Article

Video Game Addiction: The Push To Pathologize Video Games

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

With proposals to include ‘gaming disorder’ in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) and International Compendium of Diseases (ICD), the concept of video game addiction has gained traction. However, many aspects of this concept remain controversial. At present, little clarity has been achieved regarding diagnostic criteria and appropriate symptoms. It is unclear if symptoms that involve problematic video gaming behavior should be reified as a new disorder, or are the expression of underlying mental conditions. Nonetheless, the recent proposals around gaming disorder from respected bodies such as the World Health Organization and the American Psychiatric Association seem to lock much of the applied research into a confirmatory trajectory. Since the DSM-5 proposal, research is increasingly focused on the application of the proposed criteria, as opposed to broadly testing validity and necessity of the overarching construct. This raises multiple concerns. Firstly, the current approaches to understanding ‘gaming addiction’ are rooted in substance abuse research and approaches do not necessarily translate to media consumption. Secondly, some research has indicated that ‘video game addiction’ is not a stable construct and clinical impairment might be low. Thirdly, pathologizing gaming behavior has fallout beyond the therapeutic setting. In light of continuing controversies, it is argued that the currently proposed categories of video game addiction disorders are premature.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Some commentators have criticized the evidence as "weak" (van Rooij et al. 2018, p. 6), and raised concerns about the risk of misclassification (Starcevic, 2017). These concerns often cite the notion that the disorder would "stigmatise" and create "moral panic" (Aarseth et al., 2017;Bean, Nielsen, Van Rooij, & Ferguson, 2017) about a common class of behavior that may not be inherently harmful for the majority of participants. ...
... A major problem identified across most tests (56 items, 20 tests), and which has been raised by researchers who criticize gaming disorder as a mental disorder (Aarseth et al., 2017;Bean, Nielsen, Van Rooij, & Ferguson, 2017;Billieux, Schimmenti, Khazaal, Maurage, & Heeren, 2015;Przybylski, Weinstein, & Murayama, 2016;van Rooij et al., 2018), is the potential for tests to "overpathologize" normal and adaptive gaming behaviors and consequences. The VASC was found to include 11 items that refer to the benefits of gaming (e.g., "I think playing video games is a very enjoyable activity"; "I feel happy when I play video games"; "I always talk about video games with my friends"). ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Critics of gaming disorder (GD; i.e., Internet gaming disorder in the DSM-5; Gaming disorder in the ICD-11) have expressed concerns about the potential risks of misclassification (e.g., false positives). An important consideration of relevance to this discussion is the extent to which commonly used screening instruments contain appropriate, sensible, and relevant items. The aim of this review was to evaluate the face validity of items within current tools for GD. Methods A systematic review of databases identified 29 instruments. An item bank ( n = 417 items) was independently evaluated by three professional raters (i.e., a senior academic in clinical psychology, a senior psychometrician, and an academic/clinical psychologist) according to guidelines for defining and measuring addiction and gaming disorder. Findings Evaluation of the item bank identified issues related to: scope (i.e., “scope creep” or items of questionable relevance); language (i.e., confusing language, unusual wording or syntax); and overpathologizing (i.e., pathologizing typical and/or beneficial aspects or consequences of gaming). A total of 71 items across 23 tools had at least one face validity issue. Conclusions Most items (83%) demonstrated satisfactory face validity and were consistent with either the DSM-5 or ICD-11 GD classification. However, many tests contain at least one item that may pathologize normal gaming behaviors. Such items refer to basic changes in mood when gaming, a desire to play or continue playing games, and experiencing immersion when gaming. This analysis highlights the challenges of screening for problematic behaviors that are thought to arise within the context of normal recreational activities.
... Given the strong similarity between IGD and obsessive passion for gaming, it appears that future work on either construct would benefit from the consideration of research on both constructs. Additionally, given concerns about measures of IGD over-pathologizing gamers by including symptoms that may reflect engagement that is high but harmless (e.g., Bean et al., 2017), considering harmonious and obsessive passion in addition to IGD symptoms may provide a fruitful avenue for identifying which symptoms (if any) reflect healthy versus unhealthy engagement. At the very least, considering both harmonious and obsessive passion for gaming allows for the exploration of potential positive effects of gaming as well as potential negative effects, a broadened focus that several scholars have called for (e.g., Gentile, 2011;Granic et al., 2014;Halbrook et al., 2019;Prot et al., 2014). ...
... Aarseth et al., 2017;Bean et al., 2017;Billieux et al., 2017;Griffiths et al., 2017;Higuchi et al., 2017;James & Tunney, 2017;Lee et al., 2017;Müller & Wölfling, 2017;Saunders et al., 2017;Shadloo et al., 2017;van den Brink, 2017;van Rooij et al., 2018). Despite the controversies, however, most scholars seem to agree that this is a condition deserving additional research, even if the current conceptualizations are imperfect. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Research on self-determination theory has demonstrated that the satisfaction of basic psychological needs improves well-being and can thus be considered psychologically nutritious. Most of this work has focused on need satisfaction in the real world, but some studies have shown that need satisfaction experienced during video game play also leads to short-term improvements in well-being. It is not yet clear, however, how need satisfaction derived from video games compares to need satisfaction derived from real-world experiences. Can video game need satisfaction improve well-being beyond real-world need satisfaction? The present study addressed this and related questions using a two-week daily-diary study with a sample of 133 undergraduates who regularly played video games. Multilevel models revealed that well-being was higher on days with (a) above-average levels of video game playtime (without considering need satisfaction or frustration), and (b) above-average levels of video game need satisfaction (after controlling for the satisfaction and frustration of needs in the real world). The effect of real-world need satisfaction on well-being was nearly 10 times the size of the effect of video game need satisfaction, however. This suggests that video games are psychologically nutritious, but less nutritious than need-satisfying real-world experiences. People with an obsessive passion for gaming and those with IGD symptoms also had poorer daily well-being. Separate models revealed that video game playtime was lower on days with above-average levels of real-world need frustration. People with a harmonious passion for gaming and those with IGD symptoms spent more time playing across the two weeks.
... In keeping with the same premise, the proposed DSM-5 criteria for Internet gaming disorder were based on those for gambling disorder. There is, however, no consensus among experts in the field that the biomedical model of addiction is best suited to account for gaming disorder, which to date remains debated as a mental health issue (Aarseth et al., 2017;Bean et al., 2017;van Rooij et al., 2018). A recent study by Castro-Calvo and colleagues (2021) took up the question by assessing the diagnostic validity, clinical utility and prognostic value of the existing diagnostic criteria for gaming disorder. ...
... Associated with this approach is, therefore, a risk of generating numerous false positives, which would result in inflated prevalence rates while stigmatizing highly engaged individuals. This is not only true of video gaming (Aarseth et al., 2017;Bean et al., 2017;, but also of other widespread digital entertainment activities in which high engagement does not necessarily mean problematic involvement (e.g., cybersex, binge-watching or mobile gambling; Böthe et al., 2020;Flayelle et al., 2019a;Whelan et al., 2021). ...
Chapter
While increasing academic attention has been paid to behavioral addictions (i.e., non-substance-related addictive behaviors) over the past 15 years, new diagnoses of questionable clinical relevance have proliferated in the literature. This is mainly due to the widespread adoption of research practices that emphasize apparent symptomatic similarities with well-established substance-related addictions, thus inevitably simplifying complex and multi-determined phenomena. The current chapter presents a critical account of such systematic application of the biomedical model of addiction (i.e., the confirmatory approach) to non-substance-related addictive behaviors. The chapter provides an overview of the main pitfalls involved in recycling substance-use disorder criteria to conceptualize and diagnose behavioral addictions. In a plea for a psychological approach to non-substance-related addictive behaviors, specific suggestions as to how best to avoid falling into the trap of the confirmatory approach are presented
... Despite the growing acceptance of gaming-related harms as an important public health issue [2,6,7], the precise clinical formulation of gaming as the foundation of an addictive disorder, including conceptual overlap with substance-based addictions, continues to be debated [8,9]. Some claims have also been made that recognizing GD as a mental condition may pathologize healthy gaming patterns [8,10]. Thus, the aim of this study was to systematically develop an international, expert-based agreement regarding the core diagnostic features of GD. ...
... Furthermore, the data here provide systematic support for the previously expressed view [26] that some criteria for substance-use and gambling disorders adapted for use in the GD context may not sufficiently distinguish between high (but non-problematic involvement) and problematic involvement in video gaming. This is concerning, as gaming is a mainstream hobby in which people all around the world engage very regularly and the risks of over-diagnosis is real [8,10,26]. Specifically, there was an agreement among experts that tolerance and mood regulation should not be used to diagnose GD. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims Following the recognition of ‘internet gaming disorder’ (IGD) as a condition requiring further study by the DSM‐5, ‘gaming disorder’ (GD) was officially included as a diagnostic entity by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD‐11). However, the proposed diagnostic criteria for gaming disorder remain the subject of debate, and there has been no systematic attempt to integrate the views of different groups of experts. To achieve a more systematic agreement on this new disorder, this study employed the Delphi expert consensus method to obtain expert agreement on the diagnostic validity, clinical utility, and prognostic value of the DSM‐5 criteria and ICD‐11 clinical guidelines for GD. Methods A total of 29 international experts with clinical and/or research experience in GD completed three iterative rounds of a Delphi survey. Experts rated proposed criteria in progressive rounds until a pre‐determined level of agreement was achieved. Results For DSM‐5 IGD criteria, there was an agreement both that a subset had high diagnostic validity, clinical utility, and prognostic value and that some (e.g., tolerance, deception) had low diagnostic validity, clinical utility, and prognostic value. Crucially, some DSM‐5 criteria (e.g., escapism/mood regulation, tolerance) were regarded as incapable of distinguishing between problematic and non‐problematic gaming. In contrast, ICD‐11 diagnostic guidelines for GD (except for the criterion relating to diminished non‐gaming interests) were judged as presenting high diagnostic validity, clinical utility, and prognostic value. Conclusions This Delphi survey provides a foundation for identifying the most diagnostically valid and clinically useful criteria for gaming disorder (GD). There was expert agreement that some DSM‐5 criteria were not clinically relevant and may pathologize non‐problematic patterns of gaming, whereas ICD‐11 diagnostic guidelines are likely to diagnose GD adequately and avoid pathologizing.
... Gaming genres most commonly associated with problematic use include action, first person shooter, and role-playing games -likely due to the associated reward mechanics (Elliott, Golub, Ream, & Dunlap, 2012). Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG) tend to have the greatest potential for the development of problem gaming behaviors (Elliott, Golub, Ream, & Dunlap, 2012;Groves, Skues, & Wise, 2014) due to reward systems and reinforcement schedules (Bean, Nielsen, van Rooij, & Ferguson, 2017). MMORPGs involve characters (avatars) created by gamers to play in a real-time game world (Curry, 2010). ...
... The study found increased positive social interaction, friendships, and ability to recognize emotional states among players. Bean et al. (2017) found that MMORPGs may benefit players with autism by increasing levels of appropriate social engagement. ...
Article
Video gaming is a widespread, global phenomenon with players representing every cultural group. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding working with this emerging and steadily growing population within the field of vocational rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the perceptions of players regarding the impact of gaming behaviors on attaining and maintaining employment. A mixed-methods design was utilized to assess factors that may influence perceptions of gamers with focus given to differences in perceptions based on self-disclosed disability status. Implications for rehabilitation counselors and recommendations for future research are presented.
... More generally, there are concerns as to whether high-engagement gaming is best seen through the prism of pathology. 8,9 Reflecting this lack of consensus, we refer to risk factors for hazardous, rather than ''addictive'' (in this clinical sense), MMORPG play. ...
Article
Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) can sometimes be associated with patterns of play that are harmful to health and well-being. Hazardous MMORPG play has been linked to hostility (toward other people). However, little is known about how hostility, as a risk factor, relates to players' choices within games, or players' experiences of the positive aspects of MMORPGs. In this study, we surveyed 5,847 players of Jagex's RuneScape to examine how trait hostility relates to player roles that prioritize skill acquisition/improvement (Skillers), combat (Killers), or narrative challenges (Questers). Killers reported modestly higher levels of trait hostility than Skillers and Questers. The most hostile players reported the strongest importance of in-game relative to offline achievements, possibly indicating hazardous involvement. Critically, hostile players also report the strongest cognitive and social benefits. These include (i) skills acquired through MMORPGs that help players to achieve things in their offline lives and (ii) online relationships that benefit offline relationships. These findings offer a new perspective on the way that a previously reported risk factor for harmful MMORPG play relates to player engagement, possibly by offering a helpful space for hostile individuals to develop problem solving and social skills. This suggests that some individuals who might be vulnerable to developing harmful patterns of MMORPG play may simultaneously experience greater tangible benefits.
... Many studies show that video games can be very helpful in education across different age groups and comprehension levels [44,35,2,32,27]. However, Others point out that video games can cause many problems in terms of health, time wasting, and, even, violence crimes [3,17,20]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Video game genre classification based on its cover and textual description would be utterly beneficial to many modern identification, collocation, and retrieval systems. At the same time, it is also an extremely challenging task due to the following reasons: First, there exists a wide variety of video game genres, many of which are not concretely defined. Second, video game covers vary in many different ways such as colors, styles, textual information, etc, even for games of the same genre. Third, cover designs and textual descriptions may vary due to many external factors such as country, culture, target reader populations, etc. With the growing competitiveness in the video game industry, the cover designers and typographers push the cover designs to its limit in the hope of attracting sales. The computer-based automatic video game genre classification systems become a particularly exciting research topic in recent years. In this paper, we propose a multi-modal deep learning framework to solve this problem. The contribution of this paper is four-fold. First, we compiles a large dataset consisting of 50,000 video games from 21 genres made of cover images, description text, and title text and the genre information. Second, image-based and text-based, state-of-the-art models are evaluated thoroughly for the task of genre classification for video games. Third, we developed an efficient and salable multi-modal framework based on both images and texts. Fourth, a thorough analysis of the experimental results is given and future works to improve the performance is suggested. The results show that the multi-modal framework outperforms the current state-of-the-art image-based or text-based models. Several challenges are outlined for this task. More efforts and resources are needed for this classification task in order to reach a satisfactory level.
... Así pues, se constata que los estudios sobre videojuegos bélicos han ocupado un gran espacio en diversos ámbitos del conocimiento, suscitando diferentes investigaciones que subrayan el interés por estos controvertidos artefactos lúdicos que aglutinan a grandes colectivos. Algunos critican la trivialización que hacen de la guerra, la excesiva violencia gratuita que presentan (Pötzsch, 2017), la militarización de la sociedad (Clearwater, 2010), las conductas adictivas que generan (Bean et al., 2017), etc. Otros ponen énfasis en las aportaciones al campo educativo, por las oportunidades que ofrecen para potenciar determinadas habilidades como el juego en equipo, el aprendizaje de estrategias para resolver problemas (Carvajal, Rojas & Murcia, 2016;West, Crooks & Bradley-Ho, 2018), el análisis de conflictos históricos (García-González, 2016); la aproximación a hechos y personajes históricos (Rockwood & Palmer, 2011), etc. ...
Article
Resumen: Se analiza la producción científica sobre videojuegos bélicos. La metodología se sustenta en una revisión sistemática de estudios extraídos de bases de datos (Scopus, Web Of Science y Google Scholar), mediante un meta-análisis, siguiendo criterios de PRISMA-P2015 para identificar los enfoques y metodologías empleadas. Se encontraron 37 estudios entre 2010-2020 en cuatro ámbitos: educativo, psicológico, sociológico o antropológico y tecnológico. Los resultados ofrecen un panorama polarizado, un sector los considera plataformas de propaganda militarista; otro apuesta por utilizarlos como un recurso didáctico, permitiendo la inmersión virtual en acontecimientos históricos; y los técnicos señalan la conveniencia de diseñar videojuegos educativos con el asesoramiento de historiadores para dotarlos de mayor fiabilidad, además de incorporar misiones gamificadas que potencien su jugabilidad. Sin embargo, se precisan estudios que profundicen en la oportunidad que ofrecen estos instrumentos para impulsar el pensamiento crítico y la reflexión frente a la guerra y el sufrimiento de las víctimas. Abstract: Scientific production on war videogames is analyzed. The methodology is based on a systematic review of studies extracted from databases (Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar), through a meta-analysis, following the criteria of PRISMA-P2015 to identify the approaches and methodologies used. Thirty-seven studies were found between 2010-2020 in four areas: educational, psychological, sociological or anthropological and technological. The results offer a polarized panorama, one sector considers them militarist propaganda platforms; another is committed to using them as a didactic resource, allowing virtual immersion in historical events; and the technicians point out the convenience of designing educational video games with the advice of historians to make them more reliable, in addition to incorporating gamified missions that enhance their playability. However, studies are needed to delve into the opportunity offered by these instruments to promote critical thinking and reflection in the face of war and the suffering of the victims.
... No entanto, algumas dessas tecnologias quando utilizadas de forma exagerada podem deixar de ser benéficas e se tornarem prejudiciais para o indivíduo. A internet, assim como os jogos eletrônicos (Bean, Nielsen, van Rooij, & Ferguson, 2017;Deleuze, Long, Liu, Maurage, & Billieux, 2018) é um exemplo disso. ...
Article
Full-text available
O presente estudo objetivou adaptar a Escala de Uso Compulsivo da Internet (CIUS) para o Brasil verificando seus parâmetros de validade e precisão. Para isso contou-se com uma amostra de 201usuários de internet encontrados em redes sociais, sendo a maioria do Piauí (84%), do sexo feminino (55, 7 %) e com idades variando entre 13 e 45 anos (M = 22,50; DP = 4,55). A princípio foi verificado o poder discriminativo dos itens, onde todos se apresentaram satisfatórios. Posteriormente para verificar a validade do instrumento, utilizou-se de uma Análise dos Componentes Principais, que apontou uma estrutura unidimensional; e uma análise de Regressão Bivariada que confirmou sua validade preditiva. Por fim verificou-se a precisão através do coeficiente alfa de Cronbach, obtendo-se um alfa α = 0,91. Conclui-se com esses resultados, que a CIUS possui bons parâmetros psicométricos, podendo assim, ser usada em estudos futuros para identificar usuários compulsivos de internet.
... Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was included into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version 5 (DSM-5) [5,6] as a condition for further study, and gaming disorder was incorporated into the International Classification of Diseases, 11 th Edition in 2018 [7]. These decisions brought forth fierce debate [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] involving researchers and the video game industry. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Purpose With the increasing popularity of video games, a subset of players develop addiction-like behaviours, the frequency of severity thereof warranting the DSM-5 to include Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a condition for further study. This systematic review examines neurocognitive features of individuals meeting IGD criteria while drawing parallels to other addictive behaviours, such as gambling disorder. Methods This paper examines original studies comparing gaming disorder or gaming groups against control groups on neurocognitive paradigms. Articles were retrieved from PubMed and PsycInfo online databases, in accordance with PRISMA standards. Results The literature search showed a high number of studies examining inhibitory control in IGD populations. Participants with IGD demonstrated impaired inhibitory control and impulsivity, indicated by more errors of while performing neurocognitive tasks, particularly when distractors were salient game-related cues. IGD was also associated with higher reward sensitivity and lower loss sensitivity, leading to overall riskier decision-making. Discussion Changes in neurocognitive features in IGD are similar to substance use disorders and gambling disorder, suggesting the pathology may develop by similar mechanisms. Counterintuitively, the improved performance in non-IGD gaming populations in some studies suggests that video game experience itself, distinct from addiction towards games, may improve performance in error processing and reaction times. Future research incorporating IGD comorbidities, longitudinal designs to establish causality, and standard diagnostic cutoffs are needed.
... Given this, it is critical to understand that the quality of the evidence underlying possible classifications of video game play as potentially psychopathological has been criticized strongly. Many experts have argued that there is insufficient evidence that gaming disorder definitions and diagnostic tools meet clinical standards [15,[17][18][19][20][21][22]. Excessive use has been flagged as a key criterion for many gaming disorder definitions, yet researchers exclusively operationalize excessive use by way of selfreported estimates. ...
Article
Full-text available
People have never played more video games, and many stakeholders are worried that this activity might be bad for players. So far, research has not had adequate data to test whether these worries are justified and if policymakers should act to regulate video game play time. We attempt to provide much-needed evidence with adequate data. Whereas previous research had to rely on self-reported play behaviour, we collaborated with two games companies, Electronic Arts and Nintendo of America, to obtain players' actual play behaviour. We surveyed players of Plants vs. Zombies: Battle for Neighborville and Animal Crossing: New Horizons for their well-being, motivations and need satisfaction during play, and merged their responses with telemetry data (i.e. logged game play). Contrary to many fears that excessive play time will lead to addiction and poor mental health, we found a small positive relation between game play and affective well-being. Need satisfaction and motivations during play did not interact with play time but were instead independently related to well-being. Our results advance the field in two important ways. First, we show that collaborations with industry partners can be done to high academic standards in an ethical and transparent fashion. Second, we deliver much-needed evidence to policymakers on the link between play and mental health.
... However, concern is emerging over the harmful consequences of its excessive use and the potential of severe psychological impairment in the form of internet-related disorders (Santos et al., 2016). One such area that has been expanding significantly is internet gaming; the rapid growth of which has been controversial (Bean, Van Rooij, Neilson, & Ferguson, 2017) and for or a minority of gamers who play excessively, internet gaming can be detrimental (Kuss & Griffiths, 2012). Research has demonstrated that excessive gaming may cause behavioral issues, social isolation, academic underachievement, aggression, and comorbid psychopathology (Burleigh, Griffiths, Sumich, Stavropoulos, & Kuss, 2019;Stavropoulos et al., 2019). ...
Article
Introduction The American Psychiatric Association has requested additional studies examine risk, protective, and cultural factors in relation to Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). The present study aimed to explore the association between stress as a potential IGD risk effect, the possible exacerbating role of cultural orientation (vertical individualism [VI]), and how this may vary between genders. Methods The sample included adult gamers from the USA, UK, and Australia. Analyses were conducted via linear regression, moderation, and moderated moderation. Results The results suggested that higher stress symptoms act to increase IGD risk. Gender and VI also influenced this association. Discussion Males presenting with higher levels of stress and VI were at greater risk of IGD compared to females who exhibited a reduction in IGD‐related behaviors. This demonstrates a need for more research to determine how culture and gender can act to mitigate or worsen the risks associated with excessive gaming.
... Whereas tropes of hazard (Anderson and Dill 2000) and addiction (Griffiths, Kuss, and King 2012) have dominated debates about games early on, deeper scrutiny especially in the form of meta-analyses have added much-needed counterweight to the discussion (Griffiths and Davies 2005;Bean et al. 2017;Ferguson 2015). Up to now, the games industry has enjoyed steady economic growth (Nakamura 2019), a factor that has elicited appropriate responses from the political and the educational system. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, we have observed impressive advancements at the intersection of games and artificial intelligence. Often these developments are described in terms of technological progress, while public discourses on their cultural, social and political impact are largely decoupled. I present an alternative rhetoric by speculating about the emergence of AI within social systems. In a radical departure from the dominant discourse, I describe seven roles - Mechanic, Alter/Ego, Observer, Protector, Player, Creator and God - that an AI may assume in the environment of videogames. I reflect on the ramifications of these roles for the idea of an artificial general intelligence (AGI), mainly hoping to irritate the prevailing discussion.
... These data will hopefully contribute to continuing efforts to identify potential mechanisms of problematic gaming. At a time when the validity of GD is criticized for 'pathologizing' gaming (Bean et al., 2017), the notion that avatar identification underlies and maintains GD may attract similar scrutiny. In our view, despite these and other promising findings, it may be premature for avatar identification to be considered a symptom of gaming disorder. ...
Article
Some video-gaming activities feature customizable avatars that enable users to fulfil self-identity needs. Research evidence (e.g., fMRI and survey studies) has suggested that poorer self-concept and stronger avatar identification are associated with problematic gaming. Player-avatar relationships have thus been proposed to require attention in gaming disorder assessment and interventions. To examine the interplay of player-avatar interactions in problematic gaming, this study investigated whether avatar identification differed according to avatar characteristics and game types, and whether the association between avatar identification and problem gaming was mediated by self-concept clarity. A total of 993 adult respondents completed an online survey that assessed problematic gaming, avatar identification, and self-concept clarity. The results indicated that avatar identification scores were generally unrelated to avatar characteristics (e.g., human resemblance, degree of customizability, and in-game perspective). Avatar identification was significantly positively related to problematic gaming and significantly negatively related to self-concept clarity. There was a significant indirect relationship between avatar identification on problem gaming mediated through self-concept clarity. These findings suggest that poorer self-concept clarity may be one mechanism by which avatar identification affects problem gaming. Future research with clinical samples may help to gain a better understanding of avatar-related processes and psychological vulnerabilities related to problematic gaming.
... The Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) group may experience health issues such as sleep deprivation, impulsivity and emotional disorders [5][6][7], and can be associated with neuroticism, low extraversion, and decreased conscientiousness [8,9]. On the other hand, opponents of WHO's decision argue that there is a significant lack of scientific evidence or clear consensus defining symptoms of gaming addiction [10][11][12][13][14][15] and that this seemingly hasty decision could result in major social problems caused by faulty diagnoses and treatments, or by devastating impacts on the video game and related industries. Furthermore, they claimed that normal video and the height of the chair was adjusted so that its center aligned to the participant's eye level. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to bridge the gap between the discrepant views of existing studies in different modalities on the cognitive effect of video game play. To this end, we conducted a set of tests with different modalities within each participant: (1) Self-Reports Analyses (SRA) consisting of five popular self-report surveys, and (2) a standard Behavioral Experiment (BE) using pro- and antisaccade paradigms, and analyzed how their results vary between Video Game Player (VGP) and Non-Video Game Player (NVGP) participant groups. Our result showed that (1) VGP scored significantly lower in Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) than NVGP (p = 0.023), and (2) VGP showed significantly higher antisaccade error rate than NVGP (p = 0.005), suggesting that results of both SRA and BE support the existing view that video game play has a maleficent impact on the cognition by increasing impulsivity. However, the following correlation analysis on the results across individual participants found no significant correlation between SRA and BE, indicating a complex nature of the cognitive effect of video game play.
... Perhaps most controversially has been the informal categorisation of problematic gaming as a technological 'addiction'. Colloquially, the addiction narrative is recurrent in discourse amongst problematic gamers themselves (Chappell et al., 2006) and academics (Bean et al., 2017). Although excessive gaming is less obviously associated with a potential for unintended harm than other addictions (Seah and Cairns, 2008), it shares characteristics like diminished control, preoccupation, tolerance and withdrawal (Saunders et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
A challenge in defining Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is discriminating pathological gameplay from an excessive, yet benign, involvement in video games. Although previous research has explored this theoretical distinction in the context of general computing activities, it merits consideration with regards to online gaming. Additionally, whilst comorbidities of addicted gaming and mental health outcomes have been robustly demonstrated, few studies have examined the role of mediating factors that may contextualise this relationship. As such, the present study aims to validate the distinction between addiction and engagement in online gaming, by considering the mediating roles of coping and social online and offline support in mental health. Method One hundred and thirty-five participants completed the Computer Engagement/Addiction Questionnaire (CEAS), Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale (DASS-21), Brief Approach-Avoidance Coping Questionnaire (BACQ) and two versions of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Results Correlational analyses showed a clear distinction between gaming addiction and engagement in the context of all of depression, stress and in particular anxiety (DAS) not found in previous studies. Multiple mediation analysis showed a significant mediating effect of coping, (specifically withdrawal/resignation coping) on the relationship between video game addiction and symptoms of DAS. Offline perceived social support was a significant partial mediator in the relationship between gaming addiction and depression, as compared to any kind of online social support. The results support the distinction of the addiction and engagement concepts in gaming. This study may inform future clinical classifications of IGD, with implications on how pathological gaming is treated.
... One gap in the literature on IGD are analyses of the lived experiences of gamers through different stages of addiction and recovery. This research could add details to the debate around IGD and how it may be similar or different than other addictive disorders (Bean et al., 2017;Griffiths et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to describe the experience of people who struggled with self-described addiction to World of Warcraft™ (WoW). WoW is a massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG), and many players have shared their stories of compulsive use and recovery efforts on two different websites: www.wowdetox.com, and a Reddit forum called /r/noWoW. We analyzed 140 unique posts on these sites to develop a process model describing how posters experienced addiction and recovery from WoW. We used grounded theory methods to create a model with categories including, time sink, impairment in work and relationships, and realization of loss. The process of recovery from compulsive WoW use included a series of realizations and the gamer “coming to themselves.” Implications for clinicians and researchers who study internet gaming disorder and related issues are offered.
... "Video Game Addiction" nach den entsprechenden Kriterien oft nicht mit deutlichen Beeinträchtigungen des Alltagslebens verbunden. Vielmehr hingen entsprechende Verhaltensweisen mit generell ungünstigen Vorbedingungen wie etwa Depressivität und Ängstlichkeit zusammen (Bean et al. 2017 ...
... Behavioural addictions were further substantiated by the classification of gambling disorder in the DSM-5 as a non-substance addiction [2,14,15] as well as gambling disorder and gaming disorder in the category of "Disorders due to addictive behaviours" in the ICD-11 (International Classification of Diseases 11 th [16]). Although other putative behavioural addictions (e.g., relating to pornography use or internet use) have been proposed [13,17,18], the extent to which these other behaviours may represent the focus of addictions remains actively debated, and more studies are needed to provide empirical data [19][20][21][22][23][24]. ...
Article
Background and Aims Moral incongruence involves disapproval of a behaviour in which people engage despite their moral beliefs. Although considerable research has been conducted on how moral incongruence relates to pornography use, potential roles for moral incongruence in other putative behavioural addictions have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of moral incongruence in self‐perceived addiction to: (1) pornography, (2) internet addiction, (3) social networking, and (4) online gaming. Design A cross‐sectional, preregistered, online survey using multivariable regression. Setting Online study conducted in Poland. Participants 1036 Polish adults aged between 18 and 69 years. Measurements Measures included self‐perceived behavioural addiction to pornography, internet use, social networking and online gaming) and their hypothesized determinants (moral incongruence, frequency of use, time of use, religiosity, age, gender). Findings Higher moral incongruence (β=0.20, p<.001) and higher religiosity (β=0.08, p<.05) were independently associated with higher self‐perceived addiction to pornography. Additionally, frequency of pornography use was the strongest of the analyzed predictors (β=0.43, p<.001). A similar, positive relationship between high moral incongruence and self‐perceived addiction was also present for internet (β=0.16, p<.001), social networking (β=0.18, p<.001) and gaming addictions (β=0.16, p<.001). Religiosity was uniquely, although weakly, connected to pornography addiction, but not to other types of addictive behaviours. Conclusions Moral incongruence may be positively associated with self‐perception of behavioural addictions including not only pornography viewing, but also internet use, social networking and online gaming.
... DSM-5 internet game addiction criteria are taken to a large extent in substance addiction criteria and these criteria are given in Table 1. Diagnosis requires 5 or more symptoms within a 12-month period (Bean, Nelsen, Van Rooij, & Ferguson, 2017). ies.ccsenet.org ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between digital game dependence levels and violence tendency levels of high school students. In the present research, relational survey model has been used. The population of the study consists of 9th, 10th, 11th grade students in the high schools in Battalgazi and Yeşilyurt districts of Malatya in the spring term of 2018-2019 academic year. Simple random sampling method has been used for our sample selection. Digital Game Addiction Scale (DGAS-7) was used to determine the level of digital game addiction, and Violence Tendency Scale (VRS) was used to determine the levels of violence tendency. DGAS-7 was developed by Lemmens et al. (2009). To determine the problematic digital game behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 12-18. It has been developed by Haskan and Yıldırım to measure the tendency of violence among adolescents. According to the results obtained in our research; according to the monotetic format, 4.6% of the students participating in the research were addicted to digital games, while 95.4% were not dependent. According to the polythetic format, while 21.7% is addicted to digital games, 78.3% is not addicted. There was a statistically significant difference between female and male students in terms of digital game addiction and violence tendency in favor of female students. There was also a significant difference between the levels of digital game addiction and violence tendency according to mobile phone ownership. This difference is in favor of students who do not have mobile phones. There has been a statistically significant difference between the levels of digital game addiction in favor of the students who do not have mobile internet connection, but no significant difference has been found between the levels of violence tendency. There has been a statistically significant difference between non-dependent students in terms of violent tendency levels in terms of digital game addiction in monotetic and polythetic format. The level of violence tendency of non-dependent students is lower than that of dependent students. There has been a statistically significant difference between digital game addiction levels and violence tendency levels according to the duration of digital game play. This difference is in favor of students who play less time in a day. There has been a positive and moderate relationship between digital game addiction levels and violence tendency levels.
... Excessive use of Internet gaming behavior in children and adolescents has become a global health burden, with a prevalence of around 1-6% (Gentile et al., 2017;Wartberg, Kriston, Zieglmeier, Lincoln, & Kammerl, 2019). However, no clear criteria for the condition are applied, or the use of a general criterion such as "pathological gambling" is used to determine prevalence (Fam, 2018;Markey & Ferguson, 2017;Nielsen, Ferguson, Bean, & Van Rooij, 2017). The conceptualization of this behavior as an addiction or disorder can be problematic, since excessive use of video games occurs mainly in adolescence and a high rate of spontaneous remission has been observed (Karlsen, 2013;Scharkow, Festl, & Quandt, 2014). ...
Article
Three hypotheses have been suggested to explain factors underlying Internet gaming disorder symptoms (IGDs): the comorbidity hypothesis highlights the presence of further psychopathologies; the dilution effect hypothesis is associated with a low level of self-regulation; and the interpersonal impairment hypothesis focuses on the associations of social deficits. Anxiety and depression (comorbidity), impulsivity and hostility (self-regulation), social skills and family functioning (interpersonal impairment), and time spent gaming, both during the week and on the weekend, were assessed. Participants were 946 young people (51.5% males) aged from 11 to 18. Preliminary correlations indicated that higher scores in anxiety, impulsiveness, hostility, and social skills deficit and lower scores in family functioning and more time spent gaming were associated with IGDs. The proposed theoretical model had a good fit to the data, revealing that anxiety and time spent gaming on the weekend had a direct association with IGDs. Social skills and family functioning showed an indirect relationship with IGDs, whereas impulsivity only showed a direct association with time spent gaming during the week. However, a different set of variables was associated with IGDs depending on the gender. In girls, the significant variables associated with IGDs were time spent playing video games during the week and on the weekend, higher anxiety, and lower family functioning. In boys, direct associations between higher anxiety and hostility, social skill deficits, and time spent gaming on the weekend were found. Results support the three hypotheses, but their applicability varied according to gender. The comorbidity hypothesis was slightly superior for girls, whereas the dilution effect hypothesis was superior for boys. The factors involved in IGDs should be taken into account when designing interventions to prevent symptoms and their consequences.
... Internet gaming disorder is another type of problematic media use that has emerged in recent years. Current scholars are in disagreement about this diagnosis (Bean et al., 2017), however internet gaming disorder is listed under the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) as an area of concern (2013). According to the DSM-5, internet gaming disorder is present in individuals who play compulsively, neglect other interests, and suffer in personal or professional functioning due to their gaming activity. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine how problematic media use (technoference, internet gaming disorder symptoms, and pornography use) predicted later partner relationship outcomes, operating through the mediator of partner responsiveness. Participants ( N = 1039) were from Waves II–IV of a nationally representative quantitative study on marriage relationships across the United States. Both spouses completed surveys reporting problematic media use, partner responsiveness, and relationship outcomes at three separate time points each spaced a year apart. In order to test the hypotheses, three longitudinal actor-partner interdependence models with indirect paths were estimated, with each model corresponding to one type of problematic media use. Results indicated that at the cross-sectional level, all three types of problematic media use had significant indirect actor and partner effects, where problematic media use predicted lower relationship outcomes through the intervening variable of partner non-responsiveness. Longitudinally, wife technoference directly negatively predicted later partner responsiveness, but there were no full indirect paths of Wave II problematic media to Wave IV relationship outcomes through the intervening variable of Wave III partner responsiveness. Implications of these findings and future directions are discussed.
... However, the consideration of gaming disorder as a mental disorder has fueled debates around the construct validity and clinical relevance of this disorder. Some authors (Aarseth et al., 2017;Bean, Nielsen, Van Rooij, & Ferguson, 2017;Van Rooij et al., 2018) consider this introduction to be premature and insist on the need for a stronger evidence base than the one currently available, highlighting the potential negative consequences of such integration (abusive diagnoses, false positives, stigmatization, etc.). In this context, and in an effort to avoid pathologizing intensivebut healthygaming patterns, research on problematic gaming should include measures of functional impact. ...
Article
Background Online competitive practice of video games has recently known a significant worldwide expansion. However, this practice can be associated to problematic use and deterioration of quality of life depending on multiple determinants, among which motivation is central. The purpose of this study was to identify motivational clusters and to compare them regarding quality of life, problematic use of video game, and personality traits. Methods Participants (N=256) in this cross-sectional study were recruited through specialized websites to complete self-reported questionnaires assessing motivation to play online (MOGQ), personality (BFI-Fr), quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), and problematic use (IGD-Scale). A hierarchical clustering analysis and intergroup comparative analyses were conducted. Findings: Three motivational clusters were identified (“recreational”, “competitive” and “escapers”). “Competitive” and “escapers” players reported higher IGD scores than the “recreational” players (p<.001). However, “escapers” players had lower psychological health scores (p<.001), were more neurotic (p<.001), and less extroverted (p<.001) than the others. Based on IGD scores, “competitive” and “escapers” players were considered as problematic albeit only “escapers” exhibited a functional impairment. Therefore, engaged and problematic players cannot be differentiated with IGD scores. Discussion IGD scores were insufficient to differentiate between players at risk of evolution toward pathological states (i.e., “escapers” players) and those whose strong engagement is not detrimental to their quality of life (i.e., “competitive” players). Consequently, considering both psychological health and motivation is necessary to assess the problematic nature of competitive videogame practice. Better definitions and assessment tools are essential in order to avoid over-diagnosis of non-pathological behaviors.
... On the contrary, scholars who are opposing it argue that it is too early for the listing GD as a formal disease when there is no acceptable diagnostic standard for it. Although there are some diagnostic standards, most of them are based on gambling or substance abuse, and these diagnostic results are infamous for their inaccuracy [17,[41][42][43]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Historically, the introduction of a new media in mass market caused a strong conflict starting from the nineteenth century popular literature, comics, rock music and film. Interestingly, these conflicts have shown similar and repeated patterns, which is now called media panic and moral regulation, and games are following this pattern. In 2019, Gaming disorder (GD) was decided to be included in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), and similar conflicts on games arenow expected. However, the social cost and damage have not been fully addressed until now. Thus, this study focuses on the estimation of the social cost induced by GD for policy design and decisions in the public healthcare of South Korea. Using the contingent valuation method, a popular valuation method in econometrics for non-market goods, this study has tried to estimate the social cost induced by the introduction of GD into the public healthcare practice. Focusing on a false positive problem in the diagnosis, this study estimates that the willingness to pay for GD diagnosis for children is about KRW 152 K (USD 135). Considering the difference between the prevalence of GD (1.9%) and GD suspicion rate of children in the respondents (12.54%), the excessive medical diagnosis cost due to the false positive problem is estimated to KRW 101 billion (USD 89.6 M), which is about four times more than the annual medical cost for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) treatment in South Korea. Thus, strong scientific proof and a cautious policy approach on GD are needed before the inclusion of GD in the public health practice.
... As a consequence, an increasingly large body of varied research has emerged regarding the colloquially termed 'gaming addiction' and its epidemiology in particular (Kardefelt-Winther, 2017). Meanwhile, the nosology of this now officialised mental and behavioral disorder remains under active debate (Bean et al., 2017) and its ontology-what disordered gaming really is-largely unknown. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Presentation in ERN Conference 2021 on Esports Health & Well-being Management.
... Criticisms of gaming disorder intensi ed following its inclusion in the public draft version of the ICD-11 [165][166][167] and when the ICD-11 was o cially adopted by the World Health Assembly. Critics have tended to put forward the following arguments: a) supporting evidence has mainly been the product of "con rmatory approaches"; b) recognition of the disorder might result in pathologizing non-problematic gaming; and c) the notion of problematic gaming has been driven by "moral panic" rather than by scienti c evidence. ...
Article
Full-text available
Among the important changes in the ICD-11 is the addition of 21 new mental disorders. New categories are typically proposed to: a) improve the usefulness of morbidity statistics; b) facilitate recognition of a clinically important but poorly classified mental disorder in order to provide appropriate management; and c) stimulate research into more effective treatments. Given the major implications for the field and for World Health Organization (WHO) member states, it is important to examine the impact of these new categories during the early phase of the ICD-11 implementation. This paper focuses on four disorders: complex post-traumatic stress disorder, prolonged grief disorder, gaming disorder, and compulsive sexual behaviour disorder. These categories were selected because they have been the focus of considerable activity and/or controversy and because their inclusion in the ICD-11 represents a different decision than was made for the DSM-5. The lead authors invited experts on each of these disorders to provide insight into why it was considered important to add it to the ICD-11, implications for care of not having that diagnostic category, important controversies about adding the disorder, and a review of the evidence generated and other developments related to the category since the WHO signaled its intention to include it in the ICD-11. Each of the four diagnostic categories appears to describe a population with clinically important and distinctive features that had previously gone unrecognized as well as specific treatment needs that would otherwise likely go unmet. The introduction of these categories in the ICD-11 has been followed by a substantial expansion of research in each area, which has generally supported their validity and utility, and by a significant increase in the availability of appropriate services.
... Groups of scholars wrote letters both critiquing (e.g., van Rooij et al., 2018) and supporting the WHO decision (e.g., Saunders et al., 2017). The controversy intensified when emails from some WHO administrators were revealed to disclose that political pressure from unspecified Asian countries played some role in the WHO's decision (Bean, Nielsen, van Rooij, & Ferguson, 2017). Surveys of scholars reveal divergent opinions in the scholarly field, with some scholars accepting of and other skeptical of gaming disorder diagnoses, and the apparently likelihood that many scholarly opinions are nuanced, worrying both about the potential addictive qualities of games, but also concerned about moral panic (Ferguson & Colwell, in press).Thus, it appears safe to say there are many divergent opinions on whether pathological gaming should be a standalone disorder as in the ICD with no consensus either for or against the concept. ...
Article
Debates about pathological gaming continues in the wake of the World Health Organization's (WHO) decision to establish a gaming disorder diagnosis. Questions persist whether gaming disorder is best conceived as a stand-alone psychiatric disorder, or whether it heralds or accompanies other, more established conditions, such as depression or ADHD. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of 3,034 youth from Singapore. Evidence suggests that pathological gaming is a somewhat unstable construct, often remitting spontaneously. Youth with preexisting ADHD or depression were more likely to develop later pathological gaming problems, while the inverse was not true, with neither early pathological gaming nor gaming time predictive of later mental health problems. Results suggest that, whenever there is any need to conduct robust evidence-based studies, more evidence should be collected before new disorders are recognized by means of "expert consensus".
... Research presenting a proper assessment of gaming disorder is at an early stage. Some researchers have identified theoretical and methodological issues (51), while others still believe that solid evidence on gaming disorder as anything but a symptom of other disorders has yet to be produced (52,53). ...
Article
Full-text available
Nearly all young people use the internet daily. Many youth with mental health concerns, especially since the Covid-19 pandemic, are using this route to seek help, whether through digital mental health treatment, illness prevention tools, or supports for mental wellbeing. Videogames also have wide appeal among young people, including those who receive mental health services. This review identifies the literature on videogame interventions for young people, ages 12-29, and maps the data on game use by those with mental health and substance use problems, focusing on evidence for the capacity of games to support treatment in youth mental health services; how stakeholders are involved in developing or evaluating games; and any potential harms and ethical remedies identified. A systematic scoping review methodology was used to identify and assess relevant studies. A search of multiple databases identified a total of 8,733 articles. They were screened, and 49 studies testing 32 digital games retained. An adapted stepped care model, including four levels, or steps, based on illness manifestation and severity, was used as a conceptual framework for organizing target populations, mental health conditions and corresponding digital games, and study results. The 49 selected studies included: 10 studies (20.4%) on mental health promotion/prevention or education for undiagnosed youth (Step 0: 7 games); 6 studies (12.2%) on at-risk groups or suspected mental problems (Step 1: 5 games); 24 studies (49.0%) on mild to moderate mental conditions (Steps 2-3: 16 games); and 9 studies (18.4%) focused on severe and complex mental conditions (Step 4: 7 games). Two interventions were played by youth at more than one level of illness severity: the SPARX game (Steps 1, 2-3, 4) and Dojo (Steps 2-3 and 4), bringing the total game count to 35 with these repetitions. Findings support the potential integration of digital games in youth services based on study outcomes, user satisfaction, relatively high program retention rates and the potential usefulness of most games for mental health treatment or promotion/prevention. Most studies included stakeholder feedback, and involvement ratings were very high for seven games. Potential harms were not addressed in this body of research. This review provides an important initial repository and evaluation of videogames for use in clinical settings concerned with youth mental health.
... A recent study measured young adults' smartphone use through self-report and actual usage data and found that more smartphone use was linked to higher DRD (Schulz van Endert & Mohr, 2020). Increasingly, overuse of technological devices is coming to be viewed through a lens of addictive behavior (though this framing is not without controversy, e.g., Bean et al., 2017). For example, work has established the validity of measures of video game addiction (Lemmens et al., 2009), internet addiction (Thatcher & Goolam, 2005), and smartphone addiction (Kwon et al., 2013;Lin et al., 2014). ...
Article
Delayed reward discounting (DRD) refers to the extent to which an individual devalues a reward based on a temporal delay and is known to be elevated in individuals with substance use disorders and many mental illnesses. DRD has been linked previously with both features of brain structure and function, as well as various behavioral, psychological, and life-history factors. However, there has been little work on the neurobiological and behavioral antecedents of DRD in childhood. This is an important question, as understanding the antecedents of DRD can provide signs of mechanisms in the development of psychopathology. The present study used baseline data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (N = 4,042) to build machine learning models to predict DRD at the first follow-up visit, 1 year later. In separate machine learning models, we tested elastic net regression, random forest regression, light gradient boosting regression, and support vector regression. In five-fold cross-validation on the training set, models using an array of questionnaire/task variables were able to predict DRD, with these findings generalizing to a held-out (i.e., "lockbox") test set of 20% of the sample. Key predictive variables were neuropsychological test performance at baseline, socioeconomic status, screen media activity, psychopathology, parenting, and personality. However, models using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived brain variables did not reliably predict DRD in either the cross-validation or held-out test set. These results suggest a combination of questionnaire/task variables as antecedents of excessive DRD in late childhood, which may presage the development of problematic substance use in adolescence. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Concerning the online gaming, in the last decade, it has been described as a social and not problematic activity for the majority of gamers [34] and concerns regarding the potential overpathologization of casual gamers have been raised [31, 33, 35, 36••, 37, 38••, 39, 40]. However, scientific research increasingly focused on problematic and potentially pathological Internet gaming [41][42][43]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review The present study aimed to review the literature concerning the relationship between problematic online gaming (POG) and social anxiety, taking into account the variables implicated in this relationship. This review included studies published between 2010 and 2020 that were indexed in major databases with the following keywords: Internet gaming, disorder, addiction, problematic, social phobia, and social anxiety. Recent Findings In recent years, scientific interest in POG has grown dramatically. Within this prolific research field, difficulties associated with social anxiety have been increasingly explored in relation to POG. Indeed, evidence showed that individuals who experience social anxiety are more exposed to the risk of developing an excessive or addictive gaming behavior. Summary A total of 30 studies satisfied the initial inclusion criteria and were included in the present literature review. Several reviewed studies found a strong association between social anxiety and online gaming disorder. Furthermore, the relationships among social anxiety, POG, age, and psychosocial and comorbid factors were largely explored. Overall, the present review showed that socially anxious individuals might perceive online video games as safer social environments than face-to-face interactions, predisposing individuals to the POG. However, in a mutually reinforcing relationship, individuals with higher POG seem to show higher social anxiety. Therefore, despite online gaming might represent an activity able to alleviate psychopathological symptoms and/or negative emotional states, people might use online gaming to counterbalance distress or negative situations in everyday life, carrying out a maladaptive coping strategy.
... Furthermore, over 70% of parents reported that they had arguments with their children about their screen time. Although the public also expressed concerns about video games, such as "gaming addiction," however, there is currently little clarity that has been achieved in terms of diagnosing the criteria and appropriate symptoms of "gaming addiction," as "video game addiction" is not a stable concept and clinical impairment may be low; given the ongoing controversy, the classification of video game addiction as a mental disorder is premature [24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Esports have grown to become a core part of popular culture in many countries, including Hong Kong. Albeit the low participation rates in Esports in Hong Kong, it was starting to gain traction, yet the local Esports advocates were experiencing challenges in promoting and popularizing the Esport. Hence, the current study was aimed to identify and reveal the determinants of participating in Esports, as well as strengthen the work on Esports behaviors using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), a reliable and valid prominent theory in predicting human behavior across a plethora of contexts, ranging from health-related behaviors to sport consumption behaviors. In the current study, the convenience sampling method was used to recruit over 2000 students (secondary school, N = 1567 ( female = 615 ); university students, N = 1525 ( female = 255 ). The students were invited to participate in the survey for collecting their perception on Esports participation using TPB-based questionnaire. Results were analyzed using theoretical analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that both secondary school and university students have positive attitudes toward Esports. The outcomes indicated that participating in Esports develops social networks, and people with professional Esports’ skills capability and being fortitude tend to be models of Esports participation. However, inadequate resources are a significant barrier to participation in the Esports business. The SEM model verified that the variables of intention in Esports participation among the students in Hong Kong with an adequate goodness of fit index. As a whole, the current study has identified the factors and determinants of Esports’ intention and behavior among Hong Kong students, which were successfully displayed in terms of the theory of planned behavior. In addition, the findings are expected to provide the Hong Kong government with a documented framework to advocate Esports-related policies on a long-term basis.
... In addition, it would allow for having an idea for why some individuals seem to be able to spontaneously show remission of IRD symptoms. An explanation for this has been called for before [39,40]. It would also offer the opportunity of thinking of strategies of prevention and early intervention. ...
Article
Full-text available
Internet-related disorders (IRD) are increasingly becoming a major health issue. IRD are defined as the predominant use of online content, related to a loss of control and continued use despite negative consequences. Despite findings from cross-sectional studies, the causality of pathways accelerating the development of IRD are unclear. While etiological models emphasize the role of personality as risk factor, mutual influences between IRD and personality have not been examined. A prospective study with two assessments was conducted with n = 941 adolescents (mean age of 13.1 years; 10–17 years). Our aim was to validate etiological assumptions and to examine the effects of IRD-symptoms on the maturation of personality. IRD were measured with the Scale of the Assessment of Internet and Computer game Addiction (AICA-S). Personality traits were assessed using the Brief Five Factor Inventory (BFI). Conscientiousness and neuroticism were predictive for IRD symptoms one year later, and were likewise prone to changes depending on incidence or remission of IRD. Conscientiousness and openness moderated the course of IRD symptoms. Our findings point to complex trait–pathology associations. Personality influences the risk of development and maintenance of IRD symptoms and pre-existing IRD-symptoms affect the development of personality. Adaptations to etiological models are discussed and perspectives for novel intervention strategies are suggested.
... Also, it was thought that having concrete criteria established would enable research standardisation allowing for comparison of findings, and better communication between scientists in the area of GD [10,11]. In contrast, among the major arguments against formalization of this disorder were low quality of research, inappropriate operationalization of gaming disorder that overly relies on substance use and gambling, and no consensus on symptomatology and adequate assessment [12,13]. Some believed that all taken together could lead to possible "pathologization" of healthy game use and could have a negative impact on the lives of healthy gamers [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has become a significant issue in mental healthcare over the past decades as the number of people engaging in excessive and unhealthy gaming increases with each year. Despite its inclusion in the 5th Edition of Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the development of a number of treatment methods that have been designed and tested for IGD, treatment remains a challenge. This review attempts to give an overview of the current state of IGD and its treatment with a specific focus on the potential of technology-based solutions, such as web-based programs, mobile applications, and virtual reality. The review also highlights the need for additional work in the area of treatment development for IGD and the preliminary evidence for the usefulness and importance of technology-based treatment methods which offer unique advantages, such as accessibility, scalability, and cost-effectiveness, over other existing treatment options.
... Cabe señalar que el videojuego no supone un problema en sí mismo (10) ya que su uso adecuado puede conllevar unos beneficios a nivel educativo, a nivel social e incluso puede ser terapéutico para algunos trastornos (12). Sin embargo, las consecuencias negativas apreciadas por uso inadecuado de los mismos son crecientes; hay numerosos estudios que analizan el juego como factor de riesgo para la salud tanto física como mental. ...
Article
Full-text available
Adicción al Fortnite con necesidad de desintoxicación hospitalaria Fortnite Addiction in Need of Hospital Detox RESUMEN La generalización del uso de nuevas tecnologías en la vida cotidiana y en aspectos relativos al ocio está sacando a relucir potenciales perjuicios del uso inadecuado de los videojuegos y la necesidad de tratamiento especializado en aquellos sujetos con signos de adicción comportamental. Se expone el caso de un varón de 15 años con grave adicción comportamental al videojuego Fortnite que requirió de hospitalización completa para su desintoxicación. Describimos el tratamiento llevado a cabo con abordaje multidisciplinar e intensivo tanto individual como de su entorno y los resultados de su eficacia en un estudio de caso. El tratamiento recibido ha permitido que se pueda abordar con el sujeto la sintomatología subyacente que quedaba encubierta por la adicción a las pantallas y ha permitido afrontar la emocionalidad vivida. Los resultados muestran una disminución significativa del tiempo de uso de juego, así como una mejoría del funcionamiento personal y social del paciente. ABSTRACT The widespread use of new technologies in daily life and in different kind of activities aspects related to leisure is bringing to light potential damages negative effects of the inappropriate use of video games and the need for specialized treatment in those subjects with signs of behavioral addiction. The case of a 15-year-old boy with a serious behavioral addiction to the Fortnite video game that required full hospitalization for detoxification is exposed. We describe the treatment carried out with a multidisciplinary and intensive approach, both individually and in its environment, and the results of its efficacy in a case study. The treatment received has allowed the subject to address the underlying symptoms that were hidden by the addiction to screens and has allowed them to face the emotionality experienced. The results show a significant decrease in gaming use time, as well as an improvement in the patient's personal and social functioning.
... relatívne vysokú špecificitu a senzitivitu) všetkých kritérií navrhnutých v DSM-5. [17][18][19][20] Nie všetci autori považujú zmenu definície GD v ICD-11 za pokrok 20,21 a kritizujú najmä jej vágnosť, z čoho vyplýva neistota pri tvorbe skríningových nástrojov či pri samotnej diagnostike. Na vyvodzovanie dôveryhodnejších záverov (ktoré v mnohých prípadoch nie sú viac než len subjektívnymi názormi výskumníkov) tak bude potrebné ešte veľké množstvo empirickej evidencie. ...
Article
Full-text available
SÚHRN Martončik M, Zibrínová Ľ, Adamkovič M, Babinčák P, Smelý I. Porucha v dôsledku hrania digitálnych hier: Skúsenosti so slovenskou verziou dotazníkov IGDT-10, GDT a štruktúrovaným klinickým rozhovorom SCI-IGD V súčasnosti už nadpolovičná väčšina slovenskej a českej dospelej populácie hrá digitálne hry či už na mobilných zariadeniach, PC alebo hernej konzole. Malá časť z týchto hráčov hrajúcich nadmerne si vytvorí patologický vzorec hrania, v klasifikačnom systéme DSM-5 zvaný ako porucha v dôsledku hrania internetových hier a v novšom ICD-11 ako porucha v dôsledku hrania. Vo svete bolo od roku 2013, vychádzajúc z týchto dvoch systémov, zatiaľ publikovaných 17 skríningových nástrojov v anglickom jazyku. Cieľ: Nakoľko v slovenskom alebo českom jazyku nie je dostupný ani jeden nástroj, cieľom bolo adaptovať dotazníky IGDT-10 a GDT a štruktúrovaný klinický rozhovor SCI-IGD do slovenského jazyka, predbežne odhadnúť ich diagnostickú presnosť (špecificitu a senzitivitu), reliabilitu; a opísať skúsenosti s ich používaním. Materiál a metóda: Výskumnú vzorku tvorilo 43 hráčov hrajúcich digitálne hry minimálne 20 hodín za týždeň. Klinický rozhovor SCI-IGD bol realizovaný iba na podvzorke 15 hráčov, ktorí hrali denne digitálne hry v priemere 5,47 hodiny. Výsledky: Obidva dotazníky produkovali reliabilné dáta (wt =0,79 a 0,83) a ich senzitivita bola 50 % pre IGDT-10 a 25 % pre GDT. Špecificita obidvoch dotazníkov bola zhodne 100 %. Záver: Vzhľadom k veľkosti vzorky je potrebné považovať výsledky prinajlepšom za predbežné. Potreba ich replikácie je v tomto prípade nevyhnutná. Väčší počet kritérií v DSM-5 zrejme výrazne zvyšuje senzitivitu, avšak na druhú stranu je potrebné povedať, že cieľom WHO bolo znižovaním počtu kritérií zrejme zvyšovať špecificitu, teda redukovať množstvo falošne pozitívnych osôb aj za cenu znižovania senzitivity, keďže práve nízka špecificita nie senzitivita by mohla byť problematickým aspektom v rámci skríningu. Klady a zápory slovenských verzií dotazníkov IGDT-10 a GDT a rozhovoru SCI-IGD sú diskutované v texte príspevku.
... Including the diagnosis of IGD into the diagnostic manuals of the DSM-5 [16] and GD in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11 [17]) adds the risk of overpathologising everyday behaviour [33,34]. There appears to be an exaggerated focus on the negative consequences rather than the benefits of gaming in the literature and the public news media. ...
Article
Full-text available
The literature on online gaming has generally focused on male gamers and has been dominated by negative aspects of gaming. The present study addresses the gender gap in this field by exploring experiences of female gamers further by unravelling several positive experiences alongside some potentially harmful tendencies connected to gaming, including female gamers’ wishes and ambitions for their future gaming. A total of 20 female adult gamers across Europe were interviewed and results were analysed using thematic analysis. Four main themes were identified: (i) to be or not to be a (female) gamer; (ii) improving social skills and levelling up on mental health; (iii) not always a healthy escape; and (iv) there is more to explore. The present study is one of few empirical studies regarding the construction of self-image, and experiences of female gamers. It has showed participants have a history as gamers from adolescence, but still face problems derived from the stigmatised internal gender self-image. Externally, female gamer stigmatisation may result in sexism, gender violence, harassment, and objectification. Additionally, females may decide against identifying as gamers, engaging in social gaming interaction, or hold back from online gaming in general, thereby missing out on the opportunities for recreation as well as social and psychological benefits that gaming brings. There is, therefore, urgent need for more research and actions to promote change, equity, education, and security for female gamers as well as their male counterparts. Game developers would benefit from understanding this large gamer demographic better and tailoring games for women specifically.
Article
Résumé Introduction : La pandémie liée au COVID-19 a modifié les habitudes quotidiennes de la population. Dans ce contexte, certaines activités ont été favorisées, parfois même encouragées, telles que l’usage des jeux vidéo (JV). Objectif : L’objectif de cette étude était d’investiguer l’impact de la pandémie sur la pratique des JV en tenant compte du type de passion et de la personnalité. Méthode : Une méthodologie mixte a été utilisée. En sus de la quantité de pratique des JV, le Big Five Inventory a permis d’évaluer la personnalité et l’Echelle de passion de distinguer le type de passion selon le modèle dualiste. Un entretien semi-directif permettait d’évaluer l’impact des confinements sur la pratique ludique et le ressenti du joueur durant cette période. Parmi les 137 joueurs de JV (âge moyen de 30,26 ans) ayant rempli les auto-questionnaires, 10 ont participé à l’entretien semi-directif. Résultats : Quel que soit le type de passion, le temps de pratique des JV a augmenté durant les confinements (en fréquence et en temps). Une relation négative a été retrouvée entre l’Ouverture et le temps de pratique des JV la semaine avant et durant la pandémie, ainsi qu’avec la passion obsessive. Les données qualitatives ont montré que le JV est apparu comme une activité occupationnelle, source de plaisir, d’évasion par rapport émotions négatives liées à la crise sanitaire, et de soutien social. Conclusion : L’usage des JV a été évoqué par les participants comme une stratégie efficace pour faire face aux difficultés engendrées par la pandémie de COVID-19.
Article
Full-text available
Playing digital games is increasingly pathologized as an addiction or a disorder, but there is limited research into the impact of game addiction discourse on children who play digital games. In this article, we present results from a study into the digital play of twenty-four 9–14-year-olds, attending to our participants’ perspectives and attitudes towards ‘game addiction’ and how it interacts with their play and identity. Focused primarily on the online multiplayer first-person shooter game Fortnite, we examine how children encounter and attempt to negotiate game addiction discourse and demonstrate how the discourse in and of itself produces challenges for young people whose interests and passions revolve around games. This article subsequently discusses how the discursive frameworks that are perpetuated in the media around ‘problematic play’ need to incorporate and be inclusive of the child’s right to play, and the relevance of our findings to the study of media panic and children’s critical media literacies.
Article
This study examined the various ways in which Danish news media represented digital media as a problem over a period of three years. We present data from a content analysis of 263 newspaper articles and chi-squared analyses identifying associations between worries, voices, culprits, and those responsible for solving problems. We find professionals significantly responsible for framing problems with screen time in terms of mental health issues and addiction, while the broader discourse is one of, for example, time theft, video game addiction, and issues in schools. Technologies are often diffused using “screens” to describe a broad palette of devices/applications, are represented as responsible for distractions while the technology industry is held culpable for effects on social relations and addictive behaviors. We discuss how patterns in media coverage and expert use affects public understandings, and the overall findings that while technologies are represented as responsible for particular problems, the “screen” discourse is a space in which arguments shift between technologies, problems, and authorities.
Article
The public, practitioners, and researchers often express concerns about the physical and behavioral well-being of people who play video games. Research generally fails to distinguish between people who play games and people who self-identify as gamers, so there is limited existing work on how gamer identity affects well-being. Using survey data from nearly 900 young adults collected in 2014 and 2015, this study compared people who do not play video games to self-identified gamers and other video game players on three measures of well-being: physical health, binge drinking, and aggressive behavior. Controlling for demographic factors and time spent gaming, gamers reported poorer physical health compared to non-players. Gamers were less likely to have engaged in binge drinking relative to non-players, an effect modified by self-esteem and social support. People who played games, but did not identify as gamers, did not differ from non-players on measures of well-being. There was no difference in aggressive behavior across player status. Hours played was not independently associated with measures of well-being. Supplementary analyses suggested a potential gendered relationship between player status and well-being. The study illustrated the theoretical and empirical relevance of respondent-selected gamer identity in contextualizing the purported relationship between video game play and well-being.
Book
Video games can have many effects on players, some of which could be intentional effects (e.g., games designed to train health compliance behaviors), and most of which are unintentional (e.g., violent games, stereotypes, gaming disorder). Some of these areas of research have been seen as controversial, but many of the controversies can be at least partially resolved by considering the learning mechanisms underlying the effects. We describe the General Learning Model in greater detail than has been provided elsewhere, including short-term and long-term mechanisms, processes of learning and forgetting, and moderators of learning. Video games use many of the best practices to train for both mastery and for transfer of learning. The implications for re-interpreting the literature on violent video games and gaming disorder, as well as for applied social psychology broadly defined, are discussed.
Article
The article answers the question how learning motivation and enthusiasm for online gaming are related in students with low, medium and high social status. We present results of a study conducted in 2020 that involved 104 students of 9—11 grades of Moscow schools, 41% (n=43) males, 59% (n=61) females. The techniques used in the study included the academic motivation scale, the assessment tool for game addiction, sociometry, the reference measurement technique, and the technique for identifying informal intragroup power structure in a contact community. The results show that each structure of the integral intragroup status is characterized by its own relationship between learning motivation and willingness to engage intensively in online gaming. As it was revealed, in the attraction structure of intragroup status among high-status students the game addiction indicator is negatively correlated to learning motivation, whereas in the structure of informal power among low-status students this correlation is positive.
Article
Full-text available
Introducción: El ritmo Beta del electroencefalograma cuantitativo (QEEG) está vinculado con inatención y alteraciones del movimiento. En niños con trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) se han reportado potencia absoluta (PA) con incremento en frecuencias lentas y disminución en rápidas especialmente Beta-total. Objetivo: Identificar la distribución cortical de PA disminuida o incrementada en el QEEG en reposo-ojos-cerrados de cada frecuencia Beta (12Hz-25Hz) como predictora de inatención visual o auditiva y de la iniciación e inhibición del movimiento en niños varones con TDAH de presentación combinada. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo (2008-2019) en 131 niños varones (6-14 años), diagnosticados de TDAH de presentación combinada. De cada niño, se obtuvieron 532 datos: PA + 2 de la norma (base Neuroguide), Beta (12-25Hz) en 19 derivaciones del QEEG se asociaron a inatención visual, auditiva y al movimiento (puntuación < 80 TOVA-Visual y Auditiva). Resultados: Se obtuvo una PA disminuida en 1738 derivaciones (81,5%); PA incrementada en 394 (18,48%). Beta 20-25Hz PA disminuida predominó en Frontal y Centro-témporo-occipital; 12-13Hz PA-incrementada en Parietal. Inatención visual más baja que auditiva. Variabilidad y Tiempo de Respuesta visual caracterizaron la mala ejecución. PA-disminuida Beta 25Hz en Frontal caracterizó 30 (43%) niños con inatención visual y auditiva; Beta 23-25Hz en Centro-témporo-occipital a 33 (75%) con inatención visual; PA-incrementada 21Hz en Frontal y 25Hz en Parietal a 2 (29%) con inatención-auditiva. Beta 13-25Hz PA-disminuida en Frontal y Centro-témporo-occipital y 20-25Hz en Parietal influyeron en inatención visual en todas sus variables; mientras que inatención-auditiva en todas sus variables fue influenciada por Beta 16-25Hz en Centro-témporo-occipital. Beta 16-25Hz PA-disminuida en Frontal y Centro-témporo-occipital influyeron en hiperactividad visual y auditiva; Beta 22-25Hz en Centro-témporo-occipital en impulsividad visual y auditiva. Conclusión: Beta 20-25Hz con PA disminuida en Centro-témporo-occipital y 12-13Hz con PA-incrementada en Parietal junto con Variabilidad y Tiempo de Respuesta visual, pudieran ser biomarcadores del TDAH combinado. Los biomarcadores podrán apoyar el diagnóstico preciso y el uso de terapia no farmacológica con tecnología de punta que regule la actividad eléctrica.
Article
Full-text available
Psychosis is the most ineffable experience of mental disorder. We provide here the first co‐written bottom‐up review of the lived experience of psychosis, whereby experts by experience primarily selected the subjective themes, that were subsequently enriched by phenomenologically‐informed perspectives. First‐person accounts within and outside the medical field were screened and discussed in collaborative workshops involving numerous individuals with lived experience of psychosis as well as family members and carers, representing a global network of organizations. The material was complemented by semantic analyses and shared across all collaborators in a cloud‐based system. The early phases of psychosis (i.e., premorbid and prodromal stages) were found to be characterized by core existential themes including loss of common sense, perplexity and lack of immersion in the world with compromised vital contact with reality, heightened salience and a feeling that something important is about to happen, perturbation of the sense of self, and need to hide the tumultuous inner experiences. The first episode stage was found to be denoted by some transitory relief associated with the onset of delusions, intense self‐referentiality and permeated self‐world boundaries, tumultuous internal noise, and dissolution of the sense of self with social withdrawal. Core lived experiences of the later stages (i.e., relapsing and chronic) involved grieving personal losses, feeling split, and struggling to accept the constant inner chaos, the new self, the diagnosis and an uncertain future. The experience of receiving psychiatric treatments, such as inpatient and outpatient care, social interventions, psychological treatments and medications, included both positive and negative aspects, and was determined by the hope of achieving recovery, understood as an enduring journey of reconstructing the sense of personhood and re‐establishing the lost bonds with others towards meaningful goals. These findings can inform clinical practice, research and education. Psychosis is one of the most painful and upsetting existential experiences, so dizzyingly alien to our usual patterns of life and so unspeakably enigmatic and human.
Article
Full-text available
Based on the general assumption that even problematic behaviours are associated with an inherently health-promoting motivation to cope with unpleasant or unsatisfying life situations, the compensatory model of media use focuses on how psychosocial vulnerabilities moderate links between media behaviours and adverse outcomes. The present paper means to further develop this approach by exploring the moderating role of state- and trait-level factors (state: perceived stress; trait: social interaction anxiety and loneliness) on the relation between video game consumption (i.e. playing duration and habitual gaming), motivations (i.e. achievement, social, immersion), and engagement (harmonious and obsessive engagement) within a large-scale sample of mostly heavy gamers. Overall, results provided further evidence for the compensatory approach, with perceived stress emerging as a critical psychosocial factor that intensified positive and negative relations between several gaming behaviours and harmful outcomes. Moreover, our results reiterated the heuristic importance of intra- and interpersonally pressured (i.e. obsessive) engagement to explain adverse gaming outcomes as well as self-determined (i.e. harmonious) engagement as a potentially fruitful gateway toward more healthy gaming. These findings constitute solid empirical groundwork that may contribute to effective prevention and intervention methods against problematic gaming.
Article
Full-text available
The Internet Addiction Test (IAT), despite its status as the most-used instrument for measuring addictions to Internet activities, has not adequately illuminated the experiences of and potential for addiction in players of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Using a factor analysis, this article makes suggestions for improving the IAT’s applicability to online gamers. Players of the game World of Warcraft (n = 5,313) participated in an online survey that included the 20-question IAT modified for gamers. The results suggest the IAT is useful for massively MMORPGs’ users when content-specific modifications to its items are made. Findings indicate a distinct profile for MMORPGs’ symptomology, despite differences in experience, gender, or ethnicity. This research demonstrates the importance of robust sampling of specific media user groups and individualized screening for behavioral addictions.
Article
Full-text available
We greatly appreciate the care and thought that is evident in the ten commentaries that discuss our debate paper, the majority of which argued in favor of a formalized ICD-11 gaming disorder. We agree that there are some people whose play of video games isrelated to life problems. We believe that understanding this population and the nature and severity of the problems they experience should be a focus area for future research. However, moving from research construct to formal disorder requires a much stronger evidence base than we currently have. The burden of evidence andthe clinical utility should be extremely high because there is a genuine risk of abuse of diagnoses. We provide suggestions about the level of evidence that might be required: transparent and preregistered studies, a better demarcation of the subject areathat includes a rationale for focusing on gaming in particular versus a more general behavioral addictions concept, the exploration of non-addiction approaches, and the unbiased exploration of clinical approaches that treat potentially underlying issues such as depressive mood or social anxiety first. We acknowledge there could be benefits to formalizing gaming disorder, many of which were highlighted by colleagues in their commentaries, but we think they do not yet outweigh the wider societal and public health risks involved. Given the gravity of diagnostic classification and its wider societal impact, we urge our colleagues at the WHO to err on the side of caution for now and postpone the formalization.
Article
Full-text available
Based on an evidence-focused literature review, the first part of this paper examines existing knowledge on how the time children spend using digital technology impacts their well-being across three dimensions; mental/psychological, social and physical. The evidence reviewed here is largely inconclusive with respect to impact on children’s physical activity, but indicates that digital technology seems to be beneficial for children’s social relationships. In terms of impact on children’s mental well-being, the most robust studies suggest that the relationship is U-shaped, where no use and excessive use can have a small negative impact on mental well-being, while moderate use can have a small positive impact. In the second part of the paper, the hypothetical idea of addiction to technology is introduced and scrutinized. This is followed by an overview of the hypothetical idea that digital technology might re-wire or hijack children’s brains; an assumption that is challenged by recent neuroscience evidence. In conclusion, considerable methodological limitations exist across the spectrum of research on the impact of digital technology on child well-being, including the majority of the studies on time use reviewed here, and those studies concerned with clinical or brain impacts. This prompts reconsideration of how research in this area is conducted. Finally, recommendations for strengthening research practices are offered.
Article
Full-text available
The American Psychiatric Association has identified Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) as a potential psychiatric condition and called for research to investigate its etiology, stability, and impacts on health and behavior. The present study recruited 5,777 American adults and applied self-determination theory to examine how motivational factors influence, and are influenced by, IGD and health across a six month period. Following a preregistered analysis plan, results confirmed our hypotheses that IGD criteria are moderately stable and that they and basic psychological need satisfaction have a reciprocal relationship over time. Results also showed need satisfaction promoted health and served as a protective factor against IGD. Contrary to what was hypothesized, results provided no evidence directly linking IGD to health over time. Exploratory analyses suggested that IGD may have indirect effects on health by way of its impact on basic needs. Implications are discussed in terms of existing gaming addiction and motivational frameworks.
Article
Full-text available
Based on their analysis of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) criteria, Kuss, Griffiths, and Pontes (2017) come to the conclusion that the current situation can be described as "chaos and confusion." Their assessment is not an exaggeration. It can be argued that there are even more issues, on logical/definitional and political/social levels: (a) the IGD diagnosis is lacking a well-defined object, (b) the cause and effect cannot be differentiated outside lab conditions, (c) the social and political effects of declaring a social behavior as a disease are worrying, and (d) a rushed diagnosis may construct an addiction with potentially harmful effects on (formerly) healthy populations. Instead of closing the debate by declaring a consensus and codifying IGD in the DSM, an undogmatic, intensified, and broader discussion is needed.
Article
Full-text available
In their commentary, Kuss, Griffiths, and Pontes (2016) criticize the use of the term "Internet" in the recently proposed diagnosis for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and its use as one of the included diagnostic criteria. We agree with the exclusion of the term "Internet" in the diagnosis, but have some considerations to the comments regarding the nine criteria for IGD. Specifically, we discuss the meaning, the wording, and the importance of the criteria, as well as the importance of distress or functional impairment in the proposed diagnosis. We also address the possibility of categorizing IGD as a subtype of a general behavioral addiction diagnosis.
Article
Full-text available
The paper by Kuss, Griffiths, and Pontes (2016) titled "Chaos and confusion in DSM-5 diagnosis of Internet Gaming Disorder: Issues, concerns, and recommendations for clarity in the field" examines issues relating to the concept of Internet Gaming Disorder. We agree that there are serious issues and extend their arguments by suggesting that the field lacks basic theory, definitions, patient research, and properly validated and standardized assessment tools. As most studies derive data from survey research in functional populations, they exclude people with severe functional impairment and provide only limited information on the hypothesized disorder. Yet findings from such studies are widely used and often exaggerated, leading many to believe that we know more about the problem behavior than we do. We further argue that video game play is associated with several benefits and that formalizing this popular hobby as a psychiatric disorder is not without risks. It might undermine children's right to play or encourage repressive treatment programs, which ultimately threaten children's right to protection against violence. While Kuss et al. (2016) express support for the formal implementation of a disorder, we argue that before we have a proper evidence base, a sound theory, and validated assessment tools, it is irresponsible to support a formal category of disorder and doing so would solidify a confirmatory approach to research in this area.
Book
Full-text available
"Boom! Headshot!” In family rooms all across America, millions of children and teenagers are enjoying violent video games. Popular games like Call of Duty, Halo, and Grand Theft Auto place players in elaborate fictional worlds--often with a gun in their hands. The media and the government are quick to point fingers when it comes to young perpetrators of violence. If it becomes apparent that school shooters, for instance, may have enjoyed violent games at some point--well, those games were clearly the culprit or at least a warning sign, right? But the problem with this conclusion is that it’s not based on facts. Here’s what they’re not telling you: Only a small minority of school shooters played violent video games. If that surprises you, you’re not alone--the national dialogue around these games has become skewed and biased. On the flip side, most well-adjusted children and teenagers regularly play violent video games, while never exhibiting violent behavior in real life. What’s more, spikes in sales of violent games actually correspond with decreased rates of violent crime. The media and commentators are not giving you the whole story, and it’s time for a new conversation about these games and their role in our children’s lives. In Moral Combat, psychology experts explore how video games--including those considered violent--actually have a positive social impact for today’s youth and offer a comprehensive overview of their history, culture, and scientific research. Markey and Ferguson have been on the frontline of the violent video game debate for years, and together, they debunk the stark picture media, politicians, and other personalities tend to paint in order to sway public opinion about the impact of gaming. The general public has been misled into believing that violent video games are responsible for horrific acts of violence. With complete honesty and extensive research, the informative and often-entertaining Moral Combat lays out the facts in order to reframe this important discussion.
Article
Full-text available
Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and classification. However, in the years following the release of DSM-5, an expanding body of research has increasingly classified engagement in a wide range ofcommonbehavioursandleisureactivitiesaspossiblebehaviouraladdiction.Ifthisexpansiondoesnotend,boththerelevanceandthecredibilityofthe fieldofaddictivedisordersmightbequestioned,whichmaypromptadismissiveappraisal of the new DSM-5 subcategory for behavioural addiction. We propose an operational definition of behavioural addiction together with a number of exclusion criteria, to avoid pathologizing common behaviours and provide a common ground for further research. The definition and its exclusion criteria are clarified and justified by illustrating how these address a number of theoretical and methodological shortcomings that result from existing conceptualizations. We invite other researchers to extend our definition under an Open Science Foundation framework
Article
Full-text available
Concerns about problematic gaming behaviors deserve our full attention. However, we claim that it is far from clear that these problems can or should be attributed to a new disorder. The empirical basis for a Gaming Disorder proposal, such as in the new ICD-11, suffers from fundamental issues. Our main concerns are the low quality of the research base, the fact that the current operationalization leans too heavily on substance use and gambling criteria, and the lack of consensus on symptomatology and assessment of problematic gaming. The act of formalizing this disorder, even as a proposal, has negative medical, scientific, public-health, societal and human rights fallout that should be considered. Of particular concern are moral panics around the harm of video gaming. They might result in premature application of diagnosis in the medical community and the treatment of abundant false-positive cases, especially for children and adolescents. Secondly, research will be locked into a confirmatory approach, rather than an exploration of the boundaries of normal versus pathological. Thirdly, the healthy majority of gamers will be affected negatively. We expect that the premature inclusion of Gaming Disorder as a diagnosis in ICD-11 will cause significant stigma to the millions of children who play video games as part of a normal, healthy life. At this point, suggesting formal diagnoses and categories is premature: the ICD-11 proposal for Gaming Disorder should be removed to avoid a waste of public health resources as well as to avoid causing harm to healthy video gamers around the world.
Article
Full-text available
Aims: Examining online social interactions along with patterns of video gaming behaviors and game addiction symptoms has the potential to enrich our understanding of disorders related to excessive video game play. Methods: We performed latent class analysis in a sample of 9733 adolescents based on heavy use of games, social networking and instant messaging, and game addiction symptoms. We used latent class regression to determine associations between classes, psychosocial well-being and friendship quality. Results: We identified two types of heavy gaming classes that differed in probability of online social interaction. Classes with more online social interaction reported fewer problematic gaming symptoms than those with less online social interaction. Most adolescents estimated to be in heavy gaming classes had more depressive symptoms than normative classes. Male non-social gamers had more social anxiety. Female social gamers had less social anxiety and loneliness, but lower self-esteem. Friendship quality attenuated depression in some male social gamers, but strengthened associations with loneliness in some male non-social gamers. Conclusions: In adolescents, symptoms of video game addiction depend not only on video game play but also on concurrent levels of online communication, and those who are very socially active online report fewer symptoms of game addiction.
Article
Full-text available
We employed ethnographic methods more attentive to insider gamer perspectives to develop culturally-sensitive scale measures of online gaming involvement and its positive and negative consequences. Our inquiry combined relatively unstructured in-game participant-observation, semi-structured interviews, and a web survey. The latter derived from both ethnography and theory, and contained 15 involvement items and 21 each for positive and negative consequences items. Cultural consensus analysis revealed broadly shared understandings among players about online gaming involvement and its positive consequences, but less agreement about negative scale items. Our findings suggest the need for caution in employing current tools to assess “addictive” and “disordered” gaming, as our gamer respondents judged commonly used scale items, such as cognitive salience, withdrawal, and tolerance, as not fitting with their own understandings and experiences. We argue that our approach, rooted in gamers' actual experiences and also current theory, contributes to more valid psychiatric assessments of online gaming experiences, though more research is needed to refine the new measures we present.
Article
Full-text available
In 2014, two groups of scientists published open letters on the efficacy of brain-training interventions, or “brain games,” for improving cognition. The first letter, a consensus statement from an international group of more than 70 scientists, claimed that brain games do not provide a scientifically grounded way to improve cognitive functioning or to stave off cognitive decline. Several months later, an international group of 133 scientists and practitioners countered that the literature is replete with demonstrations of the benefits of brain training for a wide variety of cognitive and everyday activities. How could two teams of scientists examine the same literature and come to conflicting “consensus” views about the effectiveness of brain training? In part, the disagreement might result from different standards used when evaluating the evidence. To date, the field has lacked a comprehensive review of the brain-training literature, one that examines both the quantity and the quality of the evidence according to a well-defined set of best practices. This article provides such a review, focusing exclusively on the use of cognitive tasks or games as a means to enhance performance on other tasks. We specify and justify a set of best practices for such brain-training interventions and then use those standards to evaluate all of the published peer-reviewed intervention studies cited on the websites of leading brain-training companies listed on Cognitive Training Data ( www.cognitivetrainingdata.org ), the site hosting the open letter from brain-training proponents. These citations presumably represent the evidence that best supports the claims of effectiveness. Based on this examination, we find extensive evidence that brain-training interventions improve performance on the trained tasks, less evidence that such interventions improve performance on closely related tasks, and little evidence that training enhances performance on distantly related tasks or that training improves everyday cognitive performance. We also find that many of the published intervention studies had major shortcomings in design or analysis that preclude definitive conclusions about the efficacy of training, and that none of the cited studies conformed to all of the best practices we identify as essential to drawing clear conclusions about the benefits of brain training for everyday activities. We conclude with detailed recommendations for scientists, funding agencies, and policymakers that, if adopted, would lead to better evidence regarding the efficacy of brain-training interventions.
Article
Full-text available
The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association?s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group?s research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding?a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires?is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (ntot = 11,908) provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive operations are supported by dynamically reconfiguring neural systems that integrate processing components widely distributed throughout the brain. The inter-neuronal connections that constitute these systems are powerfully shaped by environmental input. We evaluated the ability of computer-presented brain training games done in school to harness this neuroplastic potential and improve learning in an overall study sample of 583 second-grade children. Doing a 5-minute brain-training game immediately before math or reading curricular content games increased performance on the curricular content games. Doing three 20-minute brain training sessions per week for four months increased gains on school-administered math and reading achievement tests compared to control classes tested at the same times without intervening brain training. These results provide evidence of cognitive priming with immediate effects on learning, and longer-term brain training with far-transfer or generalized effects on academic achievement.
Article
Full-text available
Background The umbrella term “Internet addiction” has been criticized for its lack of specificity given the heterogeneity of potentially problematic behaviors that can be engaged in online as well as different underlying etiological mechanisms. This has led to the naming of specific online addictions, the most notable being Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). Methods Using the contemporary literature concerning IGD and cognate topics, issues and concerns relating to the concept of IGD are examined. Results Internet addiction and IGD are not the same, and distinguishing between the two is conceptually meaningful. Similarly, the diagnosis of IGD as proposed in the appendix of the latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) remains vague regarding whether or not games need to be engaged in online, stating that IGD typically involves specific Internet games, but can also include offline games, adding to the lack of clarity. A number of authors have voiced concerns regarding the viability of including the word “Internet” in IGD, and instead proposed to use the term “video gaming disorder” or simply “gaming disorder,” suggesting addiction to video gaming can also occur offline. Conclusion The DSM-5 has caused more confusion than clarity regarding the disorder, reflected by researchers in the field contesting a supposedly reached consensus for IGD diagnosis.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Internet gaming disorder, also known as video game addiction and pathological gaming, has officially been proposed as a psychiatric disorder. Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence of the disorder, but the prevalence rates that they arrive at vary in the extreme (from 0.6% to 44.5%). This discrepancy between studies inevitably raises questions about what they actually measure. To explore this further five young men who were candidates for this new diagnosis where asked to fill out a questionnaire probing pathological gaming and interviewed about how they understood the questions and their thoughts on video game addiction in general. Thus, this paper presents the results of a qualitative investigation of the face-validity of quantitative research on video game addiction. The interviews showed that the respondents often misunderstood the intention of the questions, misjudged the severity of the negative effects that the questions probed and often interpreted the questions very differently. Only one of the respondents believed pathological gaming to be a primary disorder, but he also believed it to promote more positive than negative effects. The rest of the respondent either did not believe in the disorder at all or believed it to be secondary to other problems, such as anxiety or depression.
Article
Full-text available
Since the field of educational videogames or serious games is not limited to games that are specifically designed for educational purposes, videogames such as Minecraft have aroused the attention of teachers and researchers alike. To gain insights into the applicability of Minecraft, we reviewed the literature on use of the game in education and experimental research. We summarized the current usage in addition to our own considerable experience with Minecraft in courses on educational videogame design and as a research instrument in instructional psychology and discuss the benefits and limitations. Based on these observations, we outlined the future of Minecraft in both fields and emphasize examples that already stretch the technical and methodical boundaries. To increase the application of our analysis, we distill three main implications from our observations that address the future of educational and research tools in educational videogames in general.
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to investigate the aggression levels of college students found in the Northeastern part of the United States following exposure to video games. The 59 participants played their assigned game, Mortal Kombat on Nintendo Wii or Halo 2 on the Xbox, for 45 minutes with a partner. The researchers employed twelve t-tests (alpha adjusted to .004) and three multiple linear regressions to explore the difference of aggression levels in gender, violent video game, and predictors of aggression. Results showed no aggression differences in all twelve t-tests for the three aggression variables (physical, verbal, and general) pre and post-tests for gender or violent video game played. Additionally, there was no support found suggesting the violent video games, gender, and time spent playing video games caused aggression. In fact, the only significance found for predicting aggression were the pre-aggression scores in all three areas of measured aggression suggesting a need for proper control of variables and that aggression may be preexisting within the individual rather than caused by violent video game play.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Traditional face-to-face social interactions can be challenging for individuals with autism, leading some to perceive and categorize them as less social than their typically-developing peers. Individuals with autism may even see themselves as less social relative to their peers. Online communities can provide an alternative venue for social expression, enabling different types of communication beyond face-to-face, oral interaction. Using ethnographic methods, we studied the communication ecology that has emerged around a Minecraft server for children with autism and their allies. Our analysis shows how members of this community search for, practice, and define sociality through a variety of communication channels. These findings suggest an expansion in how sociality has traditionally been conceptualized for individuals with autism.
Article
Full-text available
The popularity of digital games among adolescents has raised public and scientific concern about players drifting into excessive or pathological gaming patterns. Among the neglected issues in this area of research is the question of whether excessive gaming rather reflects a transient phenomenon during adolescence or a temporally stable pathological behavior that requires external intervention. In a correlational panel study with two points of measurement, we investigated the temporal stability of excessive gaming in German adolescents (N = 488; aged 12-17 years at time-1) over a time lag of one year. Among the video game players in our sample, 2.8 percent were classified as excessive gamers at both points of measurement. The correlation of excessive gaming between T1 and T2 was found to be relatively moderate (r = .54). Detailed inspection revealed even lower stability scores for each single component of excessive gaming such as tolerance or conflict, with the most problematic elements (stealing, borrowing money due to gaming problems) displaying the lowest stabilities (r < .30). Thus, the results indicate that ‒ at least for the large majority of adolescent players ‒ excessive gaming is a transient and not a stable condition. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Close to 90% of U.S. adolescents now own or have access to a mobile phone, and they are using them frequently. Adolescents send and receive an average of over 60 text messages per day from their devices, and over 90% of adolescents now access the Internet from a mobile device at least occasionally. Many adults are asking how this constant connectivity is influencing adolescents' development. In this article, we examine seven commonly voiced fears about the influence of mobile technologies on adolescents' safety (e.g., cyberbullying and online solicitation), social development (e.g., peer relationships, parent-child relationships, and identity development), cognitive performance, and sleep. Three sets of findings emerge. First, with some notable exceptions (e.g., sleep disruption and new tools for bullying), most online behaviors and threats to well-being are mirrored in the offline world, such that offline factors predict negative online experiences and effects. Second, the effects of mobile technologies are not uniform, in that benefits appear to be conferred for some adolescents (e.g., skill building among shy adolescents), whereas risk is exacerbated among others (e.g., worsening existing mental health problems). Third, experimental and quasi-experimental studies that go beyond a reliance on self-reported information are required to understand how, for whom, and under what conditions adolescents' interactions with mobile technologies influence their still developing social relationships, brains, and bodies.
Article
Full-text available
Longitudinal studies of prospective predictors for pathological Internet use (PIU) in adolescents as well as its course are lacking. This three-wave longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the European Union-funded project “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” over a 2-year period. The sample consisted of 1444 students at the baseline investigation (T0); 1202 students after 1 year (T1); and 515 students after 2 years (T2). Structured self-report questionnaires were administered at all three time points. PIU was assessed using the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). In addition, demographic (i.e., gender), social (i.e., parental involvement), psychological (i.e., emotional problems), and Internet use-related factors (i.e., online activities) were assessed as prospective predictors. The prevalence of PIU was 4.3 % at T0, 2.7 % at T1 and 3.1 % at T2. However, only 3 students (0.58 %) had persistent categorical PIU (YDQ score of ≥5) over the 2-year period. In univariate models, a variety of variables that have been previously identified in cross-sectional investigations predicted PIU at T2. However, multivariate regression demonstrated that only previous PIU symptoms and emotional problems were significant predictors of PIU 2 years later (adjusted R 2 0.23). The stability of categorical PIU in adolescents over 2 years was lower than previously reported. However, current PIU symptoms were the best predictor of later PIU; emotional symptoms also predicted PIU over and above the influence of previous problematic Internet use. Both PIU symptoms and emotional problems may contribute to the vicious cycle that supports the perpetuation of PIU.
Article
Full-text available
Aims: Clinicians struggle with the identification of video gaming problems. To address this issue, a clinical assessment tool (C-VAT 2.0) was developed and tested in a clinical setting. The instrument allows exploration of the validity of the DSM-5 proposal for 'internet gaming disorder'. Method: Using C-VAT 2.0, the current study provides a sensitivity analysis of the proposed DSM-5 criteria in a clinical youth sample (13-23years old) in treatment for video gaming disorder (N=32). The study also explores the clinical characteristics of these patients. Results: The patients were all male and reported spending extensive amounts of time on video games. At least half of the patients reported playing online games (n=15). Comorbid problems were common (n=22) and included (social) anxiety disorders, PDD NOS, ADHD/ADD, Parent-Child relationship problem, and various types of depressive mood problems. The sensitivity of the test was good: results further show that the C-VAT correctly identified 91% of the sample at the proposed cut-off score of at least 5 out of 9 of the criteria. As our study did not include healthy, extreme gamers, we could not assess the specificity of the tool: future research should make this a priority. Conclusion: Using the proposed DSM-5 cut-off score, the C-VAT 2.0 shows preliminary validity in a sample of gamers in treatment for gaming disorder, but the discriminating value of the instrument should be studied further. In the meantime, it is crucial that therapists try to avoid false positives by using expert judgment of functional impairment in each case.
Article
Full-text available
Video gaming has become a popular leisure activity in many parts of the world, and an increasing number of empirical studies examine the small minority that appears to develop problems as a result of excessive gaming. This study investigated prevalence rates and predictors of video game addiction in a sample of gamers, randomly selected from the National Population Registry of Norway (N=3389). Results showed there were 1.4 % addicted gamers, 7.3 % problem gamers, 3.9 % engaged gamers, and 87.4 % normal gamers. Gender (being male) and age group (being young) were positively associated with addicted-, problem-, and engaged gamers. Place of birth (Africa, Asia, South-and Middle America) were positively associated with addicted-and problem gamers. Video game addiction was negatively associated with conscientiousness and positively associated with neuroticism. Poor psychosomatic health was positively associated with problem-and engaged gaming. These factors provide insight into the field of video game addiction, and may help to provide guidance as to how individuals that are at risk of becoming addicted gamers can be identified.
Thesis
Full-text available
This dissertation explored personality traits of video gamers utilizing the Big Five Inventory (BFI) totaling 19,416 video gamer participants across seven genres of video game play. The purpose was to uncover and explore personality differences among the different preferred genres of video gamers. Different personality profiles were explored by employing correlations, t-tests, and multivariate analysis of variances (MANOVAs). Mapping of the BFI personality traits of video gamers across video game genres was conducted using latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify video gamer personality profiles and personality formations across preferred genres of play, to examine the pattern of relationships among the variables, to compare the personality formations to a proposed antisocial personality pattern suggested by Markey and Markey (2010), and to determine whether different personalities gravitate to specific genres of play. Results found four distinct and statistically different personality profiles—Introversive, Extroversive, Secure Ambiversive, and Insecure Ambiversive—and indicated no support indicated for the different classification of video gamers possessing statistically different personality traits (i.e. causal, regular, hardcore). Different genres of video game play did have different personality types playing each genre, but personalities found did not fit into the criteria proposed by Markey and Markey (2010) of an antisocial personality (i.e. high neuroticism, low agreeableness, and low conscientiousness). As such, evidence is provided for different personalities gravitating towards different genres of play and Carl Jung’s (1923) idea of the introversion/extroversion continuum. Limitations observed were that some results became statistically significant with small effect sizes and the BFI possibly not being nuanced enough to detect smaller personality traits. Strengths were the large participant base, the generalizability of the study to the video gamer population, and the study providing a basis for personality playing a role in virtual worlds.
Article
Full-text available
This commentary paper critically discusses the recent debate paper by Petry et al. (2014) that argued there was now an international consensus for assessing Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). Our collective opinions vary considerably regarding many different aspects of online gaming. However, we contend that the paper by Petry and colleagues does not provide a true and representative international community of researchers in this area. This paper critically discusses and provides commentary on (i) the representativeness of the international group that wrote the ‘consensus’ paper, and (ii) each of the IGD criteria. The paper also includes a brief discussion on initiatives that could be taken to move the field towards consensus. It is hoped that this paper will foster debate in the IGD field and lead to improved theory, better methodologically designed studies, and more robust empirical evidence as regards problematic gaming and its psychosocial consequences and impact.
Article
Full-text available
Background Behavioral addiction research has been particularly flourishing over the last two decades. However, recent publications have suggested that nearly all daily life activities might lead to a genuine addiction. Methods and aim In this article, we discuss how the use of atheoretical and confirmatory research approaches may result in the identification of an unlimited list of “new” behavioral addictions. Results Both methodological and theoretical shortcomings of these studies were discussed. Conclusions We suggested that studies overpathologizing daily life activities are likely to prompt a dismissive appraisal of behavioral addiction research. Consequently, we proposed several roadmaps for future research in the field, centrally highlighting the need for longer tenable behavioral addiction research that shifts from a mere criteria-based approach toward an approach focusing on the psychological processes involved.
Book
Full-text available
Addressing the contested question of whether addiction is possible in relation to computer games - specifically online gaming - A World of Excesses demonstrates that excessive playing does not necessarily have detrimental effects, and that there are important contextual elements that influence what consequences playing has for the players. Based on new empirical studies, including in-depth interviews and virtual ethnography, and drawing on material from international game related sites, this book examines the reasons for which gaming can occupy such a central place in people's lives, to the point of excess. As such, it will be of interest to sociologists and psychologists working in the fields of cultural and media studies, the sociology of leisure, information technology and addiction.
Article
Despite decades of research, no scholarly consensus has been achieved regarding the potential impact of video games on youth aggression or other public health concerns. In recent years, hypotheses have been raised that scholarly opinions on video games may resemble past moral panics, with attitudes reflective of generational conflicts. These hypotheses are tested in a sample of 175 criminologists, psychologists, and media scholars, examining both overall negative attitudes about video games and perceived linkages with youth assaults specifically. Results reflected continued lack of scholarly consensus on the issue of video game influences with only 15.3% of scholars endorsing the view that violent video games contribute to youth assaults. As hypothesized, older scholars endorsed more negative views of video games generally, although this appeared to be related to experience with games rather than age per se. Scholars with more negative attitudes toward youth themselves were also more negative about games. Criminologists and media scholars were more skeptical of violent video games contributing to youth assaults than were psychologists. These results are discussed in relation to Moral Panic Theory.