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Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L., latin) is a wild plant that grows in Indonesia, Asia, and Europe. Nettle in Bali, Indonesia is called as Lateng, Jelatang. Nettle plant has a very strong fiber and high fixed carbon. Nettle plants are covered with fine hairs, especially in the leaves and stems. When it is touched, it will release chemicals, sting and trigger inflammation that causes redness, itching, bumps and irritation to the skin. Nettle plants grow in the wild, regarded as a weed in the agricultural industry, easy to grow and snatch food from the parent plant. The main objective of this paper is to review of the potential nettle fibers and then explain about the potential of local nettle plant in Indonesia. Nettle is a plant group at the end of bast. Its plant fibers taken from the bark, as reinforcement in composite materials. Nettle fibers have three main advantages such as strong, lightweight and low environmental impact.
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Study of stinging nettle (urtica dioica l.) Fibers reinforced green composite materials : a review
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7th International Conference on Key Engineering Materials (ICKEM 2017) IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 201 (2017) 012001 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/201/1/012001
Study of stinging nettle (urtica dioica l.) Fibers reinforced
green composite materials : a review
I G P Agus Suryawan1,6,7, N P G Suardana2, I N Suprapta Winaya3, I W Budiarsa
Suyasa4, T G Tirta Nindhia5
1,2,3,5Department of Mechanical Engineering, Udayana University, Kampus Bukit
Jimbaran, Bali Indonesia
4Department of Chemistry, Udayana University, KampusBukit Jimbaran, Bali
Indonesia
6 Doktoral Student of engineering science, Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali
Indonesia.
7 Email : agus88@unud.ac.id & suryaagus77@gmail.com
Abstract. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L., latin) is a wild plant that grows in Indonesia, Asia,
and Europe. Nettle in Bali, Indonesia is called as Lateng, Jelatang. Nettle plant has a very
strong fiber and high fixed carbon. Nettle plants are covered with fine hairs, especially in the
leaves and stems. When it is touched, it will release chemicals, sting and trigger inflammation
that causes redness, itching, bumps and irritation to the skin. Nettle plants grow in the wild,
regarded as a weed in the agricultural industry, easy to grow and snatch food from the parent
plant. The main objective of this paper is to review of the potential nettle fibers and then
explain about the potential of local nettle plant in Indonesia. Nettle is a plant group at the end
of bast. Its plant fibers taken from the bark, as reinforcement in composite materials. Nettle
fibers have three main advantages such as strong, lightweight and low environmental impact.
1. Introduction
Natural fiber reinforced polymer composites is a term used in composites journals as a term in
producing developed materials from polymer that is reinforced by natural fiber. Natural fiber has a
great impact as a potential substitute for synthetic conventional fiber such as aramid and glass fiber
during the last decade. Because of the mechanic characteristics of natural-polymer fiber, namely: good
in isolation, low density, non-abrasive, easily obtained from renewable materials, cheap in price and
can be recycled, it has attracted the composite industry for automotive application, structure and non-
structure. Glass fiber that is difficult to be decomposed triggers serious health and environment
problems. They cannot be recycled easily by heat because they melt in very high temperature and still
produce residues that may spoil the environment and are relatively abrasive in nature, as what are
mentioned in the result of some studies [1-5]. The main focus of this study is to find out the potency of
natural fiber of stinging nettle as the replacement of glass fibers as reinforced composite fibers.
1.1. Classification of Natural fibers
Natural fibers from plantation can be divided into six categories, namely: bast, leaf, seed, fruit,
grasses/reeds, & wood fibers. Table 1, shows the hierarchy of the fibers variation and their family.
Table 1. Natural Fibers/Plant Fibers[6].
2
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7th International Conference on Key Engineering Materials (ICKEM 2017) IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 201 (2017) 012001 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/201/1/012001
Classification Name Plant
Bast Jute, Flax, Isora, Mesta, Kenaf, Ramie, Toina, Totora, Urena, Banana,
Roselle, Rattan, Spanish-broom, Nettle
Leaf Sisal, Henequene, Manila, Curaua, Pineapple, Palm, Yucca, Piassava,
Cabuja, Opunita, Screw-pine, Agaves, Abaca
Seed Catton, Calotropis, Poplar, Kapok
Fruit Coconut, Luffa, Coir
Grasses/Reed Bamboo, Bagasse, Wheat, Oat, Pape, Rye, Rice, Esparto, Barley, Corn
Wood Hard wood, Soft wood
1.2. The Usefulness of Stinging Nettle
Stinging nettle is classified into shrubs with 30–45 species. Stinging nettle grows in fertile soil and it
grows until 40 up to 120 cm in height. Stinging nettle as natural biomass, the applications that have
been developed are in livestock, medicine, cosmetics and fibers.
Table 2.
Potential uses of stinging nettle[7].
Field of aplication Use Part of the plant
Textile/fiber
Tissuses and fabrics, ropes and fishing nets, silky
fabric, biocomposites, paper and cloth
, paper,
natural dye (for yams, eggs, etc.)
Fiber tissues of stems.
Root and leaf extracts
for dyes
Medicine Anaemia,
hypoglycaemia,diuretic, hypotension, benign
prostatic hyperplasia, arthritis,cardiovascular
problems, allergic rhinitis, antiviral, antifungal,
and
antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer analgesic [8].
Leaves, roots,
aqueous, seeds
and
alcoholic extracts
Cosmetics Soap, skin lotion and shampoo
Food
Salad, pier, decocted tea, soups and natural yellow
colorant for egg yolk [9].
Leaves, young plant
Forage crop Cattle, p
oultry, horses, and pigs for enhancing yolk
yellowness
Whole plant
Animal housing Bedding, lactating dairy cows [10].
Stem, shivers as fiber
by-product and seeds
Bioenergy Biochar
2. Method
Stinging nettles have been being cultivated by some countries have been investigated in term of
mechanic performance in which taking place in France, Tuscani, Netherland and India.
2.1. Material
Stinging nettles which were used in this study were harvested in France, Brittany Region [11]. Those
stinging nettles were cultivated in 1-2 years, the study was done in Prato (43053’N, 11006’E)
Tuscany region [12]. Stinging nettles fiber are taken from Brennels BV, Kraggenburg, The
Netherlands, fibers from Urtika dioica L. clone B13, cultivated in the Netherlands, harvested in
August-September 2007[13].
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7th International Conference on Key Engineering Materials (ICKEM 2017) IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 201 (2017) 012001 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/201/1/012001
2.2. Sample preparation
Stinging nettle stems were cut and dried for two days before they were decayed in the water for seven
days. Those stinging nettle stemswere dried in room temperature for weeks. The fibers were extracted
manually [11]. The stems of cultivated stinging nettle were tested on its ends, middle, and [12]. Fibers
extraction were done in 4-6 weeks, done mechanically in the same July 2008 for decortications rami
and flax [13].
Several works have been done by many researchers on stinging nettles composite study as shown
in table 2 for potential uses of stinging nettles, table 3 for the tensile strength of the composite
reinforcement fibers, table 4 for the diameter, length, tensile strength and elongation of fiber according
to the position on the stem nettle, table 5 for the chemical composition, morphology, and mechanical
properties of fiber extraction results, table 6 for influence of different fiber of the loads on the
mechanical characteristics of compression molded on PLA (poly lactic acid) composites without
adhesion promocers.
3. Result and Discusion of Mechanical Properties
Research results Bodros, as shown in Tabel 3, stinging nettle has the highest ultimite stress among the
nature fibers that is 1594 640) MPa. It means that if the stinging nettle fiber is used as composite
material it will produce composite with a great strength.
Table 3
.
Ultimite stress of some composites [11]
Name Young’s
modulus (Gpa)
Ultimite stress
(MPa)
Strain to failure (%) Density (g/cm
3
) Average
diameter
(μm)
Stinging nettle 59-115 2274-914 2.92-1.3 0.72 24.3-15.5
Flax ariane 73-43 1825-853 3.31-3.23 1.53 23.6-12.0
Flax Agatha 96-46 1800-962 2.9-1.3 1.53 15.6-14.4
Hemp 21.6-16.6 310-230 0.9-0.7 1.48 36.1-26.3
Ramie 24.5 560 2.5 1.51 34
Specific weight of stinging nettle that is 0,72 gram/cm3categorized as light fiber [12]. With light
average specific weight, if stinging nettle is used as composite reinforcement there is a potency that it
will produce a light and strong material.
Table 4
.
Diameter, length, tensile strength and elongation fiberbased on the position of sting
ing nettle
stem [12]
Bottom Middle Top
Diameter (μm) Mean
Range
47
31-63
32
21-42
19
10-26
Length (mm) Mean
Range
43
27-60
50
39-63
58
40-73
Tensile Strength (cN tex
-
1
) Mean
Range
24
12-40
62.1
38-98
58.7
24-98
Elongation (%) Mean
Range
2.6
1.5-3
2.3
1.3-3.5
2.5
1-6
4
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7th International Conference on Key Engineering Materials (ICKEM 2017) IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 201 (2017) 012001 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/201/1/012001
Stinging nettle fiber that is taken from the middle of the stem has better tensile strength and
elongation as shown in Table 4. Most of natural fibers contain lignin-cellulose, but they also contain
other components such as hemicellulose, pectin, hardwood, ash, silica, oil, wax & other water
solutions. So many things to learn in order to understand the individual concentration of each
component if natural fiber composite is produced. Cellulose is semi-crystalline polysaccharide, while
hemicellulose is a highly branched amorphous polymer. In order to produce adhesion strength between
fiber and matric minimum ash and wax elements are needed, wax reduce adhesion. Hydroxyl group
from cellulose within the natural fiber describes natural hydrophilic, that reduces the bond between
faces and makes composite absorbs water easily.
Table 5.
Chemical composition, morphology, and mechanic characteristics of extracted fiber [13]
Treatment CR D WR D+WR WR+D MR D+MR ET ET+CA
Cellulose (%) 81 65 78 83 85 78-84 75-85 80-82 81-83
Hemicellulose (%) 6 5 9 13 6 9-10 5-7 11-12 11-12
Lignin (%) 2 3 3 2 4 2-5 3-4 2-3 2-3
Diameter (μm) 23-37 23-47 37-41 40-46 29-43 24-31 16-40 30-40 25-35
Length (mm) 38-62 25-58 41-49 38-58 35-55 41-55 33-60 42-52 42-51
Tensile strength
(cN tex-1)
38-81 70-182 8-94 41-83 23-71 33-65 7-98 21-72 32-76
Elongation (%) 4-7 2-3 2-4 1-3 1-2 2-4 0-2 3-6 3-6
Methods which were used to take the fiber include: chemical retting (CR), decortication (D), water
retting (WR), microbiological retting (MR), enzymatical treatment (ET), chelating agent (CA).
Table 6
.
Influence of different fiber loads on the mechanical characteristics of compression on
moulded PLA (Poly lactic acid) composites without adhesion promocers [14].
Fiber Fiber
load in
wt-%
Note Tensile
strength
in MPa
Tensile
modulus
in GPa
Elongation
at break
Flexural
modulus
in GPa
Impact
strength
in kJ/m2
Nettle
20
30
40
Press
pressure 5.6 MPa,
maintained for 20 min at
175 0C,
fibres were
oriented predominantly
in length direction
45
59
40
4.8
5.6
4.8
1.2
1.5
1.3
4.2
5.2
4.6
14
11
6
Hemp 34
44
55
Fiber length 5-
15 mm;
random fiber orientation
41.1
44.6
43.7
5.65
7.4
7.0
Flax 30
40
Enzyme retted fibers;
random fiber orientation
53
40
8.3
7.3
1.0
0.9
Jute 34
44
55
Water cleaned fibre.
Fibre length 5-
10 mm
random fibre orientation
39.5
42.0
43.0
18.5
23.5
32.0
5
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7th International Conference on Key Engineering Materials (ICKEM 2017) IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 201 (2017) 012001 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/201/1/012001
Research on composite tensile strength was done by combining PLA with some natural fibers (nettle,
hemp, flax and jute). It is shown that the highest tensile strength of nettle is 59 MPa, with weight
fraction 30%.
Natural fiber that was given chemicals to erase lignin and enrich the adhesion strength between
fiber and matric can be seen in literature [17-21]. Meanwhile the textbook that explains about
composite materials can be seen in literature [22-24]. The development of studies and cultivation of
nettle in some countries are discussed in literature [25-27].
Figure 1. Stinging nettle plants Figure 2. Stems of nettle
Figure 3. Stems that have been marinated in
the water and the fibers are out
Figure 4. Nettle stinging fibers
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7th International Conference on Key Engineering Materials (ICKEM 2017) IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 201 (2017) 012001 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/201/1/012001
Figure 5. SEM stems crosswise Figure 6. SEM stinging nettle fiber
Figure 1 until 6 is nettle plants which are available in Indonesia that have been SEM tested on its
stems and fiber, we will apply chemical treatment with local nettle to increase the strength and
toughness of the composite materials.
4. Conclusion
The potency of stinging nettle to be used as reinforcement of composite materials is so great, it can be
seen from the result of the study that was conducted by the researcher. The fibers were taken from the
stems of the nettle. Some treatments with chemicals on nettle fiber are needed to be done, form
example on flax, hemp and ramie, and to reinforce the fiber and the bound between fiber and matric.
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7th International Conference on Key Engineering Materials (ICKEM 2017) IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 201 (2017) 012001 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/201/1/012001
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Acknowledgments
The authors thank the Ministry of Research, Tech., and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia
and LPPM (Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Masyarakat) University of Udayana for supporting
this research and paper through The Grant.
... Néanmoins, depuis une dizaine d'années, l'ortie fait l'objet d'un regain d'intérêt lié à la mise en avant des « phytothérapies » ou encore des matériaux biosourcés. Ainsi, de nombreux travaux de thèse ont porté sur l'ortie, dans les domaines de la pharmacologie(Candais, 2019;Delahaye, 2015;Draghi, 2005), la phyllogénie (Grosse-Veldmann, 2016) ou encore la phytochimie(Bennouar and Chekakta, 2017) et son potentiel de valorisation a été revu à plusieurs reprises(Kregiel et al., 2018;Suryawan et al., 2017;Amal Ait et al., 2016;Baumgardner, 2016;Kalia et al., 2014;. ...
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Les contaminations entrainent des dégradations générant des dysfonctionnements des sols et des atteintes à leurs fonctions écologiques. Le phytomanagement, qui utilise des espèces végétales pour extraire, contenir ou dégrader des polluants, apparaît comme une solution adaptée pour produire de la biomasse végétale tout en favorisant la réhabilitation de ces sols délaissés. Les approches récentes s’accordent sur l'importance des associations végétales dans l’optimisation de ces dispositifs. Ce projet de thèse s’articule autour d’un dispositif agroforestier novateur, associant la grande ortie (Urtica dioica L.) à une plante modèle dans le domaine, le peuplier. Dans des plantations de peuplier, l’ortie offre de nouvelles perspectives liées à son aptitude à se développer spontanément sur des sites contaminés et à la qualité de sa fibre végétale, utilisables pour la fabrication de biomatériaux.A partir de deux sites ateliers contaminés par les éléments trace métalliques (ETM) et différentes approches disciplinaires, ces travaux ont permis i) de mieux comprendre le fonctionnement de cedispositif peuplier-ortie à l’interface rhizosphérique et sa réponse aux ETM via des approches de barcoding environnemental et de métabolomique ciblée ii) d’appréhender le rôle des plantes modèles dans la restauration écologique de ces sites au travers d’études phytosociologique et entomologique et évaluer l’implication des communautés associées dans les flux d’ETM par uneapproche écotoxicologique, et finalement iii) de caractériser et optimiser le potentiel économique de ce dispositif selon une approche agroécologique. Enfin, cette thèse ambitionne d’être un travail de référence pour les futurs projets de phytomanagement basés sur des associations arbres – orties.
... Among the phenolic compounds of medicinal interest in nettle, it is worth mentioning lignans, whose abundance was shown to differ according to the tissues, i.e., aerial parts vs. roots [8]. Besides the production of phytochemicals, nettle is valued as a source of cellulosic fibres, the bast fibres [9,10], which can be used in biocomposites [11] and textiles [12]. More recently, carbon nanosheets with interesting physico-chemical properties, namely, interconnectivity of pores, graphitization, surface area and pore width [13], were prepared from stems of stinging nettles, which diversifies the application opportunities of this weed. ...
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... At present, several Central European countries still cultivate nettle in small areas through contract farming [3]. Nettle fiber advantages include [4] increased strength, lightweight and low environmental impact. Furthermore it is a plant that can be productive from 10 to 15 years, [5] as opposed to flax, and hemp which are annual plants. ...
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Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a bast fibre plant ideally suited to cultivation in central Europe, producing fibres of remarkable high tensile strength and fineness. Only little literature is available about nettle-reinforced standard plastics. The present study represents a first approach to produce nettle-reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with fibre loads of 20-40 wt-% to assess the technical potential of this material compared to 30 wt-% nettle/polypropylene. The tensile strength could only be increased in case of 30 wt-% nettle/poly(lactic acid) from 52 of the pure PLA to 59 MPa. This is far away from the real potential of the nettle fibres used here with a single element tensile strength of 930 +/- 500 MPa. Concerning the Young's and flexural modulus, a clear reinforcement effect was found for all poly(lactic acid) composites. The effect was strongest in case of 30 wt-% nettle/PLA: both moduli increased from < 3500 MPa of poly(lactic acid) to > 5,000 MPa. This is as well far below the single element value of the pure fibres (26,451 +/- 14,445 MPa). As known from PLA reinforced with other bast fibres, the unnotched Charpy impact strength is lower than that of the pure polymer. The nettle-reinforced samples were found to have Charpy impact values < 50% of the pure PLA. In general, the results show a good potential for nettle as reinforcement for PLA. The crucial point for the future development will be to improve the fibre-matrix interaction in order to increase especially the tensile strength of the composites by closing the large gap between fibre and matrix strength.
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In this study the chemical treatment of sisal fiber using the combined alkali (NaOH) and clay is discussed. The purpose of this fiber treatment is to improve the fiber–matrix compatibility, interface strength, mechanical, thermal and water barrier properties. The phase change due to chemical treatment of raw sisal fiber was examined by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The result shows the presence of about 20 wt.% clays in NaOH–clay treated sisal fiber with 2.6× reduced water uptake and also with improved mechanical and thermal properties. Subsequently the treated and untreated fibers were reinforced in polypropylene (PP) matrix and the mechanical and thermal properties were examined. The result indicates that the fiber–matrix interface strength, adhesion, glass transition temperature and tensile properties of composites were improved in NaOH–clay treated fiber composites.