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Criminele families in Noord-Brabant. Een verkenning van generatie-effecten in de georganiseerde misdaad

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... 'closed' family systems, where money, drugs, and weapons are available and where the use of aggression and violence is common [9]. There are some smallscale qualitative studies available that seem to suggest that children of organized crime offenders may be at high risk of criminal involvement [9,17,29,34]. For example, Moors and Spapens [29] studied seven criminal families in the south of the Netherlands and found that very few family members seemed able to escape the continuity of crime. ...
... There are some smallscale qualitative studies available that seem to suggest that children of organized crime offenders may be at high risk of criminal involvement [9,17,29,34]. For example, Moors and Spapens [29] studied seven criminal families in the south of the Netherlands and found that very few family members seemed able to escape the continuity of crime. Van Dijk and colleagues (2018) found similar results in their case study on 25 Amsterdam-based organized crime offenders. ...
... As shown before, one of the major components of organized crime specifically, is the complex network structure in which criminal activities are carried out. As several more anecdotal or qualitative studies showed, sons and also daughters are potentially more likely to marry someone within the (criminal) network of their parents, which subsequently poses additional risk of continued offending in the generations to come [9,20,29,34,33,36]. In addition, particularly in this group of more serious offenders, we cannot rule out the possibility that official record biases may lead to an overestimation of intergenerational continuity [4]. ...
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As existing literature on intergenerational continuity of criminal behavior is mainly based on data on ‘general’ offenders and their children, the current study aims to improve our knowledge by looking at intergenerational continuity of crime among a national sample of children of organized crime offenders. Judicial data on all (N= 478) offenders convicted of organized crime in the Netherlands (in the period 2008 - 2014) and their children were used to study offspring’s involvement in crime. In addition, a comparison group was selected from the entire population in the Netherlands to examine the relative risk of offending. Results show that almost half of the children of organized crime offenders have a criminal record. Sons are significantly more at risk of offending and this risk also increases strongly by age. Furthermore, the results show the strongest intergenerational relation for violent crimes. Gender of the convicted parent and timing of parental crime also seem to play a role in the continuity. With regard to the relative risk of offending, the results show that children of convicted organized crime offenders are three times more at risk of offending compared to children in the comparison group, even after controlling for the number of parental crimes. In sum, there is a substantial risk of intergenerational continuity of criminal behavior among children of organized crime offenders. Future research would benefit from focusing on how criminal behavior in these specific families is transmitted to future generations.
... intergenerationele overdracht van geweld in intieme relaties of de overdracht van crimineel gedrag over meer generaties bestudeerd (Moors & Spapens, 2017). Diverse studies hebben onderstreept dat kindermishandeling een risicofactor is voor zowel het plegen van geweld in intieme relaties op volwassen leeftijd, als voor het plegen van geweldsdelicten en andere strafbare feiten tijdens de adolescentie en daarna (Lahlah, 2013(Lahlah, , 2017Moors & Spapens, 2017 ...
... intergenerationele overdracht van geweld in intieme relaties of de overdracht van crimineel gedrag over meer generaties bestudeerd (Moors & Spapens, 2017). Diverse studies hebben onderstreept dat kindermishandeling een risicofactor is voor zowel het plegen van geweld in intieme relaties op volwassen leeftijd, als voor het plegen van geweldsdelicten en andere strafbare feiten tijdens de adolescentie en daarna (Lahlah, 2013(Lahlah, , 2017Moors & Spapens, 2017 ...
... Many studies show a substantial correlation between the criminal activity of parents and their children (e.g. Besemer et al. 2017;Besemer et al. 2011;Besjes and Van Gaalen 2008;Farrington 2005; Van de Rakt et al. 2006; Thornberry et al. 2003; Van de Weijer 2014;Moors and Spapens 2017). For example, the Dutch Criminal Career and Life-Course Study (CCLS) shows that 30% of children over the age of 12 with parents who have had more than 15 convictions have a criminal record themselves, as compared to 6.6% of children with non-convicted parents (van de Rakt et al. 2006). ...
... However, sons seem more willing to behave according to this role than daughters, as they always seem to respect the stereotyped masculine behavior expected of them in Mafia environments, while daughters are either eager to escape their destiny or are victimized (Sergi 2017). After the currently discussed research project was finished, Moors and Spapens (2017) also conducted a case study in the Netherlands: they studied seven Dutch criminal families, with at least one organized crime offender in one of the four generations. Although they did not specifically focus on intergenerational continuity, as they based their selection on the criminal behavior of the family in general and not on the criminal behavior of the oldest generation, they found the reputation of these families and their deviant values to be of main importance in explaining the participation in crime over generations. ...
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This qualitative descriptive study aims to explore (1) the extent of intergenerational continuity of crime in families of organized crime offenders, (2) the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and (3) the mechanisms underlying intergenerational discontinuity. The study comprised a descriptive analysis of the available numeric information on 25 organized crime offenders based in Amsterdam and their 48 children of at least 19 years of age and a more qualitative in-depth analysis of police files, justice department files and child protection service files of all the family members of 14 of the 25 families. Additionally, interviews with employees of the involved organizations were conducted. In terms of prevalence in official record crime statistics, the results show that a large majority of the organized crime offenders’ sons seem to follow in their fathers’ footsteps. This is not the case for daughters, as half of them have a criminal record, but primarily for only one minor crime. Intergenerational transmission seems to be facilitated by mediating risk factors, inadequate parenting skills of the mother, the “famous” or violent reputation of the father, and deviant social learning. If we want to break the intergenerational chain of crime and violence, the results seem to suggest that an accumulation of protective factors seem to be effective, particularly for girls. For girls, supervision from a child protection service also seems to work quite well. For boys, we might need a different approach to prevent them from offending.
... Strong social ties, like family ties (cf. [48]), provide trustworthy partners that are discrete towards outsiders with regard to the illegal activities. Unlike conclusions in the literature that are based on the trade-off between communication and concealment, trust can be built through elaborate communication [40,41]. ...
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This article examines how corporate crime is organised through studying the longevity of illegal business cartels. Previous studies demonstrate cartels can remain undetected for years or decades. Similar to criminal networks, cartel participants need to communicate in order to collaborate effectively, but operate covertly at the same time. The case study analysis of fourteen Dutch cartel cases in this study demonstrates two main findings. First, cartel participants communicate frequently and elaborately, and the need for trust and communication impedes concealment. Second, the longevity of cartels cannot be explained by isolation from but by embeddedness in their social environment. The context of legitimacy and a facilitating environment are significant factors. Criminal collaboration is studied extensively in literature on organised crime, however gained little attention in the literature on corporate crime. Hereby, this study contributes to an understanding of how corporate criminal conduct is organised, by applying relevant theory on criminal networks gleaned from the literature on organised crime.
... Neem nou de prachtige studies over de ontwrichtende werking van ondermijning op het Brabantse platteland, waarin wordt aangegeven dat bepaalde families daarin een belangrijke rol spelen (zie bijv. Endedijk, 2017;Tops & Tromp, 2017;Moors & Spapens, 2017), waarin aan het geweld binnen de familie verder relatief weinig aandacht wordt besteed. Of het ook interessante onderzoek naar de strafbladen van leden van zogeheten 1%-motorclubs, waaruit wij van alles leren over eerdere criminele en gewelddadige activiteiten, maar verder niets aan de weet komen over de vraag of het daarbij ook gaat om geweld binnen het gezin (Blokland e.a., 2017). ...
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In The Netherlands not much attention has been paid towards the relationship between domestic violence and organized crime. In this contribution the question is addressed why this is. One of the answers is that there is doubt about the moral status of the victim of organized crime: it assumed that the victim has benefited from the proceedings of organized crime. When domestic violence and involvement with organized crime by one of the family members come together, the case becomes more complex and difficult to deal with. For that reason professionals and researchers should pay more attention to the overlap of both phenomena.
... Daarnaast worden kinderen van zware criminelen, zoals plegers van georganiseerde misdaad, in intergenerationeel onderzoek veelal buiten beschouwing gelaten. Met name in gezinnen van plegers van georganiseerde mis-daad (zoals drugs-, wapen-en mensenhandel) zijn er echter aanwijzingen dat vrouwen actief betrokken zijn bij de criminele activiteiten van hun partner en bijvoorbeeld taken overnemen als hun man in detentie zit (Fiandaca, 2007;Moors & Spapens, 2017). Ook zijn er vrouwen die zelf een leidende rol spelen in internationale criminele netwerken (Kleemans e.a., 2013). ...
... Criminele netwerkvorming wordt mede bepaald door familiebanden (Moors & Spapens, 2017). In onze analyses hebben we gekeken of sprake was van families waarvan drie of meer familieleden deel uitmaken van het limited of beperkte crimineel netwerk. ...
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