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Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia: Progress, Challenges, and Issues



This book is a unique, transdisciplinary summary of the state of the art of disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Indonesia. It provides a comprehensive overview of disaster risk governance across all levels and multiple actors including diverse perspectives from practitioners and researchers on the challenges and progress of DRR in Indonesia. The book includes novel and emerging topics such as the role of culture, religion, psychology and the media in DRR. It is essential reading for students, researchers, and policy makers seeking to understand the nature and variety of environmental hazards and risk patterns affecting Indonesia. Following the introduction, the book has four main parts of key discussions. Part I presents disaster risk governance from national to local level and its integration into development sectors, Part II focuses on the roles of different actors for DRR, Part III discusses emerging issues in DRR research and practice, and Part IV puts forward variety of methods and studies to measure hazards, risks and community resilience.

Chapters (25)

Indonesia is amongst the countries with the highest disaster risk globally. This risk is driven by the country’s high exposure to a range of geophysical and hydro-meteorological hazards, combined with grave vulnerabilities resulting from population growth, unequal economic development, urbanization, a lack of social and environmental considerations within development processes, and other drivers. Disasters caused by environmental hazards are becoming increasingly costly and severe in Indonesia. While efforts to manage disaster impacts and reduce disaster risk have long been considered, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami transformed the way disasters are viewed and how the risks are managed and reduced. Internationally, the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters was adopted in 2005 and succeeded by the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. In order to document the transformations that have taken place in disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Indonesia, this book presents the progress, challenges and issues concerned with DRR governance and practices. It aims to answer the following questions: Which advances in DRR have been made? Which roles do different actors have? Which remaining challenges and emerging new issues need to be addressed in order to enable more sustainable DRR in Indonesia? This introduction presents the rationale, objective and structure of the book.
Indonesia is one of the most disaster-prone countries on the planet, given its high exposure to natural hazards coupled with its high socio-economic vulnerability. The aim of this chapter is to review disaster events and impacts, and assess effectiveness of risk governance in responding to disasters and reducing risk. It discusses institutional and social-economic changes that have happened in response to particular disasters, and how different social political changes influence disaster risk governance. There are extensive studies that have examined the progress in building resilience in Indonesia, but studies that link disaster events and key historical institutional responses over the period between 1900 and 2015 have not yet been done systematically. Learning from these can help to achieve more effective disaster risk reduction (DRR) governance in the future. This study is done through review of the Emergency Events Database of the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (EM-DAT-CRED) combined with desktop review of disasters, DRR, and socio-economic-political changes in Indonesia.
Policies and strategies for disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Indonesia have been transformed politically and institutionally. Studies have shown that current progress for DRR in Indonesia has been largely focused at the national level. More efforts are needed to strengthen local institutions, increase focus on the community, and adopt a more integrated approach with development. This chapter highlights the need to assess regulatory and institutional frameworks from the standpoint of collaborative governance theories, which emphasize the inter-organizational arrangements to pursue the common goals of strengthening community resilience. The aim of this chapter is to examine current progress, identify challenges and propose strategies for more integrated, locally-based and community-focused DRR strategies. The objectives are threefold. First, to examine, review and identify legal gaps within current DRR regulations, using the Regulatory Mapping (RegMAP) method. Second, to investigate the institutional arrangements through Discourse Network Analysis (DNA). Third, to conduct a need-gap analysis as prelude to recommendations for a more comprehensive DRR policy.
Decentralisation has fundamentally changed governance in Indonesia by transferring authority and responsibility from the national to local levels. More recently, disaster management (DM) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) responsibilities have also increasingly moved down to local and provincial levels. Decentralisation seeks more efficient, accountable, and equitable planning and development through democratization and greater participation of communities and non-state actors. This chapter investigates complementarity and incongruence between Indonesia’s institutional structures and arrangements for decentralisation and DM; and how that likely impacts the practice of DRR on the ground. After almost 20 years, decentralisation continues to face predicted and unforeseen challenges. Pertinent lessons from its implementation are potentially instructive for improving the country’s new DM framework. Therefore, this chapter: (1) clarifies and summarizes how decentralisation has impacted local governance in Indonesia; (2) explores and describes how the new DM framework is expected to alter local government roles, responsibilities, and capacities; and (3) discusses how well the extant decentralised governance structure and the DM framework facilitate local DRR and resilience. Mainly by reviewing the literature and analyzing documents, it infers that although decentralisation and DM frameworks are structurally quite similar, the former’s shortcomings in building local institutional capacity and attaining regional coordination constrain the latter. Also, local DM efforts seem less transparent and accountable than decentralised local governance today. With its larger focus on building resilience, materializing DRR’s objectives on the ground remains less resolved. Decentralisation has increased the participation of non-state actors in local governance and planning, but their contribution to DRR is limited, sporadic, and/or uncoordinated. The concluding emphasis of this chapter is on increasing clarity, capacity, and civil society collaboration for strengthening local DRR capacity.
Local government has a critical role to play in reducing risk for its communities. This has been recognised by the Government of Indonesia which has allocated responsibility for managing hazards and risk to local government in recent disaster management law reforms (Law 24 / 2007). However, the capacity and resources at provincial and district government levels to plan for and implement risk reduction measures are limited and there are few professional development and training opportunities currently available. To help identify specific strengths and opportunities for improvement, and to provide a disaster risk reduction (DRR) capacity and capability benchmark, a Local Government Self-Assessment Tool for DRR (LG-SAT-DRR) and an associated scoring system have been developed. Based on the Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (National Disaster Management Agency) self-assessment tool for disaster risk management (DRM), it has been expanded for DRR and a scoring system developed for benchmarking and communication purposes. To date the tool has been applied in eight districts in Indonesia. Results show a need for improvement in understanding hazards and risks, risk reduction activities, regulations, strategic planning, building development and controls and education and training. Community development, funding and networking generally scored higher. The districts have appreciated the snapshot of their current capacity and capability that the tool provides. The data gathering process and presentation of results provides an opportunity for further discussion and raising awareness about DRR. It also provides a focus for future action to reduce the risks of the community.
Land and forest fires are increasingly becoming annual disasters in Indonesia and have a significant impact on biodiversity, health, the economy and carbon dioxide emissions. Human activities such as the clearing of forests and land for plantations and agriculture have been attributed as the major causes of these fires. They have also been associated with the impacts of El-Niño. This chapter aims to examine the adequacy of current legal and institutional frameworks for land and forest fire risk management (LFFRM) in Indonesia, from the national to local level, through utilizing a disaster risk management approach, and thereby assess progress and challenges in managing land and forest fires during the prevention and mitigation, emergency response and post-fires rehabilitation and recovery phases. This study involves a literature review of related government regulations and academic publications, as well as interviews with government officials, the community and NGOs at the local level, conducted in two provinces: South Sumatra and Central Kalimantan. The study has three major findings. First, the institutional and regulatory framework for managing land/peatland fires is not integrated with that of forest fires. Second, a lack of law enforcement hinders prevention and mitigation. Third, current institutional and regulatory frameworks are still very much focused on emergency response. Moreover, progress is slower at lower levels of governance and community livelihood has failed to be integrated into the process. We recommend that governments, from the national to sub-national and local levels, develop a more comprehensive and multi-sectoral approach with community-based livelihood activities at its core, and commit to stricter law enforcement, especially for those private sector companies responsible for large-scale fires.
The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami incentivized policy change in Indonesian disaster risk reduction, including disaster education and school safety governance. However, much research focuses on the results of pilot projects and rarely addresses policy change comprehensively from national to local levels, and across sectors. As such, little progress has been made in designing policy that ensures all-schools implementation. This chapter aims to review the progress of disaster education and school safety governance from the national and local levels. We focus on the elementary school level due to its importance in educating a new generation that may not have experienced disasters. Since disaster education and school safety is not an exclusive domain of disaster management policy, the state of policy convergence and coherence is assessed using discourse network analysis and content analysis. At the local policy level, the chapter describes a case from Banda Aceh city. It shows that although the city received various programs, implementation of disaster education and school safety is not attainable for all elementary schools, particularly due to the absence of city-wide policy. Accordingly, this chapter identifies the necessary policy instrument to ensure city-wide implementation of disaster education and school safety. The findings show that the best solution is to have a ministerial-level regulation in the education sector, combined with a local regulation (Perda) or mayor/regent regulation, which can ensure the use of a public budget. Availability of a policy directives or action plans at school level could be useful in obtaining the money and technical capacity needed for all-schools implementation. This in turn, will ensure coherence and connectivity between various policies from local government, disaster management and education to close the gap between national policy and local implementation of disaster education and school safety governance in Indonesia.
Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) into formal education and curricular has been suggested as one strategy to help increase knowledge and understanding of disaster risks. While there has been some initial progress in initiating DRR integration into the school curriculum in Indonesia, this is mostly limited to the national level. There are however, few studies which try to analyze the integration of disaster knowledge and education into school curriculum comprehensively, from the national policy level to local implementation in schools. This chapter aims to review the current progress, challenges and strategies in integrating DRR and Climate Change Adaption (CCA) related content into the school curricular in Indonesia. We do this through content analysis of the 2013 national standard curriculum, a case study of schools in Aceh province and focus group discussions (FGD) with 26 chemistry teachers from 15 secondary high schools in Banda Aceh. Our findings show that concern about DRR and CCA has not yet been demonstrated or consistently addressed in the school curriculum in Indonesia. Particularly, challenges include a lack of teacher training, limited financial support and a relatively disintegrated system. Furthermore, teaching DRR is very challenging, especially in areas where customs are traditionally conservative and the teacher’s knowledge on environmental hazards is still limited. Challenges to integrating DRR and CCA into the curriculum can be addressed through improved teacher training, more financial support for DRR and CCA initiatives and the adoption of standardized and nationally approved disaster education guidelines. Improving disaster management knowledge and skills through integration of DRR and CCA into school curricular may save many more lives and equip younger generations with the ability to respond to natural disasters and significantly reduce losses of lives and property during a disaster.
Spatial planning (SP) is an essential element to reduce disaster risk, especially in rapidly urbanizing countries with high social vulnerability such as Indonesia. While the Indonesian government has substantially progressed with the integration of SP into development, Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) have not been specifically addressed at the same level. Integrating DRR and CCA with SP is very important to lay a foundation for long-term, forward-looking risk reduction, primarily through reducing exposure to natural hazards. There are, however, only few studies that have discussed the integration of DRR and CCA into SP in Indonesia. This chapter addresses this gap and aims to explore the progress and challenges for integrating CCA and CCA into SP in Indonesia. The specific objectives of this chapter are threefold: (1) to review the literature on the role of SP related to DRR and CCA, (2) to review progress and challenges for integration, and (3) to propose an integrative approach in SP. These objectives are met through a detailed literature review of relevant studies, policy documents and unpublished report analyses. The study finds that strategies to enhance integration include strengthening the institutional and policy dimension, which requires coordination, cooperation and collaboration among relevant stakeholders, as well as clear policy and guidelines for integration. There also needs to be more data and information to guide decision making especially at the local government level, whilst central government support is also required in terms of data availability and accessibility. Lastly, successful integration requires capacity building and empowerment for local governments and society. The authors propose a combined vulnerability risk assessment (VRA) which considers parameters such as climate stimuli, hazards and risk, and affected area, thus integrating DRR and CCA with SP aspects.
Disasters can cause major setbacks to achieving development goals but, at the same time, provide opportunities for development. In post-disaster reconstruction, the implementation of the ‘Build Back Better’ principle can result in improved road surfaces and wider road network coverage. However, the maximum benefit of such an investment can only be achieved if the road networks are properly maintained. Failing to provide the required maintenance needs may result in the investment made during the reconstruction period to prematurely diminish. As a result, the intended impact on the economic development of the areas concerned may not be achieved. This study aims at identifying factors that affect local government capacity in the maintenance of post-disaster road reconstruction assets. Data were collected from documents, archival records and semi-structured interviews with 28 respondents representing the road stakeholders at the local, provincial and national level within three case study districts in Aceh province. The data were analyzed using NVivo 10. The findings suggest that reconstructed road assets are generally neglected from maintenance needs. Factors which affect the local governments’ road maintenance capacity are grouped into three main categories: external, institutional and technical factors. The external factors are those which are beyond the direct control of the road authorities, such as local political and socio-economic conditions and conflicting roles between authorities. The institutional factors include financial capacity and human resources issues. The technical factors are accordingly those related to road design, traffic loading and other issues related to plant and equipment.
Jakarta has long been affected by floods and the social and economic impacts are enormous. There has been extensive research focusing on the impacts and actions by the government. However, flood adaptation strategies by manufacturing firms, as the most affected business sector, have been largely neglected. This chapter fills the gap firstly, by examining firms’ individual adaptation through their perception of flood risks and business decisions, and secondly, firms’ collective roles within Jakarta’s regional flood risk governance systems. We put forward recommendations toward integrative adaptive regional development (IARD), ranging from resistance to resilience and transformation or collapse. The study involves a review of literature on floods and their impacts in Jakarta as well as a case study with in-depth interviews of firms’ owners or decision-makers. We argue that based on the integration of different actor-specific adaptive capacities, interests and responsibilities, existing trajectories are adjusted or changed. Positive outcomes can be a sustainable regional economic growth and social welfare and negative outcomes can lead to socioeconomic downgrading. The findings show that firms’ production processes are heavily disrupted by floods. Firms’ adaptation strategies, individually and collectively, do not lead towards IARD. Firms primarily concentrate on individual adaptation that is orientated towards resistance and resilience. They mostly undertake technological adaptation to reduce flood risks and cope with its consequences. Collective adaptation is rarely undertaken, except by larger firms, due to self-interest and institutional barriers, which hence orientate them towards resistance (with the danger of collapse), and resilience rather than towards more fundamental transformation. Recommended strategies for achieving IARD include improving cooperation amongst firms and with government authorities, and to strengthen law enforcement.
Mass media increasingly play an important role as the foremost source of information for general society, including in the disaster period. Newspapers typically feature cover-filling headline photos of disasters. It signifies the main discourse strategy and represents the disaster discourse of the newspaper on the whole. This chapter aims to discuss the discourse on disaster in Indonesia based on a study of two newspapers that covered the Mt. Merapi eruption in 2010. This study applies the method of visual discourse analysis, paying special attention to how images construct certain views of the social world.
This chapter describes Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) capacity building activities with disabled people’s organizations (DPOs) in four hazard risk provinces in Indonesia. Established as part of an Australian Aid supported development research initiative, the project was implemented in the last years of the Hyogo Framework for Action by the Centre for Disability Research and Policy, University of Sydney and Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund Deutschland e.V, Indonesia and Philippines Office. As in other regions, participation in DRR by Indonesian DPOs was highly limited under the HFA. With the Sendai Framework for DRR (SFDRR) now recognizing persons with disabilities as key stakeholders, there is a need to broaden knowledge on the role of DPOs in DRR. While the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) refers to situations of risk, the related article has received little attention from DPOs due to multiple competing priorities. Similarly, DRR actors have rarely engaged with the disability sector. The SFDRR calls for greater collaboration between these two groups. This chapter outlines core features of the capacity building initiative and the impact of the programme on equipping Indonesian DPOs to engage within DRR. We describe how capacity building initiatives contributed to increased collaboration between disability and DRR actors, providing a practical model for supporting DPOs as policy advocates in other regions and countries. Disability-inclusive DRR recognizes the importance of collaboration to reduce and prevent risk. As the chapter illustrates, the resources to achieve this are far closer at hand than the DRR community previously thought.
This chapter presents an examination of the role of the Panglima Laot (translation: sea commander) customary institution in the recovery of fisheries communities in Aceh following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, as well as the roles and relationships of other actors from the perspective of the Panglima Laot local leaders and institution. The roles of the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Agency (BRR) of Aceh-Nias, the local government and international and local non-governmental organizations (NGO) are also analyzed in order to understand the broader recovery process, the interactions between these different stakeholders, and the types of loss and damage systems relevant to coastal fishing communities affected by the tsunami. Based on a review of the academic literature, an analysis of documents published by humanitarian and government organizations engaged in Aceh’s recovery and key informant interviews with representatives of Panglima Laot, local government agencies and international and local humanitarian organizations, our findings show that the Panglima Laot leaders and institution were instrumental in the recovery of Aceh’s coastal fishing communities. Importance lies in the trust people have in the institution and its community leaders; their role as mediators between communities, government and NGOs, and their leadership in implementing, monitoring and evaluating livelihood recovery programmes that address community needs. External agencies recognized these capacities and some provided financial and technical support to strengthen the institution further. In conclusion, we argue that the case of the Panglima Laot, positioned within the context of wide-scale disaster recovery interventions, offers lessons for actors engaged in localized post-disaster operations that aim to build resilience. Lessons in particular are around the importance of leadership, community engagement and people-centered recovery approaches.
Disaster risk communication is a fundamental part of disaster management. Knowing who the senders and receivers of risk information are, what constitutes necessary risk information, and how to appropriately convey risk information to trigger actions towards risk reduction, still remains challenging for risk information processes. The aim of this study is to identify the role of Faith-Based Organizations (FBOs) in Bandung, Indonesia as risk communicators through FBOs SIERA framework. A set of indicators in social, economic and institutional resilience activities (SIERA), with a scope of 45 activities covering three different disaster periods (before, during and after disaster), was developed to define the delivery process of risk information by FBOs through their activities at wards. The data was collected through a questionnaire survey method using the SIERA approach. FBOs’ leaders at wards were surveyed concerning their perceptions on these 45 scopes of SIERA, ongoing activities, as well as their risk information sources and dissemination processes. The relationship between the variables such as periods of disaster, types of activities, and attributing factors in finding variations of risk communication activity for communities was analyzed quantitatively. FBOs disseminate information about disaster risks during prayer sessions and are attentive at sending out emergency warnings and communicating these through instruments in mosques such as loudspeakers that can be heard by thousands of people in neighborhoods. By having these instruments, FBOs are enabling the establishment of an early warning mechanism with local government. Above exemplary results confirm that FBOs are active agents of change within communities at wards and fulfill the role of risk communicators through their religious activities in disaster risk reduction and disaster management as part of bigger action in building community resilience.
The May 2006 earthquake caused widespread damage and loss of life throughout the Yogyakarta Special Region. As international aid flowed into the region in the preceding months, numerous first-response, rehabilitation and longer-term recovery projects proliferated. Given the sheer number and scale of disasters that impact Indonesia annually, the disaster risk management community often has limited time and resources to evaluate the performance of responses and improve future practice. Drawing on a case study from Salam village, on the outskirts of Yogyakarta, this chapter seeks to contribute to the limited documentation of the successes and ongoing challenges of long-term livelihood recovery efforts following a large-scale disaster. This study, undertaken in July 2015, uses a sustainable development lens to assess the performance of a Caritas-funded disaster recovery project in Salam village. This disaster recovery project aimed to assist affected women to rebuild their livelihoods and enhance their long-term financial resilience following the 2006 earthquake. Drawing on focus group discussions with a number of the women (n = 9) involved in the recovery project, it was perceived overall as high benefit and low risk; however, a number of weaknesses also emerged that have restricted the potential growth and long-term sustainability of the project. Comprehensive studies analyzing the performance of these recovery projects are often absent from disaster studies. This is an oversight given that we must learn from these interventions to: assure optimal performance; guarantee that donor assistance is deployed in ways that create the most value; and ensure that livelihoods are rebuilt and transformed so that their vulnerability is reduced.
Effective science communication is essential for addressing the call that science needs to be more responsive to the needs of society. However, there are still gaps in understanding the role of science in reducing disaster risks and also strengthening the capacity of those at risk. Over the past decades, it is generally agreed that the physical and natural sciences predominated in disaster research and frameworks of disaster risk reduction interventions. The Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI) is amongst the pioneering national research institutions that conduct natural and social studies in Indonesia. In the early 1990s, LIPI’s studies predominantly emerged from geo-hazard disciplines, with several attempts to communicate science to the public. Only after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami did scientists from social and natural science backgrounds come together to understand and agree that the loss of lives during disasters was not down to a lack of knowledge, rather a weak role of science and science communication. It was realized that commonly adopted technical approaches in reducing risks were deemed ineffective and insufficient to bring social changes. This chapter aims to contribute social perspectives of disaster risk reduction, by analyzing the role of the LIPI Community Preparedness Program (COMPRESS) on science communication for tsunami risk reduction, from 2004 to 2014. This chapter uses the approach and analysis of agriculture extension workers in conducting communication for rural innovations. It shares 10 years of LIPI’s experience in reaching out to the public through creative learning processes, such as learning-by doing and experimental approaches. It also shares the key highlights of communicating science, as well as instrumental challenges in sustaining science communication in Indonesia.
The role of ecosystems has been recently acknowledged within the current global framework for environmental management, disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation and also sustainable development. The approach of ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR) is promoted as a compatible with community inclusiveness and participation, as well as cost efficient, socially friendly and sustainable. Notwithstanding its acknowledged strengths, Eco-DRR approaches face many challenges, including skepticism of its effectiveness towards different types and magnitudes of hazards and the complexity to govern such effort. In Indonesia, DRR approaches are strongly influenced by the spirit of community participation, especially after the 2004 tsunami in Aceh and the 2009 earthquake in Padang. We argue that the learning process is important to integrate structural and non-structural measures by incorporating community involvement in Indonesia, and that Eco-DRR should be promoted, particularly to identify possible opportunities to preserve ecosystems and reduce disaster risk. The aims of this chapter are to explore the general concept of Eco-DRR, to review examples of Eco-DRR projects and to unfold the challenges and opportunities for Eco-DRR projects in Indonesia. Data is gathered through semi-structured literature reviews and content analysis of existing research related to Eco-DRR projects in Indonesia. Demak, a coastal area in Central Java Province and the Kuwaru coastal area in Yogyakarta Special Province are selected as case studies. The outcome of this chapter is a reflection on challenges and opportunities for further advancement of Eco-DRR to achieve disaster resilient and sustainable communities in Indonesia.
There is increasing recognition of the role of culture in influencing community resilience. When acknowledged as cultural aspects, behaviors, beliefs and social structure could shape risk perception and risk behavior. In the context of Indonesia, research on culture has been mainly explored within the context of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and rarely in the case of floods in coastal areas. This study aims to explore distinctive elements of culture that shape community resilience progressions from coping, self-organizing, recovering and learning to adapt to flood hazards. We argue that unpacking and knowing how particular elements of culture influence the progression of resilience will lead to better understanding of how vulnerable communities build their resilience. Empirical data is collected through a survey of 170 households, semi-structured interviews with local leaders and group discussions in Muara Baru, North Jakarta. This study finds that vulnerable communities can build resilience by optimizing their existing culture in daily life. First, household behaviors e.g. helping each other and offering mutual assistance, influences the ability to cope with disasters. Second, social structures e.g. task division amongst family members and the role of local leaders to manage relief programs, mainly determine ability to self-organize. Third, the recovery process is mainly shaped by networking within ethnic groups for social-economic support. Finally, the ability to learn to adapt is mainly influenced by strong beliefs which restrict people to learn from previous experiences and leaves them less prepared for future disasters. These findings are relevant for optimizing formal community resilience building programs.
This chapter discusses post-disaster mental health recovery and its relevance for disaster risk reduction. Specifically, it describes how to design post-disaster mental health programs that take into account the perspectives of the victims in both the design and implementation. Some theories state that religious beliefs and practices guide people’s understanding of a problem toward finding solutions. The flexibility to adapt to local context is the key to successful and effective mental health programs. However, little is known about how Muslims themselves perceive disasters, death and loss because of disaster, and how they use their faith to recover. This understanding is relevant since some countries where the majority of the populations are Muslim, like Indonesia, are disaster-prone areas. Data is used from interviews with the beneficiaries that were conducted in December 2005. The interview data was analyzed using a thematic analysis. The themes appeared by identifying, analyzing and looking at patterns within the interview data. The study finds five specific viewpoints that emerged, including: the disaster was preordained from God; there will be ease after the hardship; one must be grateful for what they still have; to pray to and remember God to find peace; and those who died are martyrs and were rewarded by God with heaven. These viewpoints are then explained through the lens of three prominent Muslim scholars and their texts that deal with Islamic perspectives to responding to calamities. These findings provide a basis for a proposal to develop and implement mental health programs that respect the perspectives of the victims in both counseling and discussions, are supported by religious figures, incorporate the use of prayers as a way of coping and healing, and integrate a mental health program with a livelihood program to help victims rebuild their lives.
Polder systems in Jakarta have been implemented since 1965, but their development has been hindered by social and political issues. Currently, the government of Jakarta has started to consider polder system as seen in the Spatial Plan 2030. This chapter assesses the benefits/costs of the polder system in Jakarta under current conditions and under future scenario of climate change, land use change, and subsidence. We calculate the benefits of each polder using Damagescanner-Jakarta, which is a flood risk model developed in previous study. Cost estimates are based on the costs of 22 dike projects in Java. We use flood design standards at 2, 5, 10, 25, and 50 years, as set out in the Minister of Public Works. The results show that benefit/cost ratios greater than 1 exist at 21 out of 66 polders reducing 25% of risk under current conditions, and at 31 out of 66 polders reducing 52% of risk under the future scenario (for a return period of 2 years). Much of this risk reduction could be achieved in just 3 polders, namely Kapuk Muara, Penjaringan Junction, and Kapuk Polgar, in which 50% of the current risk could be reduced. The study also shows that operating 12 polders could reduce risk by 81% in the future, and polders with very high net benefits are located away from the coastline. Sensitivity testing using lower (4%) and higher (10%) discount rates show the number of net benefiting polders reduces as the discount rate increases in a predictable trend.
Forest and land fires occur almost every year in Indonesia and their impacts are detrimental to human life and the environment. The major causes of forest and land fires thus need to be determined and spatial pattern of the fire activity needs to be developed. The assessment of hazard levels can help policy makers to develop strategy and actions for managing fire risks and to develop spatial plans that can decrease the fire risk or evaluate the impacts of land use change on fire risk. The objectives of this research are to analyze the variables that affected the level of forest land and fire hazard, to develop a spatial model of forest and land fire hazard and to determine the distribution of forest and land fires in the Kapuas District of Central Kalimantan. Forest and land fires in the Kapuas District of Central Kalimantan Province receive ongoing attention from local, national and international communities. Composite Mapping Analysis was used to develop spatial model of forest and land fires hazard index. Six variables were used in determining the hazard of forest and land fires in Kapuas i.e., land cover, distance from river, distance from road, and distance from village centre, peat depth, and land system. The findings showed that fire hazard index could be developed by using three variables: peat depth, land cover and distance from road. The hotspot density could well be explained using the three variables with a coefficient of determination (R2) of about 73.8%. The highest peat depth class had a weight of 72.9% in determining the forest fire possibility through hotspot density. High hazard areas were mostly distributed in deep peat areas, found under land cover class of secondary swamp forest and shrub swamp and in close proximity to the road. This study provided suggestions to the Kapuas District stakeholders to enhance intentions to improve land productivity, to protect peatland conservation areas and to manage water in peatland. The study concludes on the importance of developing time-series forest and land fire hazard maps and to include socio-economic variables in the model.
Many public education programs on disaster preparedness have been less effective due to a lack of considering communities’ social, cultural, religious and local contexts. Much disaster research associated with religious aspects focuses on the negative effect of religious teachings on preparedness behaviour. This chapter fills a gap by presenting a positive view of religious teachings that are capable of encouraging disaster preparedness . The aim of this research is to examine the effectiveness of risk information media (leaflets) comprising religious messages in persuading people to take tsunami preparedness . Tsunami Resilient Preparedness (TRP) indicators consist of a tsunami early warning system (TEWS), Emergency Plan (EP) and Capacity (CA), at each level from the individual, family and community to society and are used to measure tsunami preparedness . To investigate changes in tsunami preparedness action as an effect of risk information, this study uses two approaches: development of risk information and a pre and post survey involving 173 community members living in tsunami prone areas in Yogyakarta , Indonesia . A paired t-test and an independent t-test are used to analysis the change in mean score between pre-test and post-test and compare mean score in both groups. Results show that intervention leaflets containing Islamic messages were effective in influencing residents both in increasing their knowledge and their behaviour in most TRP except for TEWS-individual and society, EP-community and CA-individual. Increases in most of TRP indicators are also present in the sub-group reinforced by religious leaders. This study is valuable in providing a framework for how policy makers should take into account the important effect of religious teachings in encouraging people to take action for disaster preparedness.
A combination of exposure to a broad range of natural hazards and widespread socio-economic vulnerability makes Indonesia one of the most at risk countries to disasters in the world. Consequently, the Indonesian population is accustomed to living with various high impact events such as floods, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and landslides. Ongoing exposure to hazards means disaster preparedness is crucial for Indonesia to reduce the impacts of disasters. Many studies have found that developing social capital holds great potential for disaster preparedness, response and recovery at individual, community and national levels. However, in Indonesia, comparatively few studies on disaster preparedness deal with issues of social capital. To address this gap, this study aims to analyze the role of social capital in disaster preparedness in Indonesia using the dataset of the Social Resilience Module of the 2014 National Socio-Economic Survey. A binary logistic regression was used to quantitatively investigate the effect of different social capital factors on disaster preparedness. The results indicated that social capital positively influences knowledge of disaster preparedness. Persons with a high level of trust, tolerance, social networking and collective action tend to have a higher knowledge of disaster preparedness. Tolerance and social-networking are the most influential factors, while the effect of trust and collective action are more moderate but still statistically significant. These findings represent useful empirical evidence for policy makers to invest in and utilize social capital for building disaster risk preparedness programs in Indonesia.
The concepts of community resilience have been utilized in the discussion on related to disaster risk reduction (DRR) and there has been a proliferation of concepts and frameworks for understanding and measuring resilience. This study builds on these measures of resilience by developing an Integrated Concept of Community Resilience (ICCR) adapted to include Indonesian context-specific dimensions such as different forms of cultural capital, governance and spatial planning. Specifically, existing forms of cultural capital, namely gotong royong (collective action) have long been rooted in many Indonesian societies and therefore play an important role in increasing community resilience. At a larger scale, community resilience is also influenced by external factors such as the governance system and spatial planning. The objective of this chapter is to develop and apply the ICCR framework in the Sleman and Bantul Regencies in the Special Region (Daerah Istimewa) of Yogyakarta, which are threatened by volcanic and earthquake hazards respectively. The analyses were based on data from 200 household questionnaires, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. The ICCR was then translated into indicators that are analyzed statistically. The result of the assessment showed that the resilience index of Sleman Regency is higher than that of Bantul Regency, although the average resilience index in Sleman and Bantul is moderate except for spatial planning in Bantul which is low. Based on the results obtained, the ICCR can be applied as a measure of community resilience and help to highlight ways and possible interventions for strengthening resilience.
... The Pekalongan Regency Government involves volunteers and the community in river waste clean-up activities as an effort to reduce the risk of flood disasters [11]. Building resilient communities to reduce vulnerability can enhance DRR strategies [12]. ...
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Floods, tidal floods, droughts, and landslides have caused huge material and immaterial losses in Pekalongan Regency. The disaster also had an impact on the education sector. This study aims to determine the need for disaster-safe schools in Pekalongan Regency. This research is a literature study involving book literature, journal articles, news, ministry data reports, government policies, laws, and regulations regarding disaster risk reduction in schools. The results found that around 80% of primary and secondary schools in Pekalongan Regency are located in disaster risk areas. There have been several disaster events that have had a direct impact on schools. The Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) policy in schools on a global, national and regional scale has been ratified as a guideline for creating a sense of safety in schools. One of the policies of the Indonesian government is the SPAB (Disaster Safe Education Unit) program. The SPAB program offers guidelines for protecting education units against disasters. However, the program implementation needs financial support from the local government. Schools should be involved in DRR actions. The urgency of the SPAB program is very clear to be implemented in Pekalongan Regency.
... Serta pemanfaatan potensi wilayah sekitar sehingga mengurangi halhal yang berpotensi mempercepat terjadinya suatu bencana (Uchiyama et al., 2021). Penelitian yang berfokus terkait tingkat rawan bencana akan memberikan perencanaan wilayah pengembangan potensi fisik menggunakan pendekatan spasial seperti iklim, lahan, topografi data melalui penerapan geografi informasi sistem (Djalante et al., 2017). Data observasi selama penelitian terkait penentuan wilayah potensial fisik daerah Pangkalan Kuras dilakukan menggunakan 5 proses teknik analisis, teknik analisis diproses melalui bantuan penerapan software geografi informasi sistem dan pengolahan citra digital. ...
Pangkalan Kuras District is a small part of Pelalawan Regency which is located in Riau Province. The resulting hydrometeorological disasters have impacts ranging from material losses and non-material losses such as loss of livelihoods, loss of life, damage to land, threatened habitat, and disruption of interaction with human activities. The purpose of this study is to provide the appearance of disaster-prone areas with the ultimate goal of producing potential disaster-safe areas through a spatial approach. This study uses data on topography, climatology, lithology, groundwater basins, soil characteristics, and land use. While the method applied is divided into 5 analyzes, namely analysis of area functions, land capability, land suitability, prone to flooding, and prone to landslides. The results of this study explain the division into 2 final areas, such as the potential area reaching 160,985 ha and the limiting area reaching 43,889 ha. This condition can be developed in various sectors to support the improvement of the community's economy by minimizing losses from various hydrometeorological disasters.
... Indonesia merupakan wilayah yang memiliki kejadian bencana alam yang terdiri atas bencana hidrometerologi dan geologi (BNPB, 2020). Bencana alam ini juga dipengaruhi oleh kondisi geografis Indonesia yang berada pada daerah tropis dan pada pertemuan dua samudera dan dua benua membuat wilayah ini rawan akan bencana alam (Djalante et al., 2017). Berdasarkan laporan Indeks Resiko Bencana Indonesia (IRBI) tercatat sepanjang tahun 2020 terjadi 2.939 kejadian bencana, yaitu bencana banjir (1.070 kejadian), bencana puting beliung (879 kejadian) dan bencana tanah longsor (575 kejadian) (BNPB, 2020). ...
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The geographical condition of Ambon City, which is 75% a hilly area resulted in most communities building in marbled areas with slopes above 20%, which has the potential to threaten life and landslide disasters. This study simply looked at the influence of slopes and slope shapes in Ambon City that can be analyzed using geographic information systems (GIS) to map areas that have the potential for landslides. Identification and mapping of potential landslide areas have an important role as an effort in overcoming and anticipating the occurrence of landslide disasters. This study aimed to analyze the spread of potential landslide areas in Ambon City based on the results of SMORPH modeling. The study used the slope morphology or SMORPH method, which has a better degree of accuracy than the Storie Index and SINMAP methods to identify and classify potential landslide areas based on the matrix between slope shape and slope angle. This study resulted in 4 levels of landslide potential areas, namely very low, low, medium and high potential. Areas with high landslide potential dominate the northern and southern parts of Ambon City. In the region, most landslides occur in the form of sunken and convex slopes. The region has a hilly and mountainous topography with a steep slope. The results of this research using the SMORPH method can illustrate that the slope of the increasingly higher slope accompanied by the shape of a convex or concave slope will cause the potential for landslides that are higher in the region.
Flooding is a prevalent natural disaster in major cities throughout Indonesia. Over the past decade, Makassar City has experienced a severe increase in flood risk due to rapid and poorly controlled urbanization, as well as significant environmental degradation. The lack of reliable country-level flood hazard mapping at the sub-district level, coupled with limited local information and inadequate urban flood mitigation planning, further exacerbates the risk for residents. This paper aims to evaluate the vulnerability of social, physical, economic, and environmental aspects in the impacted areas of Makassar City to floods. The study employs a local methodological framework and geographic information system (GIS) to discern differences in flood risk levels across various areas. Leveraging available statistical and spatial data from the major flood that occurred in 2013, the research utilizes GIS spatial and temporal analysis to generate individual indicators and scores them using relevant parameters for vulnerability assessment in the local context. By combining the spatial parameters of the vulnerability index and flood hazard index, the study analyzes each component of the risk index and creates an overall risk index map. The distribution forms of specific risk levels and the percentage of risk areas for each sub-district are then examined. This analysis provides valuable insights to the local government, enabling better urban risk mitigation planning and accurate prioritization of necessary actions for each zone in Makassar City.
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The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how the State implement human rights standard on disaster management and response in Indonesia to explore the State's obligation to provide fundamental rights in a state of exigency. This paper investigates whether the law and regulation on disaster management in Indonesia have adopted human rights standards and how the standard has been implemented after Palu Disaster that occurred on 28 September 2018. The investigation was conducted through field research using a standard human rights implementation criteria-based questionnaire according to the standard set by The Core Humanitarian Standard on Quality and Accountability (CHS) 2014. The research was preceded by an FGD held by stakeholders to obtain more elaborate and balanced In order to investigate the State's duty to uphold basic rights in an emergency, the goal of this research is to assess how the State applies human rights standards to disaster management and response in Indonesia. This study looks into whether Indonesian disaster management laws and regulations contain human rights standards and how those standards have been put into practice following the Palu Disaster on September 28, 2018. According to the criteria established by The Core Humanitarian Standard on Quality and Accountability (CHS) 2014, the inquiry was carried out through field research with the use of a standard human rights implementation criterion-based questionnaire. An FGD was convened by stakeholders prior to the research in order to gather more thorough and impartial information between the government and the disaster victims. Human rights standards are not being implemented in Palu's disaster management, as evidenced by reports of victims being treated unfairly and inadequate basic supplies being distributed to them. Here, a paradox developed between the poor human rights protection provided by disaster management regulations and the propensity of state authorities to use a positive-legalistic implementation strategy to such regulations. information between the disaster victims and the government. Reports of discrimi-native treatment received by the victims and poor basic needs distribution during the disaster are a few clues regarding the lack of implementation of human rights standards in disaster management in Palu. Here a twist happened between the weakness of human rights protection under the regulation of disaster management and the tendency of state authority to use a positive-legalistic approach to implement such regulation.
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The earthquake disaster has an impact on tourist visit intention. This study aims to investigate tourist behavior in the post-earthquake disaster linkage between information sources (word of mouth and electronic word of mouth) and risk perception toward tourists’ visit intentions to a destination in Indonesia. This study applies the SOR theory to predict tourists’ behavior in the destination aftermath. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model was used to examine the hypothesis of the study. The result found that information sources (electronic word of mouth and word of mouth) significantly influenced visit intention in the time of post-earthquake disaster. The risk perception has not significantly influenced visit intention in post-earthquake disasters. The discussion and conclusion of the study are discussed herein. Overall, the findings of the study may contribute to the theory by adding information sources to predict tourist behavior post-earthquake disaster and also gives a practical contribution to the tourism sector, stakeholders, tourism marketers, and policymakers in Indonesia to enhance the marketing strategy by considering destination promotion through word of mouth (offline) and electronic word of mouth (online) and its mechanism on tourists’ travel decision in the time of aftermath.
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A board game designed by psychologists and geologists to improve seismic-risk perception is presented. In a within-subjects repeated-measure study, 64 Italian high-school students rated their perception of seismic risk in relation to the hazard, vulnerability and exposure of the area in which they lived, before and after the game. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), which considered perception of seismic risk as the dependent variable and time as the independent variable, revealed that the board game affected the dependent variable, particularly the perception of hazard and vulnerability. The results confirm the effectiveness of the game in changing participants’ seismic risk perception, properly because the game was built with consideration of the variables that make up seismic risk. The board game proved to be an effective and fun educational tool to be used in future earthquake risk prevention programs.
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The jump phenomenon, present in the forced asymmetric Duffing oscilllator, is studied using the known steady-state asymptotic solution. The main result consists in construction of a new mathematical object – a jump manifold – encoding global information about all possible jumps. The jump manifold is computed for the forced asymmetric Duffing oscillator, and several examples of jumps are calculated, showing the advantages of the method.
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The Union Territory of Ladakh, located in the northwestern Himalayan region, is highly vulnerable to natural and anthro-pogenic hazards like earthquakes, landslides, snow avalanches, flash floods, cloud bursts, and border conflicts. Occurrences of these disasters have significantly influenced the development and vulnerability scenario of Trans-Himalayan Ladakh. Findings reveal that despite suffering losses from natural and human-induced disasters, the region has benefited by grabbing the attention of policymakers at the national level. Consequently, long-term developments were positively impacted, reflecting infrastructural upgradation, improved transportation and communication, profoundly improving the socioeconomic well-being of the people. Furthermore, post-disaster developments have managed to showcase the unique physiography and adventurous terrains of Ladakh, promoting tourism as the main economic driver in the region. The exponential growth of tourism and associated sectors have influenced the vulnerability scenario, which was quantified using the multi-criterion-based analytical hierarchical processes (AHP) method, indicating an increase in climate change-related vulnerability, followed by socio-cultural, environmental, and physical vulnerabilities. Specifically, the vulnerabilities with respect to flash floods, landslides, erratic rainfall, haphazard constructions, cultural dilution, water crisis, and changes in land use patterns have been exacerbated across the study area. The study highlights the need for effective management of these emerging vulner-abilities through proper planning to ensure long-term sustainable development goals in this environmentally fragile region.
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Mount Penanggungan’s watershed ecosystems, which play a crucial role in managing the water cycle, are in an alarming state right now. Community-based integrated water resources conservation efforts aim to restore the function of watersheds, particularly in terms of controlling the water cycle. The purpose of this article is to describe a variety of community-based water conservation efforts in Mount Penanggungan, Gempol District, Pasuruan, East Java. We encourage the local community to engage in integrated water resource conservation activities, such as engineering efforts, plastic waste processing, tree planting, education, and public awareness-raising. Community service students from UGM participate in these programs as live-in facilitators. Local communities now have the infrastructure necessary to engage in community-based water conservation, including both physical and non-physical infrastructure (biopore and rainwater harvester) but also non-physical infrastructure (awareness and knowledge). This activity must be continued in order to observe the growth and outcomes of the empowerment initiatives that have already been carried out.
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