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Local Knowledge : Further Essays in Interpretative Anthropology / C. Geertz.

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Abstract

La presente es una colección de textos del antropólogo Clifford Geertz, en los cuales el autor busca explicar diversos fenómenos culturales como sistemas significativos, es decir como "grandes texturas de causa y efecto". Geertz aborda los estudios antropológicos y afirma que éstos deben ser capaces de proporcionar ideas de la misma magnitud que la hermenéutica o la fenomenología; afirma que las ciencias sociales es una disciplina que aún no ha empezado a caminar de manera independiente, sino que es una materia que se haya dispersa en varios sistemas.

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... Unha das súas últimas obras, Available Light(2000),(Geertz, 2002), recolle algunhas das súas inquedanzas filosóficas e algúns dos seus autores preferidos. ...
... É o título dunha das súas obras Coñecemento local(1994). Unha nova reflexión posterior sobre o tema atópase noutro traballo deste autor(Geertz, 2002). ...
... Legal scholars have discussed how law and language converge to create social categories and political realities that are simultaneously empowering and restrictive (Agamben 1995(Agamben , 2010Cody 2013;Mamdani 2003;Povinelli 2002). Through these categorizing processes, law itself emerges as a cultural system of meaning that includes and excludes actions and people according to its own cultural logic (Geertz 1983) and generates new meanings through its intersubjective methods of narration (Bakhtin 1981). Meanwhile, another strand of scholarship has examined practices of cultural translation in state and international law and in human rights investigations (Cunningham 1992;Gal 2015;Gal, Kowalski and Moore 2015;Merry 2006;Sharma and Kelly 2018), stressing the demand for linear narrative formats (Tate 2007). ...
... In Choti Lal's case, similar observations can be made with regard to the role of the police. As intermediaries between court and complainant, the police are confronted with the crucial and socially complex task of converting the story of a Dalit complainant into the appropriate "atrocity" under the PoA, of interpreting their context, and rendering the distinct sociopolitical lifeworld of the village and the culturally cohesive arena of the law (Geertz 1983) mutually intelligible (Bachmann-Medick 2006). They must "name" and turn the locally specific into the legally general. ...
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This article interrogates the relationship among legal gatekeepers, embodied expressions of structural violence, and institutional patterns of translation in the mobilization of antidiscrimination legislation by examining a case registered under the 1989 Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes Prevention of Atrocities Act in the Indian state of Rajasthan. The article proposes that law enforcement officials often utilize legal registers and legal aesthetics as defensive shields against the demands of historically marginalized groups, which interfere with their institutionalized moralities and wider loyalties to higher caste groups. Thereby they reinscribe the very structural inequalities antidiscrimination laws are intended to address. This process is often the result of a dual breakdown of translation. On the one hand, police officers often refuse to engage with the local linguistic idioms of marginalized communities in a way that makes their experiences legible to the law. On the other hand, survivors of discriminatory violence are themselves hesitant to make their suffering explicit due to trauma and fear of being publicly humiliated. Ultimately, this process can instill further feelings of inadequacy in victims of discrimination at the very moment they try to claim their rights. This case ultimately questions the ability of antidiscrimination legislation to effectively counteract the effects of structural inequality.
... Discourse is not a separate element which exists independently in some freefloating realm of ideas, but a way of thinking, speaking, experiencing (Codd, 2007). All discourses are ideologically positioned; none are neutral (Macdonell, 1986); however innocent and neutral the form and substance of discourse appears on the surface, it is thoroughly imbued with the biases, constraints, opinions and variable judgments of a specific intellectual community (Geertz, 2000). ...
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The emergence of social media channels has promoted the development of forms of unacceptable communication and social practices which can lead to coercion, victimization and threat to the decorum in the society. The abduction of about 276 schoolgirls by Boko Haram insurgents in Chibok, Borno State, Nigeria drew wide attention across the world. Patience Jonathan, the then First lady of Nigeria, broke down in grief while addressing a group of women and the principal of the school where the girls were abducted. The video footage of the incident was later rated by Google as the most watched non-musical video on YouTube. This article explored the ideological standpoints advanced in its discourses based on the context of Public Sphere Theory. The questionnaire survey, conducted among 300 university undergraduate students in South-east geo-political zone in Nigeria revealed that the flood of social media discourses on the video triggered its offline discourses which attracted more people to the video. While social media has granted more people the opportunity to partake in the discourse, it was inadequate as a platform for discussion on the issue of the day. The study recommended that owners of blogs and media houses who now post their contents on the social media should coordinate comments on such platforms and continue developing mechanisms that work to regulate the quality of posted content. Key Words: Social Media, Public Sphere, Social Discourse, South-East, There is God Video.
... By itself, this combination is not at all obvious: for example, the postmodern version of intellectual history underwent an almost reverse transformation in the 1970 years -in the works of H. White (White, 1987) and his followers, turning to the rhetorical nature of historiographic and, more broadly, scientific texts meant a break with logic and the laws of historical research, denying the significance of historical interpretations and the relevance of attempts to reconstruct the "past". In contrast, the Cambridge School of the History of Political Philosophy, like the anthropology of C. Geertz (Geertz, 1983), whose version of the analysis of ideologies through the interpretation of political metaphors is highly demanded by historians, combined attention to rhetoric and the historical method, which had two important consequences. First of all, one of the central concepts of the Cambridge approach has become the term "context": Skinner [Skinner 1989], Pocock [1981], and J.Dunn [Dunn 1968] agree that the first task of the historian of philosophy is to reconstruct the historical meaning of speech actions. ...
... Enfin, nous discuterons les résultats de la démarche ci-dessus, qui cherche à comprendre comment la thématique climatique est appréhendée par les acteurs du tourisme. (Geertz, 1983). Cette dernière décrit un objectif immersif et expérientiel du terrain de recherche, qui implique la présence physique et prolongée du chercheur sur son lieu d'enquête afin de saisir en profondeur les systèmes de pratiques et de sens (Roncoli et al., 2009). ...
Article
Les changements climatiques impactent fortement l’activité touristique dans les Alpes. Dans ce contexte, comment ces changements sont-ils appréhendés par les acteurs touristiques au niveau local? Selon l’approche anthropologique des changements climatiques, ces derniers se caractérisent par une multitude de phénomènes qui sont généralement imperceptibles à nos sens et leur appréhension en est d’autant plus compliquée. En étudiant le cas de la vallée de Chamonix caractérisée par une forte présence paysagère des glaciers, nous cherchons à savoir dans quelle mesure l’enjeu climatique est mieux appréhendé lorsqu’il se matérialise en problèmes tangibles comme le retrait des glaciers qui constitue aux yeux des habitants une menace visible au potentiel touristique de la région. Notre analyse montre que tel n’est pas le cas et que la forte présence de paysages glaciaires ne facilite pas l’appropriation du phénomène climatique par les acteurs touristiques locaux.
... Lived testimonies are transcribed and then interpreted for theoretical themes which would serve as analytical headings for the raw data (Sekiwu, 2013;Mohapi, 2007). Finally we used interpretative questions to mentally probe what occurs and provide answers to the mental process, which is referred to as 'interpretative anthropology' (Geertz, 2013). ...
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... 23 Di Indonesia, pengaruh imajinasi sosial juga dilakukan dengan pola di atas, khususnya setelah kemerdekaan, dimana pengaruh Weberian sangat dominan, 24 terutama pengaruh Clifford Geertz melalui beberapa kajiannya dalam bidang sosial-antropologi pada tahun 1950-an. 25 Adapun sebelumnya, warna tata nilai yang dibangun merupakan hasil dari pengkajian yang dilakukan oleh C. Snouck Hurgronje. 26 Kuntowijoyo menuturkan bahwa: ...
... Bagian atau unsur-unsur tersebut menjadi konsepsi tentang hidup dan kehidupan. Konsepsi tersebut sebagai hasil pemikiran yang mendalam dan mengandung nilainilai yang dijadikan padangan hidup dan rujukan warga masyarakat pendukungnya dalam menjalani hidup (Geertz, 1983). Wales (1958) juga menyampaikan hal serupa yaitu "the sum of the cultural characteristic which the vast majority of a people have in common as a result of their experiences in early life". ...
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Covid-19 pandemic has caused massive and widespread fear from various walks of life. The Covid-19 outbreak has affected all aspects of human life. This social reality encourages the people of Madiun Regency to make an effort to respond the pandemic by relying on local wisdom. The purpose of the study is to analyze and explain the actions of the people of Madiun Regency in responding to the Covid-19 Pandemic. The study was conducted for a year using a qualitative ethnographic approach. Data were collected by doing interview, observation, and document recording. The informants were determined by the purposive sampling technique. Meanwhile, the data analysis was using coding techniques. The results show that the community carries out mitigation through various activities vertically (supernatural powers) and horizontally (fellow humans and nature) in accordance with the philosophy of life of personal memayu hayuning, memayu hayuning kulawarga, memayu hayuning together, memayu hayuning bawana, including; (1) doing religious rituals, (2) carrying out ‘peduli tangga teparo’ (a caring-neighbor movement), (3) encouraging mutual cooperation in various aspects of life fulfillment with the principles of togetherness, mutual honing, compassion, and upbringing, (4) activating and mobilizing food barns and barns food storage, and growing medicinal plants and consuming them to increase immunity.
... Gatekeepers' involvement in research on sensitive topics, such as SRH, is key to reach refugee groups who show concerns about trust (42)(43)(44). The first phase of field work, prior to conducting the FGDs, included developing relationships with local actors and inhabitants, in addition to identifying the area's particular context (45,46). The first author was introduced to the gatekeepers by a fellow researcher from Lebanon who had previous field work experience in Bourj Hammoud. ...
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Background The war in Syria caused the forced displacement of millions of Syrians to neighboring countries. Lebanon is the host country with the largest overall number of Syrian refugees per capita. Adolescent refugee girls experience a unique level of vulnerability during human emergencies and are at increased risk of suffering from poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study to learn about the SRH perceptions and experiences of refugee adolescent girls living in Bourj Hammoud, an urban setting in Lebanon. Methods We employed a qualitative design with eight focus group discussions (FGDs) conducted with 40 Syrian Arab and Syrian Kurdish adolescent girls between January and March 2020. Every FGD consisted of five participants aged 13 to 17 years. A semi-structured guide was used covering multiple themes: menstruation, puberty, SRH awareness, and sexual harassment. FGDs were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings The participants discussed adolescent girls’ health and named six elements of good health, such as healthy activities and self-protection. The majority of the FGD participants reported a lack of awareness about menstruation when they experienced it for the first time and the social stigma associated with menstruation. When defining puberty, they indicated its social link to a girl’s readiness for marriage and her need to become cautious about sexual harassment. Most FGD participants had very poor knowledge of the female reproductive system. Mothers were the most approached persons to receive information on SRH issues; however, the girls indicated a wish to receive advice from specialists in a comfortable and private atmosphere. All the girls reported that either they themselves, or an acquaintance, had experienced some type of sexual harassment. The girls rarely reported those incidents due to fear of being blamed or subjected to mobility restrictions, or forced to drop out of school. Conclusions The findings show the refugee girls need for satisfactory knowledge on SRH issues and interventions to prevent sexual and gender-based violence that take into consideration the complexity of urban settings.
... Otro antecedente teórico relevante para el desarrollo de la terapia narrativa es el trabajo del antropólogo Clifford Geertz. White y Epston (1993) retoman tres trabajos de Geertz (1976;1983;1986) para presentar el cambio de paradigma que se ha venido gestando en el campo de las ciencias sociales, específicamente cómo se ha pasado de modelos explicativos del ser humano y la conducta social biologicistas/ mecanicistas a modelos centrados en las narrativas, el rito de paso, el juego y el drama. De igual forman, retoman la obra de Geertz para justificar la relación entre las diversas metáforas del ser humano presentes en las ciencias sociales y para entender como éstas se relacionan con la construcción de las dificultades que las personas viven y la selección de los medios y objetivos en el área de la terapia o intervención social. ...
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Este artículo de revisión bibliográfica aborda los fundamentos del pensamiento posmoderno, así como los principios teóricos y técnicos de la terapia narrativa. Se delinean inicialmente los preceptos de la filosofía moderna en torno a los cuales se han desarrollado las ciencias hasta mitad del siglo XX. A medida que se plantean los pilares del objetivismo, se desarrolla un hilo argumental de contraste en el cual se retoman los relatos configuradores de la tradición posmoderna que actualmente rigen como punto de contraste al discurso tradicional de la ciencia. En un segundo escenario se exponen las directrices de la terapia narrativa. Se recapitulan las principales estrategias de intervención derivadas de este modelo con el fin de clarificar la puesta en escena de los postulados anteriormente presentados en el contexto del acompañamiento individual y familiar. Con este texto se espera introducir al lector tanto en el pensamiento posmoderno como en la terapia narrativa, la cual en los últimos decenios ha fungido como andamiaje para múltiples conversaciones de coautoría entre consultantes y terapeutas en el mundo.
... Secondly, responses to cultural developments in general such as modernity, gender issues, politics, economics, and others (Daryono, Santoso, and (Geertz 1983). Raymond Pierotti asserts that local knowledge provides assurance and certainty of the relationship between consciousness and external factors faced (Pierotti 2011). ...
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Disease prevention is almost always done with a modern approach through medical science or other public health sciences. This approach is the primary reference in mitigating the spread of the disease. In fact, in Indonesian society, there are local wisdoms in the traditions of each ethnic group in tackling the spread of disease, for example, the Javanese tradition. Javanese culture has local wisdom in dealing with pandemics passed down from generation to generation. This study attempts to answer how the mitigation pattern in Javanese culture is. Anthropologically, pandemics can be studied under health anthropology on disease. By taking the case of the Javanese people in Indonesia, this article describes local ways of preventing and overcoming disease outbreaks or mitigating disease outbreaks. The data source of this article is produced from qualitative research through interview techniques, focus group discussions, online seminars, and the study of manuscripts from magazines published in Java. The results showed that local communities, in addition to knowing the causes of disease, also developed ways to prevent and eliminate diseases, and mitigate outbreaks and pandemics. Javanese people see the mitigation of diseases physically and psychically. Physical mitigation tends to be in line with modern medical methods and the application of new normal. The mitigation of psychics is done by using mantras and songs and developing Javanese attitude of “narima ing pandum” (take it as it comes).
... While legal realism scholars contend that the meaning of the law is determined by the readers, i.e., the judges. What the judges say and what the masses and lawyers forecast are the interpretations of the readers, which to some degree denies the objectivity of law, although it later has been revised by Dworkin (1986) and further deepened by postmodern jurists who regard law as a kind of local and contextualized knowledge (Geertz 1983). Now I would like to turn to the sociological and anthropological understanding of what law is so as to generate the working concept of law in our research. ...
Thesis
Both the Hui Muslims, the majority Muslim population in China, and the Chinese authority have tried to construct and maintain the identities that they respectively prioritized through emphasizing the adherence to their respective legal traditions and/or institutions, which are, within the context of the current PhD research, the Islamic Sharīʿa tradition and the Chinese legal tradition(s) plus official institutions, respectively. This dissertation is a socio-historical investigation into the relations between the Sharīʿa and the pre-communist Chinese legal systems. It is based on the assumption that for the Hui Muslims following the Sharīʿa law, though to various degrees, defines their identity of being a Muslim, and respecting and being subjects of the Chinese law defines one’s Chineseness. The dissertation thus asks how these two normative traditions contribute to the construction of the Chinese Hui Muslims’ dual-identity of being Muslim and Chinese. It examines the conditions under which the two legal traditions shaped the dual identity of “Muslim” and “Chinese” for the Hui Muslims, and whether a merging of these two identities has been realized. It also discusses how the Hui Muslims have dealt with the changing dynamic and oftentimes tensional relations between the two traditions in different socio-political situations of Chinese society over time. It explores the possible major causes of the tensions for the Hui Muslims to become Chinese without losing their Muslim identification both in the imperial and modern Chinese socio-legal contexts before 1949. On the one hand, it reveals what Sharīʿa law means to the Chinese Hui Muslims, and what it means for them to follow the Sharīʿa in terms of their perceptions of who they are. More importantly, on the other hand, the dissertation further addresses what challenges the Hui Muslims encountered facing the Chinese official law, and what are the socio-cultural and political conditions under which these challenges emerged and were negotiated. In this regard, the thesis also provides three case studies on Ḥajj (Islamic pilgrimage), education, and marriage that cover the religious, moral, and legal aspects of the Sharīʿa so as to assess how the tensions are presented, negotiated, and tackled by the Hui Muslims in the history of Islam in China up to the Republican period. To investigate these issues, the dissertation is primarily based on the socio-historical analysis of various Muslim-related Chinese laws. As a historical examination on the socio-political process of the construction of the Hui Muslims’ dual-identity, the dissertation analyzes a range of historical Chinese texts through the insights of hermeneutics, including, but not limited to, imperial Chinese legal documents, classical Chinese Confucian works, and various texts produced by the Hui Muslims themselves, which include several under-researched primary sources. This is also complemented by my short-term fieldwork studies in several Muslim communities in the western and southwestern parts of China. In addition to Introduction and Conclusion, the dissertation is composed of three parts, dealing with the general background of the research topic (part one), tensions in the Hui Muslims’ identity formation under Chinese socio-legal contexts (part two), and empirical case studies on education, Ḥajj, and marriage (part three). Following the Introduction, part one aims at providing a survey on up-to-date scholarship regarding the research topic, followed by some background information on the research topic and a general historical outline of the Sharīʿa in traditional Chinese society. Chapter one begins with the literature survey in both Western and Chinese academia on the research theme of the dissertation, which involves such topics as the socio-legal conditions of the Hui Muslims in history, the dual-identities of the Hui Muslims with regard to the relations between the Sharīʿa and the Chinese law, plus three empirical case studies. Based on existing research, the dissertation expands the scientific understanding of the relationship between the Sharīʿa and the Chinese official law as well as their roles in constructing the Hui Muslims identities. The chapter then elaborates on three pairs of interrelated concepts that are central to my research, namely, tradition and history, law and identity, Hui Muslims and Han Chinese. Chapter two gives a general historical account for Islam and the Sharīʿa in pre-modern China, explaining the historical trajectory of the legal life of Muslims in China. The brief historical analysis shows that no major wars or battles existed in the process of the introduction and localization of Islam in China. However, it also shows that from the outset of Islam in Chinese history, Muslims have been facing the challenges of how to live in China and get along with the Chinese, which involved 380 reconciliation with a strong and powerful tradition that had already established itself before Islam and Muslims reached China. Part two exposes in detail this tradition from the seventh century when the first Muslims settled in China up to the Republican period in the first half of the twentieth century. Chapter three aims at reconstructing, analyzing, and, to some degree, criticizing the already existing and established Chinese tradition before the arrival of Islam in China, that is, the Chinese way to practise “othering” in terms of the complex paradigm of the Chinese perceptions of, institutions on, and approaches to non-Chinese, including the Hui Muslims. This chapter is meant to locate the Hui Muslims’ experiences in the socio-legal and political situations in Chinese society and Chinese intellectual history. Through examining such discourses as the Chinese-Barbarian Distinction (yixia zhibian 夷夏之辨), the construction of the concept of China as a geographical, cultural, racial, and most importantly, a monotheistic divine entity, I point out the Chinese tradition that made it challenging for the Hui Muslims to become a Chinese, and how this tradition was institutionalized and legalized. Based on this, chapter four aims at illustrating how this tradition influences and is represented in official laws in imperial Chinese society, and how the Hui Muslims deal with it with diverse approaches. Focusing on Muslim-related legal regulations, I have provided contextualized reinterpretations of how the law was made and understood, in which context, and for what purposes. My approach to analysing the law differs from previous research by asking under which socio-political circumstances the law was made and how these circumstances have made it possible to have an alternative understanding of the law and its consequences on the Hui Muslims. The socio-legal investigation demonstrates that Chinese legal systems represent the Chinese understanding of “Us” and “Others.” Two general and fundamental Chinese approaches to dealing with non-Chinese, including the Hui Muslims, could be observed, that is, what I termed as the “separative” and the “assimilative” approaches. The former held that the inferiority of Muslims was not changeable, and therefore they were not worthy of being governed by the Chinese Son of Heaven and the Chinese law, hence should be best left alone. While the latter, those Chinese-making laws and policies maintained that the non-Chinese could, and sometimes should, be assimilated to the Chinese by intervening into Muslims’ ethnoreligious belief and practices. Chapter five explores the destiny of this tradition accompanied by the abovementioned two approaches in the context of China’s transformation into a modern nation-state in the late nineteenth to early twentieth centuries, and how the Hui Muslims defined their positions in relation to this nation-state building discourse. Among the initiators of various Chinese nation-building projects was a shared belief of the superiority of the Han Chinese over the non-Chinese, the minorities, as well as the Hui Muslims. My findings have proved that the traditional Chinese perception of the superiority of the Han Chinese over the minorities has not only been unchanged and unchallenged in the context of the Republic of China, but has indeed been reinforced. The Chinese nationalists’ reception of the concept of minzu 民族 (nation) from Japan and later its introduction to mainland China have shaped the Hui Muslims’ attempts to define, or refuse to define, themselves as a nation. To achieve a Han Chinese nation-state required not only expelling the Manchus but indeed all non-Han Chinese. This was crucial for all the non-Han Chinese peoples, including the Hui Muslims, to redefine their identity, for this indicated that to be a Chinese then was to be a Han. My contextualised analysis of the minzu discourses among various Hui Muslim groups, associations, and individuals has challenged the oversimplified understanding of the Hui Muslims’ stand. It shows that the Hui were pragmatic in solving the tensions they experienced in defining their Chinese-ness as a marginalised minority group while maintaining their Muslim identification as a unique group of people, distinctive from the Han Chinese. The legal experiences of the Hui Muslims witnessed the complex processes of exclusion and assimilation by Chinese society. The reasons for the complexity, partially, lied in the ways how the Chinese drew the boundaries between “Us” and “Others.” It is in this processes of othering that the Hui Muslims, presumably all the ethnoreligious groups in China, struggled in identifying their Chinese-ness. Prior to the Conclusion, part three analyses how these tension-related issues are reflected in the realm of the Hui Muslims’ practice of the Sharīʿa in three case studies on education, Ḥajj, and marriage. Chapter six focuses on the issue of education among the Hui Muslims. The Hui Muslims’ attitudes towards education have been shaped by both the Islamic and the Chinese perceptions on education. On the one hand, as far as Islamic religious education is concerned, the Hui have internalized the tradition of Islam that regards education as a 381 divine obligation from God and the foundation of their belief. On the other hand, to make a living in China, they have to handle the situation where the cultivation of talents needed by the government was the most distinguishing feature of education in China, the politicization of education leading to the transformation of the functions of schools into a place for the production of government officials needed by the political rulers. As a matter of fact, the very birth of traditional Islamic education of the Hui Muslims, the jingtang jiaoyu 經堂教育 (scripture hall education), was the result of this process of negotiation over identity formation. The Jingtang education came about when the Chinese Ming Dynasty imposed discriminative laws and policies against the Hui which resulted in a religious (and later economic and political) crisis. Thus it is crucial in maintaining the identity of the Hui Muslims in that it functions not only as an institution where knowledge is passed down from generation to generation, enabling the Hui Muslims to pursue the Path leading to the Ultimate Truth. It also evolved in a systematic and institutionalized way, which later resulted in the establishment of interconnected networks among Muslim teachers and students, Sufi Masters and disciples, and classmates. These networks are crucial in developing a shared we-ness among the Hui Muslims. In this regard, modern educational projects actually share great similarity with traditional Jingtang education. The modern projects, though appearing to be more complicated, served partially as responses to the external challenges brought about by Chinese socio-political situations. The modern educational reformers targeted either the traditional Jingtang education that was overly influenced by Chinese culture, or the new situation in which the Hui Muslims were supposed to live, cooperate, and maybe, more importantly, compete with the Chinese, which required sufficient knowledge of modern science and technology. Education for the Hui Muslims, especially religious education, has been a channel through which their (religious) identity has been constructed in response to external challenges. Chapter seven is about Ḥajj as a religious activity that nevertheless has significant social, political, intellectual, and economic implications. In this regard, the Hui Muslims’ pilgrimage to Mecca is no exception. I have offered a comprehensive illustration regarding the routes taken by Muslims in traditional China to Mecca. These routes could shed light on the diversity of the impact Ḥajj might have for Muslims in the Far East, and how Muslims in China were connected via Ḥajj to Muslims in Central Asia and Southeast Asia. This is further demonstrated by the introduction of Sufism in China, which added a unique layer of identity among the Hui themselves, the menhuan 門宦 (Sufi orders). Mecca is not only a holy city that is essential for the Hui Muslims in defining the “authenticity” of their religion, a holy city that they have for a long time defined as their “homeland” (zuguo 祖國), hence crucial for their identification as Muslim. Mecca, and the Muslim world in the context of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in particular, also turns out to be an essential source for the building of the Hui Muslims’ Chinese identity, particularly in their understanding of the relations between being a pious Muslim and a patriotic Chinese nationalist. My findings have shown that Ḥajj might strengthen the “Muslim” identification of the Hui, however, this does not necessarily result in a decrease in their “Chinese” identification. The Hui Muslims’ closer and stronger connections with the very centre of Islam in modern times do not necessarily lead to stronger disintegration or separation from China. On the contrary, Ḥajj, as a matter of fact, was one of the sources from which the Hui Muslims tried to justify their Chinese nationalist movement, and strengthened their patriotism to China. The last chapter on case studies discusses the issue of marriage. Just like education, marriage in Islam has a strong sense of religious connotation. While in the traditional Chinese context, it is deeply intertwined with politics. My investigation shows that marriage for the Hui Muslims denotes diverse meanings, and perhaps a most notable one is that it is shaped by both the Chinese and the Islamic traditions. As believers of Islam, the Hui Muslims deem marriage as a divine sign of Allah, a highly religious sacred covenant, and therefore, following the Sharīʿa marriage norms defines their identity as Muslims. Meanwhile, their perceptions of marriage have also been deeply influenced by their inhabiting China and being Chinese. Therefore, marriage for the Hui Muslims is not (merely) a union of two individuals but (also) a positive union of two families, a typical traditional Chinese perception of marriage. The Hui case shows that the modern national legal system and the Islamic Sharīʿa norms are not necessarily incompatible or irreconcilable with each other, and that, meanwhile, how the Hui Muslims deal with the Sharīʿa marriage rules, to what extent they would refuse the state law and follow the Sharīʿa law, and vice versa, are largely determined by how the Hui Muslims were positioned and treated by the cultural, the socio-legal, and the political spheres in Chinese society.
... Inšpiráciou pre ňu bol prístup Clifforda Geertza, ktorý sa vo svojej práci Local Knowledge. Further Essays in Interpretative Anthropology (Geertz, 1983) chcel posunúť za rámec opisov, ktoré sa týkali foriem poznania v dualistických pojmoch, ako napríklad vo vnútri/vonku, v prvej osobe/tretej osobe, fenomenologickom/objektívnom a emickom/etickom ponímaní. Namiesto toho veril, že úlohou výskumníka je zvážiť objektívne aj subjektívne perspektívy, aby bolo možné presnejšie reprezentovať chápanie konceptov, symbolov a jazyka v kultúre "domorodcov" -v našom prípade zamestnancov organizácie. ...
Chapter
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Monografia prostredníctvom prehľadu aktuálnej literatúry, ako aj originálnych výskumov autorov a autorky prezentuje tri inovatívne výskumné prístupy v etnológii a sociálnej antropológii. Etnológovia testujú možnosti a limity postmoderných metodologických prístupov, ktoré sú na hranici vedy a umenia (autoetnografia, reflexívne písanie); prístupov, ktoré sú typické skôr pre pozitivisticky ladené vedné disciplíny (experiment) a ukazujú tiež, ako sa dá nehmotné kultúrne dedičstvo uchopiť prostredníctvom prístupov antropológie organizácií, ktorá sa pohybuje na hranici sociálnej psychológie, sociológie, ale má presah aj do politického priestoru. Publikácia je určená všetkým sociálnym a humanitným vedcom a vedkyniam, ktorí sa neboja prekračovať hranice svojich disciplín.
... It is, for example, not difficult to notice drastic changes after periods of war, or by way of major scientific breakthroughs ( Badiou, 2012 ). More difficult is to capture the stream of ongoing, small and accumulated changes, which happen in both social communication and acting ( Geertz, 1993 ;Gustavsson & Selander, 2011 ). In this book, we have tried to elaborate further on processes with a focus on communication, meaning-making, and learning sequences within different settings. ...
... De manera específica sobre la duración y la profundidad de los dos programas de movilidad internacional de esta investigación, se observa que, aunque en ambos el tiempo no excede el semestre educativo, las interacciones que se dan entre los estudiantes y su entorno (universidad, lugar de residencia, escuelas o centros escolares) se circunscriben por un "horizonte de interacciones cotidianas, personales y posibles" (Rockwell, 2009, p.22) lo suficientemente largas que posibiliten comprender la "visión de los nativos" o "el conocimiento local" (Geertz, 1983). Aunque los estudiantes normalistas parten en el marco de un programa gubernamental, al momento de llegar a los países receptores tienen la libertad de construir una vida social y personal de manera autónoma. ...
Thesis
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Los programas de movilidad estudiantil internacional se presentan como una de las estrategias de la internacionalización de la educación superior que permite desarrollar conocimientos y habilidades en los estudiantes. En este sentido —recientemente— las escuelas normales han participado en programas de este tipo con apoyo de la Secretaría de Educación Pública (SEP), de organismos internacionales y gracias a convenios bilaterales firmados entre México y otros países. Este trabajo estudia el programa de movilidad internacional “Jaime Torres Bodet-Paulo Freire” de la Organización de Estado Iberoamericanos y el “Programa de Becas en Francia”. Se analiza la construcción de aspiraciones de los estudiantes normalistas posterior a la estancia en el extranjero, así como el desarrollo de habilidades internacionales. En esta investigación de corte cualitativo se emplearon entrevistas semiestructuradas como principal método de recolección de información. Asimismo, se utilizó un cuestionario socioeconómico y se consultaron documentos oficiales relativos a los programas de movilidad internacional. Se entrevistó a un grupo de 26 estudiantes normalistas de escuelas normales oficiales y rurales; 13 estudiantes por cada programa. También se entrevistó a funcionarios relacionadas con los programas de movilidad. El principal aporte de esta tesis reside en que se trata de uno de los primeros estudios sistemáticos sobre la incidencia que han tenido ambos programas en la formación de los estudiantes normalistas. Al respecto, se contribuye a la discusión sobre la construcción de aspiraciones y al desarrollo de habilidades internacionales. Sobre las aspiraciones, se identifica que éstas se construyen de manera más contundente en los estudiantes que tenían un bajo capital económico y cultural. No obstante, en los estudiantes con mejores capitales se identifica una construcción de aspiraciones más matizada. Sobre las habilidades internacionales, los estudiantes normalistas desarrollaron la competencia intercultural y la ciudadanía global, identificándose como sujetos más comprensivos, tolerantes y empáticos, así como con menos prejuicios, estereotipos o etnocentrismos. La construcción de aspiraciones y habilidades en la fase inicial de su formación se presenta como punto de inflexión para la consolidación ideal de cuadros docentes más capacitados.
... The interpretation of cultures: Selected essays. New York, Basic Books. 2 Geertz, C. (1983). Local knowledge: Further essays in interpretative anthropology. ...
Book
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The book summarises the results of the authors' comparative studies in Chinese philosophy and culture and the philosophy and culture of Indigenous people of North America.
... Isso não se trata de um "comportamento" isolado, pois a temática indígena não é muito afeita às instituições que têm como foco a filosofia e o direito. Além do mais, ter uma erudição, um título acadêmico em ciências humanas ou um acúmulo de compreensão sobre determinado assunto não nos torna mais sensíveis a uma temática, pois ao final acabamos sempre como "connoisseur of case in point" (GEERTZ, 1983). A grande questão é que em áreas do conhecimento cuja relação é de encontros e desencontros cosmológicos constantes, como caracterizarei a relação entre o direito e os Borum, não basta apenas sermos conhecedores pontuais. ...
Article
O presente texto tem como objetivo desnaturalizar os pressupostos constitutivos sobre o índio no ponto de vista dos sujeitos do direito. Para tanto, utilizo-me de um episódio reconstruído para revelar categorias que operam consciente e inconscientemente na forma de pensar do jurista tradicional quando tratamos do índio. Por fim, concluo sobre os impasses impostos às pesquisas empíricas de cunho etnográfico desenvolvidas no campo jurídico que busquem colocar em cena os indígenas dessa terra e os desafios éticos que encontraremos ao “estar aqui”.
... Alarcón cautions us to be aware of how knowledge and power give rise to what he refers to as "communicative and epistemological struggles," phrased by Andréa Zhouri (2018) as "epistemological violence": when local and traditional ways of understanding and being in the world are dismissed in consequence of ecological modernization. In line with the debate on ethnographic representations (Clifford & Marcus, 1986;James et al., 1997;Katz, 1992) of the "distinctive manners of imagining the real" (Geertz, 1983;p. 184), both Richard Stoffle and Kathleen Van Vlack, in their contributions to this book, raise the point that we, as scholars, must ask who is speaking and who is considered an expert or authority to avoid the reproduction of discursive colonialism (cf. ...
Chapter
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This is a study of a group of people living in south-central Slovakia who wish to reconnect with their ancestral land. This group has decided to return to the abandoned cultural landscape in former hamlets. The area they are returning to, like many other similar areas around Europe, is characterized by demographic change through outmigration by young generations and aging populations. To facilitate their return, a group of anthropologists have conducted research of original adaptation strategies, historical migrations, and demographic changes in selected localities. At the same time, the areas’ last inhabitants began to revitalize cemeteries—symbolic places. The anthropologists facilitated this restoration process by conducting oral histories, developing maps of traditional areas, and compiling ethnohistorical research data. The abandoned cemeteries acquired a new function after their restoration—they speak to the public as an environmental argument for the fragility of landscape sustainability.
... Para melhor compreensão ver:Pedrollo et al, 2016;Geertz, 1983;Staub et al, 2015;Shepard Jr, 2004;Milliken and Albert, 1996;Posey, 2001; Morales, 1996;Marques, 2002;Berlin et al, 1993;Heinrich, 1994. ...
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The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) recognized the mutual interdependence relation between traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources and sustainable development. The Nagoya Protocol is a supplementary agreement to the CBD, developed to guide the creation of rules concerning the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources. Nevertheless, although these agreements aim at establishing rules and boundaries to the access and exploration of these resources, traditional knowledge is not easily defined nor protected by the current legal frameworks. There is a normative gap regarding the protection of cultural expressions and knowledge of indigenous and traditional peoples. In Brazil the law 13123 set the current legal framework related to CBD, replacing the PM 2.186-16. It regulated item II of §1º and §4º of article 225 of the Federal Constitution, as well as articles 1º; 8, j; 10, c; 15 e 16, §§3º e 4º of CBD. The law of biodiversity assorts about genetic resources, the protection and access of traditional knowledge and benefit sharing for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. It also recognizes the collective nature of traditional knowledge, defining it as part of the Brazilian cultural heritage. Whilst the approval of the new regulation was celebrated by the industry, traditional communities and social movements’ delegates pointed out that the law affronts the rights of the traditional peoples, violating international agreements such as ILO 169 and the CBD. We adopted the inductive reasoning as a method for this research, consulting legal instruments, international organizations’ documents, declarations of relevant entities and both national and international bibliography. The theoretical framework is influenced by Decolonialism, elemental for the understanding of the issue. Considering the importance of the theme for sustainable development, the lack of consensus and the inexistence of a legal framework regarding the protection of traditional knowledge, as well as the conflicts related to the regulation in Brazil, this research work analyzed the access and benefit-sharing (ABS) system created by Law 13123. We aspire to map the exemptions designed by the law, observing how the legislator disciplined the ownership and property of traditional knowledge. At last, we cross-examine the juridicity of the inclusion of such exemptions in the national framework, disputing the role that the dominant epistemology plays in the determination of legal concepts and, accordingly, in the creation of norms.
... Cabe, entretanto, perguntar como essas orientações são implementadas pois, como nos ensinou Geertz (1983), entre a linguagem da "imaginação" e a política da decisão, há muito espaço para negociação. Rejeitando o mito de "jurisprudência automaticamente transferível", analistas da área jurídica sublinham a necessidade de levar em consideração o escopo enorme de possibilidades para a implementação efetiva das normas de direitos humanos em diferentes países (Alston 1994). ...
Article
Neste artigo, analiso a interação entre adotados adultos em busca de suas origens biológicas e as figuras de autoridade que detêm informações sobre essas origens. Retomo brevemente a história do segredo envolvido na adoção, para desembocar na nova Lei de Adoção brasileira, que garante aos adotados “acesso irrestrito” aos seus dossiês. Trago a narrativa de adotados contatados por meio de uma associação (em Porto Alegre, Brasil) sobre suas experiências frustradas de busca, assim como de funcionários do Juizado local. Partindo do pressuposto que a busca das origens encerra muitos dos problemas encontrados nas discussões sobre outros direitos fundamentais, demonstro ao longo do artigo que os direitos são politicamente construídos, que envolvem sujeitos vivendo num mundo relacional, e que sua implementação passa pela microfísica dos espaços administrativos.
... The authors of this article used and interpreted the Clifford Geertz's idea of "Thick Description" in the following way. The description of any cultural message (action, event, state) (in this case -the texts were written by Pan Maoming) should not be purely external, phenomenal, but should take into account (1) the intention, (2) the addressee, (3) the specific historical meaning and (4) social code, which is specific to a certain point in time, a particular local culture and social group (Geertz, 1973: 6) The authors also used the Clifford Geertz's ideas presented in his work Local knowledge: Further essays in interpretative anthropology (Geertz, 1983). We used and applied in this study the following idea of Clifford Geertz about the "inevitability" of local knowledge: ...
Article
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This paper presents the results of the authors’ study of the philosophical heritage of the Ancient Chinese philosopher Pan Maoming, who played an essential role in the development of spiritual culture, as well as Philosophy and Science of Ancient Southern China (nowadays, Guangdong Province). The authors carried out historiographical research of currently available ancient and modern sources, which contain data on the life and philosophical ideas of Pan Maoming; reconstructed the Pan Maoming’s intellectual biography; revealed the main features of his worldview. The authors reconstructed the social, cultural, and philosophical context of the historical epoch in which Pan Maoming’s philosophical and scientific views arose and developed; clarified the philosopher’s historical role in the development of local culture in the Southern region of Ancient China. The article contains the author’s description and interpretation of the main philosophical ideas of Pan Maoming, the main amid which the authors consider the ethical concept of “peace and emptiness,” the concept of “clumsiness”; the idea of “monasticism for the happiness of the people.” The authors compared Pan Maoming’s philosophical ideas with Lao-tzu’s philosophical doctrine and came to the conclusion that Pan Maoming formed his own unique and original elaboration of Taoist philosophy, significantly developed its linguistic (conceptual) apparatus and worldview. The authors paid particular attention to the description and analysis of Pan Maoming’s cosmological views, which include the doctrine of “Inner alchemy” (Neidan), the doctrine of “chaos, order and causality.” The authors concluded that Pan Maoming’s cosmological ideas significantly developed a way of understanding the Universe, the relationship between “inert” and “living” matter, the “world of nature” and the “world of human” in the Taoist philosophical culture. The authors also presented and substantiated their point of view that some philosophical and cosmological ideas of Pan Maoming have not only of historical value but can also be used for developing and enriching the local spiritual culture of Guangdong Province (an intrinsic part of which is the so-called “Pan Maoming’s culture”) in the form of ethical and educational practices, as well as practices of strengthening cultural unity and identity. Keywords: Pan Maoming, philosophy, cosmology, Ancient China, “Inner Alchemy” (Neidan), “Pan Maoming’s culture”
... 88 No âmbito da sociologia, ver, por exemplo: Arnaud (1981Arnaud ( , 1997Arnaud ( , 2003Arnaud ( e 2004; Campilongo (2000); Commaille (2015 e 2016); Delmas-Marty (2006); Faria (2002aFaria ( , 2002bFaria ( , 2010Faria ( e 2011Santos (2002) e Teubner (1997. Na antropologia, ver, entre outros: Dupret (2003Dupret ( , 2005, 2010 e 2016); Geertz (1983); Le Roy (1998Roy ( , 1999Roy ( , 2003Roy ( e 2017; Eberhard (2001Eberhard ( , 2002bEberhard ( , 2003Eberhard ( e 2010MacDonald (2006); MacDonald e Kleinhans (1997); Moore (2014); Nader (2002); Piccoli, Eberhard e Motard (2016); Rouland (1988Rouland ( , 1995Rouland ( e 2003; Sierra e Chenaut (2002); Tamanaha (2000); Vachon (1990) e Vanderlinden (1996Vanderlinden ( , 2009Vanderlinden ( , 2013aVanderlinden ( , 2013bVanderlinden ( , 2013cVanderlinden ( e 2013d. 89 Evidentemente que a alusão a essa complementaridade não implica o que Commaille (2016) designa de "ecumenismo ingênuo". ...
Article
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Este artigo pretende analisar o fenômeno da governança diante da interculturalidade. Assim, inicialmente, examina o delineamento conceitual que lhe é dado pela sociologia jurídica. Em seguida, mediante o recurso à abordagem antropológica, discute a ambivalência que perpassa a governança no horizonte da interculturalidade. Por fim, em termos conclusivos, enfatiza o caráter frutífero da complementaridade entre as perspectivas sociológica e antropológica, no horizonte de um campo de pesquisa interdisciplinar.
... Como entender o fato entográfico relevante, as festas políticas, senão referindo--o ao plano no qual se realiza enquanto rito, o da eficácia simbólica? O texto etnográfico corrobora não apenas Lévi-Strauss (1975), mas também Geertz (1983) quando este afirma ser necessário tomar o simbólico como forma de ação, tanto quanto de expressão social. Compreender o significado da festa em sua eficácia política implica nela reconhecer a encenação e atualização de valores tidos como fundamentais. ...
Book
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Etnografia sobre os sentidos da política em um município do Sertão mineiro.
... However, she was doubtful if she could implement the changes because "everybody should work together it will be […] almost impossible for me myself, only me, to do something … [and] others don't do anything" (5/6/08). Nesiani's pedagogy of change appeared to be rooted in Javanese cultural value of gotong royong or "joint bearing of burdens" (Geertz, 1983) that put emphasis on the cooperation of many people to attain a shared goal. For her it was impossible to initiate changes if people in her department did not support them. ...
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Many research have focused on the identity construction of Asian teachers (see, among others, Chang, 2004; Cui, 2006; Ha & Que, 2006; Tang, 1997; and Tsui, 2007). Among all these, studies focusing on Indonesian teacher identity construction are rare. Thus, the study aimed at filling the gap. The study examined the identity development of three Indonesian English teachers navigating in an in-service program in the US. The study found that their identities varied with one subject experienced identity shift while others illustrate the case of identity as relatively permanent. Whereas previous studies on L2 teachers have focused primarily on the construction of teacher identity per se, the findings of the study indicated that the construction of the three Indonesian teacher identities were grounded in other identity options such as nonnative speaker, gender as well as learner identity.
... Alarcón cautions us to be aware of how knowledge and power give rise to what he refers to as "communicative and epistemological struggles," phrased by Andréa Zhouri (2018) as "epistemological violence": when local and traditional ways of understanding and being in the world are dismissed in consequence of ecological modernization. In line with the debate on ethnographic representations (Clifford & Marcus, 1986;James et al., 1997;Katz, 1992) of the "distinctive manners of imagining the real" (Geertz, 1983;p. 184), both Richard Stoffle and Kathleen Van Vlack, in their contributions to this book, raise the point that we, as scholars, must ask who is speaking and who is considered an expert or authority to avoid the reproduction of discursive colonialism (cf. ...
Chapter
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This chapter discusses an environmental communication approach, using certain Indigenous place names as examples of how residents of communities around Iliamna Lake, Alaska, not only use place names to convey environmental and spatial information, but also to emphasize the temporal and spiritual relationships between the people and the land. Place names and stories about these places often reveal local histories and affirm cultural ethics. Elders sharing their feelings and stories about these places with younger generations affirm the residents’ connection to the streams, lakes, and other landmarks in the Iliamna Lake area. Participating in daily activities and sharing oral traditions of the landscape are at the core of the environmental communication used by residents of Iliamna Lake communities to live in harmony with nature.
... Alarcón cautions us to be aware of how knowledge and power give rise to what he refers to as "communicative and epistemological struggles," phrased by Andréa Zhouri (2018) as "epistemological violence": when local and traditional ways of understanding and being in the world are dismissed in consequence of ecological modernization. In line with the debate on ethnographic representations (Clifford & Marcus, 1986;James et al., 1997;Katz, 1992) of the "distinctive manners of imagining the real" (Geertz, 1983;p. 184), both Richard Stoffle and Kathleen Van Vlack, in their contributions to this book, raise the point that we, as scholars, must ask who is speaking and who is considered an expert or authority to avoid the reproduction of discursive colonialism (cf. ...
Chapter
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Anthropological findings and symbolic activities of native populations can be argumentative tools in environmental communication. This chapter presents the ethnography research and assistance of anthropologists in the re-adaptation of the new mountain generation in Vrchár communities in Slovakia, Central Europe. Here, in the second half of twentieth century, several generations were evicted from their original surroundings. The anthropologists compiled an inventory of the current state of local culture in outlying locations. They subsequently used a mixed method to analyze the consequences of interrupting generational transmission and created a model for sustainable transmission of local culture. The new generation adapts Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) as lived heritage and periodically presents newly learned knowledge of symbolic events. This symbolic reference to sustainability constitutes important argumentation in environmental communication with multiple stakeholders.
... Alarcón cautions us to be aware of how knowledge and power give rise to what he refers to as "communicative and epistemological struggles," phrased by Andréa Zhouri (2018) as "epistemological violence": when local and traditional ways of understanding and being in the world are dismissed in consequence of ecological modernization. In line with the debate on ethnographic representations (Clifford & Marcus, 1986;James et al., 1997;Katz, 1992) of the "distinctive manners of imagining the real" (Geertz, 1983;p. 184), both Richard Stoffle and Kathleen Van Vlack, in their contributions to this book, raise the point that we, as scholars, must ask who is speaking and who is considered an expert or authority to avoid the reproduction of discursive colonialism (cf. ...
Chapter
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This is a study of the communication of environmental risk associated with the planned removal of arsenic from the copper mining fields in Riddarhyttan, central Sweden. The study was implemented using in-depth interviews with community residents and representatives from the local, regional, and national governments, as well as walk-and-talk sessions near contaminated grounds to learn about the value of these places to local people and their reflections on risk. The study identified how local residents had to navigate between messages from authorities that touching stones could be life threatening at the same time as they were told that risk was non-existent. This resulted in mixed and affective feelings regarding place, community, and the role the copper industry had played in the past. The case is an illuminating example of how perception and communication is embedded in the social and cultural reality of local communities.
... Alarcón cautions us to be aware of how knowledge and power give rise to what he refers to as "communicative and epistemological struggles," phrased by Andréa Zhouri (2018) as "epistemological violence": when local and traditional ways of understanding and being in the world are dismissed in consequence of ecological modernization. In line with the debate on ethnographic representations (Clifford & Marcus, 1986;James et al., 1997;Katz, 1992) of the "distinctive manners of imagining the real" (Geertz, 1983;p. 184), both Richard Stoffle and Kathleen Van Vlack, in their contributions to this book, raise the point that we, as scholars, must ask who is speaking and who is considered an expert or authority to avoid the reproduction of discursive colonialism (cf. ...
Chapter
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The Little Springs Lava Flow is the remnant of an active volcano located in northern Arizona. Southern Paiutes and the scientific community dispute about the Paiute response to this eruption. Paiutes stipulate that this volcano is a ceremonial landscape where religious leaders physically interacted during eruption and subsequently built a series of trails for ceremony. This interpretation contrasts with that of the scientific community, who maintain that volcanoes are dangerous to humans, and therefore Paiutes would have left in fear during the eruption. This chapter explains this debate and how Paiutes are challenging the scientists in order to communicate their environmental heritage.
... Alarcón cautions us to be aware of how knowledge and power give rise to what he refers to as "communicative and epistemological struggles," phrased by Andréa Zhouri (2018) as "epistemological violence": when local and traditional ways of understanding and being in the world are dismissed in consequence of ecological modernization. In line with the debate on ethnographic representations (Clifford & Marcus, 1986;James et al., 1997;Katz, 1992) of the "distinctive manners of imagining the real" (Geertz, 1983;p. 184), both Richard Stoffle and Kathleen Van Vlack, in their contributions to this book, raise the point that we, as scholars, must ask who is speaking and who is considered an expert or authority to avoid the reproduction of discursive colonialism (cf. ...
Chapter
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This chapter elaborates conceptual and theoretical insights to advance a conflict- and power-oriented perspective for a critical conceptualization of environmental communication. To this purpose, the chapter develops and builds upon insights from the anthropology of power and the epistemologies of the South. Within this context, the chapter focuses on the theoretical contributions of Paulo Freire and Eric Wolf to critically approach the relations between communication, power, and conflicts within social-ecological relations. Empirically, the chapter offers an analysis of struggles for water justice and water democracy in Chile which is based on interviews, observations, and analysis of documents conducted during fieldwork in three regions and rural areas of Chile. The chapter argues for a critical theorizing of environmental communication to better understand and explain the meanings of normative views of environmental communication, and to also understand how such normative views cannot be separated from the interests of subjects situated in contingent social-ecological relations and conflicts.
Preprint
I am trying to do two things by posting this material from my book-in-progress titled Magic Matters: Science and Medicine in Chinese Popular Culture, 1600–1800. One is to invite constructive criticism 指正 (please respond directly to smithrj@rice.edu rather than to this website, unless you have something of general interest to say). And the other is to make my Asian-language and Western-language bibliographies available to anyone who might be interested. I have already imposed a draft preface and my preliminary bibliographies on a number of scholarly friends and colleagues, and have received valuable feedback. The preface is still no doubt incomplete (my fault, not theirs), but it should at least give an indication of what I am trying to do with my book. It also explains the title.
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The development of an Islamic infrastructure by Muslims with a migrant background in European contexts has hardly been addressed as expressing a sign of putting down local roots, but rather as an activity that contradicts such a process. However, the various ways in which Muslim migrants have built up local Muslim spaces, both now and in the past, are ordinary modalities of locality production. This is a contentious, complex, and multi-faceted dynamic. By unpacking a historical and a contemporary case, I shall address three broad questions: (1) What are the conditions for Muslim space-making? (2) What are the evolving and contested notions of space and locality that are being produced over time, and what are the religious underpinnings of this process? (3) Who are the main actors and what are the power configurations in which this process unfolds?
Chapter
Globalisation has disrupted most of the intellectual and practical tools jurists had devised. Yesterday’s “high definition” law has given way to a new “low definition” law. The main features of the latter have debased such paradigmatic concepts as the authority of the State legislator, the dichotomy between internal and external legal norms, the distinction between public and private sources of law, the image of the Kelsenian pyramid of norms, and the centrality of legal obligation. Legal pluralism and constitutionalism have frequently been presented as the two main competing orientations to meet the challenges of the global age. Whereas the former insists on diversity, the latter insists on common values. The legal, empirical, and doctrinal information gleaned from nine national reporters about the respective situations of Argentina, Botswana, Brazil, Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Singapore, the Solomon Islands, and the United Kingdom tend to prove that no clear-cut distinction between pluralism and constitutionalism is evident. Nor are the strategies these two perspectives embody totally successful to meet the demands of the day. Section 2 of this general report sets the stage for the study of legal interactions in the global age. It sheds light on the degree of pluralism each of the studied legal systems admits, both in its relations with other legal systems that reach beyond the States, and in its relations with more or less autonomous inner forms of legal normativity. Section 3 tackles the forms of interactions that take place among legal actors in the context of an increasingly plural landscape, and how they contribute to changing legal mentalities. By focusing respectively on legal actors’ reasoning and on legal scholarship, understood as the interacting members of a unified epistemic community, Sects. 4 and 5 contribute to highlighting what “thinking like a lawyer” means today. Finally, Sect. 6 identifies how little neutral, and how value-laden, the current discussion about pluralism and constitutionalism is. The very concepts that are currently used to confront today’s major legal changes testify to the ideological dimension of legal analysis.
Article
This article examines cattle culture and colour symbolism as practised among heterogeneous Sotho-Tswana people in South Africa. It aims to decode some meanings of colours that frequently feature in the designs, homestead decorations, and languages of Sotho-Tswana people. Based on an emic approach and interviews with cultural practitioners, the study hopes to advance the documentation of material culture by emphasising cultural signifiers and ethical practices linked to specific colour symbols. I argue that the interpretation of cattle culture and colour symbolism may help to identify specific colours as significant in the context of creative production and indigenous nomenclatures. Currently, heritage institutions and researchers are faced with the enormous task of interpreting cultural objects that have, to a greater or lesser degree, been forgotten by the groups that produced them, and of unearthing the background of their production so as to enable the establishment of their past and present relevance to communities. In this article, I emphasise my own findings rather than relying entirely on possibly dated literature.
Article
Analysing the spread and survival of Islamic legal ideas and commentaries in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean littorals, Islamic Law in Circulation focuses on Shāfiʿīsm, one of the four Sunnī schools of Islamic law. It explores how certain texts shaped, transformed and influenced the juridical thoughts and lives of a significant community over a millennium in and between Asia, Africa and Europe. By examining the processes of the spread of legal texts and their roles in society, as well as thinking about how Afrasian Muslims responded to these new arrivals of thoughts and texts, Mahmood Kooria weaves together a narrative with the textual descendants from places such as Damascus, Mecca, Cairo, Malabar, Java, Aceh and Zanzibar to tell a compelling story of how Islam contributed to the global history of law from the thirteenth to the twentieth century.
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Purpose: This article describes and proposes a model of the factors that influenced community members' initial mobilization, continuing effort, or lack of involvement in a community based-intervention on adolescents' sexual health in Nova Scotia, Canada. Design: This study was conducted within the constructivist paradigm and guided by the principles of grounded theory. Methods: Factors related to community members' initial and continued involvement were explored using analyses of the contents of in-depth interviews and written documentation through pattern identification, clustering of conceptual groupings, identification of relationships between variables, constant comparisons, and theoretical memos. Subjects: Respondents included 14 participants, the 12 members of the Board of Directors and two paid staff (i.e., the project coordinator and the health centre nurse). Results: Specific personal, community-related, and organizational factors have influenced community members' involvement in the project. These factors were grouped into an explanatory model.
Article
This paper argues that an Arts-Based Research (ABR) methodology, drawing on the Ethnofiction work of filmmaker Jean Rouch, can facilitate new ways of researching mathematics, science and education more generally by: (i) making past learning experiences more accessible and (ii) considering the affective engagement of the audience as interrogator of research to open up myriad understandings of research data. Here, dissemination and impact are positioned as ‘inside’ the research process, rather than ‘informed by’ or directed by the outcome of research. The paper discusses the research film Performatics: Performing stories of mathematical identity through filmed drama Performatics https://vimeo.com/147449932, and a scene which shows Claire (a postgraduate student studying quantitative analysis), in a scene entitled ‘Sum Anxiety’, as she dramatizes an experience from the secondary school mathematics classroom. A moment, which Claire expresses as pivotal in negatively affecting her as a mathematics learner; an experience still viscerally felt.
Thesis
Our study focuses on adolescents’ tacit substantive understanding and their attempt to make sense of Roman slavery. We studied forty-five Portuguese students distributed by three age groups aged 12+, 14+ and 16+ respectively. They were selected from one secondary school from the North of Portugal, in the environs of Braga. They all had studied, with different degrees of accuracy and depth, the subject of Slavery in Rome. The main purposes of this study were to map students' tacit ideas on slavery, and to detect possible links between students' tacit historical understanding and their empathetic understanding of people of the past. To attain those purposes two specific questions were formulated: What tacit substantive historical ideas do students evoke when trying to understand social practices in the past?, and What tacit substantive historical ideas constitute workable generalisations for understanding such practices? Based on the analysis of data from two interviews and a written test administered to the three age groups, we found commonalities and differences in the students' tacit historical understanding of slavery (Tacit Substantive Historical Understanding interview) and in their empathetic understanding of Roman slaves' reasons for saving their masters from death (Empathy test and Empathy interview). We also determined the students' substantive generalisations on some areas of human experience which were evoked to understand past people and practices. Based on commonalities and differences found in the three age groups, we propose a systematization that may provide some partial and provisional contributions for the study of adolescents' understanding of history.
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The lack of understanding between the Judiciary and Indigenous Peoples in Brazil stems in large part from the state's refusal to recognize the sovereignty of the latter, while asserts its own sovereignty over them. There is little interest from judges and legal operators in knowing and recognizing the specific rights brought by indigenous alterity, recognized by the Federal Constitution of 1988. Academic interest in Indigenous Peoples in Law schools is still low and, in most cases when it occurs, is without the methodological tools of empirical research and the ethical concerns of anthropological fieldwork. I intend to analyze the difference between the typical approach of anthropologists and jurists on this subject, while defending the relevance and contribution of Legal Anthropology to all sides involved: Indigenous Peoples, Judiciary and Academia.
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The growing integration of cultural analyses stands out as one of the most notable contemporary movements in international and diplomatic history. The ‘cultural turn’ in these fields has made it evident that the analysis of cultural artefacts, identities, and representations has much to teach us about the ways states behave in the international system, as well as how cultural factors contribute to the conditions of alliance or enmity between nations. However, while the long-running and complex connections between Britain and America have always offered innumerable opportunities to explore the power of culture to shape their relationship, the ‘cultural turn’ did not begin in our field. Rather, it emerged from other disciplines of history and anthropology, and its subsequent impact on the study of Anglo-American relations has been noticeably uneven. US-UK relations in the 20th century have received somewhat less attention from cultural specialists than have those of earlier periods, and the role of culture in the post-1940 Anglo-American special relationship has been consistently underexplored in favour of more traditional methods of historical analysis. This article first addresses how the cultural turn has influenced the study of the overall historical relationship between America and Britain. The second section narrows the scope of enquiry to address how the cultural turn has affected the study of the special relationship in particular. A brief conclusion section offers a few thoughts on the need for and potential directions of future studies targeting the intersection of Anglo-American cultural sharing and US-UK partnership.
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