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THE IMAGE OF THE COLD WAR IN CARICATURES
Mariyana Piskova
The caricatures (form the Italian caricare)
1
are based on the symbolic power of images. The
images make visible what could not be expressed in another ways. The Cold War or the
opposition between the USA and its allies on one side and the USSR and its satellites on the
other continued from the Second World War (1947) to the disintegration of the USSR in 1991
(in some researches to the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989). As a war of two rival ideologies
without direct military clash between the two enemies USA and USSR the Cold War used all
available means of propaganda, diplomatic and economic pressure, military and industrial
espionage, disinformation about the enemy, press, films, theatre, books and radio
broadcasting abroad
2
. Caricature has a special place in the propaganda arsenal. The political
caricature usually deals with the funny things and with the enthronement and exposition of
persons, groups and organizations engaged in the power struggle in society. Caricatures are
especially important in the times of wars (cold or warm) when we witness rival propaganda
or advertisements. In this sense caricature could be considers as “reference book” for the
enemy”.
3
As a rule during the Cold War each of the parties demonizes the other in the caricatures.
Iron curtain over Europe!!! Russian threat!! Bolshevik danger!!! Let’s unite with
Germany to give rebuff to the Russians!“ Boris Efimov, 1947.
4
Freedom in American way”, Boris Efimov
Octopus Stalin
5
SOVIET CARICATURE
The Soviet caricature about the Cold war could was best presented in the satirist journal
“Crocodile” which was published since 1922 till 1992 and after 1934 it became part of the
official of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) “Pravda” in 6.5 million issues.
As a controlled by the CPSU journal it was used in all Soviet political campaigns. It did not
consider everyday topics but focused on the “key questions of the internal and foreign
policy”, it exposes “the enemies of people”, “West German revanchism”, “American
imperialism and its satellites”, colonialism, NATO, etc. On one part the journal presents “the
horrible western aggressors” who sharpen their swards, on the other it presents the scaring
conditions in the West unemployment, hunger, coldness…
The army of peace Your efforts are in vain, Misters! We will not permit you to insult it!
6
During the Cold War the topics who dominated in the Soviet caricatures were: the Korean
War the two parties accused each other in mass extermination of the local population and
destruction of nonmilitary objects.
Korea Children, the last hour we studded the history of America, today we will get
knowledge about the manners and habits of the Americans”!
7
United Nations (OON) which to the Soviets are manipulated by USA and in such way from
international organization turned into organization of the American aggressors.
OON In fact UN is not an international organization but organization of the Americans
which supports the American aggressors” – from the interview of comrade Stalin with
correspondent of newspaper “Pravda”.
- АкордеООН [AcordeOON]
8
American world order
9
Unsuccessful masking of the instigators of new wars as peace keepers.
(Clement Atli, 1883-1967), British politician, prime-minister of Great Britain (1945-1951),
minister of defense. (1945-1946)
10
The Wall Street bankers dictate the conditions of the Cold War and the Congress of the USA
is the most horrible and enemy institution.
Voracious appetite“, A. Orlov, V. Ayzen
11
Yugoslavia was also targeted. Tito was proclaimed as Belgrade Oberbandit, a contender for
the title "Führer".
Tito: Hallo, alarm! Bulgaria is arming and preparing to attack Yugoslavia.
12
“A present” for the nations of the Yugoslavia, N. Dolgorukov
13
The faithful dog of the Wall Street, N. Dolgopukov
As their “image and semblance”, B. Efimov
14
- As a danger for the USSR was considered the enlargement of NATO with the Turkey
and Greece in 1952.
- Targeted was the democracy in USA which was considered as a mask for aspiring
after other goals.
A dangerous trick, Kukriniksi
15
-
- A favorable topic for the caricaturists was the bacteriological weapon.
The Geneva convention about the prohibition of the bacteriological weapon and respecting
the rights of the prisoners of war, Kukrinski
16
Having in mind that Crocodile often picture Uncle Sam, we decided to take part in a
competition about new emblem of the USA. We offer our project as a symbol which reflects
in better way the present life in America. B. Efimov
17
War Mongers
John Foster Dulles, (1888-1959), Secretary of state under the presidency of Dwight D.
Eisenhower
Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (1874-1965), Prime minister of Great Britain whose
speech about the Soviet threat about democratic Europe from 1946 marked the
beginning of the Cold War.
George Marshall, (1880-1959 г.), Secretary of state, Minister of defense, one of the
initiators of NATO, Nobel Prize winner for peace in 1953.
William Averell Harriman (1891-1986), American diplomat, ambassador in USSR.
According to Stalin he was responsible for the worsening of the relations between USA
and USSR after the death of Roosevelt.
Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964), American general, who took part in the two world wars,
in 1950 he commanded the UN army in the Korean War.
18
BULGARIAN CARICATURE
On the pages of the Bulgarian journals Soviet caricatures were often published.
Meeting with the heroes. In a Broadway cinema: “Bravo, Bravo!” and after the
performance: “Help!”
19
In the snake capture of Hollywood
20
Hollywood: War, Bandits, Racism, Pornography, Fascism: The Tito Bandits began film
propaganda
21
Hollywood in Venice, E. Zimin
22
The oversea film producer Dean Acheson and the heroes of the Bulgarian version of his
production.
23
The founder of the Bulgarian art of caricature is considered Alexander Bozhinov.
24
In the
period before 9th of September 1944 he was famous with his caricatures against the regime of
Tsar Ferdinand, after 1944 his caricatures were devoted to the fight for peace. Different was
the destiny of the painter Ivan Slavov. In January 1907 who was beaten for his caricatures
against Ferdinand published in “Balkan Tribune”.
25
More unfortunate was Rayko Alexiev
who was arrested one month after 9th of September 1944 and beaten to death for two old
caricatures of Stalin
26
published in his journal “Cricket“
27
. After his death in March 1945 he
was sentenced to death for his ‘anti-Soviet” and “pro-German” propaganda from the so called
People’s Court.
28
The official satirist edition of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party was
the newspaper “Hornet” which started from 15th of February 1946. Till the end of 1980s this
newspaper defined the shape and tendencies of the caricature genre in Bulgaria. The edition
was issued in 500 000 copies. After 9th of September 1944 many of the caricaturists reflected
their positive attitude to the changes in Bulgaria they illustrated the defeat of fascism,
considered the new society as progressive, took the side of the People’s court, demonstrated
their new attitude to the former Western allies from the Second World War USA and Great
Britain.
29
The first issue of the newspaper “Hornet”, satirist weekly, 15th of February, 1946
“What else should I do to make people forget about me?”, Boris Angelushev
Ilia Beshkov created caricatures influenced by the “iron curtain” on the West there is no
freedom but imperialism; the Marshall plan will take off the European independence; the face
of imperialism is bandit and cold.
30
Europe 1944. Churchil: „Mister Molotov, if you invest more efforts one year could be
sufficient …“, Iliya Beshkov
Europe“, Iliya Beshkov, 1941
The recently published diary of Ilia Beshkov reveals his hidden attitude to the communist
regime. In September 1950 he wrote: “The “Orthodox” Russia undertook 11 “liberating wars”
to invade Poland, Bulgaria, Turkey and when did not succeeded this “true Orthodoxy” for 24
hours turned into bolshevism, into an atheistic Orthodoxy which initiated new “liberating”
wars against Bulgaria, Poland, Turkey … and the whole world. Christ was replaced by Stalin
(quite successfully up to now...)
31
Ah, I just fixed the cast!, Boris Angelushev, 1946
“The voice of America and the voice of People’s Republic of Bulgaria”, (Every vote for
United Front is a vote for peace and socialism, the voice of America is war, war, war !!!),
Alexandar Zhendov, 1947
32
“With the Strangers is very good!, Nikola Mirchev
„The bitter lessons of history”, Nikola Mirchev, 1958
The fallen hopes”, Nikola_Mirchev, 1958 (The fallen hopes of turning back the wheel of
Bulgaria”)
Haints, during the last war you lost your legs, but these people have lost their mind right
now! “, Nikola_Mirchev, 1958
33
“America counts its presidents”, Tsvetan Tsekov (Karandash), 1969.
„Cheek by jowl”, Tsvetan Tsekov (Karandash), 1959
34
After the holiday - Children I am happy that you have forgotten everything old and
nothing new have learned …”, Boris_Dimovski, 1968
35
The foreign correspondent: Bulgaria is full with Russian soldiers”, Georgi Atanasov,
1969.
America is the country of unlimited possibilities: His father is rich, he has bought him a
real one!”, Georgi Atanasov, 1969
36
“Metamorphosis of ideology”, Todor Tsonev, 1973
Peace keepers (Brezhnev Nixon), Todor Tsonev, 1973
Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union ТАСС denies …“, Todor Tsonev, 1978
37
CARICATURE ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE “IRON CURTAIN”
The image of the enemy as seen by the USA could be illustrated by one special edition of the
journal COLLIER'S: Preview of the War We Do Not Wantfrom 27th of October 1951
devoted to the Cold War.
38
On 130 pages texts and illustrations the history of the future Third
World War is related. The war was provoked in 1952 by the Soviet Union and headed by
Stalin. The war was initiated by the satellites of the USSR Bulgaria, Rumania, and Hungary
who attacked Yugoslavia. The caricatures were done by the famous painter from the time of
the Second World War Bill Moldin. The Third World War finished in 1955 with the
disintegration of the Soviet Union and occupation of Moscow by UN forces.
Colliers, 27th of October,1951
On the last place in the exhibition of the Cold War in caricatures we should mention the
collection of the head of the NATO office in Moscow Robert Pshel. The collection includes
more than hundred caricatures about NATO from the time of the Cold War when the Atlantic
Pact was considered as a bloody beast. But according to Pshel central place in the collection is
preserved for a poster presenting three swards with the flags of the Soviet Union, Great
Britain and USA which tear off the chains from the hands of Europe. It is from the time when
Russia and the West were united by a common goal to defeat Nazism.
„Europe will be free!”!“ Viktor Koretskii and K. Erinova, 1944
39
1
Caricare means to exaggerate. The beginning of caricature is 16th century..
2
Калов, Мартин, Студената война - 60 г. по-късно [Cold War 60 years later],
http://frognews.bg/news_7528/Studenata_voina_-_60_g_po-kasno/
3
Катерина Павлова ОБРАЗЪТ НА БАЙ ГАНЬО В КАРИКАТУРИТЕ ОТ БЪЛГАРСКИЯ
ХУМОРИСТИЧНО-САТИРИЧЕН ПЕРИОДИЧЕН ПЕЧАТ (1895-1944) , [The image of Bay Ganyo in the
satirist periodical press] електронно списание LiterNet, 29.12.2013, № 12 (169)
http://liternet.bg/publish29/katerina-pavlova/karikaturi.htm
4
Source: Мичурин, Андрей, Железный занавес. Истоки Холодной войны [The iron curtain. Sources of the
Cold War] http://sheshbesh144.blogspot.ru/2014/08/blog-post.html
5
Source: Озимко, Кирилл, Роля карикатуры в информационной войне, [The role of caricature in the
information war] http://politrussia.com/society/rol-karikatury-v-805/ (17.12.2015 г.)
6
Списание „Крокодил“ [Journal Crocodile], 20 февруари 1951
7
Source: сп. Крокодил [Crocodile] http://nuk18.livejournal.com/1102917.html
8
Source: сп. Крокодил [Crocodile] , http://nuk18.livejournal.com/1102917.html
9
Source: Попов, Петър, Империализмът – смъртен враг на мира и дружбата между народите, [Imperialism
mortal enemy of the peace and friendship of the nations], Българо-съветска дружба, 1951, кн. 2, 13
10
Source: Конатев, Владимир Алексеевич, На всяка лъжа трябва да се сложи край, [Each lie should be
brought to an end], Българо-съветска дружба, 1951, кн. 5, с.30
11
Source: Скитник, Константин, Съветските художници в борбата за мир [Soviet painters in fight for
peace], Българо-съветска дружба, 1951, кн. 4, с.20
12
Source: Манев, Михаил, Титовската клика – враг на дружбата със Съветския съюз, [Tito’s clique – an
enemy of the friendship with the Soviet Union], Българо-съветска дружба, 1951, кн. 7, 18-21
13
Source: Кюркиев, Хр. Кой стои начело на Титофашистката армия? [Who is headed the Tito-fascist
army?], Българо-съветска дружба, 1951, кн. 8, с. 22-23
14
Source: Кръстев, Стойне, Титовци – най-злостни врагове на социалистическата култура, [Tito’s people
the most vicious enemies of the socialist culture], 1951, кн. 9, с.33
15
Source: Скитник, Константин, Съветските художници в борбата за мир, [Soviet painters in fight for
peace], Българо-съветска дружба, 1951, кн. 4, с.20-21
16
Source: сп. Крокодил, [Crocodile], http://nuk18.livejournal.com/1102917.html
The famous image of USA as Uncle Sam was “modernized”.
17
Source: сп. Крокодил [Crocodile], http://nuk18.livejournal.com/1102917.html
„Instigators of war”
18
Source: Ефимов, Б. Поджигатели войны (Новая работа художников Кукриникси), [War mongers (New
work of the painters Kukrinski)], Искусство, 1951, кн.1, с.55-57
19
Source: Калатозов, Михаил, Как се правят сценарии в Холивуд, Кино и фото, [How to do scriptwriting in
Hollywood], 1951, кн.2, с.14
20
Source: Арна, З, Филмовата маршализация на Турция, Film Marshall-ization of Turkey]. Кино и фото,
1950, №8, 18
21
Source: Браун, М. Студената война и американският филм (специална кореспонденция) [The Cold War
and the American Film (special correspondence).], Кино и фото,1950, №11, 14)
22
Source: Чечеткина, Олга, Под знака на упадъка и разложението (Кинофестивалът във Венеция), [Under
the sign of decadence and corruption (cinema festival in Venice), Кино и фото, 1951, кн. 13, с.14
23
Source: Сап, Евго, Киностудията „USA Mission“ в София закрита! (фейлетон),[ “USA Mission” in Sofia
–closed! (feuilleton)], Кино и фото, 1951, кн.6, с.13
24
Born on 24th of February 1878, died on 30th of September 1968.
25
Папакочев, Георги, ДС и карикатурите [State Security and Caricatures], http://dw.com/p/1EHiI (9 януари
1915)
26
Щурец [Cricket], бр.195 от 4 септ.1936 и бр. 219 от 19 февр. 1937 г.
27
Папакочев, Георги, ДС и карикатурите, [State Security and Caricatures] http://dw.com/p/1EHiI (9 януари
1915)
28
Алексиев, Алекс, За две карикатури на Сталин комунисти главорези убиват интелектуалеца Райко
Алексиев, [For two caricatures of Stalin the communist criminals killed the poet and intellectual Rayko
Alexiev], Factor.bg, 18 ноември 2014, http://www.faktor.bg/politika/na-vseki-kilometar/32507-za-dve-
karikaturi-na-stalin-komunisti-glavorezi-ubivat-intelektualetza-rayko-aleksiev.html%7D
29
Николов, К. Българската карикатура след 1944 г., [The Bulgarian caricature after 1944],
http://vivafolk98.blogspot.bg/2015/04/1944.html
30
Николов, К. Българската карикатура след 1944 г. [Bulgarian caricature after 1944].
31
http://www.24chasa.bg/Article.asp?ArticleId=4712430
32
Source: Стойков, Атанас, Българска карикатура, Кратък очерк за нейния път и за творчеството на Ал.
Божинов, Илия Бешков, Ал.Жендов, Б.Ангелушев и Ст.Венев [Bulgarian caricature, short features about the
works of Al. Bozhinov, Ilia Beshkov, B. Angelushev, St. Venev], С., Български художник, 1970
33
Source: Стойков, Атанас Българска карикатура, Кратък очерк за нейния път и за творчеството на Ал.
Божинов, Илия Бешков, Ал.Жендов, Б.Ангелушев и Ст.Венев, [Bulgarian caricature, short features about the
works of Al. Bozhinov, Ilia Beshkov, B. Angelushev, St. Venev], С., Български художник, 1970
34
Source: Стойков, Атанас Българска карикатура, Кратък очерк за нейния път и за творчеството на Ал.
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works of Al. Bozhinov, Ilia Beshkov, B. Angelushev, St. Venev], С., Български художник, 1970
35
Source: Стойков, Атанас Българска карикатура, Кратък очерк за нейния път и за творчеството на Ал.
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36
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works of Al. Bozhinov, Ilia Beshkov, B. Angelushev, St. Venev], С., Български художник, 1970
37
Source: Овчарова, Мария, Тоталитаризмът в карикатурите на Тодор Цонев, [Totalitarianism in the
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38
http://www.conelrad.com/books/print.php?id=321_0_1_0
39
Source: Государственный каталог музейного фонда Российской федерации, [State catalogue of the
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Българската карикатура след 1944 г
  • К Николов
Николов, К. Българската карикатура след 1944 г., [The Bulgarian caricature after 1944], http://vivafolk98.blogspot.bg/2015/04/1944.html
Венев [Bulgarian caricature, short features about the works of Al
  • Илия Божинов
  • Бешков
  • Ал
  • Б Жендов
  • Ангелушев И Ст
Божинов, Илия Бешков, Ал.Жендов, Б.Ангелушев и Ст.Венев [Bulgarian caricature, short features about the works of Al. Bozhinov, Ilia Beshkov, B. Angelushev, St. Venev], С., Български художник, 1970
Ангелушев и Ст.Венев, [Bulgarian caricature, short features about the works of Al
  • Илия Божинов
  • Бешков
  • Ал
  • Б Жендов
Божинов, Илия Бешков, Ал.Жендов, Б.Ангелушев и Ст.Венев, [Bulgarian caricature, short features about the works of Al. Bozhinov, Ilia Beshkov, B. Angelushev, St. Venev], С., Български художник, 1970
Тоталитаризмът в карикатурите на Тодор Цонев, [Totalitarianism in the caricatures of Todor Tsonev
Source: Овчарова, Мария, Тоталитаризмът в карикатурите на Тодор Цонев, [Totalitarianism in the caricatures of Todor Tsonev], София, Български художник, 1990
Bulgarian caricature, short features about the works of
  • Илия Божинов
  • Бешков
  • Ал
  • Б Жендов
  • Ангелушев И Ст
  • Венев
Божинов, Илия Бешков, Ал.Жендов, Б.Ангелушев и Ст.Венев, [Bulgarian caricature, short features about the works of Al. Bozhinov, Ilia Beshkov, B. Angelushev, St. Venev], С., Български художник, 1970 36 Source: Стойков, Атанас Българска карикатура, Кратък очерк за нейния път и за творчеството на Ал.
Студената война -60 г. по-късно
  • Мартин Калов
Калов, Мартин, Студената война -60 г. по-късно [Cold War -60 years later], http://frognews.bg/news_7528/Studenata_voina_-_60_g_po-kasno/
Истоки Холодной войны
  • Андрей Мичурин
  • Железный Занавес
Source: Мичурин, Андрей, Железный занавес. Истоки Холодной войны [The iron curtain. Sources of the Cold War] http://sheshbesh144.blogspot.ru/2014/08/blog-post.html
На всяка лъжа трябва да се сложи край
  • Владимир Конатев
  • Алексеевич
10 Source: Конатев, Владимир Алексеевич, На всяка лъжа трябва да се сложи край, [Each lie should be brought to an end], Българо-съветска дружба, 1951, кн. 5, с.30
Съветските художници в борбата за мир
  • Константин Скитник
Source: Скитник, Константин, Съветските художници в борбата за мир, [Soviet painters in fight for peace], Българо-съветска дружба, 1951, кн. 4, с.20-21
Титовската клика -враг на дружбата със Съветския съюз
  • Михаил Манев
Source: Манев, Михаил, Титовската клика -враг на дружбата със Съветския съюз, [Tito's clique -an enemy of the friendship with the Soviet Union], Българо-съветска дружба, 1951, кн. 7, 18-21