3].
2. History of Glass
People had used naturally occurring glass, especially obsidian (the volcanic glass) before they
learned how to make it. Obsidian was used for the production of knives, arrowheads, jewellery and
money. The ancient Roman historian Pliny suggested that Phoenician merchants had made the first
glass in the region of Syria around 5000 BC. But according to the archaeological evidence, the first
man made glass was in Eastern Mesopotamia and Egypt around 3500 BC and the first glass vessels
were made about 1500 BC in Egypt and Mesopotamia. For the next 300 years, the glass industry
was increased rapidly and then declined. In Mesopotamia it was revived in the 700 BC and in Egypt
in the 500’s BC. For the next 500 years, Egypt, Syria and the other countries along the eastern coast
of the Mediterranean Sea were centres for glass manufacturing. In the beginning it was very hard
and slow to manufacture glass. Glass melting furnaces were small and the heat they produced was
hardly enough to melt glass. But in the 1st century BC, Syrian craftsmen invented the blow pipe.
This revolutionary discovery made glass production easier, faster and cheaper. Glass production
flourished in the Roman Empire and spread from Italy to all countries under its rule (Fig. 1). In
1000 AD the Egyptian city of Alexandria was the most important centre of glass manufacture.
(a) (b) (c) (d)
Figure 1. (a) A Roman glass aryballos circa, 1st century AD [4], (b) A Roman glass cinerary urn,1st-
2nd century AD [4], (c) Roman blown glass cup engraved with grape vines, 3rd century AD [4], (d)
Munich Cage cup from Cologne, dated to the mid-4th century [5].
A flourishing glass industry was developed in Europe at the end of 13th century when the glass
industry was established in Venice by the time of Crusades (AD 1096-1270). In 1291, equipment
for glassmaking was transferred to the Venetian island Murano where “cristallo” (colourless glass)
was invented by Angelo Barovier. Despite the efforts of the Venetian artisans who dominated the
glass industry to keep the technology secret, it soon spread around Europe. In Germany and other
northern European countries glassmaking became important by the late 1400’s and early 1500`s and
during the 1500’s it became important in England. George Ravenscroft (1618-1681), an English
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glassmaker, invented lead glass in 1674 which was a major breakthrough in the glass history. After
1890, the development, manufacture and use of glass increased rapidly. After 1890, glass use,
development and manufacture began to increase rapidly. Machinery has been developed for precise,
continuous manufacture of a host of products. In 1902, Irving W. Colburn invented the sheet glass
drawing machine which made possible the mass production of window glass. Mechanical
technology for mass production began in the latter stages of the Industrial Revolution with Michael
Owens`s invention of an automatic bottle blowing machine in 1903 that could produce 2500 bottles
per hour. In 1904, the American engineer Michael Owens patented the automatic bottle-blowing
machine. In 1959 Sir Alastair Pilkington invented the revolutionary float glass production
technique. His method involves the pouring of glass on flat surfaces of molten metal, either tin or
led. Pilkington’s method is used in 90 % of glass manufacture today. Float glass production makes
glass sheets suitable for commercial markets including the manufacture of windows, shower screens
and the like. Glass has evolved through advancing technologies and technological evolution
naturally continues. Today, glass-making is a modern, hi-tech industry. Modern glass plants are
capable of making millions of glass containers a day in many different colours and have been
developed for precise continuous production of sheet glass tubing, containers, bulbs and host of
other products (Fig. 2) [6-10].
Figure 2. Different glass products [11].
3. Some Technologically Important Glasses
Beside conventional soda-lime-silica glasses known for centuries, new chemical glass compositions
or new treatment techniques can be initially investigated in small-scale laboratory experiments. To
make glass from materials with poor glass forming tendencies, novel techniques are used to
increase cooling rate, or reduce crystal nucleation triggers. Examples of these techniques
include aerodynamic levitation (cooling the melt whilst it floats on a gas stream), splat
quenching (pressing the melt between two metal anvils) and roller quenching (pouring the melt
through rollers) [12]. Some glasses that do not include silica as a major constituent may have
physico-chemical properties useful for their application in fibre optics and other specialized
technical applications. These include fluoride glasses, aluminosilicates, phosphate glasses, borate
glasses, and chalcogenide glasses [13].
3.1. Smart Glasses
Electrochromic windows darken when voltage is added and are transparent when voltage is taken
away. Like suspended particle devices, electrochromic windows can be adjusted to allow varying
levels of visibility (Fig. 3).
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Figure 3. When switched off, an electrochromic window remains transparent [14].
Since the early 20th century, people have got used to the idea of buildings that are increasingly
automated. The use of intelligent smart glass provides added value and increased flexibility in new
building design, improves working environments and building ergonomics, saves energy, and
increases the well being of occupants [15]. Smart windows (also referred to by the names smart
glass, switchable windows, and dynamic windows) do exactly that using a scientific idea
called electrochromism, in which materials change colour (or switch from transparent to opaque)
when an electrical voltage applied across them. Typically smart windows start off a blueish colour
and gradually (over a few minutes) turn transparent when the electric current passes through them.
More sophisticated windows (using low-E heat-reflective glass) are coated with a thin layer of
metallic chemicals so they keep home warm in winter and cool in summer. Electrochromic
windows work a little bit like this, only the metal-oxide coatings they use are much more
sophisticated and deposited by processes similar to those used in the manufacture of integrated
circuits (silicon computer chips). Much like the early days of the resistive touchscreen, one won’t
find optical scanners used in anything but the most cost effective pieces of hardware these days.
With increasing demand for tougher security, smartphones have unanimously adopted superior
capacitive scanners. Instead of creating a traditional image of a fingerprint, capacitive fingerprint
scanners use arrays tiny capacitor circuits to collect data about a fingerprint (Fig. 4).
Figure 4. The theory and architecture behind a capacitive fingerprint scanning chip [16].
3.2. Vision Security Glasses
Polytronix PDLC film is the most “private” and of the highest quality in the industry, and is
internationally-known and recognized for privacy and quality by major glass companies worldwide.
It is superior to imported films: it is a thicker, more substantial film package than the imports,
making easier to handle and to apply, yet it’s still only about four times the thickness of a human
hair. It has better optical properties, including better uniformity without the variations and blotches
that mar other films, higher clarity (lower haze) in clear mode, and the best privacy (light scattering)
performance available. In addition to privacy, Polytronix PDLC film-enabled glass panes can
provide several other significant benefits for energy efficiency and creative applications. It expands
your product line with dramatic functionality that is low cost to operate, low maintenance, and
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highly energy-efficient. The polytronix PDLC film package consists of a layer of liquid crystal
sandwiched between two polyethylene terephthalate (PET) conductive films. In its rest state, it is a
translucent white. When the electricity is switched on, the glass instantly changes to transparent.
The power drawn by a window is roughly equivalent to operating a 25-watt light bulb. The liquid
crystal privacy glass is constructed in a way similar to the construction of laminated glass. The
outside skins are made up of glass (normally 5 or 6 mm annealed glass) each side, then a PVB
interlayer is inserted on each side to trap and hold the liquid crystal privacy film. The liquid crystal
privacy film is made up of electrically conductive coatings, a polymer matrix and liquid crystals.
This film has electrical wiring to be connected to a transformer to supply power for the “on” (clear
state) mode (Fig. 5) [17]. Privacy and security with architectural integrity, eliminates need for
shutters, blinds, and drapes, ultraviolet and infrared radiation protection, day-lighting control, solar
heat-gain control and replacement for whiteboards and projection screens.
Figure 5. The polytronix PDLC film package [17].
Goggles or safety glasses are forms of protective eyewear that usually enclose or protect the area
surrounding the eye in order to prevent particulates, water or chemicals from striking the eyes. They
are used in chemistry laboratories and in woodworking. They are often used in snow sports as well,
and in swimming. Goggles are often worn when using power tools such as drills or chainsaws to
prevent flying particles from damaging the eyes. Many types of goggles are available as
prescription goggles for those with vision problems (Fig. 6) [18].
Figure 6. Some products for eye security glasses [19].
3.3. Thin-Glass Technology for Solar Applications
Tempered thin glass is light, extremely flexible and highly robust-ideal conditions for the use in the
solar industry, whether as cold-bent parabolic reflectors or for glass-glass modules. The LiSEC
encapsulation technique for glass-glass modules combines all advantages of tempered thin glass,
making use of 50 years of experience in the insulating glass business. Their hermetic sealing
renders the modules completely diffusion tight and UV resistant. Thin glass used on the front and
rear side allows easy installation using back rails. The LiSEC encapsulation technique is perfectly
suitable for crystalline, organic and thin-film solar cells, and the laminating film can be chosen
according to your requirements too [20-21]. The perfect combination of thin glass, AR coating and
laminating film yields up to 6 % more energy. This is a plus in energy output of 450 kWh of a
standard module (72 cells, 300 Wp) after 25 years. Increased lifetime LiSEC's know-how leads in
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sealing technologies as well as the solid thin glass make the modules absolutely diffusion tight and
UV resistant. For the symmetric construction of the module, the cells are within the module's
neutral zone, preventing them from breaking when exposed to bending stress. The thin glass used
makes the modules very lightweight compared to conventional ones. As a result, simpler and more
cost-effective sub constructions can be used [22-23].
3.4. Amorphous Metals
In the past, small batches of amorphous metals with high surface area configurations (ribbons,
wires, films, etc.) have been produced through the implementation of extremely rapid rates of
cooling. This was initially termed "splat cooling" by doctoral student W. Klement at Caltech, who
showed that cooling rates on the order of millions of degrees per second is sufficient to impede the
formation of crystals, and the metallic atoms become "locked into" a glassy state. Amorphous metal
wires have been produced by sputtering molten metal onto a spinning metal disk. More recently a
number of alloys have been produced in layers with thickness exceeding 1 millimetre (Fig. 7).
These are known as bulk metallic glasses (BMG). Liquid metal technologies sell a number of
zirconium-based BMGs. Batches of amorphous steel have also been produced that demonstrate
mechanical properties far exceeding those found in conventional steel alloys [21, 24-26].
Figure 7. Amorphous metal foils and an amorphous metal alloys for producing highly complex
parts via an efficient injection-moulding process exceeds the strength of its counterparts [27].
3.5. Electrolytes
Electrolytes or molten salts are mixtures of different ions. In a mixture of three or more ionic
species of dissimilar size and shape, crystallization can be so difficult that the liquid can easily be
super cooled into a glass. The best-studied example is Ca0.4K0.6(NO3)1.4. Some aqueous solutions
can be super cooled into a glassy state, for instance LiCl:RH2O in the composition range of 4<R<8
[28].
3.6. Molecular Liquids
A molecular liquid is composed of molecules that do not form a covalent network but interact only
through weak Van der Waals forces or through transient hydrogen bonds. Many molecular liquids
can be super cooled into a glass; some are excellent glass formers that normally do not crystallize.
A widely known example is sugar glass. Under extremes of pressure and temperature solids may
exhibit large structural and physical changes that can lead to polymorphic phase transitions [29]. In
2006 Italian scientists created an amorphous phase of carbon dioxide using extreme pressure. The
substance was named amorphous carbonia and exhibits an atomic structure resembling that of silica
[30].
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3.7. Colloidal Glasses
Concentrated colloidal suspensions may exhibit a distinct glass transition as a function of particle
concentration or density. In cell biology there is recent evidence suggesting that
the cytoplasm behaves like a colloidal glass approaching the liquid-glass transition. During periods
of low metabolic activity, as in dormancy, the cytoplasm vitrifies and prohibits the movement to
larger cytoplasmic particles while allowing the diffusion of smaller ones throughout the cell [31-
33].
3.8. Polymer Glasses
Important polymer glasses include amorphous and glassy pharmaceutical compounds. These are
useful because the solubility of the compound is greatly increased when it is amorphous compared
to the same crystalline composition. Many emerging pharmaceuticals are practically insoluble in
their crystalline forms [34]. A question will definitely arise lots of times where polymer clay is used
to cover the handles of cutlery or the outsides of glasses: Is polymer clay safe for that? Yes, it is
absolutely safe to use polymer clay in this manner as long as it’s not a food-contact region (Fig. 8).
Figure 8. Examples of polymer clay glasses [35].
3.9. Glass-ceramics
Glass-ceramic materials share many properties with both non-crystalline glass
and crystalline ceramics. They are formed as a glass, and then partially crystallized by precisely
controlled heat treatment. For example, the microstructure of white ware ceramics frequently
contains both amorphous and crystalline phases. Crystalline grains are often embedded within a
non-crystalline intergranular phase of grain boundaries. When applied to white ware
ceramics, vitreous means the material has an extremely low permeability to liquids, often but not
always water, when determined by a specified test regime [36-37]. The term mainly refers to a mix
of lithium and aluminosilicates that yields an array of materials with interesting thermomechanical
properties. The most commercially important of these have the distinction of being impervious to
thermal shock. Thus, glass-ceramics have become extremely useful for countertop cooking (Fig. 9).
The negative thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of the crystalline phase can be balanced with the
positive CTE of the glassy phase. At a certain point (~70 % crystalline) the glass-ceramic has a net
CTE near zero. This type of glass-ceramic exhibits excellent mechanical properties and can sustain
repeated and quick temperature changes up to 1000 °C [36].
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Figure 9. Glass ceramic cooktop [38].
3.10. Fiberglass
Glass fibres have been produced for centuries, but mass production of glass strands was discovered
in 1932 when Games Slayter, a researcher at Owens-Illinois, accidentally directed a jet of
compressed air at a stream of molten glass and produced fibres. Originally, fibreglass was a glass
wool with fibres entrapping a great deal of gas, making it useful as an insulator, especially at high
temperatures [39]. A suitable resin for combining the "fibreglass" with a plastic to produce a
composite material was developed in 1936 by du Pont. The first ancestor of modern polyester resins
is Cyanamid's resin of 1942. Peroxide curing systems were used by then. With the combination of
fiberglass and resin the gas content of the material was replaced by plastic. This reduced the
insulation properties to values typical of the plastic, but now for the first time the composite showed
great strength and promise as a structural and building material. Confusingly, many glass fibre
composites continued to be called "fiberglass" (as a generic name) and the name was also used for
the low-density glass wool product containing gas instead of plastic [40]. Ray Greene of Owens
Corning is credited with producing the first composite boat in 1937, but did not proceed further at
the time due to the brittle nature of the plastic used. In 1939 Russia was reported to have
constructed a passenger boat of plastic materials, and the United States a fuselage and wings of an
aircraft. The first car to have a fibre-glass body was a 1946 prototype of the Stout Scarab, but the
model did not enter production [41]. The most common types of glass fibre used in fiberglass is E-
glass, which is alumino-borosilicate glass with less than 1 % w/w alkali oxides, mainly used for
glass-reinforced plastics. Other types of glass used are A-glass (Alkali-lime glass with little or no
boron oxide), E-CR-glass (Electrical/Chemical Resistance; alumino-lime silicate with less than 1 %
w/w alkali oxides, with high acid resistance), C-glass (alkali-lime glass with high boron oxide
content, used for glass staple fibres and insulation), D-glass (borosilicate glass, named for its
low dielectric constant), R-glass (alumino silicate glass without MgO and CaO with high
mechanical requirements as reinforcement), and S-glass (alumino silicate glass without CaO but
with high MgO content with high tensile strength) [42].
3.11. Double Glazing (Insulating Glazing)
Insulated glazing is an evolution from older technologies known as double-hung windows and
storm windows. Traditional double-hung windows used a single pane of glass to separate the
interior and exterior spaces. In the summer, a window screen would be installed on the exterior over
the double-hung window to keep out animals and insects. In the winter, the screen was removed and
replaced with a storm window, which created a two-layer separation between the interior and
exterior spaces, increasing window insulation in cold winter months. Insulating glass units are
sealed combinations of 2 or more lites of glass separated by a dry air space. Those units save
energy, save money, reduce pollution and greatly improve the comfort inside a building. Insulated
glazing (IG), more commonly known as double glazing (or double-pane, and increasingly triple
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glazing/pane) is double or triple glass window panes separated by a vacuum or gas filled space to
reduce heat transfer across a part of the building envelope (Fig. 10) [43-45].
Figure 10. A glass window pane [45].
Insulated glass units are manufactured with glass in range of thickness from 3 to 10 mm or more in
special applications. Laminated or tempered glass may also be used as part of the construction.
Most units are manufactured with the same thickness of glass used on both panes but special
applications such as acoustic attenuation or security may require wide ranges of thicknesses to be
incorporated in the same unit [46].
3.12. Gorilla Glass
Gorilla Glass is a brand of specialized toughened glass developed and manufactured by Corning,
now in its fourth generation, designed to be thin, light and damage-resistant (Fig. 11). This type of
glass is not unique to Corning; similar glasses include Asahi Glass Co. Dragontrail and Schott
AG Xensation. The alkali-aluminosilicate sheet glass is used primarily as cover glass for portable
electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable media players, portable computer displays,
and some television screens. It is manufactured in Harrodsburg, Kentucky, USA, in Asan, Korea,
and in Taiwan. The glass gains its surface strength, ability to contain flaws, and crack-resistance by
being immersed in a hot potassium salt ion-exchange bath.
Figure 11. Some applications of Gorilla glass [47].
3.13. Dragontrail Glass
Dragontrail, manufactured by Asahi Glass Co., is an alkali-aluminosilicate sheet glass engineered
for a combination of thinness, lightness and damage-resistance, similar to Corning's Gorilla Glass.
The material's primary properties are its strength, allowing thin glass without fragility; its high
scratch resistance; and its hardnesswith a Vickers hardness test rating of 595 to 673 [48].
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3.13.1. Gorilla glass vs Dragontrail glass comparison
Gorilla and Dragontrail glasses are both very hard and tough glasses. These glasses are scratch
resistant and are very difficult to break. Here it is a clear comparison between these two to find out
what makes them different from each other in terms of their properties and usage [49].
Gorilla Glass
Dragontrail Glass
Manufacturer
Corning from USA
Asahi from Japan
Type of Glass
Alkali-aluminosilicate sheet glass
Alkali-aluminosilicate sheet glass
Vickers Hardness Rating
622 to 701
595 to 673
Versions
Gorilla glass, Gorilla glass 2, Gorilla glass 3, Gorilla glass 4. Gorilla glass
3 is 40% more strong and scratch resistant. Gorilla glass 4 is up to two
times tougher & stronger than its competitive glasses
Dragontrial glass
Applications or Usage
Smartphones, laptops, tablets, portable media players, computer displays
and some television displays
Smartphones, tablets
Manufacturing Process
Ion-exchange method
Float process
Popularity
Very popular and established product
Not much popular but gaining
popularity
Properties
Scratch resistant, damage resistance, lightness and thinness
Scratch resistant, damage
resistance, lightness and thinness
3.14. Fluorescent Lamp
A fluorescent lamp or a fluorescent tube is a low pressure mercury-vapour gas-discharge lamp that
uses fluorescence to produce visible light. An electric current in the gas excites mercury vapour
which produces short-wave ultraviolet light that then causes a phosphor coating on the inside of the
bulb to glow (Fig. 12). A fluorescent lamp converts electrical energy into useful light much more
efficiently than incandescent lamps. The typical luminous efficacy of fluorescent lighting systems is
50100 lumens per watt, several times the efficacy of incandescent bulbs with comparable light
output [50]. Fluorescent lamp fixtures are more costly than incandescent lamps because they require
a ballast to regulate the current through the lamp, but the lower energy cost typically offsets the
higher initial cost. Compact fluorescent lamps are now available in the same popular sizes as
incandescent and are used as an energy-saving alternative in homes [51].
Figure 12. Some commercial products of fluorescent lamps [52].
Because they contain mercury, many fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency recommends that fluorescent lamps be
segregated from general waste for recycling or safe disposal. Light-emitting phosphors are applied
as a paint-like coating to the inside of the tube. The organic solvents are allowed to evaporate, and
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then the tube is heated to nearly the melting point of glass to drive off remaining organic
compounds and fuse the coating to the lamp tube [53].
3.15. Glass to Metal Seals
Glass-to-metal seals are a very important element of the construction of vacuum tubes, electric
discharge tubes, incandescent light bulbs, glass encapsulated semiconductor diodes, reed switches,
pressure tight glass windows in metal cases, and metal or ceramic packages of electronic
components (Fig. 13). Properly done, such a seal is hermetic. To achieve such a seal, two properties
must hold:
1. The molten glass must be capable of wetting the metal, in order to form a tight bond, and
2. The thermal expansion of the glass and metal must be closely matched so that the seal remains
solid as the assembly cools. When one material goes through a hole in the other, such as a metal
wire through a glass bulb, and the inner material's coefficient of thermal expansion is higher than
that of the outer, it will shrink more as it cools, cracking the seal. If the inner material's coefficient
of expansion is slightly less, the seal will tighten as it cools, which is often beneficial. Since most
metals expand much more with heat than most glasses, this is not easy to arrange [54].
Figure 13. Examples of glass-metal sealed products [55].
3.15.1. Glass-to-metal bond
Glass and metal can bond together by purely mechanical means, which usually gives weaker joints,
or by chemical interaction, where the oxide layer on the metal surface forms a strong bond with the
glass. The acid-base reactions are main causes of interaction between glass-metal in the presence of
metal oxides on the surface of metal. After complete dissolution of the surface oxides into the glass,
further progress of interaction depends on the oxygen activity at the interface. For achieving a
vacuum-tight seal, the seal must not contain bubbles. The bubbles are most commonly created by
gases escaping the metal at high temperature; degassing the metal before its sealing is therefore
important, especially for nickel and iron and their alloys. Oxidizing of the metal surface also
reduces gas evolution. Most of the evolved gas is produced due to the presence of carbon impurities
in the metals; these can be removed by heating in hydrogen. The glass-oxide bond is stronger than
glass-metal. The oxide forms a layer on the metal surface, with the proportion of oxygen changing
from zero in the metal to the stoichiometry of the oxide and the glass itself. A too thick oxide layer
tends to be porous on the surface and mechanically weak, flaking, compromising the bond strength
and creating possible leakage paths along the metal-oxide interface. Proper thickness of the oxide
layer is therefore critical. Also the mechanical design of a glass-to-metal seal has an important
influence on the reliability of the seal. In practical glass-to-metal seals cracks usually start at the
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edge of the interface between glass and metal either inside or outside the glass container. Another
important aspect is the wetting of the metal by the glass. If the thermal expansion of the metal is
higher than the thermal expansion of the glass like with the Housekeeper seal, a high contact angle
(bad wetting) means that there is a high tensile stress in the surface of the glass near the metal. Such
seals usually break inside the glass and leave a thin cover of glass on the metal. Ordinary soda-lime
glass does not flow on copper at temperatures below the melting point of the copper and, thus, does
not give a low contact angle. The solution is to cover the copper with a solder glass which has a low
melting point and does flow on copper and then to press the soft soda-lime glass onto the copper.
The solder glass must have a coefficient of thermal expansion which is equal or a little lower than
that of the soda-lime glass. Classically high lead containing glasses are used, but it is also possible
to substitute these by multi-component glasses e.g. based on the system Li2O-Na2O-K2O-CaO-
SiO2-B2O3-ZnO-TiO2-BaO-Al2O3 [56].
3.16. Glassphalt
Glassphalt (also spelled "glasphalt") is a variety of asphalt that uses crushed glass (Fig. 14). It has
been used as an alternative to conventional bituminous asphalt pavement since the early 1970s.
Glassphalt must be properly mixed and placed if it is to meet roadway pavement standards,
requiring some modifications to generally accepted asphalt procedures. Generally, there is about 10-
20 % glass by weight in glassphalt [57].
Figure 14. Glassphalt and its application [58].
3.17. Heatable Glass
Electrically heatable glass and windows are relatively new products, which help solve problems in
the design of buildings and vehicles. The idea of heating glass is based on the use of energy-
efficient low-emissive glass, which is generally simple silicate glass with a special
metallic oxides coating. Low-emissive coating decreases heat loss by approximately 30 %. Heatable
glass can be used in all kinds of standard glazing systems, whether wood, plastic, aluminium or
steel (Fig. 15). Heatable glass based on low-emissive coatings was first produced in high volume in
the early 1980s. Today, heating glass is used in the construction of many kinds of buildings and in
mass production of vehicles, ships and trains. Heatable glass removes discomfort and other
disadvantages induced by the low heat-insulating features of silicate glass. The effect of “cold
glass” disappears when the surface of the glass is heated. Condensation is eliminated, along with ice
and snow covering, the window’s heat losses are compensated and room comfort is improved [59].
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Figure 15. Samples of heatable glass applications [60].
Windows play a significant role in room comfort. As a result, the area of glazing of buildings is
constantly being increased. A window technology always in progress and it is common today to use
low-emissive glass. In spite of progress the low temperature of glass surface is still the problem of
constructive glazing. Heatable glass helps to solve problems concerning low surface temperature
and increase the level of comfort in the room significantly. It can be used in practically all kinds of
glazing systems made of wood, plastic or aluminium. Heatable glass and multiple glass panes can
be used both in blind and openable constructions. Multiple glass panes made of heating glass can
have one or two chambers. The advantages of multiple glass panes are their hermiticity and ability
to decrease heat transfer significantly. Heating glass is used for defogging and prevention of
frosting of windows of pools, saunas and other buildings of such kind. Insofar as heatable glass has
a current-carrying coating, it can be used as the sensor of alarm systems. When the glass is
destroyed the system of protection is activated and it results in activation of alarm system. This kind
of product is widely used on objects of tightened standards in questions of protection: nuclear
power plants, stations of air navigation control, museums, special storehouses, etc. Heatable glass is
also used in production of windows for different kinds of vehicles: electric and diesel locomotives,
vessels and boats, various kinds of aircraft and automobiles. One of well-known examples of
application of heating glass is armoured windows, because the protective glazing is very thick and
is disposed to frosting. The usage of heating glass is especially urgent in terms of being the part of
armoured multiple glass of smart glass of switchable transparency, because the heating significantly
decreases the period of reaction of liquid crystals structure [59].
3.18. Lamination
Lamination is the technique of manufacturing a material in multiple layers, so that the composite
material achieves improved strength, stability, sound insulation, appearance or other properties from
the use of differing materials (Fig. 16). A laminate is a permanently assembled object
by heat, pressure, welding, or adhesives [61].
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Figure 16. Laminated glass [62].
There are different lamination processes, depending on the type of materials to be laminated. The
materials used in laminates can be the same or different, depending on the processes and the object
to be laminated. An example of the type of laminate using different materials would be the
application of a layer of plastic filmthe "laminate"on either side of a sheet of glass
the laminated subject. Vehicle windshields are commonly made by laminating a tough plastic film
between two layers of glass. This is to prevent shards of glass detaching from the windshield in case
it breaks [63-64]. Examples of laminate materials include melamine adhesive countertop surfacing
and plywood. Decorative laminates are produced with decorative papers with a layer of overlay on
top of the decorative paper, set before pressing them with thermos-processing into high-pressure
decorative laminates [65].
3.19. Nano Channel Glass Materials
Nano channel glass materials are an experimental mask technology that is an alternate method for
fabricating nanostructures, although optical lithography is the predominant patterning technique
[66]. Nano channel glass materials are complex glass structures containing large numbers of parallel
hollow channels (Fig. 17). In its simplest form, the hollow channels are arranged in geometric
arrays with packing densities as great as 1011channels/cm2. Channel dimensions are controllable
from micrometres to tens of nanometres, while retaining excellent channel uniformity. Exact
replicas of the channel glass can be made from a variety of materials. This is a low cost method for
creating identical structures with nanoscale features in large numbers. These materials have high
density of uniform channels with diameters from 15 micrometres to 15 nanometres. These are rigid
structures with serviceable temperatures to at least 300 °C, with potential up to 1000 °C.
Furthermore, these are optically transparent photonic structures with high degree of reproducibility
[67-69]. These can be used as a material for chromatographic columns,
unidirectional conductors, Micro channel plate and nonlinear optical devices. Other uses are as
masks for semiconductor development, including ion implantation, optical lithography, and reactive
[67].
Figure 17. Structure and application of nano channel glass material [70].
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3.20. Optical Fibre Cable
An optical fibre cable is a cable containing one or more optical fibres that are used to carry light.
The optical fibre elements are typically individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a
protective tube suitable for the environment where the cable will be deployed. Different types of
cable are used for different applications, for example long distance telecommunication, or providing
a high-speed data connection between different parts of a building [71]. For indoor applications, the
jacketed fibre is generally enclosed, with a bundle of flexible fibrous polymer strength members
like aramid (e.g. Twaron or Kevlar), in a lightweight plastic cover to form a simple cable (Fig. 18).
Each end of the cable may be terminated with a specialized optical fibre connector to allow it to be
easily connected and disconnected from transmitting and receiving equipment. A critical concern in
outdoor cabling is to protect the fibre from contamination by water. This is accomplished by use of
solid barriers such as copper tubes, and water-repellent jelly or water-absorbing powder
surrounding the fibre. Finally, the cable may be armoured to protect it from environmental hazards,
such as construction work or gnawing animals. Undersea cables are more heavily armoured in their
near-shore portions to protect them from boat anchors, fishing gear, and even sharks, which may be
attracted to the electrical power that is carried to power amplifiers or repeaters in the cable [72-74].
Figure 18. Optical fibres [75].
Modern cables come in a wide variety of sheathings and armour, designed for applications such as
direct burial in trenches, dual use as power lines, installation in conduit, lashing to aerial telephone
poles, submarine installation, and insertion in paved streets [76].
3.21. Photo Chromatic Lenses
Photochromic lenses are optical lenses that darken on exposure to specific types of light of
sufficient intensity, most commonly ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In the absence of activating light the
lenses return to their clear state. Photochromic lenses may be made of glass, polycarbonate, or
another plastic. They are principally used in sunglasses that are dark in bright sunlight, but clear in
low ambient light conditions. They darken significantly within about a minute of exposure to bright
light, and take somewhat longer to clear. A range of clear and dark transmittances are available; one
manufacturer makes one glass with transmittance reducing from 87 to 20 %, and another reducing
from 45 to 9 %. Molecules of silver chloride or another silver halide are embedded in photo
chromatic lenses. They are transparent to visible light without significant ultraviolet component,
which is normal for artificial lighting. When exposed to ultraviolet (UV) rays, as in direct sunlight,
the molecules undergo a chemical process that causes them to change shape and absorb a significant
percentage of the visible light, i.e., they darken (Fig. 19). This process is reversible; once the lens is
removed from strong sources of UV rays the silver compounds return to their transparent state.
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With the photochromic material dispersed in the glass substrate, the degree of darkening depends on
the thickness of glass, which poses problems with variable-thickness lenses in prescription glasses.
With plastic lenses, the material is typically embedded into the surface layer of the plastic in a
uniform thickness of up to 150 µm. Typically, photochromic lenses darken substantially in response
to UV light in less than one minute, and continue to darken a little more over the next fifteen
minutes. The lenses begin to clear in the absence of UV light, and will be noticeably lighter within
two minutes, mostly clear within five minutes, and fully back to their non-exposed state in about
fifteen minutes [77-79].
Figure 19. Photo chromatic lenses [80].
3.22. Night Vision Glasses
Night vision is the ability to see in low light conditions. Whether by biological or technological
means, night vision is made possible by a combination of two approaches: sufficient spectral range,
and sufficient intensity range. Humans have poor night vision compared to many animals, in part
because the human eye lacks a tapetum lucidum [81]. Night-useful spectral range techniques can
sense radiation that is invisible to a human observer. Human vision is confined to a small portion of
the electromagnetic spectrum called visible light. Enhanced spectral range allows the viewer to take
advantage of non-visible sources of electromagnetic radiation (such as near-
infrared or ultraviolet radiation). Some animals such as the mantis shrimp can see using much more
of the infrared and/or ultraviolet spectrum than humans. Sufficient intensity range is simply the
ability to see with very small quantities of light. Many animals have better night vision than humans
do the result of one or more differences in the morphology and anatomy of their eyes. These include
having a larger eyeball, a larger lens, a larger optical aperture (the pupils may expand to the
physical limit of the eyelids), more rods than cones (or rods exclusively) in the retina, and a tapetum
lucidum. Enhanced intensity range is achieved via technological means through the use of an image
intensifier, gain multiplication CCD, or other very low-noise and high-sensitivity array
of photodetectors (Fig. 20) [82-83].
Figure 20. 1974 US Army film about the development of military night vision technology [84].
3.23. Glass Cockpit
Glass cockpits originated in military aircraft in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s; an early example is
the Mark II avionics of the F-111D (first ordered in 1967, delivered from 197073), which featured
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a multi-function display. Prior to the 1970’s, air transport operations were not considered
sufficiently demanding to require advanced equipment like electronic flight displays. Also,
computer technology was not at a level where sufficiently light and powerful circuits were available
[85]. The increasing complexity of transport aircraft, the advent of digital systems and the growing
air traffic congestion around airports began to change that (Fig. 21). The average transport aircraft
in the mid-1970’s had more than one hundred cockpit instruments and controls, and the primary
flight instruments were already crowded with indicators, crossbars, and symbols, and the growing
number of cockpit elements were competing for cockpit space and pilot attention [86]. As a
result, NASA conducted research on displays that could process the raw aircraft system and flight
data into an integrated, easily understood picture of the flight situation, culminating in a series of
flights demonstrating a full glass cockpit system. The success of the NASA-led glass cockpit work
is reflected in the total acceptance of electronic flight displays beginning with the introduction of
the MD-80 in 1979. Airlines and their passengers alike have benefited. The safety and efficiency of
flights have been increased with improved pilot understanding of the aircraft's situation relative to
its environment (or "situational awareness").
Figure 21. The Airbus A380 glass cockpit featuring "pull out keyboards and 2 wide computer
screens on the sides for pilots" [85].
By the end of the 1990’s, liquid-crystal display (LCD) panels were increasingly favoured among
aircraft manufacturers because of their efficiency, reliability and legibility. Earlier LCD panels
suffered from poor legibility at some viewing angles and poor response times, making them
unsuitable for aviation. Modern aircraft such as the Boeing 737 Next Generation, 777, 717, 747-
400ER, 747-8F 767-400ER, 747-8, and 787, Airbus A320 family (later versions), A330 (later
versions), A340-500/600, A340-300 (later versions), A380 and A350 are fitted with glass cockpits
consisting of LCD units [86]. The glass cockpit has become standard equipment
in airliners, business jets, and military aircraft. It was fitted into NASA's Space
Shuttle orbiters Atlantis, Columbia, Discovery, and Endeavour, and the current
Russian Soyuz TMA model spacecraft that was launched in 2002. By the end of the century glass
cockpits began appearing in general aviation aircraft as well. In 2003, Cirrus
Design's SR20 and SR22 became the first light aircraft equipped with glass cockpits, which they
made standard on all Cirrus aircraft. By 2005, even basic trainers like the Piper
Cherokee and Cessna 172 were shipping with glass cockpits as options (which nearly all customers
chose), as well as many modern aircraft such as the Diamond DA42 twin-engine travel and training
aircraft. The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II features a "panoramic cockpit display" touchscreen
that replaces most of the switches and toggles found in an aircraft cockpit [87].
3.24. Porous Glasses
Porous glasses can be formed by sintering glass powders, by leaching of phase separated glasses, or
by the sol-gel method. These glasses can be used in the porous state or can serve as precursors to
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fully consolidated glasses. Porous glasses are currently under intense investigation as potential
selective separation membranes for a variety of gases and liquids. Impregnation of porous glasses
before consolidation can be used to produce continuously graded glass seals, conductive glasses
containing continuous carbon filaments, red glasses coloured by colloidal spinel particles, and
optical fibre preforms. The formation of porous glasses by leaching of phase separated glasses is
frequently called the Vycor® process, after the commercial material produced by Corning. These
glasses are formed from phase separated borosilicate glasses which have microstructures consisting
of two continuous phases. One of these phases is silica-rich, while the other contains most of the
alkali and boron oxides. Since the alkali borate phase readily dissolves in hot acids such as HCl,
HNO3, or H2SO4, this phase can be leached from the glass by exposure to such acids, leaving a very
porous silica-rich skeleton known as thirsty glass. The pores in thirsty glasses are often in the range
of 2 to 10 nm in diameter, and form continuous pathways through the glass. Internal surface areas
may be as great as 200 m2 g1 of glass (Fig. 22) [88].
Figure 22. Microstructure and product form of porous glass [89].
3.25. Solid and Hollow Glass Spheres
Since glass forming melts are liquids, any droplet of melt allowed to fall freely through a sufficient
distance will assume a spherical shape due to surface tension forces. Small spheres are routinely
produced by allowing a stream of melt to flow through the bottom of a container. The stream is
broken into small segments by an air jet or flame just below the container. If the temperature is high
enough and the fall distance is great enough, these segments will become spherical before the melt
solidifies. The same effect will occur if a pre-sized glass frit is used. In this case, the frit particles
are heated in the upper portion of the vertical furnace, or drop tower, become fluid, and then are
transformed to spheres as they fall through the hot zone. Frit particles can also be converted into
spheres by blowing the frit through the flame of a gas jet. Small glass spheres can also be formed by
a variation of a process used to form glass fibres. A stream of melt is poured onto a rotating disk.
The melt is thrown off the edge of the disk and broken into small segments. If the disk is cool and
the surrounding temperature is low, the segments will remain in fibre form. If, however, the disk is
heated and the surroundings are hot enough to allow the glass to form spheres before freezing to a
glass, small spherical beads will be formed [90]. Large glass spheres (marbles) are formed by
cutting small gobs from a melt stream. These gobs fall onto a pair of counter-rotating screws with
thread depth equal to one half the 27 desired marble diameters. The gobs are converted into spheres
and cooled as the gobs travel down the length of the screw, where the finished marbles are
collected. Formation of hollow glass spheres requires the release of gas from the starting material
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during the sphere formation (Fig. 23). The batch components are mixed in a liquid, which may
include a “blowing agent” such as urea. This solution is spray dried to form uniform, but non-
spherical particles. These particles are then introduced directly into the flame from a burner or
dropped down a vertical furnace. As the particles melt, the blowing agents decompose, releasing
gases which blow the molten sphere into a hollow shell. As the melt begins to cool, it becomes
impermeable to any remaining gases, which prevent the collapse of the shell.
Figure 23. Glass spheres [91].
3.26. Self-Cleaning Glass
Self-cleaning glass is a specific type of glass with a surface that keeps itself free of dirt and grime
(Fig. 24). The field of self-cleaning coatings on glass is divided into two
categories: hydrophobic and hydrophilic. These two types of coating both clean themselves through
the action of water, the former by rolling droplets and the latter by sheeting water that carries away
dirt. Hydrophilic coatings based on titania, however, have an additional property: they can
chemically break down absorbed dirt in sunlight.
Figure 24. Self-cleaning glasses [92].
The requirements for a self-cleaning hydrophobic surface are a very high static water contact angle
θ; the condition often quoted is θ > 160°, and a very low roll-off angle, i.e. the minimum inclination
angle necessary for a droplet to roll off the surface [93]. Several techniques are known for the
patterning of hydrophobic surfaces through the use of moulded polymers and waxes, by physical
processing methods such as ion etching and compression of polymer beads, and by chemical
methods such as plasma-chemical roughening, which can all result in ultra-hydrophobic coatings
[94]. While these surfaces are effective self-cleaners, they suffer from a number of drawbacks
which have so far prevented widespread application. These coatings chemically break down dirt
when exposed to light, a process known as photo catalysis. Despite the commercialization of a
hydrophilic self-cleaning coating in a number of products, the field is far from mature;
investigations into the fundamental mechanisms of self-cleaning and characterizations of new
coatings are regularly published in the primary literature [95].
The glass cleans itself in two stages. The "photocatalytic" stage of the process breaks down the
organic dirt on the glass using ultraviolet light and makes the glass super hydrophilic (normally
glass is hydrophobic). During the following "super hydrophilic" stage, rain washes away the dirt,
leaving almost no streaks, because water spreads evenly on super hydrophilic surfaces [96-97]. In
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2001, Pilkington Glass announced the development of the first self-cleaning windows, Pilkington
Activ™, and in the following months several other major glass companies released similar
products. As a result, glazing is perhaps the largest commercial application of self-cleaning coatings
to date. Titanium dioxide has become the material of choice for self-cleaning windows, and
hydrophilic self-cleaning surfaces in general, because of its favourable physical and chemical
properties. Not only is titanium dioxide highly efficient at photo catalysing dirt in sunlight and
reaching the super hydrophilic state, it is also non-toxic, chemically inert in the absence of light,
inexpensive, relatively easy to handle and deposit into thin films and is an established household
chemical that is used as a pigment in cosmetics and paint and as a food additive [98].
The anatase phase is the most photocatalytic among its polymorphic structures. Moreover,
ultraviolet irradiation creates surface oxygen vacancies at bridging sites, resulting in the conversion
of relevant Ti4+ sites to Ti3+ sites which are favourable for dissociative water adsorption. These
defects presumably influence the affinity to chemisorbed water of their surrounding sites, forming
hydrophilic domains, whereas the rest of the surface remains oleophilic. Hydrophilic domains are
areas where dissociative water is adsorbed, associated with oxygen vacancies that are preferentially
photo generated along the [001] direction of the (110) plane; the same direction in which oxygen
bridging sites align [99].
3.27. Bioactive Glass
One of the first major developments leading to saving of life was the optical microscope. Invention
of the microscope using glass spheres to focus light on objects was the seminal step towards
discovering microscopic life forms of bacteria, viruses and fungi, e.g. pathogens. This discovery led
to treatment and eventually elimination of many diseases that was instrumental in creating the
improvements in public health and healthcare that occurred in the 19th and 20th centuries. This
enormous social change can be termed a revolution in Life Preservation. A major consequence of
life preservation was an expansion of the human lifespan from an average of 45 years to 80+ years.
It is projected that by 2050 there will be more than 1 billion people alive on earth aged 60 years old
or older. Second revolution in healthcare has occurred during the last 50 years, i.e. a revolution in
Tissue Replacement. From the age of 30 years old onwards, all tissues progressively deteriorate.
Thus, an increase in length of life is usually accompanied by a decrease in quality of life. To repair,
replace and restore the function of hips, knees, eyes, ears, teeth, hearts, kidneys, etc. is now
commonplace. Human “spare parts” is a huge business worth tens of billions of dollars. The first
generation of materials used for tissue replacement was selected by surgeons and materials
scientists and engineers to be as biologically inert as possible; therefore they are called bio-inert
materials. Corrosion resistant metals and insoluble, non-toxic polymeric materials became the
standard biomaterials. However, all bio-inert materials are a compromise because of the
incompatibility of the interface between the material and living tissue. Tissue breakdown and
loosening over time is a common mode of failure of devices made from bio-inert materials. Stress
shielding due to mismatch of elastic moduli of high strength biomaterials and bone leads to
resorption of bone and long term implant failure and revision surgeries. Wear of articulating
surfaces also leads to creation of wear debris and osteolysis leading to degradation of the interfacial
supporting bone. An alternative, second generation concept for tissue replacement using a special
type of glass was discovered in 1969. This concept of “bioactivity” has made it possible to expand
greatly the approaches taken in tissue replacement. Bioactive materials form a bond with living
tissues (Fig. 25). The chronology of discovery and development of bioactive glasses become an
important range of clinical materials used worldwide for tissue replacement and regeneration.
Recent research has discovered that glasses with especially high levels of bioactivity can also be
used to activate genes to stimulate the body to repair itself. This discovery has led to the concept of
using slowly resorbable bioactive glasses as a third generation of biomaterials designed for tissue
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regeneration. In 1991 it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be made using a low
temperature sol-gel chemical process. A much broader compositional range for bioactivity was
possible with bioactive gel-glasses due to the high surface area of the final product. Sol-gel
processing also made it possible to produce bioactive gel glass foams with the highly controlled
hierarchical porosity required for cell infiltration into large interconnected 3-D pores, a requirement
for viable tissue engineered constructs A comprehensive review by Dr. Julian R. Jones describes
development of such TE constructs, historical aspects and other recent topics in this field. The
discovery of bonding of bone to specific compositions of glasses led to a new, second generation of
bioactive materials for tissue replacement. Understanding gene activation of human progenitor cells
by controlled release of ionic dissolution products from bioactive glasses provides the basis for
design of third generation biomaterials that can be used for tissue regeneration. Use of bioactive
glass particulate in prevention of oral disease and damage is an example of a fourth generation of
biomaterials bioactive materials for prevention of tissue damage. Bioactive glass science and
technology continues to be at the forefront of providing innovative approaches to medicine [100-
102].
Figure 25. Bioactive glasses [103].
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... Glass has extensively been preferred in distinct application areas in the recent century [1], [2], [3]. ...
... glasses where x J Mater Sci: Mater Electron represents 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 mol% were examined. The five different BiCKNP series (1)(2)(3)(4)(5) were then subjected to some physical, optical, and radiation shielding computations for demonstrating the possible changes in properties. The calculated and simulated findings were thoroughly presented and discussed with the appropriate illustrations and tables as stated in the sections below. ...
... The present work investigated the 40P 2 O 5 -20CaO-(30-x)Na 2 O-10K 2 O-xBi 2 O 3 where x: 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 mol% for potential use in radiation shielding applications. For this purpose, the BiCKNP series (1)(2)(3)(4)(5) were synthesized by using melt quenching technique. The structural properties were determined by applying XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while glass density was figured out with the use of Archimede's principle. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present work investigated the 40P2O5−20CaO−(30-x)Na2O−10K2O–xBi2O3 where x: 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 mol% for potential use in radiation shielding applications. For this purpose, the BiCKNP series (1–5) were synthesized by using melt quenching technique. The structural properties were determined by applying X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while glass density was figured out with the use of Archimede’s principle. Furthermore, the radiation shielding characteristics of the proposed glass systems were computed via the user-friendly Phy-X/PSD and MATLAB® softwares. According to the determinations, we found out that the glass density was increased from 2.3337 to 3.5182 g cm− 3 with the insertion of Bi2O3 from 0 to 10 mol%. From the XRD measurements, it was seen that all the selected samples are glassy materials with evident amorphous structures. In this FTIR spectra, the bands at ~ 520 cm− 1, ~ 710 cm− 1, ~ 880 cm− 1, ~ 1080 cm− 1, ~ 12,100 cm− 1, and ~ 1366 cm− 1 were determined, and the related oxide bands were highlighted. Moreover, the radiation shielding computations revealed that BiCKNP5 has the most linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) out of the BiCKNP glasses. Based upon the LAC determinations, the other essential parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient (MAC), mean free path (MFP), half-value layer (HVL), tenth-value layer (TVL), effective atomic number (Zeff), and effective electron density (Neff) were throughly calculated by using MATLAB® software. Additionally, mass stopping power (MSP) and projection range (PR) values were calculated by using SRIM Monte Carlo codes. It was observed that BiCKNP1 glass is greatly effective for protection against H1 and He+ 2, and BiCKNP5 has the largest range of 782.04 × 10− 1 mm, while BiCKNP1 has the lowest range of 689.28 × 10− 1 mm for PR protons (H1) calculated at 10 MeV energy. Lastly, we determined that BiCKNP5 and BiCKNP1 have the lowest and highest values ∑R (0.07886 and 0.09408 cm− 1) respectively.
... The materials class of glass is of prime importance in today's technology [1,2]. Almost all applications profit from glass substances in terms of their unique properties such as transparency, resistance to chemical attacks, superior optical features, enhanced mechanical strengths, and considerable thermal characteristics [3,4]. ...
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We aimed to explore the role of the La2O3 on the photon shielding effectiveness of La2O3-B2O3 glass systems for low energy range (13.81-160.6 keV). We found that the mass attenuation coefficient (MAC) at 13.81 keV is varied between 46.79 and 52.17 cm²/g. We found that the MAC increases in the order from BLa15 to BLa35, which suggested that the insertion of La2O3 causes an enhancement in the MAC values. We also reported the linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) and we found that the LAC results are in line with the MAC results and the LAC follow the order of BLa15 > BLa20 > BLa25 > BLa30 > BLa35. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) is also reported within the range 13.81-160.6 keV. The Zeff decreases between 13.81 and 35.8 keV, and a sudden increment in the Zeff is observed at 49.62 keV, then the Zeff continue in decreasing between 81 and 160.6 keV. The correlation between different shielding factors and the amount of La2O3 suggested the possibility of developing a new effective radiation shielding glasses, provided the utilization of high content of La2O3. On the other hand, the Makishima-Mackenzie model aids in estimating some essential mechanical moduli, including Young’s (E), bulk (B), shear (S), and longitudinal (L). All mechanical moduli behave in decreasing trend as the insertion ratio of La2O3 goes through 15 to 35 mol%. The E, B, S, and L reduce from 94.02 to 82.84, 59.80 to 52.69, 37.98 to 33.46, and 88.28 to 77.78 GPa in the respective order.
... The progress in glass science and technology has enabled researchers to uncover new breakthroughs [1]. Great advancements such as electric light bulbs, trustworthy laboratory wares, vehicle windows, and recently optical fibers have prevalently adopted glass materials with diverse compositional ranges [2,3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In our work, we studied the impact of lanthanum oxide (La2O3) on barium-lead-borosilicate (BLBS) glass systems in terms of physical properties and photon shielding characteristics. With this motivation, we aimed at synthesizing a BLBS glass system with a composition of 6Na2O-0.8MgO-0.25Al2O3-(55-y)SiO2-11B2O3-7.3CaO-13BaO-0.83SrO-5.75PbO-yLa2O3, (y: 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt%), via traditional melting techniques. The fabricated glass samples, La-0 to La-20, were analyzed using some characterization techniques, including Archimedes' principle and spectroscopic gamma-rays experiment. According to the measurements, one can observe that all glass series show a transparent appearance irrespective of varying La2O3 content. On the other hand, the increasing La2O3 insertion ratio has a favorable influence on glass density (ρglass). That is, ρglass increases from 2.9419 to 3.3479 g.cm⁻³ in subjection to the amount of La2O3 from 0 to 20 wt%. Similarly, molar volumes (Vm) for the La-series are found to be in an inclining behavior, namely, from 23.52 to 25.46 cm³ mol⁻¹. With regards to the gamma-rays (356, 511, 661.7, 1173, 1275, and 1332 keV) attenuation characteristics, the linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) values obtained for the lowest energy by experimental and simulation methods for La-0 to La-20 samples were found in the range from 0.3298 to 0.4175 cm⁻¹ and 0.3349 to 0.3992 cm⁻¹, respectively. Similarly, the LAC for all energies increased as the La2O3 additive ratio increased; that is, the La-20 sample had the highest protection ability. In addition, we found out a good agreement among the FLUKA, XCOM, and experiments. Lastly, the LAC values of La2O3 added glass samples were compared with some concrete used for shielding, commercially available protection glasses, and some recent studies in the literature. The results showed that our glass samples, especially the La-20 glass sample, can be used as a potential candidate for photon shielding applications.
... By pursuing the advance in glass science and technology, a vast number of application areas have emerged in the last century [1]. Developments in the glass field have given rise to simplify daily life necessities for humanity. ...
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Full-text available
In the present work, a novel glass system, 10Na2O–6MgO–9CaO–5Al2O3– 12B2O3-(100-x)SiO2–xBi2O3 (x: 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 mol%), was investigated in terms of physical properties and radiation shielding competencies. For this, the ABS glass series was successfully synthesized by following batch preparation, melting, shaping, and annealing steps. Mineralogical analysis X-ray diffraction (XRD) and glass density (qglass) were measured, while molar volume (Vm) and oxygen packing density (OPD) calculations were done for each glass series. We determined that the increasing amount in Bi2O3 in substitution for SiO2 ascended the overall qglass from 2.8067 to 3.3067 g/cm3 . Further, one can report that Vm and OPD exhibited an opposite behavior due to the loose packing in the glass network. The XRD patterns clearly indicated the non-crystallinity in the ABS series irrespective of the varying amounts in Bi2O3. On the other hand, gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements were performed in the photon energies of 0.662, 1.173, and 1.332 MeV to find out mass attenuation coefficient (MAC). It was observed that the highest MAC value was obtained for ABS4 glass (highest Bi2O3 content). Additionally, Monte Carlo simulation codes (MCNP-X) were employed to highlight the MAC values. As a result of these determinations, we reported that the experimental, XCOM, and MCNP-X findings demonstrated a good agreement with each other. Based on the experimental MAC, other significant parameters, such as the half-value layer (HVL), tenth-value layer (TVL), effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and Exposure Build-up Factors (EBF) and Energy Absorption Build-up Factors (EABF) were evaluated for the investigated ABS glass system.
... This showed us the source of the glass. However, according to archaeological evidence, the construction of the first glass was made in Eastern Mesopotamia and Egypt [5][6]. ...
... Birinin diğerinden büyük oranda farklılık arz etmesi bu durumu anlaşılabilir kılmaktadır [1]. Bilimsel anlamda cam, atomik ölçüde kristalin olmayan, ısıtıldığında camsı geçiş gösteren tüm katı maddeler olarak tanımlanabilir [2]. ...
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During previous century, automotive industry indicated a significant improvement and becoming one of the most important parts of human life today. Glass, which was initially used for the protection of driver and passengers from outside effects, has been an important part of most researches and new properties have been added, thus its usage fields have enlarged. Moreover, through new production technologies, other materials with glassy properties have become an inevitable part of automotive industry. In the present study, the state of glass and glassy materials in automotive industry from past to present time is mentioned with some examples on their applications and developments.
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The current paper addresses the influence of Rb2O in the lithium-borotellurite (LBT) glass system for the first time. For this, the glass system (25-x)Li2O–15B2O3–60TeO2-xRb2O was designed where x: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mol%. An extensive investigation was carried out to understand the alterations in physical, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties with the use of theoretical calculations. The user-friendly Phy-X/PSD software was employed to demonstrate the nuclear radiation protection properties. From physical property calculations, the addition of Rb2O from 0 to 25 mol% increased average molecular weight (AMW) from 113.68 to 152.94 g mol−1 and glass density (ρglass) from 4.2743 to 4.7710 g cm−3. Likewise, molar volume (Vm), oxygen molar volume (VO), oxygen packing density (OPD), and number of bonds per unit volume (nb) were considerably changed by the increasing Rb2O concentration. According to the optical calculations, the refractive index (n) increased from 2.3348 to 2.6104, while the dielectric constant (ε) increased from 5.45 to 6.81. Moreover, the metallization criterion (M) showed a decreasing trend, and implied increasing insulation with the increase in Rb2O in the glass system. For thermal property estimations, viscosity versus temperature profiles clearly indicated that all R-series have the ability to form glass, but decreasing the Li2O caused an increment in glass melting temperature. The mechanical moduli determinations via the Mackenzi-Makishima model demonstrated that Young's (E), bulk (B), shear (S), and longitudinal (L) moduli were gradually decreased by introducing Rb2O into the glass network. From the perspective of radiation shielding calculations, the essential parameter, linear attenuation coefficient (LAC), effectively improved by increasing the doping rate of Rb2O. Based upon the LAC values, the other critical parameters such as mean free path (MFP), half-value layer (HVL), and effective atomic number (Zeff) were successfully evaluated. Additionally, build-up factors such as exposure (EBF) and energy absorption (EABF) were assessed with the implementation of G-P progression. They showed that sample-R25 ensured better gamma-ray shielding properties compared to the other samples. Lastly, fast neutron removal cross-section (FNRCS) determinations displayed decreasing behaviour with the increasing Rb2O content, which is not convenient for effective neutron shielding abilities. All in all, the Rb2O-reinforced borotellurite glass can serve as an alternative radiation shielding material.
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Akıllı camlar, kendi kendine güç üreten, şeffaflıktan opaklığa geçiş kabiliyeti gösteren, foto-voltaikler, elektro-kromikler, çatı pencereleri, gözlük camı, iç mekân işaretleri ya da gösterge panelleri gibi pek çok ürün grubunu kapsamakta olup binalarda, araçlarda (kara, deniz ve hava), iç mekân ögeleri şeklinde çeşitli yapılarda kullanılmaktadırlar. Görünümlerini değiştirebilen akıllı camlar çok amaçlı kullanımlara hizmet edebilmekte, kullanıcıların bir dokunuşuyla beklentilere cevap verebilmektedirler. Objeleri görsel tanıma yetisi sergileyen ve yazıyı konuşmaya dökebilen teknolojileri kullanan akıllı camların çok yakın gelecekte görme engelli insanların hayatını daha da kolay ve konforlu hale getirmeleri beklenmektedir. Akıllı camlar, ilk etapta tıp alanı açısından geliştirilmemiş olsalarda artık tıbben de değerlendirilmektedirler. Bu makalede, akıllı camlar hakkında genel bilgiler verilmekte, tarihsel yolculukları, sınıflandırılmaları, türleri, üretim yöntemleri, temel özellikleri, kullanım alanları ve son dönem çalışmaları ve gelişimleri üzerine bilgilendirmeler sunulmaktadır. Abstract: Smart glasses cover certain groups of products, such as photovoltaics and electrochromics to produce a self-powered, self-dimming window, skylight, eyewear, indoor signage or display where can be evaluated in buildings (commercial and residential), vehicles (land, sea and air), interior partitions and structures and eyewear. Switchable smart glasses illuminate environments, leading to multifunctional spaces adapting and responding to the requirements of users at the flick of a switch. Those employing visual object recognition and text-to-speech technologies could soon be expected to help blind people navigate independently. Although most smart glasses were not initially targeted at healthcare, they have been already implemented in multiple different medical applications. In general, such devices can be utilized whenever a screen or external monitor is already required. Head mounted displays can be evaluated for very basic purposes such as education, simulation, live streaming of visualized data to more interactive functions such as video recording and digital photo documentation, for tele-medicine, tele-mentoring and many others. Hereby, general knowledge about smart glasses, their historical background, classifications, types, production processes, major properties, usage fields and latest studies and developments are given.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Windshield control is a vital operation of driver during driving. The mountings fitted in the windscreen or also called windshield are essential to use for smooth driving. These can be automated by using sensors and microcontroller. A complete windshield controlling system has been developed here to increase human comfort and flexibility. The wiper has been controlled by a water level sensor which regulate the wiper motor through sensing the level of water or rain. A dust sensors has been integrated to spill some water in the windscreen and then wipe it. It senses when a certain level of dust get accumulated in the screen. The sun visor which is mounted inside the car to shade the driver's eye from sun would be easier to control by a servo motor. Here an automatic sun visor has been designed to be controlled through a light sensor which is used to measure the light intensity and send the signal to the main control unit. This project focuses on improving human comfort in the existing system so that the driver can pay full attention in driving at all weather even in dusty, rainy or summer.
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An extensive body of research is involved in pushing miniaturisation to its physical limit, encompassing the miniaturisation of electronic devices, the manipulation of single atoms by scanning tunnelling microscopy, bio-engineering, the chemical synthesis of complex molecules, microsensor technology, and information storage and retrieval. In parallel to these practical aspects of miniaturisation there is also the necessity to understand the physics of small structures. Ultimate Limits of Fabrication and Measurement brings together a number of leading articles from a variety of fields with the common aim of ultimate miniaturisation and measurement.
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Concentrating solar power (CSP) technology is poised to take its place as one of the major contributors to the future clean energy mix. Using straightforward manufacturing processes, CSP technology capitalises on conventional power generation cycles, whilst cost effectively matching supply and demand though the integration of thermal energy storage. Concentrating solar power technology provides a comprehensive review of this exciting technology, from the fundamental science to systems design, development and applications. Part one introduces fundamental principles of concentrating solar power systems. Site selection and feasibility analysis are discussed, alongside socio-economic and environmental assessments. Part two focuses on technologies including linear Fresnel reflector technology, parabolic-trough, central tower and parabolic dish concentrating solar power systems, and concentrating photovoltaic systems. Thermal energy storage, hybridization with fossil fuel power plants and the long-term market potential of CSP technology are explored. Part three goes on to discuss optimisation, improvements and applications. Topics discussed include absorber materials for solar thermal receivers, design optimisation through integrated techno-economic modelling, heliostat size optimisation, heat flux and temperature measurement technologies, concentrating solar heating and cooling for industrial processes, and solar fuels and industrial solar chemistry. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Concentrating solar power technology is an essential guide for all those involved or interested in the design, production, development, optimisation and application of CSP technology, including renewable energy engineers and consultants, environmental governmental departments, solar thermal equipment manufacturers, researchers and academics.
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Photochromism is simply defined as the light induced reversible change of colour. The field has developed rapidly during the past decade as a result of attempts to improve the established materials and to discover new devices for applications. As photochromism bridges molecular, supramolecular and solid state chemistry, as well as organic, inorganic and physical chemistry, such a treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach and a broad presentation. The first edition (1990) provided an enormous amount of new concepts and data, such as the presentation of main families based on the pericyclic reaction mechanism, the review of new families, some bimolecular photocycloadditions and some promising systems. This new edition provides an efficient entry into this flourishing field, with the core content retained from the original work to provide a basic introduction into the different subjects.
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The paper intends to investigate the transfer of specific technological achievements from one civilization to another within the ancient Near East. Its principal concern is with the appearance and the distribution of flasks and vases made of colored glasses in Babylonia, Assyria, Upper Syria, the region along the Mediterranean Sea and Egypt which are in evidence from the middle of the second millennium B. C. Philological as well as archeological evidence is utilized to establish the direction in which this invention spread across political and cultural boundaries. The approach is primarily lexicographic, based on certain key words attested in cuneiform texts from Nuzi, Ugarit, Qatna, Tyre, Ascalon, etc. The hypothesis is offered that glass was "invented" in Upper Syria and spread from there into Egypt as well as Mesopotamia.
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INTRODUCTION. Ceramic Processes and Products. CHARACTERISTICS OF CERAMIC SOLIDS. Structure of Crystals. Structure of Glasses. Structural Imperfections. Surfaces, Interfaces, and Grain Boundaries. Atom Mobility. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURE IN CERAMICS. Ceramic Phase Equilibrium Diagrams. Phase Transformation, Glass Formation and Glass--Ceramics. Reactions with and between Solids. Grain Growth. Sintering and Vitrification. Microstructure of Ceramics. PROPERTIES OF CERAMICS. Thermal Properties. Optical Properties. Plastic Deformation, Viscous Flow and Creep. Elasticity, Anelasticity and Strength. Thermal and Compositional Stresses. Electrical Conductivity. Dielectric Properties. Magnetic Properties.
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