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Tamarindus indica L. A plant with multiple medicinal purposes

0Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2016; 5(3): 50-54
E-ISSN: 2278-4136
P-ISSN: 2349-8234
JPP 2016; 5(3): 50-54
Received: 10-03-2016
Accepted: 11-04-2016
Aline Pereira Paes Menezes
School of Food Technology
(FATEC), Av. Castro Alves, 62 -
Marılia – São Paulo, Brazil.
Silvia Cristina Cerini Trevisan
School of Food Technology
(FATEC), Av. Castro Alves, 62 -
Marılia – São Paulo, Brazil.
Sandra Maria Barbalho
(a) School of Food Technology
(FATEC), Av. Castro Alves, 62 -
Marılia – São Paulo, Brazil.
(b) Medical School of Marilia,
University of Marilia
(UNIMAR), Marılia – Av.
Higino Muzzi Filho, 1001 Marília
- São Paulo, Brazil.
Elen Landgraf Guiguer
(a) School of Food Technology
(FATEC), Av. Castro Alves, 62 -
Marılia – São Paulo, Brazil.
(b) Medical School of Marilia,
University of Marilia
(UNIMAR), Marılia – Av.
Higino Muzzi Filho, 1001 Marília
- São Paulo, Brazil.
Sandra Maria Barbalho
(a) School of Food Technology
(FATEC), Av. Castro Alves, 62 -
Marılia – São Paulo, Brazil
(b) Medical School of Marilia,
University of Marilia
(UNIMAR), Marılia – Av.
Higino Muzzi Filho, 1001 Marília
- São Paulo, Brazil
Tamarindus indica L. A plant with multiple medicinal
Aline Pereira Paes Menezes, Silvia Cristina Cerini Trevisan, Sandra
Maria Barbalho and Elen Landgraf Guiguer
Tamarindus indica is a plant that can be used traditionally in wound healing, snake bite, abdominal pain,
colds, inflammations, diarrhea, diarrhea, helminth infections, and fever. It may also play a role as
antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory and effects on the control of satiety, playing a potential role
in the treatment or prevention of obesity and other chronic diseases. These effects are probably due to the
presence of polyphenols as n-Hexacosane, eicosanoic acid, b-sitosterol, octacosanyl ferulate, 21-
oxobehenic acid, and pinitol and phenolic antioxidants for proanthocyanidins. T. indicus includes a
variety of bioactive compounds in the leaves, seeds, bark, pulp, and flowers with beneficial effects to
human health and the possibility of application in the pharmaceutical industry.
Keywords: Tamarindus indica, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity
1. Introduction
There is a growing trend in researches about medicinal plants due to their potential to cure
many diseases, because of low costs and lower frequency of side effects when compared to
synthetic drugs [1-3].
The Tamarindus indica L. is a fruit tree belonging to the Magnoliophyta, Order Fabales,
Family Fabaceae (subfamily Caesalpinioideae). It is native to tropical Africa and its cultivation
was widespread, developing well in all tropical continents [1-7].
There are different varieties of T. indica and they can be divided into acidic and sweet fruit.
The sweet and sour at the same time in the fruit is unique and it is used popularly in cooking.
In addition to the fruit, its various parts, as roots, wood, bark, and leaves, possess nutritional
and pharmaceutical properties [7-12].
Figure 1 shows various applications of tamarind which can be used traditionally in wound
healing, snake bite, abdominal pain, colds, inflammations, diarrhea, helminth infections, and
fever. This plant has also antimicrobial and antidiabetic activity [10 -13].
Fig 1: Properties of leaves, fruit and seed of T. indica.
Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
The objective of this review was to investigate the properties
and medicinal applications of the different parts of
Tamarindus indica L.
2. Methods
This review was based on a literature survey of studies
involving in vitro, humans or animal’s models. The survey
was conducted from January to May 2016 and we used
databases as Scielo, PMC, Pub Med, Medline and LILACS.
2.1 Properties of Tamarindus indica L.
Literature bring several studies about tamarind compounds and
its effects. In Table 1 are found some properties of this plant,
the part that are used and the active components.
Table 1: Properties and active components of different parts of T. indica.
Part of the plant Properties Active components References
Antiallergic, antimicrobial, antibiotic,
antityrosinase, antioxidant, analgesic and
spasmogenic activities.
Rich in tannins and polyphenols:
N-Hexacosane, eicosanoic acid, b-sitosterol, octacosanyl
ferulate, 21-oxobehenic acid, and (+) - pinitol and phenolic
antioxidants for proanthocyanidins in several ways: catechin,
procyanidin B2, epicatechin, procyanidin trimer, procyanidin
tetramer, procyanidin pentamer, procyanidin hexamer along
the taxifolin, apigenin, eriodictyol, luteolin and naringenin.
[17 – 19]
Antiinflammatory activity;
Effects on the control of satiety, having a
potential for treatment or prevention of
obesity; gastroprotective effects.
Source of protein and starch, sulfur amino acids and phenolic
antioxidants as proanthocyanidins and epicatechin.
Inhibitors of proteinases.
[8, 9, 15, 17, 20]
Leaves Antiemetic activity and protection for the
Source of protein, lipid, fiber and vitamins like thiamine,
riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid and β-carotene.
Composed by 13 essential oils, in which limonene benzoate
and benzyl are the most important compounds, followed by
pentadecanol and hexadecanol.
[6, 12, 18, 21]
Fruit/ Pulp
Hypolipidemic activity, antioxidant, anti
fluorose, analgesic, hepatoregenerativa
and antispasmodic.
B vitamins, minerals, tartaric acid, acetic acid, citric acid,
formic acid, malic acid, and succinic acid, amino acids; invert
sugar (25-30%), pectin, protein, fat, some pyrazines (trans-2-
hexenal), and some thiazoles (2-ethylthiazole, 2-
[8, 10, 16, 18, 23]
Stem bark
The tea is used for sore throat.
Spasmogenic, analgesic, antimicrobial
and hypoglycemic activities.
Flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, saponins and
[18, 23, 24, 25,
The flowers may also be used as regular food and are good
sources of amino acids, fatty acids and minerals. [10, 21]
2.2 Antioxidant properties
The antioxidant activity is generally related to the presence of
phenolic compounds that show specific common structures
that allow them to be reducing agents, hydrogen donors and
singlet oxygen scavengers, among other reaction mechanisms.
At the cellular level, several antioxidant compounds are known
to be capable of stabilizing or destroying free radicals, thereby
preventing damage to cell structures. Its significance in human
health has been described extensively and many studies have
shown they may play various roles as protection against
cardiovascular disease (reducing chronic inflammation and
improving endothelial function), certain types of cancer and
cytotoxic effects [8, 10, 18, 23-28].
Fruits, leaves and seeds are natural sources of antioxidants and
several studies have bet on this alternative to replacing
synthetic antioxidants [12–21].
Sandesh et al. [21] studied the effects of methanol extract of the
seed coat of T. indica in Wistar rats and observed decreased
activity of superoxide dismutase (55%), catalase (73%) and
peroxidase (78%), and they also observed this extract protects
and restore hepatic architecture. Authors suggest that this
product could be studied as a health supplement and
nutraceutical as well as a possible application for the
preservation of food products.
Other authors showed that the crude extract of tamarind pulp
has phenolic compounds with antioxidants properties which
have improved the efficiency of superoxide dismutase,
catalase and glutathione peroxidase in animals [10, 29, 30,].
There are also antioxidant activity in the ethanol extract of the
seed coat that is a byproduct of the tamarind gum industry, and
could be used as a source of safe and inexpensive antioxidants
[27, 31].
The tamarind leaves are rich in lipids, fatty acids, vitamins and
flavonoids. Due to the presence of this high number of
components, the leaves have enormous potential as a source of
medicinal products, even with the presence of saponins, which
are well known for their metabolites that can stimulate cell
lysis. In the other hand, Escalona et al. [15] investigated the
pharmacological effects and the toxicity from the extract of
tamarind leaves in erythrocyte and their results showed that
despite the presence of saponin, no adverse effects were found
and observed that the extract worked as a protector of the cells,
probably due to their antioxidant mechanisms and flavonoid
content [12, 21, 27, 31].
The study conducted by Razali et al. [32] identified the presence
of polyphenolic compounds in the seed extract. They foun
caffeic acid as the most active compound with respect to
antioxidant activity therefore capable of protecting cells
against lipid peroxidation that has been identified in aging and
Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
in many diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease,
diabetes and inflammatory diseases.
According with Soradech et al. [33] the tamarind seed coat also
contains active antioxidants, as phenolics, tannins and
flavonoids, and its extracts possess lipid peroxidation
reduction, antityrosinase collagen stimulating, antimicrobial,
antiinflammatory, antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic
Sundaram et al. [34] showed that the seed extract improved
arthritis by regulation of bone degeneration mediators and
cartilage inflammation and oxidative stress. This disease is
related to enzymatic degradation of articular cartilage by
matrix metalloproteinases, hyaluronidases, and
exoglycosidases. The use of tamarind seed extract inhibits the
elevation of the activity of these enzymes.
Tamarind seeds also possess xyloglucan which is a natural
polysaccharide used in food and medicine industry. Together
with gallic acid, this compound exhibits strong antioxidant,
antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity [35].
2.3 Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic properties of T.
Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and overweight or obesity are
the main consequences of diabetes mellitus, metabolic
syndrome and cardiovascular problems, that are the main
causes of death worldwide. In modern medicine there is no
therapy efficient enough to cure these diseases, and the
existent drugs are expensive and present undesirable side
effects. Some authors have shown the importance of T. indica
in the control of these metabolism abnormalities (Table 2) [5,
Table 2: Effects of extracts of T. indica on glycemia, lipd profile, and body weight.
Type of extract and administration Type of model Effect References
Aqueous extract of the seed orally Rats and humans
Improvement in the hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and
lipid peroxidation and improvement in the antioxidant
defense system efficiency.
[5, 31, 37, 38,
Crude extract Rats Hypoglicemic activity. [26]
Aqueous extract of the pulp orally Hypocolesterolemic
Hepatoprotective activity.
Hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant properties. Potential
protection against oxidative damage.
[29-30, 40 – 41]
Ethanolic extract of the pulp orally
Obese rats and
Decrease in body weight, on serum cholesterol and
triglycerides and increase in HDL-c levels (treatment of
obesity induced by a cafeteria diet).
[10, 18]
Extract of the seed coat Rats Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-
hyperlipidemic activities.
[33, 36, 39, 42]
Alcoholic extracts of stem barks Rats Hypoglycemic and protection against oxidative stress. [43]
3.4 Other applications for T. indica L.
Besides the above properties of t. indica, Table 3 shows other possibilities of application of this plant.
Table 3: Other properties of T. indica.
Part of the plant Effect References
Methanolic leaf extract Inhibtion of Burkholderia pseudomallei, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella
paratyphi, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, and Staphylococcus aureus.
[6, 10, 44-45]
Acetone, ethanol and water extracts
stem bark Activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. [44 -45]
Fruit and leaves Laxative effects. [10]
Aqueous extract of the pulp Satisfactory against tuberculosis induced by oxidative damage in rat liver. [16, 18, 41]
Sharma et [8] studied the pectin extracted from the pulp and
observed that it has antioxidant potential higher than apple
pectin, commercial pectin, guar gum, derivatives sulfates,
oligosaccharides, and xanthan, demonstrating that the physico-
chemical, and rheological potential may be used as an
excipient in pharmaceutical and food products.
Tamarind leaves extract is also an efficient material for the
synthesis of spherical nanoparticles of gold that play a vital
role in human health. [46]
4. Conclusion
We may conclude that T. indicus includes a variety of
bioactive compounds in the leaves, seeds, bark, pulp, and
flowers with beneficial effects to human health and the
possibility of application in the pharmaceutical industry. The
drugs normally used to regulate glycaemia, dyslipidemia and
other metabolic disorders are costly; if we consider that these
diseases have reached epidemic proportions in many countries,
it is necessary to find non-allopathic alternatives that minimize
the risk factors of these diseases and help in the treatment or in
the prevention of further complications and death.
Further studies are necessary in order to elucidate all the
properties of the tamarin in order to obtain information enough
to provide validation for its medical use.
Conflict of interests
Authors declare no conflict of interests.
Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
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... T. indica includes phenolic components such catenin, procyanidin, epicatechin, pectin, arabinose, xylose, galactose, glucose, and triterpenes, according to the results of phytochemical analyses. 6 T. indica's pericarp and seed are primarily made up of phenolic antioxidant substances. All T. indica extracts showed strong antioxidant activity. ...
... In addition, T. indica has a high intensity of utilization as a seasoning. This plant species is used as an antimicrobial, antiallergic, analgesic, and antiemetic (Menezes et al. 2016). Its also used as a menstrual pain reliever in North Banyumas (Utaminingrum et al. 2022). ...
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... The bark is used to cure wounds, ringworms and smallpox Antioxidant, Hypolipidemic, Anti-cancer, Anti-obesity [39] 42. Xanthium strumarium Asteraceae Herb Okra phal The plant is used in malaria and ulcers Anti-arthritic, Anti-parasitic, Antioxidant, Anti-fungal [40] 43. ...
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... Preparations from T. indica leaf, seed, fruit, stem bark, and root are extensively used in folk medicine, among others, for treating abdominal complaints, to stimulate wound healing, to treat microbial and parasitic infections, against various skin diseases, to fight various inflammatory ailments, and as a remedy for hypertension and diabetes mellitus [222,223]. In Suriname, T. indica preparations are used for the same conditions but also against menstrual pain and excessive vaginal discharge [117,121]. ...
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... The crude extracts of tamarind fruit pulps contain several organic acids, namely tartaric acid, acetic acid, formic acid, and malic acid. These organic acids possess antioxidant properties which improve the efficiency of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in animals (Liu et al., 2019;Maenthaisong et al., 2009;Menezes et al., 2016). The phytochemicals detected which include alkaloids, anthraquinones, saponins and glycosides can provide inhibitory effects for bacteria (Abukakar, Ukwuani, Shehu, 2008;Rana, Sharma, 2018). ...
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Abstract The main purposes of the current study were to formulate o/w nanoemulsions as a carrier for Tamarindus indica (tamarind) fruit pulp extract and to study the antioxidant and antibacterial potentials of nanoemulsions containing tamarind extract, focusing on cosmetic/hygiene applications. The o/w nanoemulsions using a mixture of Tween 80 and Span 80 as an emulsifier (5%w/w) were prepared by a high pressure homogenization process. Two concentrations of sweet tamarind extract, 3.3 and 6.6%w/w, based on the bioactivity study, were incorporated into the blank nanoemulsions to produce loaded nanoemulsions, F1-3.3TE (3.3%) and F1- 6.6TE (6.6%). As compared with the unloaded nanoemulsion, both tamarind extract loaded nanoemulsions showed reduced pH and significantly increased viscosity. Overall, the loaded nanoemulsions had droplet sizes of approximately 130 nm, zeta potential around -38 mV and polydispersity index (PDI) values less than 0.2. The nanoemulsion F1-3.3TE had better stability (e.g. significantly greater % tartaric acid content and lesser PDI value) than the nanoemulsion F1-6.6TE did. The antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay revealed that the nanoemulsions F1-3.3TE and F1-6.6TE had scavenging activities of 81.66 ± 0.77% and 63.80 ± 0.79%, respectively. However, antioxidant activity of these two formulations decreased under stress conditions (heating-cooling cycles). Such incidence did not occur for their antibacterial properties investigated by agar well diffusion technique. The two formulations exhibited inhibition zones of approximately 24.0-27.7 mm against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, responsible for malodor of underarms. The results suggest the potential of using sweet tamarind pulp extract loaded nanoemulsions as hygiene products.
... Previous pharmacological investigations of various parts i.e. fruit, leaves, bark, pulp and flowers have reported its role as antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and its potential role in the treatment or prevention of obesity and other chronic diseases (Bhadoriya et al., 2011;Reis et al., 2016). Abundant bioactive compounds such as tannins, polyphenols, and phenolic antioxidants (β-sitosterol, eicosanoic acid, n-hexacosane, pinitol, and proanthocyanidins) also have been isolated from this plant (Landgraf Guiguer and Barbalho, 2016). Enriched in nutrients and chemical diversity, otherwise inedible and wasted seeds have been considered for their newfound usage as an inexpensive alternative protein source after detailed processing to remove tannins El-Siddig, 2006;Siddhuraja et al., 1995). ...
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Tamarind or Tamarindus indica L. is a multipurpose plant distributed throughout the tropics including Bangladesh. The present study was conducted to establish the preliminary antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and thrombolytic activities of methanol extract of T. indica seeds along with its Kupchan fractions. To evaluate the antioxidant properties, the total phenolic content of T. indica was determined and expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Alongside, DPPH free radical scavenging assay was performed to ensure the antioxidant properties of the seeds where the methanolic crude extract revealed the maximum activity having IC 50 value of 9.43 μg/ml. In the antimicrobial assay by disk diffusion method, only non-polar fractions of the extract showed mild antimicrobial activity against the test organisms tested while the polar crude methanol extract exhibited the maximum inhibition (58.16%, p < 0.001) of hypotonic solution-induced erythrocyte rupture in anti-inflammatory investigation among all the partitionates. During evaluation of thrombolytic activity in terms of percent of clot lysis, the methanol soluble fraction exhibited the highest percent of thrombolysis (23.5%) as compared to the reference standard, streptokinase (64.25%). The findings of the current study rationalize some of the traditional uses of T. indica and preliminarily ascertain its bioactive potential, which may act as a base for phytochemical and mechanism-based pharmacological studies of the plant in future.
... Tamarindus indica (Tamarind): Tamarindus indica L. is a fruit tree belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is native to tropical Africa but also widely cultivated in other tropical continents/regions of the world (Menezes et al. 2016). It is widely cultivated in Ethiopia, Cameroon, Uganda, Central African Republic and Guinea, and it also grows in the wild in Nigeria (Naeem et al. 2017). ...
Across several civilisations of the world, spices have played a very important role. They are used not only for their culinary benefits but also for their medicinal values. In Africa as well, spices are special part of the cuisine and also a huge part of the traditional medicine system of the continent. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and ageing. Spices have been touted as rich sources of dietary natural antioxidants after vegetables and fruits. Some notable spices which are indigenous to Africa include Tamarindus indica, Trachyspermum ammi and Piper guineense. These spices possess important bioactive components responsible for their biological activities. Some of these compounds are Capsaicin (Capsicum annuum), Piperine (Piper guineense) and Carvacrol (Origanum syriacum). These compounds have been reported to possess biological activities ranging from anticancer, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and antineurodegenerative. They have also been reported to be instrumental in plant–microbe interactions. These review attempts to look into some indigenous African spices, their bioactive antioxidant components and biological activities and their role in plant–microbe interactions.
... The leaves are also known to exhibit antimicrobial, antiemetic and hepatoprotective activities [6]. Reports suggest that fruit extract of T. indica species exhibit cardioprotective activity [7]. Since cardioprotective activity of T. indica leaves are unexplored, this study was undertaken. ...
Objectives: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are highly prevalent in various countries, and heart failure accounts for the majority of deaths. The present study focuses ondetermining the protective effect of ethanol extract of leaves of Tamarindus indica (TIEE) by in vitro and in vivo methods. Methods: In vitro cardiotonic activity was determined using Langendorff’s heart perfusion assembly. In vivo studies were performed using Doxorubicin (1.5 mg/kg, i.p for seven days) induced cardiotoxicity in rats. These animals were simultaneously treated with the TIEE at a low dose(200 mg/kg, p.o), high dose (400 mg/kg, p.o) and standard drug Digoxin (100μg/kg, p.o) for seven days. At the end of the study, various parameters like electrocardiogram (ECG)recording, serum levels of serum glutamic pyruvic trans-aminase (SGPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), and presence of cardiac troponin(cTnI) were determined. Isolated hearts were subjected to histopathological studies. Results: The TIEE at a concentration of 60μg/mL showed a significant cardiotonic effect in vitro that was evident by increased force of contraction, heart rate, and cardiac output. In vivo studies revealed that the TIEE decreasedthe prolongation of QT and RR interval of ECG, loweredthe serum enzyme levels like LDH, CPK indicating cardiacprotection, and the same was established by the absence of cTnI in blood. Histopathological examinations of heart tissue sections showed improved architecture in the treatment groups when compared with diseased groups. Conclusions:The study revealed the cardioprotectiveactivity ofT. indicaleaf extract by bothin vitro and in vivo methods. Keywords: cardiac troponin; cardioprotective; Digoxin;Doxorubicin;Tamarindus indicaL
... These effects are probably due to the presence of polyphenols as n-Hexacosane, eicosanoic acid, b-sitosterol, octacosanyl ferulate, 21oxobehenic acid, and pinitol and phenolic antioxidants for proanthocyanidins. T. indica includes a variety of bioactive compounds in the leaves, seeds, bark, pulp, and flowers with beneficial effects to human health and the possibility of application in the pharmaceutical industry [7] . ...
... Tamarindus indica L. is a monotypic genus tree with a dense crown of feathery, alternate compound leaves, native to tropical Africa but are also grown widely in sub-tropical regions of the world (Odugbemi 2008;Bhadoriya et al. 2011;Fandohan et al. 2015). The plant is mostly cherished for its fruit pulp, as evident from scientific information on its constituents, medicinal and industrial usage (Khairunnuur et al. 2009;Julio et al. 2010;Nwodo et al. 2011;Jimoh and Onabanjo 2012;Adeola 2013;Menezes et al. 2016;Adeniyi et al. 2018aAdeniyi et al. , 2018bAdeniyi et al. , 2020. Tamarind leaves are edible and often used to make salads, curries and soups. ...
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The rise in global concern on the adverse effects of uncontrolled utilization of synthetic antibiotics in the production of food fish necessitates search for alternative natural products in aquaculture. Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) leaf has great medicinal potentials but with scanty documentation of its utilization in fish production. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of tamarind leaves extract (TLE) on the growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, gut physiology, and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. The fish were fed experimental diets enriched with 0.0 (control), 5, 10, 15 or 20 g TLE/kg diet at 3% body weight daily for 12 weeks. Thereafter, a 4-week challenge test with A. hydrophila infection was done. The results showed that dietary TLE significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced fish growth, nutrient digestibility, and utilization, villi height and absorption area at 1.0-1.5% inclusion levels, compared to the control diet. Regression analysis showed 1.12% as the level of TLE for optimum weight gain. Post-challenge fish fed TLE-enriched diets showed higher survival rate, relatively to fish fed the control diet. The results from the present study demonstrated that dietary TLE promoted growth, nutrient digestibility and protection against A. hydrophila infection in Nile tilapia and its inclusion at 1.0% was therefore recommended for aquaculture use.
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In this study, tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed extracts with potential antioxidant activity and toxicity to cancer cells were developed as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients in the form of emulsion gel beads. Three extracts were obtained from ethanol and water: TSCH50, TSCH95 and TSCH. All extracts exhibited high potential for superoxide anion scavenging activity over the IC50 range < 5-11 µg/mL and had no toxic effects on normal cells, however, the water extract (TSCH) was the most effective due to its free radical scavenging activity and toxicity in mitochondrial membranes of cancer cells. Next a study was designed to develop a new formulation for encapsulation and intragastric floating delivery of tamarind seed extract (TSCH) using wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads, which were prepared using a modified ionotropic gelation technique. Tamarind seed extract at 1% (w/w) was used as the active ingredient in all formulations. The effect of the types and amounts of wax on the encapsulation efficiency and percentage of the active release of alginate gel beads was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of both waxes into the gel beads had an effect on the percentage of encapsulation efficiency (%) and the percentage of the active ingredient release. Furthermore, the addition of water insoluble waxes (carnauba and bee wax) significantly retarded the release of the active ingredient. The addition of both waxes had a slight effect on drug release behavior. Nevertheless, the increase in incorporated waxes in all formulations could sustain the percentage of active ingredient release. In conclusion, wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads using a modified ionotropic gelation technique could be applied for the intragastric floating delivery and controlled release of functional food and nutraceutical products for their antioxidant and anticancer capacity.
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This study reports the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using an extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves. Phenols, ketones and carboxyls were present in the leaves of T. indica. These organic compounds that allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC). Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed with the extract of T. indica leaves and an Au+3 aqueous solutions (HAuCl4) at room temperature with one hour of reaction time. Characterization of gold nanoparticles was performed by UV visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX. The results indicated the formation of gold nanoparticles with a wavelength of 576nm and an average size of 52±5nm. The EDX technique confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles with 12.88% in solution.
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Background: Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica) or locally known as "asam jawa" belongs to the family Leguminosae. T. indica seeds as by-products from the fruits were previously reported to contain high polyphenolic content. However, identification of their bioactive polyphenols using recent technologies is less well researched but nonetheless important. Hence, it was the aim of this study to provide further information on the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities as well as to identify and quantify its bioactive polyphenols. Methods: T. indica seeds were extracted with methanol and were then fractionated with different compositions of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Polyphenolic contents were measured using Folin-Ciocalteu assay while antioxidant activities were measured using DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing (FRAP) activities. The cytotoxic activities of the crude extract and the active fraction were evaluated in HepG2 cells using MTT assay. The cells were then pre-treated with the IC20 concentrations and induced with H2O2 before measuring their cellular antioxidant activities including FRAP, DPPH, lipid peroxidation, ROS generation and antioxidant enzymes, SOD, GPx and CAT. Analyses of polyphenols in the crude extract and its active fraction were done using UHPLC and NMR. Results: Amongst the 7 isolated fractions, fraction F3 showed the highest polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities. When HepG2 cells were treated with fraction F3 or the crude extract, the former demonstrated higher antioxidant activities. F3 also showed stronger inhibition of lipid peroxidation and ROS generation, and enhanced activities of SOD, GPx and CAT of HepG2 cells following H2O2-induced oxidative damage. UHPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, procyanidin B2, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chloramphenicol, myricetin, morin, quercetin, apigenin and kaempferol, in the crude seed extract of T. indica. UHPLC and NMR analyses identified the presence of caffeic acid in fraction F3. Our studies were the first to report caffeic acid as the active polyphenol isolated from T. indica seeds which likely contributed to the potent antioxidant defense system of HepG2 cells. Conclusion: Results from this study indicate that caffeic acid together with other polyphenols in T. indica seeds can enhance the antioxidant activities of treated HepG2 cells which can provide protection against oxidative damage.
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Medicinal plants are employed in the treatment of human ailments from time immemorial. Several studies have validated the use of medicinal plant products in arthritis treatment. Arthritis is a joint disorder affecting subchondral bone and cartilage. Degradation of cartilage is principally mediated by enzymes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronidases (HAase), aggrecanases and exoglycosidases. These enzymes act upon collagen, hyaluronan and aggrecan of cartilage respectively, which would in turn activate bone deteriorating enzymes like cathepsins and tartrate resistant acid phosphatases (TRAP). Besides, the incessant action of reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory mediators is reported to cause further damage by immunological activation. The present study demonstrated the anti-arthritic efficacy of tamarind seed extract (TSE). TSE exhibited cartilage and bone protecting nature by inhibiting the elevated activities of MMPs, HAase, exoglycosidases, cathepsins and TRAP. It also mitigated the augmented levels of inflammatory mediators like interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, IL-23 and cyclooxygenase-2. Further, TSE administration alleviated increased levels of ROS and hydroperoxides and sustained the endogenous antioxidant homeostasis by balancing altered levels of endogenous antioxidant markers. Overall, TSE was observed as a potent agent abrogating arthritis-mediated cartilage/bone degradation, inflammation and associated stress in vivo demanding further attention.
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Oxidative stress not only develops complications in diabetic (type 1 and type 2) but also contributes to beta cell destruction in type 2 diabetes in insulin resistance hyperglycemia. Glucose control plays an important role in the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Some antidiabetic agents may by themselves have antioxidant properties independently of their role on glucose control. The present investigation draws a comparison of the protective antioxidant activity, total phenol content and the antihyperglycemic activity of the methanolic extract of Cajanus cajan root (MCC) and Tamarindus indica seeds (MTI). Antidiabetic potentials of the plant extracts were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss albino mice. The plant extracts at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was orally administered for glucose tolerance test during 1-hour study and hypoglycemic effect during 5-day study period in comparison with reference drug Metformin HCl (50 mg/kg). In vitro antioxidant potential of MCC and MTI was investigated by using 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity at 517 nm. Total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power activity was also assayed. There was a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose level (P < 0.001), reduction in blood glucose level (P < 0.001) in 5-days study, observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The reduction efficacy of blood glucose level of both the extracts is proportional to their dose but MCC is more potent than MTI. Antioxidant study and quantification of phenolic compound of both the extracts revealed that they have high antioxidant capacity. These studies showed that MCC and MTI have both hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential but MCC is more potent than MTI. The present study suggests that both MCC and MTI could be used in managing oxidative stress.
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS) on high fat diet (HFD) induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz . hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms.
Background: Tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) is generally used for drug delivery systems. Gallic acid (GA) possesses various pharmacological activities. It has a good solubility and bioavailability but short half-life. Purpose: To prepare a sustained-release of GA to overcome its relatively short half-life. GA was blended with TSX and freeze-dried. The physicochemical properties of freeze-dried GA and freeze-dried GA/TSX were characterized, and the release profiles of GA from these freeze-dried samples were investigated. Method: All freeze-dried samples were characterized by PXRD, spectroscopic and thermal analyses. The dissolution studies were performed according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) XXX. Results: According to FTIR, FT-Raman and (13)C CP/MAS NMR, the spectra of freeze-dried GA were similar to that of the anhydrous form. Nevertheless, DRIFTS and DSC were able to differentiate these two forms. The crystallinity of GA in the freeze-dried GA/TSX was the same as that of the freeze-dried GA. DSC indicates that there were interactions between GA and TSX. It was of interest that a freeze-dried sample with low amount of GA, 0.2% GA/1% TSX was mostly in an amorphous form. Moreover, all freeze-dried GA/TSX preparations demonstrated a sustained-release of GA compared to GA alone. The freeze-dried 1% GA/1% TSX provided the best sustained-release of GA of up to 240 min. Conclusions: TSX could change a crystal form of a small molecule to a mostly amorphous form. It was of importance that the freeze-dried GA/TSX could effectively retard the release of GA. These samples may be able to overcome the limitation for the therapeutic use of GA due to its short biological half-life.
In this study, the biochemical CH4 potential, rate, biodegradability, NaOH treatment and the influence of chemical composition on CH4 yield of yard wastes generated from seven trees were examined. All the plant parts were sampled for their chemical composition and subjected to the biochemical CH4 potential assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in biochemical CH4 potential, which was reflected in their ultimate CH4 yields that ranged from 109 to 382 ml g-1 volatile solids added and their rate constants that ranged from 0.042 to 0.173 d-1. The biodegradability of the yard wastes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86. Variation in the biochemical CH4 potential of the yard wastes could be attributed to variation in the chemical composition of the different fractions. In the Thespesia yellow withered leaf, Tamarindus fruit pericarp and Albizia pod husk, NaOH treatment enhanced the ultimate CH4 yields by 17%, 77% and 63%, respectively, and biodegradability by 15%, 77% and 61%, respectively, compared with the untreated samples. The effectiveness of NaOH treatment varied for different yard wastes, depending on the amounts of acid detergent fibre content. Gliricidia petals, Prosopis leaf, inflorescence and immature pod, Tamarindus seeds, Albizia seeds, Cassia seeds and Delonix seeds exhibited CH4 yields higher than 300 ml g-1 volatile solids added. Multiple linear regression models for predicting the ultimate CH4 yield and biodegradability of yard wastes were designed from the results of this work.
Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease and its prevalence is reaching epidemic proportion worldwide. In 2002, WHO Expert Committee on diabetes mellitus recommended an urgent and further evaluation of the folkloric methods of managing the disease. In response to this recommendation, several medicinal plants are currently being investigated for their hypoglycaemic activity and one of such plants is Tamarindus indica. Tamarindus indica is a slow growing tree that is resistant to strong winds and perennial. The stem-bark extract of the plant is used locally for the management of diabetes. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. was investigated for its hypoglycemic action on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats using a single dose of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg(-1) IP). The oral LD50 of the extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg kg(-1). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, alkaloids and triterpenes. The 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract lowered the blood glucose level significantly (p < 0.05) at the 4th, 8th and 16th h. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the BGL significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the study. In the oral glucose load method the 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract significantly (p < 0.05) lowered elevated blood glucose at the 3rd and 5th. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the blood glucose from the 1st to the 5th, while the 250 mg kg(-1) also lowered the blood glucose level but only significantly at the 5th h. The extract is practically non toxic when administered orally. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica Linn significantly lowered elevated Blood Glucose concentration (BGL) in the experimental animal models, while the crude extract was able to prevent an elevation in BGL when used in the oral glucose load model.
Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula are traditionally important medicinal plants. Stem barks of these plants have not been much explored for their potential hypoglycemic and oxidative stress conditions. The main aim of present study was to evaluate antidiabetic activity along with renal complications and antioxidant potential of alcoholic extracts of stem barks of these plants. Alcoholic extracts of stem barks of Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula were evaluated for anti-hyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum albumin, total protein and creatinine were studied. Antioxidant potential in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods were evaluated. Acute toxicity studies were carried out to establish the safety of the drugs according to OECD guidelines. There was a significant decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic rats treated with the alcoholic extracts of both plants. Serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, serum albumin, total proteins and body weight were recovered to normal levels at the end of the studies. Alcoholic extract of stem bark of both plants showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods. Acute toxicity studies with the extracts of both plants showed no signs of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/p.o. It can be concluded from the study that Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula stem barks possess blood glucose lowering effect along with antioxidant effect and protective effect on renal complications associated with hyperglycemia.