ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L., latin) is a wild plant that grows in Indonesia, Asia, and Europe. Nettle in Bali, Indonesia is called as Lateng, Jelatang. Nettle plant has a very strong fiber and high fixed carbon. Nettle plants are covered with fine hairs, especially in the leaves and stems. When it is touched, it will release chemicals, sting and trigger inflammation that causes redness, itching, bumps and irritation to the skin. Nettle plants grow in the wild, regarded as a weed in the agricultural industry, easy to grow and snatch food from the parent plant. The main objective of this paper is to review of the potential nettle fibers and then explain about the potential of local nettle plant in Indonesia. Nettle is a plant group at the end of bast. Its plant fibers taken from the bark, as reinforcement in composite materials. Nettle fibers have three main advantages such as strong, lightweight and low environmental impact.
Content may be subject to copyright.
This content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text.
Download details:
IP Address:
This content was downloaded on 07/06/2017 at 12:49
Please note that terms and conditions apply.
Study of stinging nettle (urtica dioica l.) Fibers reinforced green composite materials : a review
View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more
2017 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 201 012001
Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience
You may also be interested in:
Physical and mechanical properties of five Indonesian bamboos
A H D Abdullah, N Karlina, W Rahmatiya et al.
Sports Activities High Performance Athletes Muslim Women in Indonesia and Malaysia
M Fitri, K Sultoni, N Salamuddin et al.
Potential fraudulent behaviors in e-procurement implementation in Indonesia
S N Huda, N Setiani, R Pulungan et al.
Development of software for estimating clear sky solar radiation in Indonesia
H Ambarita
Corruption Cases Mapping Based on Indonesia’s Corruption Perception Index
Noerlina, L A Wulandhari, Sasmoko et al.
Achieving Research University: Indonesian Case
Yos Johan Utama and Ambariyanto
Forest fires detection in Indonesia using satellite Himawari-8 (case study: Sumatera and Kalimantan
on august-october 2015)
Fatkhuroyan, Trinah Wati and Andersen Panjaitan
Fiber breakage phenomena in long fiber reinforced plastic preparation
Chao-Tsai Huang, Huan-Chang Tseng, Jiri Vlcek et al.
Assessing the possibility of Enhanced Geothermal System in western Indonesia
R N Hendrawan and W A Draniswari
Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution
of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.
Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd
7th International Conference on Key Engineering Materials (ICKEM 2017) IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 201 (2017) 012001 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/201/1/012001
Study of stinging nettle (urtica dioica l.) Fibers reinforced
green composite materials : a review
I G P Agus Suryawan1,6,7, N P G Suardana2, I N Suprapta Winaya3, I W Budiarsa
Suyasa4, T G Tirta Nindhia5
1,2,3,5Department of Mechanical Engineering, Udayana University, Kampus Bukit
Jimbaran, Bali Indonesia
4Department of Chemistry, Udayana University, KampusBukit Jimbaran, Bali
6 Doktoral Student of engineering science, Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali
7 Email : &
Abstract. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L., latin) is a wild plant that grows in Indonesia, Asia,
and Europe. Nettle in Bali, Indonesia is called as Lateng, Jelatang. Nettle plant has a very
strong fiber and high fixed carbon. Nettle plants are covered with fine hairs, especially in the
leaves and stems. When it is touched, it will release chemicals, sting and trigger inflammation
that causes redness, itching, bumps and irritation to the skin. Nettle plants grow in the wild,
regarded as a weed in the agricultural industry, easy to grow and snatch food from the parent
plant. The main objective of this paper is to review of the potential nettle fibers and then
explain about the potential of local nettle plant in Indonesia. Nettle is a plant group at the end
of bast. Its plant fibers taken from the bark, as reinforcement in composite materials. Nettle
fibers have three main advantages such as strong, lightweight and low environmental impact.
1. Introduction
Natural fiber reinforced polymer composites is a term used in composites journals as a term in
producing developed materials from polymer that is reinforced by natural fiber. Natural fiber has a
great impact as a potential substitute for synthetic conventional fiber such as aramid and glass fiber
during the last decade. Because of the mechanic characteristics of natural-polymer fiber, namely: good
in isolation, low density, non-abrasive, easily obtained from renewable materials, cheap in price and
can be recycled, it has attracted the composite industry for automotive application, structure and non-
structure. Glass fiber that is difficult to be decomposed triggers serious health and environment
problems. They cannot be recycled easily by heat because they melt in very high temperature and still
produce residues that may spoil the environment and are relatively abrasive in nature, as what are
mentioned in the result of some studies [1-5]. The main focus of this study is to find out the potency of
natural fiber of stinging nettle as the replacement of glass fibers as reinforced composite fibers.
1.1. Classification of Natural fibers
Natural fibers from plantation can be divided into six categories, namely: bast, leaf, seed, fruit,
grasses/reeds, & wood fibers. Table 1, shows the hierarchy of the fibers variation and their family.
Table 1. Natural Fibers/Plant Fibers[6].
7th International Conference on Key Engineering Materials (ICKEM 2017) IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 201 (2017) 012001 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/201/1/012001
Classification Name Plant
Bast Jute, Flax, Isora, Mesta, Kenaf, Ramie, Toina, Totora, Urena, Banana,
Roselle, Rattan, Spanish-broom, Nettle
Leaf Sisal, Henequene, Manila, Curaua, Pineapple, Palm, Yucca, Piassava,
Cabuja, Opunita, Screw-pine, Agaves, Abaca
Seed Catton, Calotropis, Poplar, Kapok
Fruit Coconut, Luffa, Coir
Grasses/Reed Bamboo, Bagasse, Wheat, Oat, Pape, Rye, Rice, Esparto, Barley, Corn
Wood Hard wood, Soft wood
1.2. The Usefulness of Stinging Nettle
Stinging nettle is classified into shrubs with 30–45 species. Stinging nettle grows in fertile soil and it
grows until 40 up to 120 cm in height. Stinging nettle as natural biomass, the applications that have
been developed are in livestock, medicine, cosmetics and fibers.
Table 2.
Potential uses of stinging nettle[7].
Field of aplication Use Part of the plant
Tissuses and fabrics, ropes and fishing nets, silky
fabric, biocomposites, paper and cloth
, paper,
natural dye (for yams, eggs, etc.)
Fiber tissues of stems.
Root and leaf extracts
for dyes
Medicine Anaemia,
hypoglycaemia,diuretic, hypotension, benign
prostatic hyperplasia, arthritis,cardiovascular
problems, allergic rhinitis, antiviral, antifungal,
antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer analgesic [8].
Leaves, roots,
aqueous, seeds
alcoholic extracts
Cosmetics Soap, skin lotion and shampoo
Salad, pier, decocted tea, soups and natural yellow
colorant for egg yolk [9].
Leaves, young plant
Forage crop Cattle, p
oultry, horses, and pigs for enhancing yolk
Whole plant
Animal housing Bedding, lactating dairy cows [10].
Stem, shivers as fiber
by-product and seeds
Bioenergy Biochar
2. Method
Stinging nettles have been being cultivated by some countries have been investigated in term of
mechanic performance in which taking place in France, Tuscani, Netherland and India.
2.1. Material
Stinging nettles which were used in this study were harvested in France, Brittany Region [11]. Those
stinging nettles were cultivated in 1-2 years, the study was done in Prato (43053’N, 11006’E)
Tuscany region [12]. Stinging nettles fiber are taken from Brennels BV, Kraggenburg, The
Netherlands, fibers from Urtika dioica L. clone B13, cultivated in the Netherlands, harvested in
August-September 2007[13].
7th International Conference on Key Engineering Materials (ICKEM 2017) IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 201 (2017) 012001 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/201/1/012001
2.2. Sample preparation
Stinging nettle stems were cut and dried for two days before they were decayed in the water for seven
days. Those stinging nettle stemswere dried in room temperature for weeks. The fibers were extracted
manually [11]. The stems of cultivated stinging nettle were tested on its ends, middle, and [12]. Fibers
extraction were done in 4-6 weeks, done mechanically in the same July 2008 for decortications rami
and flax [13].
Several works have been done by many researchers on stinging nettles composite study as shown
in table 2 for potential uses of stinging nettles, table 3 for the tensile strength of the composite
reinforcement fibers, table 4 for the diameter, length, tensile strength and elongation of fiber according
to the position on the stem nettle, table 5 for the chemical composition, morphology, and mechanical
properties of fiber extraction results, table 6 for influence of different fiber of the loads on the
mechanical characteristics of compression molded on PLA (poly lactic acid) composites without
adhesion promocers.
3. Result and Discusion of Mechanical Properties
Research results Bodros, as shown in Tabel 3, stinging nettle has the highest ultimite stress among the
nature fibers that is 1594 640) MPa. It means that if the stinging nettle fiber is used as composite
material it will produce composite with a great strength.
Table 3
Ultimite stress of some composites [11]
Name Young’s
modulus (Gpa)
Ultimite stress
Strain to failure (%) Density (g/cm
) Average
Stinging nettle 59-115 2274-914 2.92-1.3 0.72 24.3-15.5
Flax ariane 73-43 1825-853 3.31-3.23 1.53 23.6-12.0
Flax Agatha 96-46 1800-962 2.9-1.3 1.53 15.6-14.4
Hemp 21.6-16.6 310-230 0.9-0.7 1.48 36.1-26.3
Ramie 24.5 560 2.5 1.51 34
Specific weight of stinging nettle that is 0,72 gram/cm3categorized as light fiber [12]. With light
average specific weight, if stinging nettle is used as composite reinforcement there is a potency that it
will produce a light and strong material.
Table 4
Diameter, length, tensile strength and elongation fiberbased on the position of sting
ing nettle
stem [12]
Bottom Middle Top
Diameter (μm) Mean
Length (mm) Mean
Tensile Strength (cN tex
) Mean
Elongation (%) Mean
7th International Conference on Key Engineering Materials (ICKEM 2017) IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 201 (2017) 012001 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/201/1/012001
Stinging nettle fiber that is taken from the middle of the stem has better tensile strength and
elongation as shown in Table 4. Most of natural fibers contain lignin-cellulose, but they also contain
other components such as hemicellulose, pectin, hardwood, ash, silica, oil, wax & other water
solutions. So many things to learn in order to understand the individual concentration of each
component if natural fiber composite is produced. Cellulose is semi-crystalline polysaccharide, while
hemicellulose is a highly branched amorphous polymer. In order to produce adhesion strength between
fiber and matric minimum ash and wax elements are needed, wax reduce adhesion. Hydroxyl group
from cellulose within the natural fiber describes natural hydrophilic, that reduces the bond between
faces and makes composite absorbs water easily.
Table 5.
Chemical composition, morphology, and mechanic characteristics of extracted fiber [13]
Cellulose (%) 81 65 78 83 85 78-84 75-85 80-82 81-83
Hemicellulose (%) 6 5 9 13 6 9-10 5-7 11-12 11-12
Lignin (%) 2 3 3 2 4 2-5 3-4 2-3 2-3
Diameter (μm) 23-37 23-47 37-41 40-46 29-43 24-31 16-40 30-40 25-35
Length (mm) 38-62 25-58 41-49 38-58 35-55 41-55 33-60 42-52 42-51
Tensile strength
(cN tex-1)
38-81 70-182 8-94 41-83 23-71 33-65 7-98 21-72 32-76
Elongation (%) 4-7 2-3 2-4 1-3 1-2 2-4 0-2 3-6 3-6
Methods which were used to take the fiber include: chemical retting (CR), decortication (D), water
retting (WR), microbiological retting (MR), enzymatical treatment (ET), chelating agent (CA).
Table 6
Influence of different fiber loads on the mechanical characteristics of compression on
moulded PLA (Poly lactic acid) composites without adhesion promocers [14].
Fiber Fiber
load in
Note Tensile
in MPa
in GPa
at break
in GPa
in kJ/m2
pressure 5.6 MPa,
maintained for 20 min at
175 0C,
fibres were
oriented predominantly
in length direction
Hemp 34
Fiber length 5-
15 mm;
random fiber orientation
Flax 30
Enzyme retted fibers;
random fiber orientation
Jute 34
Water cleaned fibre.
Fibre length 5-
10 mm
random fibre orientation
7th International Conference on Key Engineering Materials (ICKEM 2017) IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 201 (2017) 012001 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/201/1/012001
Research on composite tensile strength was done by combining PLA with some natural fibers (nettle,
hemp, flax and jute). It is shown that the highest tensile strength of nettle is 59 MPa, with weight
fraction 30%.
Natural fiber that was given chemicals to erase lignin and enrich the adhesion strength between
fiber and matric can be seen in literature [17-21]. Meanwhile the textbook that explains about
composite materials can be seen in literature [22-24]. The development of studies and cultivation of
nettle in some countries are discussed in literature [25-27].
Figure 1. Stinging nettle plants Figure 2. Stems of nettle
Figure 3. Stems that have been marinated in
the water and the fibers are out
Figure 4. Nettle stinging fibers
7th International Conference on Key Engineering Materials (ICKEM 2017) IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 201 (2017) 012001 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/201/1/012001
Figure 5. SEM stems crosswise Figure 6. SEM stinging nettle fiber
Figure 1 until 6 is nettle plants which are available in Indonesia that have been SEM tested on its
stems and fiber, we will apply chemical treatment with local nettle to increase the strength and
toughness of the composite materials.
4. Conclusion
The potency of stinging nettle to be used as reinforcement of composite materials is so great, it can be
seen from the result of the study that was conducted by the researcher. The fibers were taken from the
stems of the nettle. Some treatments with chemicals on nettle fiber are needed to be done, form
example on flax, hemp and ramie, and to reinforce the fiber and the bound between fiber and matric.
[1] Romanzinia D, Junior H L O, Amico S C and Zattera A J 2012Preparation and Characterization
of Ramie-Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Hybrid CompositesMaterials Research
[2] Jie Z, Hua Z and Jianchun Z 2014Effect of Alkali Treatment on the Quality of Hemp Fiber
Engineered Fibers and Fabrics9Issue 2 pp 19-24
[3] Christian S J and Billington S L 2011 Mechanical response of PHB- and cellulose acetate
natural fiber-reinforced composites for construction applicationsComposites: Part B42 1920–
[4] Ashrafi M, Vaziri A and Nayeb-Hashemi H 2011 Effect of processing variables and fiber
reinforcement on the mechanical properties of wood plastic compositesReinforced Plastics
and Composites30 1939–45
[5] Goda K, Sreekala M S, Gomes A, Kaji T and Ohgi J 2006Improvement of plant based natural
fibers for toughening green composites-Effect of load application during mercerization of
ramie fibersComposites: Part A37 2213–20
[6] Mohanty A K, Misra M and Drzal L T 2005 Natural Fibers Biopolymers and Biocomposites
Taylor & Francis United States of America
[7] Virgilio N D 2015The potential of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) as a crop withmultiple
usesIndustrial Crops and Products68 42-49
[8] Gülçin I, Küfrevioglu O I, Oktay M and Büyükokuroglu M E 2004 Antioxidant, antimicrobial,
antiulcer and analgesic activities of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Ethnopharmacology90205–15
7th International Conference on Key Engineering Materials (ICKEM 2017) IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 201 (2017) 012001 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/201/1/012001
[9] Loetscher Y, Kreuzer M andMessikommer R E 2013 Utility of nettle (Urtica dioica) in layer
diets as a natural yellow colorant for egg yolk Animal Feed Science and Technology186 pp
158– 68
[10] Humphries D J and Reynold C K 2014The effect of adding stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)
haylage to a total mixed ration on performance and rumen function of lactating dairy cows
Animal Feed Science and Technology189 72–81
[11] Bodros E & Baley C 2008Study of the tensile properties of stinging nettle fibres (Urtica dioica)
Materials Letters62 2143–45
[12] Bacci L, Baronti S, Predieri S and Virgilio N D 2009Fiber yield and quality of fiber nettle
(Urtica dioica L.) cultivated in Italy Industrial Crops and Products29 480–84
[13] Bacci L, Lonardo S D, Albanese L,Mastromei G and Perito B 2010 Effect of different
extraction methods onfiber quality of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Textile Research Journal81
[14] Fischer H, Werwein E, and Graupner N 2012 Nettle fibre (Urtica dioica L.) reinforced
poly(lactic acid): A first approach Composite Materials46 3077–87
[15] Akgul M 2013 Suitability of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) stalks for medium
densityfiberboards production Composites: Part B45 925–29
[16] Paukszta D, Mankowski J, Kołodziej J and Szostak M 2013 Polypropylene (PP) Composites
Reinforced with Stinging Nettle (Utrica dioica L.) Fiber Journal of Natural Fibers10 147–
[17] Suardana N P G, Min-Seuck-Ku and Jae-Kyoo-Lim 2011 Effects of Diammonium
Phosphate on The Flammability and Mechanical Properties of Bio-Composites
Materials and Design32 1990-99
[18] Sydenstricker T H D, Mochnaz S andAmico S C 2003 Pull-out and other evaluations in sisal-
reinforced polyesterbiocomposites Polymer Testing22375–380
[19] Aziz S H andAnsell M P 2004 The effect of alkalization and fibre alignment on the mechanical
and thermal properties of kenaf and hemp bast fibre composites: Part 1 polyester resin
matrix Composites Science and Technology641219–30
[20] Sgriccia N, Hawley M C andMisra M 2008 Characterization of natural fiber surfaces and
natural fiber composites Composites: Part A 39 1632–37
[21] Mohan T P and Kanny K 2012 Chemical treatment of sisal fiber using alkali and clay method
Composites: Part A43 1989–98
[22] Daniel I M & Ishai O 1994Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials, Oxford University
Press, New York.
[23] Chawla K K1987Composite Materials Science and Engineering, Springer Verlag, New York.
[24] Cheremisinaf-Mcholas P 2010 Handbook of Ceramics and Composite Vol II Mechanical p
ropersties and Specialey, Marcel Dekker p
[25] Klimesova J 1995 Population dynamics of Phalaris arundinacea L. and Urtica dioica L. in a
floodplain during a dry period (Wetlands Ecology and Management vol 3) no 2 pp 79-85
[26] Boufford D E 1992 Urticaceae Nettle Family (The Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science vol 26)
issue 1 pp 42-49
[27] Damme E J M V, Broekaert W F and Peumans W J 1988The Urtica dioica Agglutinin Is a
Complex Mixture of Isolectins(Plant Physiol vol 86) pp598 – 601
The authors thank the Ministry of Research, Tech., and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia
and LPPM (Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Masyarakat) University of Udayana for supporting
this research and paper through The Grant.
... Néanmoins, depuis une dizaine d'années, l'ortie fait l'objet d'un regain d'intérêt lié à la mise en avant des « phytothérapies » ou encore des matériaux biosourcés. Ainsi, de nombreux travaux de thèse ont porté sur l'ortie, dans les domaines de la pharmacologie(Candais, 2019;Delahaye, 2015;Draghi, 2005), la phyllogénie (Grosse-Veldmann, 2016) ou encore la phytochimie(Bennouar and Chekakta, 2017) et son potentiel de valorisation a été revu à plusieurs reprises(Kregiel et al., 2018;Suryawan et al., 2017;Amal Ait et al., 2016;Baumgardner, 2016;Kalia et al., 2014;. ...
Les contaminations entrainent des dégradations générant des dysfonctionnements des sols et des atteintes à leurs fonctions écologiques. Le phytomanagement, qui utilise des espèces végétales pour extraire, contenir ou dégrader des polluants, apparaît comme une solution adaptée pour produire de la biomasse végétale tout en favorisant la réhabilitation de ces sols délaissés. Les approches récentes s’accordent sur l'importance des associations végétales dans l’optimisation de ces dispositifs. Ce projet de thèse s’articule autour d’un dispositif agroforestier novateur, associant la grande ortie (Urtica dioica L.) à une plante modèle dans le domaine, le peuplier. Dans des plantations de peuplier, l’ortie offre de nouvelles perspectives liées à son aptitude à se développer spontanément sur des sites contaminés et à la qualité de sa fibre végétale, utilisables pour la fabrication de biomatériaux.A partir de deux sites ateliers contaminés par les éléments trace métalliques (ETM) et différentes approches disciplinaires, ces travaux ont permis i) de mieux comprendre le fonctionnement de cedispositif peuplier-ortie à l’interface rhizosphérique et sa réponse aux ETM via des approches de barcoding environnemental et de métabolomique ciblée ii) d’appréhender le rôle des plantes modèles dans la restauration écologique de ces sites au travers d’études phytosociologique et entomologique et évaluer l’implication des communautés associées dans les flux d’ETM par uneapproche écotoxicologique, et finalement iii) de caractériser et optimiser le potentiel économique de ce dispositif selon une approche agroécologique. Enfin, cette thèse ambitionne d’être un travail de référence pour les futurs projets de phytomanagement basés sur des associations arbres – orties.
... Among the phenolic compounds of medicinal interest in nettle, it is worth mentioning lignans, whose abundance was shown to differ according to the tissues, i.e., aerial parts vs. roots [8]. Besides the production of phytochemicals, nettle is valued as a source of cellulosic fibres, the bast fibres [9,10], which can be used in biocomposites [11] and textiles [12]. More recently, carbon nanosheets with interesting physico-chemical properties, namely, interconnectivity of pores, graphitization, surface area and pore width [13], were prepared from stems of stinging nettles, which diversifies the application opportunities of this weed. ...
Full-text available
Callogenesis, the process during which explants derived from differentiated plant tissues are subjected to a trans-differentiation step characterized by the proliferation of a mass of cells, is fundamental to indirect organogenesis and the establishment of cell suspension cultures. Therefore, understanding how callogenesis takes place is helpful to plant tissue culture, as well as to plant biotechnology and bioprocess engineering. The common herbaceous plant stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a species producing cellulosic fibres (the bast fibres) and a whole array of phytochemicals for pharmacological, nutraceutical and cosmeceutical use. Thus, it is of interest as a potential multipurpose plant. In this study, callogenesis in internode explants of a nettle fibre clone (clone 13) was studied using RNA-Seq to understand which gene ontologies predominate at different time points. Callogenesis was induced with the plant growth regulators α-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) after having determined their optimal concentrations. The process was studied over a period of 34 days, a time point at which a well-visible callus mass developed on the explants. The bioinformatic analysis of the transcriptomic dataset revealed specific gene ontologies characterizing each of the four time points investigated (0, 1, 10 and 34 days). The results show that, while the advanced stage of callogenesis is characterized by the iron deficiency response triggered by the high levels of reactive oxygen species accumulated by the proliferating cell mass, the intermediate and early phases are dominated by ontologies related to the immune response and cell wall loosening, respectively.
... Kumar et al. used various pretreatment methods for the stinging nettle and obtained (in the best case studied) 85% of cellulose, 6% of hemicellulose, and 3% of lignin using water retting and decortication 22 . ...
Full-text available
Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is considered the most promising proposition for developing a sustainable and carbon–neutral energy system. The use of renewable raw materials and variability of lignocellulosic feedstock generating hexose and pentose sugars also brings advantages of the most abundant, sustainable and non-food competitive biomass. Great attention is now paid to agricultural wastes and overgrowing plants as an alternative to fast-growing energetic crops. The presented study explores the use of stinging nettle stems, which have not been treated as a source of bioethanol. Apart from being considered a weed, stinging nettle is used in pharmacy or cosmetics, yet its stems are always a non-edible waste. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of pretreatment using imidazolium- and ammonium-based ionic liquids, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation of stinging nettle stems, and comparison of such a process with giant miscanthus. Raw and ionic liquid-pretreated feedstocks of stinging nettle and miscanthus were subjected to compositional analysis and scanning electron microscopy to determine the pretreatment effect. Next, the same conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were applied to both crops to explore the stinging nettle stems potential in the area of bioethanol production. The study showed that the pretreatment of both stinging nettle and miscanthus with imidazolium acetates allowed for increased availability of the critical lignocellulosic fraction. The use of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate in the pretreatment of stinging nettle allowed to obtain very high ethanol concentrations of 7.3 g L−1, with 7.0 g L−1 achieved for miscanthus. Results similar for both plants were obtained for 1-ethyl-3-buthylimidazolium acetate. Moreover, in the case of ammonium ionic liquids, even though they have comparable potential to dissolve cellulose, it was impossible to depolymerize lignocellulose and extract lignin. Furthermore, they did not improve the efficiency of the hydrolysis process, which in turn led to low alcohol concentration. Overall, from the presented results, it can be assumed that the stinging nettle stems are a very promising bioenergy crop.
... Among the most interesting secondary metabolites found in nettle, it is worth mentioning lignans [39,40], as well as phytosterols and pentacyclic triterpenes, such as β-amyrin and oleanolic acid [41]. Additionally, the cortex of nettle stems contains silky and strong bast fibers valued by the biocomposite sector because of their lightweight properties and low C footprint [42]. The aim of the work carried out here is to develop a protein purification protocol so as to define the partitioning of the proteins in different cell compartments and to analyze how SuSy can display different patterns of phosphorylation in relation to different cell compartments. ...
Full-text available
Sucrose synthase is a key enzyme in sucrose metabolism as it saves an important part of sucrose energy in the uridine-5′-diphosphate glucose (UDP-glucose) molecule. As such it is also involved in the synthesis of fundamental molecules such as callose and cellulose, the latter being present in all cell walls of plant cells and therefore also in the gelatinous cell walls of sclerenchyma cells such as bast fibers. Given the importance of these cells in plants of economic interest such as hemp, flax and nettle, in this work we have studied the occurrence of Sucrose synthase in nettle stems by analyzing its distribution between the cytosol, membranes and cell wall. We have therefore developed a purification protocol that can allow the analysis of various characteristics of the enzyme. In nettle, Sucrose synthase is encoded by different genes and each form of the enzyme could be subjected to different post-translational modifications. Therefore, by two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis, we have also traced the phosphorylation profile of Sucrose synthase isoforms in the various cell compartments. This information paves the way for further investigation of Sucrose synthase in plants such as nettle, which is both economically important, but also difficult to study.
... At present, several Central European countries still cultivate nettle in small areas through contract farming [3]. Nettle fiber advantages include [4] increased strength, lightweight and low environmental impact. Furthermore it is a plant that can be productive from 10 to 15 years, [5] as opposed to flax, and hemp which are annual plants. ...
Full-text available
Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), a new industrial crop, has been cultivated since the 12th century for its fibers. This study was conducted to specify the optimal density of plants in order to move from wild harvest to nettle cultivation. For the present study, sampling was performed in 21 different fields throughout Greece, during October 2018. The effect of nine different plant densities on several agronomic (plants height, leaf area and dry matter) and fiber quality (straw length, fiber percentage, yield, extension at break, strength, length, diameter) characteristics was determined. The higher fiber yield occurred at the lower density (4 plants m2), while the higher fiber diameter observed at the highest density (12 plants m2). Comparisons were performed at the 5% level of significance (p ≤ 0.05). According to our results, there have been negative correlations between plant density and certain agronomic and quality characteristics such as plant height and fiber length, hence the optimal density is about seven plants per m2.
The process of retting bast fiber plants for the production of long fiber has presented major challenges. Water retting, dew retting, chemical extraction, and micro-organism (fungi, enzymes) techniques were applied to the extraction of natural fibers. The two nettle samples were extracted with water retting for 14 days and dew retting for 4 weeks. This research investigated the effects on the traditional retting process of nettle fiber by fungi and bacteria formation in lignocellulosic. The latter biological extraction methods successfully degraded the lignin and pectin materials of the fiber and increases the cellulose content. These extraction methods produced high quality fiber and tensile strength at a low cost. This study determined the chemical, physical, and mechanical characteristics such as fiber cellulose, non-cellulosic content, tensile strength, tenacity, and elongation break to see how treatments affected them. The treated fiber surface morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. To evaluate functional group alterations, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used on the fiber specimen.
Full-text available
A group of natural poisons from various animals, plants and microorganic sources can be extracted, produced and processed. Following ten years of field and laboratory research and studies, resulted from the creation of the first live collection of Iranian nettle ecotypes (LCINs) at the University of Zanjan, the feasibility of fresh and live extraction of nettle poison in pristine and untouched conditions was examined. In this study, the ability of tree tissues to absorb, hunt and sink nettle hairs, including styrofoam, nanofabric and sponge of the same length (15 cm) and same diameter (4 cm) having the same size of pores, was studied in four selected nettle ecotypes, including ecotypes of Mashhad, Mazandaran, Gilan and Zanjan provinces, Iran. For all four ecotypes on the three studied surfaces, the mean number of fully stuck and sunken needles, broken and sunken needles on the surface tissue, pores torn by plant needles and pores containing pale green liquid were counted and fully scrutinized. The results showed that sponges can be a suitable texture for hunting nettle hairs for extracting fresh and raw live venom of approximately 5 ml on a sponge source for 5 min. Based on GCMS analysis of total venom extraction resulting profile from the studied protocols had more than 10 compounds including some important sulfur containing such as: 2,2-dimethyl-propyl 2,2-dimethylpropanesulfinyl sulfone and 2-ethylthiolane, S,S-dioxide, etc. In this method, there is no need to remove the plant and stem. Its unique advantage is in continuous poison harvests during the 6-month growing season. Based on published research, this is the first report of live extraction of nettle medicinal poison.
In this work the composite made from epoxy resin as a matrix and natural fiber of Cordyline australis was used as reinforcement. The fiber was prepared from the process of water retting in fresh water for 1 weeks followed by drying. The final process was soaked in sea water to understand the effect of soaked in sea water to the adhesion of the fiber and matrix. The fiber was immersed in 5 hour and also 7 hours in sea water to be compared with the fiber that is was not immersed in sea water. The curing process also consist of 2 variation processes namely hand layup and vacuum pressure. The tensile test is conducted to investigate the final product of composite. It is found that the vacuum process resulting better tensile strength (34.610 MPa) in the sample of epoxy without fiber reinforcement (19.818 MPa for hand layup). In general for composite that are made with fiber without immersion in sea water, the tensile strength for the hand layup increase with addition of fiber fraction. In the other hand the tensile strength is decrease with addition of fiber fraction for vacuum process. For the fiber reinforcement, the hand layup resulting in better reinforcement comparing the vacuum process. .
Full-text available
Common nettle (Urtíca Dióica L.), as a natural fibrous filler, may be part of the global trend of producing biocomposites with the addition of substances of plant origin. The aim of the work was to investigate and explain the effectiveness of common nettle as a source of active functional compounds for the modification of elastomer composites based on natural rubber. The conducted studies constitute a scientific novelty in the field of polymer technology, as there is no research on the physico-chemical characteristics of nettle bio-components and vulcanizates filled with them. Separation and mechanical modification of seeds, leaves, branches and roots of dried nettle were carried out. Characterization of the ground plant particles was performed using goniometric measurements (contact angle), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), themogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained natural rubber composites with different bio-filler content were also tested in terms of rheological, static and dynamic mechanical properties, cross-linking density, color change and resistance to simulated aging processes. Composites with the addition of a filler obtained from nettle roots and stems showed the highest mechanical strength. For the sample containing leaves and branches, an increase in resistance to simulated ultraviolet and thermo-oxidative aging processes was observed. This phenomenon can be attributed to the activity of ingredients with high antioxidant potential contained in the plant.
Natural fibres present a useful palette of properties, among which high economic viability, compatibility with dyes/finishing agents, energy efficiency high specific strength and excellent recyclability could be mentioned, which makes them ideal candidates for textile materials manufacturing. To enhance these properties and to make natural fibres competitive with the synthetic ones in terms of stability and processability, a modification of their properties is often needed. Generally, two different routes could be adopted, through which an improvement in stability to moisture, thermal stability and stability to natural or artificial degradative factors could be attained: physical and chemical modification. This chapter represents a review of the main pathways that lead to alterations in the complex structural, architectural assembly of the fibres and the enhancing of their properties. Several variants of physical and chemical treatments will be reviewed for natural cellulose fibres, having as practical application their mercerization, softening, imparting of fire resistance and moisture stability. When discussing each modification, emphasis on the ‘green’ character will be considered, namely a minimal alteration of environmental footprint of the fibres. A particular subsection is dedicated to cellulose fibres properties modification with the help of ionic liquids, as an alternative to traditional processing.
Full-text available
The main objective of this study was to investigate the possibilities of utilizing stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) stalks as a fiber-nettle mixture at various percentages to produce fiberboards for general purposes. Also, we aimed to investigate the possibility of utilizing stinging nettle in panel production, thus helping overcome the raw material shortage that the industry is facing. As wood fiber, pine (Pinus nigra V.), beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and oak (Ouercus robur L.) fiber mixtures (30%, 35% and 35%, respectively) were utilized. In panel production the only variable tested was the addition of nettle stalks at various percentages to the wood fibers. The resultant panels were compared with the panels produced using 100% wood fiber. The results indicated that panels could be produced utilizing nettle stalks up to 40% addition without falling below the properties required in the standards. Higher addition levels diminished the elastic modulus and bending strength below the acceptable level. The observed results indicated that adding nettle stalks to the wood fibers to produce fiberboards at certain percentages would result in panels acceptable to the standards and would be of assistance to the raw material shortage in the Turkish panel industry. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full-text available
The use of ramie fibers as reinforcement in hybrid composites is justified considering their satisfactory mechanical properties if compared with other natural fibers. This study aims to verify changes in chemical composition and thermal stability of the ramie fibers after washing with distilled water. One additional goal is to study glass fiber and washed ramie fiber composites focusing on the effect of varying both the fiber length (25, 35, 45 and 55mm) and the fiber composition. The overall fiber loading was maintained constant (21vol.%). Based on the results obtained, the washed ramie fiber may be considered as an alternative for the production of these composites. The higher flexural strength presented being observed for 45mm fiber length composite, although this difference is not significant for lower glass fiber volume fractions: (0:100) and (25:75). Also, by increasing the relative volume fraction of glass fiber until an upper limit of 75%, higher flexural and impact properties were obtained.
Full-text available
Wood plastic composite (WPC) specimens were fabricated in shapes relevant to flute (musical instrument) production using African blackwood powder and phenolic resin in a hot compression molding setup. The roles of composition and processing parameters on the mechanical properties (flexural strength, elastic modulus, and impact failure energy) were systematically investigated. Cracks were observed in composites with more than 70% wood particles due to the formation of gas in the system during manufacturing, and lack of fluidity in the system to flush out entrapped air and the produced gases. Based on these results, the optimum temperature, pressure, and wood volume fraction for manufacturing WPC in the form of a flute is developed. A further series of experimental procedures were performed to improve the mechanical properties of WPC samples by studying the addition of short glass fibers to the molding compound prior to hot pressing. The results showed that the addition of short fiber did not improve the strength of WPC but rather reduced its strength compared to unreinforced composite. This was attributed to lack of bonding between the short fibers and composite matrix.
Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant species that is considered a weed in intensive agriculture. This crop has gained the interest both scientifically and commercially because it is the source of many added-value natural products by exploiting all the plant parts (stem, leaves, roots and seeds). The main objective of this article is to describe-along with unpublished data-information that is spread in different sources, giving an updated and comprehensive overview of the potential end-products, covering aspects related to the whole plant production chain, and at the same time, providing unpublished data collected under different projects. The effects of nettle cultivation on the environment are potentially favourable, it being a perennial low-requirement crop (it can reach about 3–12 Mg ha−1 dry stalk yield with low inputs). Stinging nettle has a long history as a textile fibre; its fibre quality has been demonstrated (e.g. cellulose content around 86%) and is highly depending on the extraction method. Furthermore, several studies confirmed the presence of numerous active compounds, especially in nettle leaves (e.g. caffeic acid derivative compounds, ceramides, nine forms of carotenoids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, phytosterols, glycosides and proteins), with most promising application in the food/feed, medicinal and cosmetic sectors. Although with high market potentials, the products made from nettle are currently more a result of curiosity rather than large-scale industrial production, mostly due to lack in crop and post-harvest management. The definition of a production chain able to exploit the plant biomass as much as possible is a prerequisite to increase income and boost farmers’ adoption, and to attract investors. Keywords Urtica dioica L.; Fibre production; Multipurpose crop; Cultivation; Uses; Natural products
Composites obtained from polypropylene (PP) and nettle fibers were manufactured by an extrusion method. The samples for mechanical and structural testing (by Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) and Differential Scanning Callorymetry (DSC) methods) were obtained by an injection molding method. The tests showed that PP composites reinforced with nettle fiber show satisfactory properties and confirmed usefulness of nettle fibers as a reinforcement material. It was found that nettle fiber shows strong properties nucleating the growth of crystalline structures in the PP matrix. In addition, the presence of hexagonal forms in PP matrix was found in the samples obtained by injection molding.
In vitro studies found that inclusion of dried stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) at 100 mg/g dry matter (DM) increased the pH of a rumen fluid inoculated fermentation buffer by 30% and the effect was persistent for 7 days. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of adding stinging nettle haylage to a total mixed ration on feed intake, eating and rumination activity, rumen pH, milk yield, and milk composition of lactating dairy cows. Six lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square design experiment with 3 treatments and 3 week periods. Treatments were a control
Yolk color is an important quality trait of eggs. Natural pigment sources are preferred by consumers. Synthetic pigments are banned in some production systems. As nettle (Urtica dioica) addition was found to substantially increase broiler skin yellowness, it was hypothesized to be a potent natural yolk coloring feed component. Therefore, the pigmentation by nettle and possible side-effects on performance, egg quality and antioxidant properties were tested in a 4-week experiment with 40 individually caged H&N Nick Brown layers (70 weeks of age). A basal feed mixture low in pigments and tocopherol was designed. Two weeks prior to the experiment, all animals received this basal mixture plus synthetic pigments (25 mg/kg Carophyll® Yellow, 15 mg/kg Carophyll® Red). Thereafter, eight animals each received diets either with 0, 6.25, 12.5 or 25 g nettle per kg put into the basal mixture or a control diet containing synthetic pigments like the pre-experimental diet and extra 40 mg/kg of α-tocopherylacetate. In detail, nettle was supplied by two independent batches to four animals per dosage each. Performance was assessed during 4 weeks and feed and egg samples were collected in the last week of the experiment and analyzed for various variables with a focus on color and antioxidant traits. By applying different statistical models, a comparison with the control animals, batch differences and nettle dosage effects were evaluated. Yolk yellowness (b*) increased with nettle addition depending on dosage and batch, yet was equally effective as synthetic pigmentation (29.4) in all investigated cases (avg. 30.3). The score according to the DSM-Yolk Color Fan increased from 1.7 in the non-supplemented group to 4.2 (6.25 g nettle A/kg) and up to 6.5 (25 g nettle B/kg). This increase depended on dose and batch. Due to the lack of red pigments in nettle, scores were still lower than with the control treatment (9.5). The development of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, monitored over 12 weeks in lyophilized yolk powder, was not affected by batch or nettle concentration. However, yolk from nettle fed hens, especially from one batch, was richer in tocopherols with increasing dosage though being far from that found in the tocopherol supplemented hens. There was no substantial influence of nettle supplement or batch on laying performance and general egg quality. Nettle supplementation of layer diets is therefore considered as an effective means to naturally achieve the desired yolk yellowness, and this without risking unfavorable side-effects.
Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a bast fibre plant ideally suited to cultivation in central Europe, producing fibres of remarkable high tensile strength and fineness. Only little literature is available about nettle-reinforced standard plastics. The present study represents a first approach to produce nettle-reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with fibre loads of 20-40 wt-% to assess the technical potential of this material compared to 30 wt-% nettle/polypropylene. The tensile strength could only be increased in case of 30 wt-% nettle/poly(lactic acid) from 52 of the pure PLA to 59 MPa. This is far away from the real potential of the nettle fibres used here with a single element tensile strength of 930 +/- 500 MPa. Concerning the Young's and flexural modulus, a clear reinforcement effect was found for all poly(lactic acid) composites. The effect was strongest in case of 30 wt-% nettle/PLA: both moduli increased from < 3500 MPa of poly(lactic acid) to > 5,000 MPa. This is as well far below the single element value of the pure fibres (26,451 +/- 14,445 MPa). As known from PLA reinforced with other bast fibres, the unnotched Charpy impact strength is lower than that of the pure polymer. The nettle-reinforced samples were found to have Charpy impact values < 50% of the pure PLA. In general, the results show a good potential for nettle as reinforcement for PLA. The crucial point for the future development will be to improve the fibre-matrix interaction in order to increase especially the tensile strength of the composites by closing the large gap between fibre and matrix strength.
In this study the chemical treatment of sisal fiber using the combined alkali (NaOH) and clay is discussed. The purpose of this fiber treatment is to improve the fiber–matrix compatibility, interface strength, mechanical, thermal and water barrier properties. The phase change due to chemical treatment of raw sisal fiber was examined by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The result shows the presence of about 20 wt.% clays in NaOH–clay treated sisal fiber with 2.6× reduced water uptake and also with improved mechanical and thermal properties. Subsequently the treated and untreated fibers were reinforced in polypropylene (PP) matrix and the mechanical and thermal properties were examined. The result indicates that the fiber–matrix interface strength, adhesion, glass transition temperature and tensile properties of composites were improved in NaOH–clay treated fiber composites.