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Impact of Parents Mobile Device Use on Parent-Child Interaction: A Literature Review

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Abstract

This review attempts to provide an overview of parents’ mobile device distractions while caring for their children and the implications of this distraction on parent-child relationships. This review was conducted on literature published through November 2016, 27 sources were identified. Overall the continual connection provided by phones combined with the social pressure to respond quickly to calls/messages is leading to increased use and reliance on mobile devices. This increases the potential for parents’ mobile device use to disrupt parent-child interactions. Parents who use their phones during parent-child interactions are less sensitive and responsive both verbally and nonverbally to their children’s bids for attention, potentially leading to lower quality parent-child interactions. Children engage in risky attention seeking behaviors, which may be connected to the increase in childhood injuries. Parents and children express concern over device use as well as its contribution to family conflicts. This review also discusses gaps in the existing literature and proposes directions for future research.

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... The nature of parenting has continued to evolve over the last few decades with the increasing prevalence of screen time, which refers to time spent on either handheld technology, such as smartphones, iPads and tablets, or non-handheld technology, such as television (TV), video games or computers (Ponti et al., 2017). Both parents and children are spending more time on handheld screen time thus compromising quality time together and development of secure attachments (Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017;Rideout, 2013). Children require attachment-rich and emotionally meaningful interactions with their parents to facilitate healthy development and wellbeing. ...
... Children require attachment-rich and emotionally meaningful interactions with their parents to facilitate healthy development and wellbeing. Based on attachment theory, a secure attachment refers to an emotional bond between the parent and child that is characterised by high parental sensitivity and responsiveness (Bowlby, 1969;Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017). This emotional bond should lead to a feeling of security or trust that an individual develops in themselves and expectations about others (Keller, 2018). ...
... It is possible parents with MHD may utilise devices more than those without MHD to keep their child quiet or divert their attention to create time for work or domestic duties. Several studies have demonstrated that handheld devices may lead to disruptions to parenting, as children may receive even less interpersonal and interactive communication, and less presence of and responsiveness by parents to their needs (Hiniker et al., 2015;Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017;Oduor et al., 2016;Radesky et al., 2014;Radesky et al., 2015). For example, Radesky et al. (2014) observed parents who engaged with mobile device use had children who either accepted the lack of interaction and entertained themselves, whilst others continued to increase their bids for attention or received negative parental responses. ...
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The parenting landscape has changed dramatically over the last decade with the increasing prevalence of screen time. There is a growing body of evidence that handheld devices may disrupt fundamental parent-child interactions, however little is known regarding the effect of these devices for parents with mental health difficulties on child outcomes. The Australian Department of Health (2019) has recommended that children between two and five years old should be limited to less than an hour of screen time per day. A cross-sectional study of 214 parents with children aged 4.5–6 years old was conducted to examine the relationship between parental mental health, handheld screen time and child outcomes. Results from bivariate correlations indicated parental anxiety, depression and stress was significantly associated with parental phone use, such that greater symptoms was associated with increased screen time. Parental anxiety was also associated with parental tablet use, and child phone and tablet use. Further analyses showed that no mediation effects were observed among key variables. Most children were adhering to screen time guidelines, which implied that children showed reduced internalising and externalising problems. These findings have implications for policymakers and allied health professionals to consider the effects of parental mental health within the screen time framework for children’s wellbeing.
... The recent infiltration of smartphones into family life has been strongly correlated with this trend. While 92% of all Americans say they own a cellphone or smartphone, mobile devices are especially common amongst parents: "households with children are more likely to own and use technology and have multiple mobile devices compared to households without children" ([Kildare and Middlemiss, 2017], 581). This is often due to the unique safety, entertainment, and connectivity needs that come with parenting a child -needs that childless households are unlikely to experience. ...
... A young child in particular needs human attachment, and all the nurturing, playtime, and constant cooing that comes with it. Infant feeding, for example, is a time of "intense mother-infant bond-ing," and an important time for parents to cultivate a close connection with their child, unencumbered by digital distractions, that will last for the rest of their lives ( [Kildare and Middlemiss, 2017], 589). Of course, parents must keep up with other responsibilities. ...
... There are also problems that arise when young children have to vie for their parent's attention, given that it is more difficult to break attention from a mobile device than from other sorts of distractions (76). To reengage a distracted parent, "unsupervised children will engage in risky, sometimes life-threatening behaviors" ( [Kildare and Middlemiss, 2017], 588). For instance, a study in a fast food restaurant reported children making bids for their parent's attention by misbehaving, "e.g., crawling under tables or standing on chairs" (588). ...
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In light of an increasing technological dependence for millenials, and the fact that members of this generation are starting to become parents, this paper examines a crucial area of technology use: how smartphone use impacts a parent's relationship with their child. Rather than looking at the issue of technology and parenting in the purely psychological context of affects on a child's brain development, as is most often the case, this paper takes a sociological perspective to focus on the bond between parent and child. This issue is only very recently starting to become of interest to researchers, so this paper consolidates existing work in the field to bring attention to the ways in which a parent's dependence on, and distraction with, their smartphone, is changing how they interact with their child. For future and current parents to learn to juggle technology use and sustainable practices of caring for their child, it is important that they are cognizant of the patterns of disengagement and dissatisfaction that are produced by the common habits of smartphone use.
... Even though more and more parents are choosing to play digital games with their children [1][2][3][4], existing research on technology-mediated parent-child relationships tends to focus on how modern parent-child relationships may be disrupted or disconnected as parents and children use technologies separately rather than co-using [41,48]. Despite a small body of HCI research that has used the lens of technology co-use (i.e., parents actively interacting or engaging with technology alongside their child(ren)) [21] or co-play (i.e., co-use with playful interactions) [53] to understand social dynamics involved in contexts such as e-books [63], family computer programming [8], and video watching [43], how technology co-use, such as co-playing digital games, affords and impacts parent-child relationships is still understudied. ...
... A significant body of research in HCI has explored the role of technology in family relationships, and thus the importance of accounting for these interactions in design [8,11,18,21,27,37,41,43,48,57,63,67,68]. In this paper, we aim at contributing to and expanding this body of work by investigating interaction dynamics between parents and their children through co-playing modern digital games. ...
Article
The role of digital gaming on parenthood and parent-child relationships is a common research interest in HCI and CHI PLAY. Yet, how technology co-use, such as co-playing digital games, affords and impacts parent-child relationships is still understudied. Using 20 in-depth interviews of adults who had co-played modern digital games with their parents and/or children, in this paper we investigate parent-child relationships mediated by co-playing modern digital games. We update prior HCI and CHI PLAY research on game-mediated parent-child relationships by suggesting a "democratized" family life and a fading digital divide for families with favorable digital game co-play experiences. We also contribute to HCI and CHI PLAY by providing new perspectives of technology co-use in the context of gaming, such as an important relational tool that parents can use to promote conversations with their child(ren). These insights can further inform the design of future play to better support parent-child interactions during digital game co-play.
... This study also found that most parents/ caregivers watched screens mainly when children were sleeping, this is in contrast with existing literature (Jago et al., 2012;Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017). The study by Jago et al. (2012) noted that parental TV viewing was strongly associated with children's TV viewing time across all sex and age subgroups. ...
... The study by Jago et al. (2012) noted that parental TV viewing was strongly associated with children's TV viewing time across all sex and age subgroups. Kildare & Middlemiss (2017) also demonstrated that children's non-mobile media use reflects their parents' non-mobile media use, and emerging evidence draws the same conclusion for mobile media device use (Barber et al., 2017). Parents' mobile media device use during parent-child interactions makes them both verbally and nonverbally less responsive to their children. ...
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BACKGROUND: Screen-viewing among children has become a growing public health concern. There is no existing research done in Fiji on children’s screen viewing behaviour, therefore, this study aimed to determine the reasons and the perceptions of parents/caregivers in affecting screen viewing behaviour among children under 2 years in Suva Fiji. MATERIALS & METHODS: This cross-sectional mixed method study was conducted at three randomly selected Maternal Child Health (MCH) clinics among parents or accompanying guardians of children under two years old. Using proportional sampling, 361 participants who met the study criteria participated in this study. Data collection was carried out using a 20-item self-administrated questionnaire for quantitative study and a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire for the qualitative study through two Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Descriptive analysis was used for quantitative data and thematic analysis was applied for the qualitative data to emerge themes. RESULTS: Most children (32.8%) watched screens several times in a week, regardless of age. The main reason for children’s screen time is that it is a distraction tool (29.9%) followed closely by using it to calm child or to prevent negative behaviour (26%) and education (22%). The study found that most of the parents/ caregivers know that there are negative consequences of screen time on their children. Majority of these parents/ caregivers (66%) however think that the only effect is that related to children’s eye health and are unaware of the other health consequences. About 24% think that there is no negative effect at all on children engaged in screen viewing. The study also found that more than half (56%) of the parents (or caregiver guardians) think that screen viewing below the age of 2 years actually has positive consequences on children. Of these the vast majority (76.7%) think that screen viewing makes their children smart/ helps them to learn from a very young age. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study highlighted the main reasons of screen viewing among children under 2 years.
... Parent-child communication is also liable to be affected by mobile devices, which have become part of the daily routine and facilitate accessible and convenient communication with others (Cernikova, Dedkova, & Smahel, 2018;Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017). Hence, these devices exert a key influence on social relations in general and on family relationships in particular (Roberts & David, 2016). ...
... The literature indicates that heavy use of mobile devices by parents is liable to disrupt the parent-child discourse. Parents who used their phones while interacting with their children paid less attention to their children and talked to them less than did those who did not use their phones, limiting their interactions to superficial ones (Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017). The present study lends support to this finding in its discussion of sexting in Arab society. ...
Article
Sexting (sending and receiving sexual messages online), a legitimate means of communication if there is mutual consent, may put adolescent users at risk. Hence, parents must be able to address their children’s sexuality and be capable of mediating the implications of sexting for them. Cultural differences may play a role in this important discourse. The current study sought to identify parental factors that lead to low-quality communication about adolescent sexting in Jewish and Arab societies in Israel. Participants included 427 Israeli parents (Jewish N = 242, 56.7%, Arab N = 185, 43.3%) who answered seven online questionnaires. Results revealed ethnic differences between Arab and Jewish parents with regard to the quality of parent-child communication about sexting. Arab parents tended more toward low-quality communication about sexting than did Jewish parents. Perceived severity of sexting and perceived susceptibility to sexting led to more low-quality communication by Arab than by Jewish parents. Mothers in both societies were better able to mediate sexting and displayed higher parental efficacy than did the fathers. These findings provide useful insights for therapists and parents into the link between parental factors and the quality of communication about sexting with adolescent children.
... Os resultados são ainda inconclusivos. Por um lado, o uso de ecrãs no espaço doméstico está associado a uma diminuição do tempo despendido em família (Ngunan & Regina, 2018) maiores distrações e conflitos entre pais e filhos (Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017;Kushlev & Dunn, 2017;McDaniel & Radensky, 2018;Przybylski & Weinstein, 2013) e redução das interações face a face (Elsobeihi & Naser, 2017;Wong et al., 2020). Por outro, a tecnologia também pode contribuir para o fortalecimento dos laços entre os vários membros da família, quer dentro quer fora de casa (Coyne et al., 2016;Joo & Teng, 2017;Williams & Merten, 2011) e para um aumento do tempo despendido em família (Chesley and Fox, 2012;Plowman et al., 2010). ...
... A mais vincada prende-se com a falta de literacia digital e de uma educação para os media, que tem gerado conflitos familiares derivados dos usos da tecnologia dos filhos e a sensação de incapacidade de controlo dos pais já referidos em múltiplas pesquisas (Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017;Kushlev & Dunn, 2017;McDaniel & Radensky, 2018;Przybylski & Weinstein, 2013). A este nível os pais têm de garantir a autoridade pelo conhecimento, como salienta Paula Cordeiro, para continuarem a ser reconhecidos pelos filhos como modelos credíveis. ...
... Os resultados são ainda inconclusivos. Por um lado, o uso de ecrãs no espaço doméstico está associado a uma diminuição do tempo despendido em família (Ngunan & Regina, 2018) maiores distrações e conflitos entre pais e filhos (Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017;Kushlev & Dunn, 2017;McDaniel & Radensky, 2018;Przybylski & Weinstein, 2013) e redução das interações face a face (Elsobeihi & Naser, 2017;Wong et al., 2020). Por outro, a tecnologia também pode contribuir para o fortalecimento dos laços entre os vários membros da família, quer dentro quer fora de casa (Coyne et al., 2016;Joo & Teng, 2017;Williams & Merten, 2011) e para um aumento do tempo despendido em família (Chesley and Fox, 2012;Plowman et al., 2010). ...
... A mais vincada prende-se com a falta de literacia digital e de uma educação para os media, que tem gerado conflitos familiares derivados dos usos da tecnologia dos filhos e a sensação de incapacidade de controlo dos pais já referidos em múltiplas pesquisas (Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017;Kushlev & Dunn, 2017;McDaniel & Radensky, 2018;Przybylski & Weinstein, 2013). A este nível os pais têm de garantir a autoridade pelo conhecimento, como salienta Paula Cordeiro, para continuarem a ser reconhecidos pelos filhos como modelos credíveis. ...
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In a society increasingly dominated by the image cult, reports on the growth of prejudice and discrimination based solely on physical appearance have increased. GenZ is the first generation born entirely in a fully developed internet and has known social media early. Therefore, it is crucial to understand their perception of body image and image manipulation perception as they are targeted daily on social media by retouched images of celebrities and branded content. In this study, we opted to develop a survey applied to 785 GenZers residing in Portugal to collect their perceptions about this topic. Results aim to show their perceptions of body image on social media by reflecting on their own posting habits and their views on celebrity retouched images. At the end of this study, the main results are presented in the hopes that new generations will gradually begin to deconstruct stereotypes and prejudices that mark a society still dominated by the image and by the aesthetic and beauty standards.
... Another factor that affects the quality of parents' communication with their children is the use of technology devices, which have become both a significant distraction and an essential part of daily communication (Cernikova et al., 2018;Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017;Lenhart & Duggan, 2014). A qualitative study about parents' perceptions found that parents reported multitasking to distract them from paying attention to their children and that using smartphones makes it difficult for them to take care of their children's physical and emotional needs (Radesky et al., 2016). ...
... The hypothesis of the present study concerning the relationship between dysfunctional communication about sexting and parental distraction was confirmed, and we found a positive relationship between these variables. The research literature showed that parents who used their smartphones during parent-child interactions were less attentive to their children and spent less time talking with them, which in turn led to fewer or more shallow interactions (Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017). The findings of the present study support these earlier findings, demonstrating that these effects occur also in the context of discussions about sexting. ...
Article
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Sexting (sending, receiving, and forwarding nude, semi-nude, or sexually explicit content) entails risks for adolescents; therefore, it is important for parents to be able to communicate with their children about its implications. The goal of the present study was to identify parental characteristics that lead to dysfunctional communication (lower quality of communication) about sexting, on a sample of 427 parents (336 mothers and 91 fathers) of Israeli adolescents aged 10–18 years and to determine whether parents’ perceived severity of sexting and the degree to which they perceive their adolescent to be susceptible to sexting function as mediating factors. Parents completed a set of questionnaires online. Findings indicated that authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were positively associated with dysfunctional parent–child communication about sexting. Authoritative style was inversely related to dysfunctional communication and was mediated by positive attitudes toward sex education. Additionally, authoritative parents were capable of assessing the severity of their children’s sexting activities, and the degree to which their children were susceptible to engage in sexting. The quality of the discussion initiated by authoritative parents appears to have enabled them to be aware of adolescent behaviors and to adjust their communication about the inherent risks. Findings suggest that the perception of sexting as too risky diminishes parents’ ability to conduct a high-quality discussion about it. In conclusion, research findings emphasize parents’ role in mediation of the online experiences of their children and conducting a constructive discussions with them about sexting.
... Our study seeks to better understand the types of parenting situations that motivate parents to reach out to other parents. Research shows that the internet has become a primary source of support for modern parents; parents go online, at any time of day or night, and seek parenting information and support from other parents on social media and online parenting forums [29]. ...
... The remaining posts traversed a wide range of themes, including managing family situations and relationships in the extended family context, parents' own health concerns, and household-related issues. Parents increasingly use online tools in a multitude of ways to assist with parenting, including connecting through social media, assisting with managing family life, and providing multiple sources of online information [29]. Our data reflect that parents use Reddit to access support from other parents for a wide range of reasons. ...
Article
Parenting interventions offer an evidence-based method for the prevention and early intervention of child mental health problems, but to-date their population-level effectiveness has been limited by poor reach and engagement, particularly for fathers, working mothers, and disadvantaged families. Tailoring intervention content to parents' context offers the potential to enhance parent engagement and learning by increasing relevance of content to parents' daily experiences. However, this approach requires a detailed understanding of the common parenting situations and issues that parents face day-to-day, which is currently lacking. We sought to identify the most common parenting situations discussed by parents on parenting-specific forums of the free online discussion forum, Reddit. We aimed to understand perspectives from both mothers and fathers, and thus retrieved publicly available data from r/Daddit and r/Mommit. We used latent Dirichlet allocation to identify the 10 most common topics discussed in the Reddit posts, and completed a manual text analysis to summarize the parenting situations (defined as involving a parent and their child aged 0-18 years, and describing a potential/actual issue). We retrieved 340 (r/Daddit) and 578 (r/Mommit) original posts. A model with 31 latent Dirichlet allocation topics was best fitting, and 24 topics included posts that met our inclusion criteria for manual review. We identified 45 unique but broadly defined parenting situations. The majority of parenting situations were focused on basic childcare situations relating to eating, sleeping, routines, sickness, and toilet training; or related to how to respond to child negative emotions or difficult behavior. Most situations were discussed in relation to infant or toddler aged children, and there was high consistency in the themes raised in r/Daddit and r/Mommit. Our results offer potential to tailor parenting interventions in a meaningful way, creating opportunities to develop content and resources that are directly relevant to parents' lived experiences.
... Prior research showed that caretakers who were absorbed with a mobile phone during meals often paid less attention to their children (Radesky et al., 2014). Therefore, their children may perceive the psychological distance from fathers despite his physical presence, which possibly increases a sense of being ignored or rejected (Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017). In sum, the evidence above suggests that FPh may lead to perceived father unacceptance. ...
Article
Prior research shows that parents' phubbing has negative impacts on children's well-being. The aim of our study was to explore the relationship between father phubbing (FPh) and adolescents' depressive symptoms, the mediating and moderating mechanisms in this relationship. That is, whether FPh would be positively related to adolescents' depressive symptoms, whether perceived father acceptance (PFA) would be a mediator between the relationship of FPh and adolescents' depressive symptoms, and whether adolescent resilience would be a moderator in the pathways of FPh on adolescents' depressive symptoms. In this study, 3,770 Chinese adolescents (M = 16.44 years, SD = 0.78) were surveyed about their demographics, FPh, depressive symptoms, PFA, and resilience through questionnaires. After controlling for demographic information, the results showed that (1) FPh was positively correlated with depressive symptoms; (2) PFA was a mediator between FPh and adolescents' depressive symptoms; (3) resilience moderated the two indirect paths that the relationships between FPh and PFA and the relationship between PFA and adolescents' depressive symptoms. Our study shows that FPh is positively correlated with adolescents' depressive symptoms, which is of great significance to the theoretical construction and intervention of adolescents' depressive symptoms in this digital era.
... Studies suggest that parents' use of screen-based media is negatively associated with the quality of parent-child interactions (Kildare and Middlemiss, 2017;McDaniel, 2019). When the TV is on in the background and nobody is actively watching, parents tend to talk less with their children and are less attentive and responsive toward them (Courage et al., 2010;Kirkorian et al., 2009;Masur et al., 2016;Pempek et al., 2014). ...
Article
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A growing body of research indicates that parents’ smartphone use is associated with interruptions in parent–child interactions and lower levels of parental responsiveness, which may adversely affect children’s cognitive and socioemotional development. Studies suggest that parent–child interactions are more frequently interrupted by the use of screen-based devices if parents experience more stress specifically resulting from the demands of parenting, yet there are unexamined questions. Is parents’ general daily stress related to technology-based interruptions in parent–child interactions? If so, does parents’ use of mobile technology mediate this relationship? In this first study testing the mediating role of parental use of mobile phones between parental stress and technology-based interruptions in parent–child interactions, we collected data from 604 mothers of children younger than age six with an online survey. Results showed that controlling for child age, family income, mothers’ employment status, household size, and maternal and paternal education, more stressed mothers reported using their mobile phones more problematically (e.g., not being able to resist checking messages), which was linked to more frequent perceived interruptions in the interactions with their children. Our results suggest that using mobile phones may serve as an outlet for stressed parents and is related to disruptions in the flow of parent–child interactions.
... Furthermore, extending investigations of parent-child interactions at ILEs to include family smartphone use is also necessary, because most U.S. adults own a mobile phone (96%) and smart SMARTPHONES AND FAMILY INFORMAL SCIENCE LEARNING 4 technology is in the hands and homes of families of all socioeconomic backgrounds (Pew Research Center, 2021). The growing number of studies investigating parental personal mobile device use focus primarily on child safety, the device as a distraction, and implications for the parent-child relationship (see Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017;McDaniel, 2020 for reviews). Although estimates vary across studies, about two-thirds of parents are observed using their mobile devices during family leisure time (Elias et al., 2020;Radesky et al., 2014). ...
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This study used quasi-experimental design and exploratory qualitative approaches to explore family smartphone use at an aquarium to examine variation in parent self-reported engagement and observed parent-child science talk during informal learning. Parent-child pairs (N = 204) were grouped based on whether they chose to use a smartphone in the exhibit. Parents reported family demographics, smartphone use, and whether the parent talked about topics other than the aquarium while in the exhibit. Researchers also observed smartphone use and audio-recorded conversations with a subsample (N = 50 dyads) at the aquarium. Verbatim conversation transcripts were coded for talk about science and about their smartphone. Results showed parents who chose to use a smartphone during informal learning were more likely to report off-topic talk compared to parents who did not use a smartphone. Parents' smartphone use did not predict family science talk, but smartphone talk often replaced science talk within the micro-interactions of families who were preoccupied with their smartphones during informal learning. Nevertheless, some dyads used their smartphones in ways that promote science learning. Smartphone use may distract parents during informal learning when parents are preoccupied with the device, but when leveraged for learning, smartphones may offer opportunities to extend STEM learning during and beyond the aquarium.
... During feeding, infants can make directed bids towards a parent or caregiver for interaction (Reyna et al., 2012), which further develops attachment. When parents are receptive to infant cues while feeding, the infant's regulatory abilities are supported (Ventura & Teitelbaum, 2017), infants becoming overweight is less likely (Golen & Ventura, 2015a), and positive parent-infant interactions are facilitated (Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017). While most research surrounding infant feeding and attachment centers on mothers (Davison et al., 2016), fathers also display similar patterns and processes that facilitate infant attachment (Reisz et al., 2019). ...
Article
Often parents are discouraged from using media around their infants, particularly during feeding time, as media use is thought to harm the development of parent-infant attachment. Little research, however, has examined the relationship between parent media use during infant feeding and parent-infant dysfunction and attachment over time. This paper involves two separate studies (using quantitative and qualitative approaches) to examine why parents use media while feeding their infants and how media use during feeding relates to parent-infant relationships, particularly attachment. The overwhelming majority of parents (mostly mothers in this study) reported using media at least sometimes while feeding their infants. Parents reported using media to cope with the difficulties of feeding, to remain productive during feeding time, and to connect with others. Parent media use during infant feeding was not longitudinally associated with attachment, and media use during infant feeding was longitudinally linked to decreases in parent-toddler dysfunction. Overall, we believe that media may be a helpful tool to support parents (particularly mothers) cope with the difficulties of parenting infants. Limitations and other implications are discussed.
... This result is in line with previous studies [31,32], which showed that children living in one parent households were more likely to use social media. A possible explanation for this finding could be that the number of adults at home is positively related children's time interacting with them, which may displace time spent on social media [33,34]. Moreover, single-parent families are known to experience more challenges to parenting in general [35], resulting in parents allowing their children more freedom to use media on their own rather than actively guiding their children's media use [36]. ...
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Background We aimed to investigate the associations between sociodemographic factors and instant messaging and social network site exposure among 9-year-old children. Methods Data of 4568 children from the Generation R study, a population-based cohort study performed in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, were analyzed. Instant messaging exposure was defined as using online chat applications such as MSN, chat boxes, WhatsApp, and Ping. Social network site exposure was defined as using Hyves or Facebook. A series of multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, adjusting for covariates. Results Children of low educated mothers had a higher odds ratio (OR) for instant messaging (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.86) and social network site exposure (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.66) than their counterparts. Being a child from a single-parent family was associated with instant messaging (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.88) and social network site exposure (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.78) more often than their counterparts. Children of low educated fathers (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.95) or from families with financial difficulties (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.59) were associated with a higher OR of social network site exposure than their counterparts. Conclusion The findings suggest that several indicators of lower social position are associated with higher social network site and instant messaging exposure among 9-year-old children. More research is needed in younger children to understand the determinants and impact of social media use.
... Hasta el momento, los estudios al respecto se han centrado especialmente en esta práctica (Jiménez-Morales et al., 2020), y es que el papel de padres y madres es clave para asegurar que se produzca la adopción de pautas de uso adecuadas (Terras y Ramsay, 2016). También se ha prestado atención a la influencia que el uso que padres y. madres hacen de sus propios dispositivos móviles puede tener en los/las menores (Kildare y Middlemiss, 2017;Hefner et al., 2019). No obstante, podría decirse que la investigación en este tema es todavía incipiente. ...
Article
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This study analyzes the presence of entertainment in the daily usage of mobile phones among Chilean children ages 10 to 14. Special attention is paid to children consumption of YouTube and video games and to the perception their parents have regarding the use of mobiles by their children. Use patterns of minors and how this mismatch parental perception was revealed from the analysis of personal surveys (N children = 501; N adults= 501). The major conclusion is that mobile phones are no longer screens with which to communicate and exchange messages, a stand still held by parents. Screens are a passage through which children aim for free-of-charge audiovisual entertainment (mainly games and videos) and in doing so, expose themselves to the advertising this entails. Music content is prioritized on YouTube, especially among girls and the older children within the age range studied, and this study corroborates the notion of gender differentiation in video games choices.
... The second line of evidence elucidates the moderating role of mother-child conflict resolution strategies. Kildare and Middlemiss [28] showed that parents' inconsistent mediation likely provokes anger, noncompliance, and active protest in young children, which, in turn, engenders mother-child conflicts. When the mother's inconsistent mediation regarding the child's smartphone use was coupled with negative mother-child conflict resolution tactics-such as physical assault or psychological aggression-the relationship between the mother's inconsistent mediation and the child's problematic smartphone use can be exacerbated to a greater extent [29]. ...
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Previous studies suggest that inconsistent parenting leads to undesired consequences, such as a child’s defiant reactance or parent–child conflicts. In light of this, we examined whether mothers’ inconsistent smartphone mediation strategies would influence their children’s problematic smartphone use during early childhood. Furthermore, given that harsh parenting often escalates a child’s behavioral problems, we focused on parent–child conflict resolution tactics as moderators. One hundred fifty-four mothers (ages 25–48 years; M = 35.58 years) of preschoolers (ages 42–77 months) reported their media mediation and parent–child conflict resolution tactics and their child’s problematic smartphone use. We found that the positive association between the mother’s inconsistent mediation and their child’s problematic smartphone use was more pronounced when mothers relied on negative parent–child resolution tactics—i.e., psychological aggression and physical assault. Our findings provide vital theoretical and empirical insights into mother–child relational characteristics for the child’s problematic smartphone use.
... One of many potential key factors that may be influenced by the COVID-19 restrictions and may affect parent-child relationships and the family system is technology use (in particular mobile touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablet computers) by parents and children. Prior research demonstrates that how parents and children interact with technology is important in whether it enhances child development, such as improving literacy skills [29], or leads to reduced academic achievement [30]; and whether it enhances family connectedness [31] or leads to poorer quality parent-child interactions [32]. A recent systematic review found a very limited number of studies exploring associations between time spent using devices by parents and/or children and parent-child attachment [33] highlighting a need for more quality evidence in this area, including from qualitative research, to better understand potential impacts of device use on parent-child attachment. ...
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This study explores how the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic influenced family routines, relationships and technology use (smartphones and tablet computers) among families with infants. Infancy is known to be an important period for attachment security and future child development, and a time of being susceptible to changes within and outside of the family unit. A qualitative design using convenience sampling was employed. A total of 30 mothers in Perth, Western Australia participated in semi-structured interviews by audio or video call. All mothers were parents of infants aged 9 to 15 months old. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed, and data were analysed using thematic analysis to code and identify themes in an inductive manner. Families described staying home and stopping all external activities. Three themes relating to family interactions and wellbeing were found: enhanced family relationships; prompted reflection on family schedules; and increased parental stress. Two themes related to family device use were found: enabled connections to be maintained; and source of disrupted interactions within the family unit. Overall, participants described more advantages than downsides of device use during COVID-19. Findings will be of value in providing useful information for families, health professionals and government advisors for use during future pandemic-related restrictions.
... When parents are distracted, whether the distraction is electronic or not, they cannot attend to children, and as a result, may ask their children fewer questions. In much of the research on parental cell phone use, parents' and children's behaviors are often compared when parents are on versus off cell phones; however, other types of distractions, such as paper surveys or physical books, are not used as a comparison (see Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017;McDaniel, 2019, for reviews). The current study provides new evidence, demonstrating that when parents take a survey on a cell phone, they ask their children fewer information-seeking questions than when they take the same survey on paper. ...
Article
Although questions fuel children’s learning, adult cell phone use may preoccupy parents, affecting the frequency of questions parents and children ask and answer. We ask whether parental cell phone use will lead to a decrease in the number of questions children and parents ask one another while playing with a novel toy. Fifty-seven parent child dyads (Mage = 48.72 months, SD = 6.53, 28 girls; 84.2% White) were randomly assigned to a cell phone, paper, or control condition. As children played with a novel toy with hidden functions, parents in the cell phone condition completed a survey about reading on their cell phone, while parents in the paper condition did it on paper. Parents in the control condition did not complete the survey. Results suggest that children asked fewer questions in the cell phone than in the control condition. However, no other condition differences emerged. Parents’ information-seeking questioning, however, differed in all three conditions: they asked more in the control than in the cell phone and paper conditions and, critically, asked more in the paper than cell phone condition. Possible explanations and implications for parents’ cell phone use are discussed.
... The realities of modern parenthood such as the ubiquity of parental use of smartphones might impact parental sensitivity to children's needs and responses, potentially negatively impacting parent-child bonds (Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017). Observational research indicates that while using smartphones caregivers are less responsive to children seeking their attention (Abels, Vanden Abeele, van Telgen, & can Meiji, 2018) and less likely to engage in verbal or non-verbal interaction (Radesky, Miller, Rosenblum, Appugliese, Kaciroti, & Lumeng, 2015). ...
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Background. In this study we used public observations of Santa lines or return lines during the winter shopping season to examine child behaviors and parent responses. Unlike previous research on more child-friendly spaces, we are thus able to analyze the extent of distracted and potentially negative parenting in public spaces where parents are likely under social pressure regarding child compliance. Methods. In December 2019, we conducted an observational study of parenting behaviors for families who were standing in line to get pictures taken with Santa Claus or parents standing in the after Christmas return lines at big box stores (e.g., Wal-Mart). Our sample consisted of 150 observations in the line of families waiting for pictures with Santa and 20 observations in the return line at big box stores immediately after the Christmas holiday. We conducted logistic analyses to assess factors related to distracted parenting. Results. Having more children present was related to a greater odds of being distracted for both lines. Observing a higher number of behaviors by the focal child was also related to higher odds of a parent being distracted for the Santa and return lines. Having a child display behaviors that indicated distress was related to lower odds of a parent being observed as distracted in the Santa line only. Conclusions. The presence of cell phones may reduce interactions between parents and children, which could potentially impact attachment behaviors. More research is needed to understand the complicated ways in which parents navigate parenting in public spaces not designed for children.
... Further, in their study with older children, Radesky et al. (2014) found that maternal mobile device use reduced verbal and nonverbal mother-infant interactions in eating tasks. Other studies have suggested that parental use of mobile devices may cause them to miss their child's bids for attention (Kiefner-Burmeister et al., 2020;Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017). A longitudinal study by Inoue et al. (2021) found no association between habitual smartphone use during breastfeeding and issues with mothers' emotions toward their children or with mother-infant bonding. ...
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This study investigated the association between maternal smartphone use during breastfeeding and the quality of mother-infant interactions and maternal visual responsiveness to the infant's bids for attention. We observed 13 mother-infant dyads and video-recorded breastfeeding under the experimental (smartphone use) and control (no smartphone use) conditions on separate days. To evaluate the quality of mother-infant interactions between the two conditions, we used the Japanese revised version of the Assessment of Mother-Infant Sensitivity (AMIS) scale. The mothers’ visual responses to their infants’ bids for attention were categorized into two groups. In this study, although smartphone use clearly increased distracted feeding times, we found no significant associations between maternal smartphone use and the quality of mother-infant interactions or bonding during breastfeeding. However, smartphone use during breastfeeding was found to interfere with the mother's ability to respond visually to the infant's bid for her attention. The results of this study can be applied while developing resources regarding smartphone use for nursing mothers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Nonetheless, adolescents who are distressed or perceive bad relationships with parents may avoid meals with their families (Larson et al., 2006). Enhanced mobile connectivity in today's society was also reported to be associated with the reduction and interruption of daily parent-adolescent activities (Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017;Tadpatrikar et al., 2021). In modern societies such as Hong Kong where people have high reliance upon digital technology anytime and anywhere, eating meals together could be merely the act of eating without any communication or interaction between family members. ...
Article
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Although research shows that family dinner is associated with adolescent psychological well-being, it is unclear whether this association still exists when parent-adolescent communication is limited particularly in today’s high-tech society where frequent family meals may not necessarily co-exist with frequent family communication. We therefore examined the relationships among adolescent psychological distress, parent-adolescent dinner frequency, and parent-adolescent communication time using data from 826 parent-adolescent dyads. Adolescents self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress in the preceding month using the validated Chinese version of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale – 21 (DASS-21). Their parents reported the frequency of breakfasts and dinners, duration of daily communication with the adolescent, and other family sociodemographic characteristics. Moderated regression analysis was used to examine associations of adolescent psychological distress with parent-adolescent dinner frequency and parent-adolescent non-conflictual communication time. We found that parent-adolescent non-conflictual communication time was independently and significantly associated with adolescent DASS Depression (β = -1.31, p < 0.001), Anxiety (β = -0.84, p < 0.001), and Stress (β = -1.00, p < 0.001) scores, but parent-adolescent dinner frequency was not. Furthermore, adolescents reported lower levels of depression and stress only when they concurrently engaged in both everyday dinner and regular non-conflictual communication with parents. Findings emphasize the importance of regular dinner and non-conflictual communication with parents for adolescent psychological well-being.
... Significantly, social withdrawal lasts for a long time, leading to social anxiety, social phobias, and depression [51], as well as difficulties in peer relationships [52]. More specifically, adults with smartphone addiction tend to be less interested and neglectful in caring for their children, leading to issues in the parent-child relationship [53,54]. Consequently, given the importance of the parental role, children whose parents are addicted to their smartphones may be left alone more frequently and experience difficulties in social development. ...
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With the number of smartphone users growing around the world, children are using smartphones from an increasingly early age. Consequently, a significant number of children are being exposed to the risk of smartphone addiction, which is emerging as a serious social problem. Smartphone addiction can negatively impact children’s physical, cognitive, and social development. Previous studies have demonstrated that parental smartphone addiction influences that of their children. Therefore, this study explores the relationship between parental smartphone addiction and children’s smartphone addiction and the mediating effects of children’s depression and social withdrawal. Data are drawn from National Youth Policy Institute’s 2018 Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey. Respondents comprise 2011 fourth-grade elementary school students and their parents. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 and AMOS 21.0 software. Results show that the relationship between parental smartphone addiction and that of their children has a significantly positive mediating effect on children’s social withdrawal, but no such effect on children’s depression and there were no serial effects of children’s depression and social withdrawal. Consequently, educational programs that control parents’ smartphone usage, improve the parent–child relationship, and engender social sensitivity should be developed to reduce and prevent smartphone addiction among children.
... In addition, mobile media can often distract family conversations and parenting due to its multitasking nature (Kildare and Middlemiss 2017;Radesky et al. 2014). It has been found that parents' attention can be highly absorbed by mobile devices during family mealtimes, resulting in decreased attention, responsiveness, and conversations with their child (Radesky et al. 2014). ...
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Mobile media is an emerging factor that may affect children’s dietary behaviors in the family environment. However, little research has examined associations between mobile media use and children’s food intake within family units. Particularly, though studies have suggested that parents’ mobile media use can affect parental mediation and distract parenting, few have examined the interpersonal associations between parents’ mobile media use and their child’s food consumption while controlling for the interdependence between parents and children. Adopting the actor-partner interdependence model, this research investigates the dyadic associations between mobile media use and food consumption in parent-child dyads. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Singapore with a national sample of 291 children aged 7–18 years and their parents (i.e., 291 parent-child dyads). Daily mobile media use and daily healthy and unhealthy food intake were measured for both children and parents. Findings demonstrated that parents’ mobile media use was associated with both their own and their child’s healthy and unhealthy food intake. In addition, children’s mobile media use was associated with their own unhealthy food intake but not healthy food intake after controlling for covariations of variables between parents and children. Findings were generally consistent across children’s age groups. This research suggests that parents’ mobile media use has substantial impacts on their child’s eating behaviors, and children’s healthy food intake may be better explained by parental influences than by their own mobile media use. This study provides new insights into children obesity prevention efforts based on reduced mobile media use in the family environment.
... The system scores the performance of the child and the parents according to the collected audio content, and the collected audio can be saved for children and parents to listen to repeatedly. Furthermore, the multiplayer game can be added into the design, where children and parents can play different roles in picture books, thus making interesting interaction in the form of role-play according to the picture book (Ginn et al., 2017;Kildare and Middlemiss, 2017). ...
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To cultivate children’s imagination, observation, thinking ability, and aesthetic consciousness, the questionnaire survey is adopted to analyze the design strategies and principles of children’s picture books based on augmented reality (AR). Primarily, the related concepts and theories are expounded for the research content. Children in preschool aged 4–5 years are invited as primary participants in this work, and the psychological characteristics of the invited children are analyzed in depth. Then, a study is carried out on the existing AR children’s picture books. The problems existing in the design of AR children’s picture books are found, and then, related solutions are put forward based on the results of the questionnaire survey. Besides, a design is made on the strategies and interactive design principles of AR children’s picture books on mobile terminals that are more in line with the needs of children. The results show that 41.07% of parents do not understand AR technology, and 37.5% of preschool children indicate that they do not operate mobile devices independently. However, they need the assistance of parents to use this kind of picture book. A total of 44.64% of parents believe that the main problem of AR picture books in the current market is the lack of interesting interaction. Given the above problems, five principles are proposed for the design of AR children’s picture books based on mobile terminals, namely, easy operation principle, interesting principle, guiding principle, timely feedback principle, and safety principle. A set of universally applicable design methods are proposed for AR children’s picture books based on mobile terminals, which provides certain theoretical guidance for the development of related types of products.
... A main concern of excess screen use by parents is the potential disruption of parent-child interactions, particularly for young children [22]. It is well-established that quality parentchild interactions are the foundation to support healthy development by encouraging serveand-return, parental responsiveness, and sensitivity [23]. ...
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Objectives To establish the factorial structure and internal consistency of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in parents, the level and correlates of problematic internet use, and patterns and types of screen use. Study design Data were collected through an online questionnaire about preconception health among Canadian women and men with ≥1 child. The questionnaire included the IAT and questions about time spent on screens by device type, use of screens during meals and in the bedroom, and perceptions of overuse. Factor analysis was completed to determine the factorial structure of the IAT, with multivariable linear regression used to determine correlates of the IAT. Results The sample included 1,156 respondents (mean age: 34.3 years; 83.1% female). The IAT had two factors: “impairment in time management” and “impairment in socio-emotional functioning” of which respondents had more impairment in time management than socio-emotional functioning. Based on the original IAT, 19.4% of respondents would be classified as having a mild internet use problem with 3.0% having a moderate or severe issue. In the multivariable model, perceived stress (b = .28, SE = .05, p < .001) and depressive symptoms (b = .24, SE = .10, p = .017) were associated with higher IAT scores. Handheld mobile devices were the most common type of screen used (mean = 3 hours/day) followed by watching television (mean = 2 hours/day). Conclusion Parents spent a significant portion of their time each day using screens, particularly handheld mobile devices. The disruption caused by mobile devices may hinder opportunities for positive parent-child interactions, demonstrating the need for resources to support parents ever-growing use of technologies.
... However, parent-child use of mobile phones is currently considered to be controversial. While most people would insist that mobile phones enhance parent-child communication, several researchers have asserted that cell phone usage has the potential to damage important family functions and spending an increasing amount of time on these devices can cause parents and their children to drift apart (Chen & Katz, 2009;Green, 2002;Ling, 2004;Ito, 2005;Oksman & Rautiainen, 2003;Rakow & Navarro, 1993;Srivastava, 2005), especially, it is a source of distraction that affects parent-child interactions for children aged from 11 to 17 (Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017). ...
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Parent–child separation threatens the perceived mutual trust in parent–child relationships and child developmental outcomes. Even though pioneering researchers have examined the development of children living apart from their parents, few studies have investigated the perceived mutual trust in the parent–child relationship and child developmental outcomes in boarding schools resulting from temporary parent–child separations. To determine perceived mutual trust, the content of conversations, feelings related to the use of mobile phones in parent–child conversations, and the effects thereof on child developmental outcomes, we adopted a cross-sectional survey of 1136 boarding school students recruited by a multi-stage stratified random-sampling approach from different districts in Sichuan, China. The data were analyzed with multiple regression analyses. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that a child’s perceived mutual trust is positively associated with their developmental outcomes, in addition to partially validating the moderating effect on the content of mobile phone conversations and feelings related to mobile phone conversations. This research provides empirical evidence regarding the influence of perceived parent–child mutual trust on boarding students and their developmental outcomes in the digital age.
... In our design practice, we have verified the important role of embodied tangible product in seducing college students and parents to develop a good relationship with enhanced remote social interactions. Our are consistent with the previous research [2,7], advocating new technologies for the need of healthy and appropriate parent-teenager communications. Too little parent-child communication leads to alienation and too strong parent-child tie leads to dependence or psychological inversion [5]. ...
... Digital technologies can thus be understood as a central element for the concept of 'doing family' (Lange, 2020) as they are part of daily acts of reproducing family by social interactions among its members. According to Eurostat (2019), Internet access is almost universal for households with children in Europe (98% in the EU) and parents are also more likely to use digital technologies than adults without children (Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017). However, 5.3% of children in Europe are digitally deprived-understood as children living in a household that cannot afford to have a computer and/or live with adults who claim they cannot afford an Internet connection for personal use at home (Ayllón et al., 2021). ...
... Further, parental disengagement and distraction while on mobile devices might limit their feedback to and regulation of their child's emotional expressions. Indeed, a systematic review of 27 studies concluded that parents engaged with smartphones around their children were less verbally and nonverbally responsive to their child (Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017). ...
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Emotional intelligence (EI) is comprised of a set of critical life skills that develop, in part, through practice in social interaction. As such, some have expressed concern that the heavy screen media diet of today’s youth threatens the development of those crucial abilities. This research assesses how the media diet of children and the media use of their parents relates to child EI levels to assess what, if any, specific patterns exist. Four hundred parents of children aged 5–12 reported on, among other variables, their child’s EI, empathy, and emotional regulation skills along with their child’s various digital and non-digital media use, and non-media activities. Parental EI, screen use, media emotional mediation, and media co-use with their children were also assessed. Analyses revealed no significant relationships between child EI and screen use of any kind, though reading positively associated with child EI. Especially interesting, children whose parents used their mobile device more frequently in the presence of their child had lower EI, and parents who engaged in emotional mediation around their child’s media use reported higher EI levels in their children. These findings suggest that concerns about children’s digital media usage are perhaps overblown in terms of impeding emotional skill development. Further, and especially critical, parents’ own media-related behaviors around their children could have significant impact on child EI development.
... A number of researchers indicated that when adults own their smartphones and are preoccupied with them in a way If they continue to distance themselves from their children, they are likely to become less responsive to their children's needs, which may negatively influence their connection with their children and impede their healthy development (Kildare & Middlemiss, 2017). McDaniel (2018) drew attention to the danger of technical interference in the daily activities of parents and children, describing it as a "distracted parenting" style, which refers to the sudden loss of parental interest in their children due to their constant preoccupation with their smartphones. ...
Article
Background: The contemporary study purpose was to examine the influence of internet addiction on Saudi parents and their children attachment through applying Use and Gratification Theory (UGT). The analysis of data studies the association between variables that may relate to parents Internet overuse and these included (parental levels of education, age, monthly income, types of employment, children's age and parental statues) and how these variables impact on the family quality of time. Methodology: A random sample of parents (n=284) from the city of Mecca was agreed to recruited. Parental questionnaire was used to measure parents' levels of social media addiction and in what way this influence parent-child attachment. Results: The findings generated from this study revealed the importance of create healthy and positive balance between parents' time spent online and their responsibility to spend quality of time with their young children. Mothers were reported to be more addicted to Internet as they experienced ongoing exposure to social media compared to fathers, therefore young children seemed to have a great risk of neglect. Conclusions/significance: Saudi parents' addition to Internet appeared to negative impact the quality of relationships and interactions with their young children, which in turn affected on their emotional health and well-being.
... 21,22 The survey showed that 73% of parents used their smartphones when they ate with their children, 23 and 35% of parents often used smartphones in their interactions with their children. 24 Empirical studies have found that parents using smartphones could increase the rate of language and motor delay in children, form unsafe attachments, reduce satisfaction and increase negative behaviours. 25 According to social learning theory, individuals learn specific behaviors by observing the behaviors of others, especially family members. 26 Intergenerational transmission is evident in the conduct of parents and their children. ...
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Purpose: COVID-19 has affected the health and well-being of tens of millions of people and contributed to smartphone addiction. The prior studies found several characteristics that influenced smartphone addiction, but little research was undertaken on the epidemic. This study aims to test a moderated mediation model of smartphone addiction. Methods: Three classes in each grade from grade 7 through grade 9 at random were recruited in the target junior high schools. A total of 931 Chinese adolescents (M age=13.54 years, SD age =1.08) completed valid questionnaires via online surveys from February 5-19, 2021. Results: Parent phubbing had a positive effect on smartphone addiction. Boredom proneness played a mediating role in this relationship. Additionally, refusal self-efficacy moderated the effect of parent phubbing on smartphone addiction. Refusal self-efficacy moderated the effect of boredom proneness on smartphone addiction. Conclusion: Findings of this study shed light on a correlation between parent phubbing and smartphone addiction. Moreover, this study emphasizes the value of intervening in adolescents' boredom proneness and increasing the ability of refusal self-efficacy to prevent and intervene in the context of COVID-19.
... Parents play a crucial role in every stage of child's development. Most researchers agree that parental influence is the key variables that facilitate an individual to profile their action through imitation, differential association, differential reinforcement, and definition examiners [5,16,17,24] Thus, researchers agreed that it stands to reason that most of the young people's perceptions about driving are being moulded by their parents. The parents' driving style is a strong influence on the future driving of their child. ...
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Road traffic accidents are among the ten most common causes of death globally, and in most cases, driver behaviour is the cause of road accidents. In this era of technology, mobile phone is widely used in vehicles. Mobile phone companies create many services that are beneficial for drivers. Thus, the risk exposure of mobile phone use while driving is bound to increase. In particular, mobile phone use while driving has been recognised as one of the major forms that may distract drivers. This study aimed to study the factors that influence mobile phone use while driving among young Malaysian drivers. Aker's Social Learning Theory was used to explain the factors, including knowledge of traffic law, parents, and peers. The study was based on a self-administered questionnaire survey among 384 young Malaysian drivers aged 18-25 years in the central region who owned mobile phones and drove a car. The results found that traffic rules knowledge, parents, and peers have a significant relationship with mobile phone usage while driving. The findings suggested that road safety campaigns and advocacy could focus on young drivers and increase the knowledge about the consequences of using mobile phones while driving and developing a safe culture in the family and communities.
... Parents have previously expressed both positive and negative attitudes about technology use and that technology use may afford certain benefits, such as stress relief, especially when used in short bursts to stay connected to social networks (e.g., friends, relatives, neighbors) amidst the demands of parenthood [4,23]. Moreover, mothers have previously reported that using technology is beneficial for managing their family and social lives [23,48,49]. The maintenance of social networks has been identified as an important contributor to successful adjustment to parenthood [50]; thus, the use of technology and social media, outside of face-to-face relationships, may provide mothers with more convenient and efficient platforms to enjoy the benefits of their social ties. ...
Article
Background: Previous research suggests parents' use of technological devices, such as TV and mobile devices, within family contexts may decrease the quality of parent-child interactions. During early infancy, mothers report engaging with technological devices during infant feeding and care interactions, however, few studies have explored potential associations between maternal technology use and the quality of mother-to-infant attachment. Aim: To examine associations between maternal technology use during mother-infant interactions and indicators of mother-to-infant attachment during early infancy. Study design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods: Mothers (n = 332) of infants aged 2 to 6 months were recruited via MTurk, a crowdsourcing platform, to participate in an online survey. Participants responded to a series of validated questionnaires that assessed maternal technology use during mother-infant interactions (Maternal Distraction Questionnaire), infant temperament (Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised Very Short Form), and indicators of mother-to-infant attachment, including quality of attachment, absence of hostility toward motherhood, and pleasure in mother-infant interactions (Maternal Postnatal Attachment Questionnaire). Results: Greater technology use during mother-infant interactions was significantly associated with greater infant negative affectivity (β = 0.26, p < .0001). Greater technology use was also significantly associated with lower mother-to-infant attachment quality (β = −0.21, p = .0001), and greater hostility toward motherhood (β = −0.39, p < .0001). Associations between technology use and indicators of mother-to-infant attachment were not mediated by infant negative affectivity. Conclusions: Maternal technology use was associated with greater perceptions of infant negative affectivity and poorer mother-to-infant attachment quality; further research is needed to understand mechanisms underlying these associations.
Article
Aims Little is known about the influence of parents’ screen media habits and attitudes towards screen media on children’s screen use. We investigated associations of parental screen use, their smartphone addiction and screen media attitudes, with children’s recreational screen use. Methods This study was based on a population-based cross-sectional survey sent between May 2019 and November 2020 to a random sample of 6820 Danish parent–child dyads who answered questions regarding their screen media habits. Children were 6–11 years of age and had to reside with the parent. Multivariable adjusted regression analyses were conducted (in October 2021) separately for screen media use on weekdays and weekend days. Results The analyses included 5437 parents (41.0 years, 67.6% girls) and 5437 children (8.9 years, 48.2% girls). The adjusted relative odds of excessive amounts of screen use of children (>3 hours/weekday and >4 hours/weekend day) was 5.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.6; 7.3) on weekdays and 7.2 (95% CI 5.9; 8.8) on weekend days comparing the fourth and first quartile of parental screen use. Children of parents in the fourth quartile of parental screen use had 2.1 (95% CI 1.7; 2.5) and 2.5 (95% CI 2.2; 3.0) greater odds of screen use before bedtime on all week and weekend days, respectively. Children of parents who had a positive attitude towards their child’s screen use or were at high risk of smartphone addiction had significantly higher screen use and more frequent problematic screen use. Conclusions Parent’s screen media habits and attitudes were strongly associated with their children’s recreational screen use.
Chapter
This chapter will detail how the advent of the internet and smartphones has fundamentally transformed the nature of social support and its effects on quality of life and health. Technological change has altered: (1) The ways in which we assess social support, (2) The perception and effects of social support. First, we will examine how recent technological innovations have allowed for more detailed, objective, and accurate assessments of social support. Digital technology has enabled us to go beyond simple self-report measures to assess social support and quality of life in unprecedented ways. By leveraging big data across several accessible technological platforms, researchers can begin to understand how social support processes unfold in real time and the myriad ways technology can be used to measure meaningful aspects of social support. In the second section, we will discuss how the concept of social support has changed in the age of digital communication. We will focus on how the presence and use of technological devices influences face-to-face interactions, online groups, and family dynamics. Taken together, this chapter will recognize the changes in social assessment afforded by technology and consider several important areas in which technological tools have transformed social support.
Article
Background Adolescent smartphone addiction (ASA) has fueled concerns worldwide regarding the negative health effects. This study aimed to examine whether parental smartphone addiction (PSA) affected ASA, and evaluated the mediating role of the parent-child relationship and the moderating role of parental bonding in the effect from PSA to ASA, among a Chinese sample of parent-child pairs. Methods A large-scale cross-sectional survey was conducted among 10- to 15-year-old students and their parents. ASA and PSA were assessed by Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI). The parent-child relationship was evaluated by Child-Parent Relationship Scale-Short Form (CPRS-SF), and parental bonding was estimated by Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Conditional process model was used to examine the relationship between PSA and ASA, as well as the mediating effect of parent-child relationship and the moderating effect of parental bonding. Results A total of 9515 adolescents and their parents completed the online survey. PSA significantly positively predicted ASA (B = 0.488, p < 0.001). The parent-child relationship negatively mediated the association from PSA to ASA (B = −0.321, p < 0.001). Parental overprotection moderated the indirect path from PSA to ASA through the parent-child relationship (B = −0.016, p < 0.001), but parental care had not any moderation (B = −0.005, p > 0.05). Specifically, parental overprotection had a positive moderating effect on the second half mediation path. The indirect effect of PSA on ASA through parent-child relationship was greater in higher overprotection than in lower. Limitations Cross-sectional study of self-administrated questionnaires. Conclusions Adolescents had a higher tendency toward smartphone addiction when their parents excessively used smartphones. The findings highlighted the essential role of parent-child relationship and parental bonding in the association from PSA to ASA.
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The phubbe of behavior discussed in this research, which negatively affects the interaction between people, is considered as an important problem.This research, which aims to determine the relationship between the family role performances of married individuals and their sociothelist behavior tendencies, was designed in the relational screening model, one of the quantitative research methods.151 people participated in the research. According to the research findings; It was determined that general behavior of phubbee characteristics and family role performance differ according to gender and age p<0.05. As a result of the research, a highly significant negative relationship was found between the total of the family role performance scale and the total of the GHQ, the sub-dimensions of GHQ nomophobia, interpersonal conflict, self-isolation, problem awareness p<0.01. There was a high level of negative between the task performance sub-dimension of the family role performance scale and the GHQ total, nomophobia, interpersonal conflict, self-isolation, and problem awareness. A moderate negative significant relationship was determined p<0.01. When results are evaluated, it can be stated that as the general sociothelist characteristics increase, the family role performance may decrease. Social work practices aimed at preventing sociothelist behaviors among members of the family system can contribute to family welfare.
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Phenomenon map is a method used in producing reliable evidence syntheses on complex topics corresponding to user needs. It has been developed by Sofi, the Science Advice Initiative of Finland. This summary report includes all parts of the first phenomenon map, which explored the impacts of digital media. It provides useful reading material for anyone interested in the effects of digital media, the media use of children, young people and older people as well as evidence syntheses and their production.
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Children's screen time is increasing and has devastating effects on various aspects of their development and health. This systematic review study was conducted to investigate the role of family and shortcomings in interventions to reduce children's use of digital media. PsycNet, ScienceDirect, Medline, Pub- Med, Scopus, Web of Science, ISC, SID and IranDoc were searched from 2000 to 2019. All research studies that were RCT with children under age 12 and aimed to reduce ST in children were eligible to study. 18 of them were eligible and were included in the review. Most of the strategies used were behavioral and cogn- itive, and family factors, including communication between family members and child-parent relationship as an impor- tant and influential factors in managing child behavior were largely neglected across the articles reviewed. Awareness of parents about the negative consequences of children's over- use of digital devices and training them to perform alternative and joint activities as two main elements can make interventions be more effective than when they focus only on teaching skills to children. In addition, involving parents in interventions is more effective when other influential factors such as child and parent characteristics, quality of parent-child interaction, patterns of pare- nting behaviors, parenting styles and influencing factors in home environment should also be considered. Keywords: Child, Digital Devices, Fam- ily, Interaction, Intervention, Parents, Pa- rent- Child, Screen Time.
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Growing and even excessive use of digital technology has unquestionably fuelled demand for digital devices and online services leading to a wide range of societal and environmental impacts. In sustainability terms, ICT as a whole is estimated to produce up to nearly 4% of global greenhouse gas emissions. As presumed responsible innovators, the HCI community should now consider design strategies that will reduce use and demand for digital technology for the good of both its users and the planet—strategies perhaps even seen as retrogressive in an era where digital technology is constantly implicated in innovation and economic growth. Prior work has noted the potential to design ‘more moderate’ interactions for sustainability, simultaneously addressing negative societal impacts on users’ wellbeing, relationships, productivity at work, and privacy. In this paper, we explore how we may design intentionally moderate digital interactions that retain our participants’ ‘more meaningful’ experiences. We report on the outcomes of two design workshops to uncover experiences of meaningful device and service use, to inform practical designs for ‘moderate and meaningful’ interaction. From this, we offer design recommendations that aim to address the multiple negative impacts that digital technology can create, and discuss the possible barriers to these designs.
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Mobile devices have begun to raise questions around the potential for overuse when in the presence of family or friends. As such, we conducted a diary and interview study to understand how people use mobile devices in the presence of others at home, and how this shapes their behavior and household dynamics. Results show that family members become frustrated when others do non-urgent activities on their phones in the presence of others. Yet people often guess at what others are doing because of the personal nature of mobile devices. In some cases, people developed strategies to provide a greater sense of activity awareness to combat the problem. Mobile phone usage was sometimes perceived as beneficial by providing a mechanism for needed disengagement from family members. These findings suggest several opportunities for redesigning mobile device software to mitigate emergent frustrations, and open up new opportunities for nurturing social interactions among family members.
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Mealtimes are a cherished part of everyday life around the world. Often centered on family, friends, or special occasions, sharing meals is a practice embedded with traditions and values. However, as mobile phone adoption becomes increasingly pervasive, tensions emerge about how appropriate it is to use personal devices while sharing a meal with others. Furthermore, while personal devices have been designed to support awareness for the individual user (e.g., notifications), little is known about how to support shared awareness in acceptability in social settings such as meals. In order to understand attitudes about mobile phone use during shared mealtimes, we conducted an online survey with 1,163 English-speaking participants. We find that attitudes about mobile phone use at meals differ depending on the particular phone activity and on who at the meal is engaged in that activity, children versus adults. We also show that three major factors impact participants' attitudes: 1) their own mobile phone use; 2) their age; and 3) whether a child is present at the meal. We discuss the potential for incorporating social awareness features into mobile phone systems to ease tensions around conflicting mealtime behaviors and attitudes.
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Parental availability and responsiveness were experimentally manipulated to determine the effects on children’s athletic performance. Fifty children (3–12-year-olds) ran as fast as possible around a softball diamond twice: once while parents were available and responsive and once while parents were unavailable and unresponsive (engrossed in mobile phone; order randomized and counterbalanced). Children ran about three seconds faster and were 17% less likely to trip, fall, or false start in the parental available and responsive condition. In addition, during only the available and responsive condition in which parents were instructed to watch their child and respond as they normally would, children ran faster as their parents’ sensitivity increased. Similarly, children ran faster as parents’ harshness decreased.
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This study examines associations between the social-emotional development of toddlers and mobile media use in a sample of parent-toddler dyads.Although it is known that parents of infants and toddlers with difficult behavior disproportionately use television and videos as calming tools,1 there are no published data regarding to what degree mobile technologies (such as cell phones and tablets) are used for this purpose. Previous qualitative work with parents has suggested that parental perceived control, defined as feelings of control over children’s behavior and development, may determine how parents set limits around screen media use2 and respond to difficult child behavior.3 We therefore sought to further explore this observation by examining associations between the social-emotional development of toddlers and mobile media use in a sample of parent-toddler dyads, and to determine whether potential associations are modified by parental perceived control.
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The purpose of this study was to explore the bidirectional relationship between the use of social networking sites (SNS) for leisure, and family and leisure satisfaction. The sociotechnological model served as a sensitising theoretical framework for this study. Seven families (22 individuals) took part in group and individual interviews. The data obtained from interviews were analysed using constant comparative method. The results showed that influences of SNS on satisfaction with family leisure and family satisfaction varied: the use of SNS helped families to build enjoyable family leisure, stay connected with family members and increase a sense of belonging. In some cases, however, it also decreased the amount of time spent with family, lowered attention during face-to-face interactions, provided opportunity for negative comparisons and caused concerns about the development of social skills among youth. In turn, family relationships and satisfaction with family life influenced the way family members used SNS for leisure. Some participants increased the use of SNS during times of family conflict in order to seek support and as a way to distract themselves from unpleasant thoughts. Others limited their use of SNS due to lack of interest in social pursuits and to avoid sharing information about family conflicts.
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Many children are spending more time with screen media than has been recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. There is evidence that parent television use is associated with higher levels of child television time, but we know little about what predicts children's media use with other technology. Using a nationally representative sample of more than 2300 parents of children ages 0–8, children's time spent with four digital media devices – television, computers, smartphones, and tablet computers – was examined. Results from linear regression analyses indicate across all four platforms that parents' own screen time was strongly associated with child screen time. Further analyses indicate that child screen time use appears to be the result of an interaction between child and parent factors and is highly influenced by parental attitudes. Results suggest that policymakers should consider the family environment as a whole when developing policy to influence children's screen media use at home.
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This article reviews the literature relating to the potential impact of exposure to screen media on the emotional development of infants. The available literature suggests that screen media, in particular television, has a substantially disruptive effect on the quantity and quality of parent-child interactions, which are essential for developing secure attachments. Parental attitudes towards screen media, that is if they are happy to use it as a ‘babysitter’ or do not see any negative consequences to excessive exposure, are also noted to be major factors in how much screen time children have daily. There is a critical need for evidence-based guidelines for parents and professionals concerning the use of screen media.
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To examine associations of maternal mobile device use with the frequency of mother–child interactions during a structured laboratory task.Methods Participants included 225 low-income mother–child pairs. When children were ∼6 years old, dyads were videotaped during a standardized protocol in order to characterize how mothers and children interacted when asked to try familiar and unfamiliar foods. From videotapes, we dichotomized mothers on the basis of whether or not they spontaneously used a mobile device, and we counted maternal verbal and nonverbal prompts toward the child. We used multivariate Poisson regression to study associations of device use with eating prompt frequency for different foods.ResultsMothers were an average of 31.3 (SD 7.1) years old, and 28.0% were of Hispanic/nonwhite race/ethnicity. During the protocol, 23.1% of mothers spontaneously used a mobile device. Device use was not associated with any maternal characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, education, depressive symptoms, or parenting style. Mothers with device use initiated fewer verbal (relative rate 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.63, 1.03) and nonverbal (0.61; 0.39, 0.96) interactions with their children than mothers who did not use a device, when averaged across all foods. This association was strongest during introduction of halva, the most unfamiliar food (0.67; 0.48, 0.93 for verbal and 0.42; 0.20, 0.89 for nonverbal interactions).Conclusions Mobile device use was common and associated with fewer interactions with children during a structured interaction task, particularly nonverbal interactions and during introduction of an unfamiliar food. More research is needed to understand how device use affects parent–child engagement in naturalistic contexts.
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Presents a summary of research findings that suggests that the qualitative nature of 1-yr-olds' attachment to their mothers is related both to earlier mother–infant interaction and to various aspects of their later development. The way in which they organize their behavior toward their mothers affects the way in which they organize their behavior toward other aspects of their environment, both animate and inanimate. This organization provides a core of continuity in development despite changes that come with cognitive and socioemotional developmental acquisitions. Despite the need for further research into children's attachment to their parents and to other figures, findings to date provide relevant leads for policies, education in parenting, and intervention procedures to further the welfare of infants and young children. (33 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)