Article

Evaluation of trafficked error paths of trailers in sugarcane fields

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Harvest mechanization in sugarcane results in an intense vehicle traffic inside the crop areas. When using transshipment trailers, keeping them in the correct path is not simple. The aim of this study was to evaluate the error path of a set trailered with and without the use of an automatic steering system during sugarcane harvesting. We used a combination of a tractor and two transshipment trailers with three axles each. The results show that the errors of the transshipments are above the acceptable and the use of automatic steering on the tractor minimizes offset errors in the transshipments trajectory and the slope of the terrain is a factor that interferes with the displacement as a whole. Despite the use of automatic steering systems in the auxiliary tractor to minimize the errors suffered by transshipments, there is a need for active systems linked to these to be maintained in the correct route.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The development of machinery guidance using GNSS positioning is widely spread and used within farming fields along the world. Positioning accuracy of machines is a must in controlled traffic farming (CTF), which is strongly applied in sugarcane crop because undesired traffic on ratoons creates damages for the re-growth of the plant. Nonetheless for the adoption of such guidance systems some questions are raised of how much a guidance system can excel the operator skill guidance, or which systems provide a sufficient accuracy for the operation. A method is herein proposed that creates a relative evaluation of a positioning dataset from machine logged positions on field. The foundation of the method consists in obtaining the shortest distance from a recorded point to a reference line (given by a pair of points) in Euclidean geometry, and between the origin point and a reference point. The model was applied into an algorithm which loads a reference ground-truth measurement (like a pre-planned geographical path or a RTK measured path), obtaining its points and afterwards linking them in pairs (line segments). A second dataset is then loaded containing the recorded points for which the distance between these and the line-segments will be obtained, the shortest distance found is herein considered the offset error between the point and its reference. The implemented method showed itself capable of obtaining the distances between logged positions and reference for straight and curved tracks. Two case studies of sugarcane harvest were applied to the model, which showed the coherence of the model to retrieve offset deviations along its path; and these values were similar to the expected accuracy of the guidance systems. Also in one of the case studies the results of the model allowed to observe improvements in the manual guidance for a tractor to keep parallel to the harvester when the latter has improved auto-guidance.
Article
Full-text available
As demandas legais da sociedade civil e dos produtores de cana-de-açúcar em áreas inclinadas colocam em evidência deficiências tecnológicas dos processos de colheita que ameaçam a produção de cana-de-açúcar em extensas regiões canavieiras. O estudo analisa o sistema de colheita mecânica atual, comparativamente a uma proposta de colheita semimecanizada, com base em 11 características consideradas determinantes para a disseminação rápida da colheita da cana sem queima prévia, em áreas declivosas, com menor impacto sobre a demanda de mão-de-obra agrícola e sobre a capacidade de investimento dos produtores.
Article
Full-text available
The mechanics of a tractor-trailer system moving up and down sloping ground under different operating conditions was theoretically simulated. A computer program was developed to analyze the system to predict the effect of both the trailer loading weight and the slope angle on the tractor stability, traction ability, and drawbar loading. The program was used to analyze a tractor-trailer system moving at uniform motion up and downhill. The results of this analysis showed that the tractor becomes unstable when towing a 3750 kg trailer uphill at 28° slope angle. Insufficient traction occurred at slope angles ranging from 15° to 18° corresponding to trailer weight of 3750 to 750 kg. The parallel component of drawbar pull reached a maximum value of 17318 N when the trailer was pushing the tractor downhill at 30° slope angle. The normal component (normal to the tractive surface) showed similar maximum values for both uphill and downhill motions of the system. The use of computer analysis in this study provided a significant improvement in predicting the effect of different parameters on stability and control of tractor-trailer combination on sloping ground.
Article
Full-text available
Precision agriculture (PA) technologies are being applied to crops in Brazil, which are important to ensure Brazil’s position in agricultural production. However, there are no studies available at present to indicate the extent to which PA technologies are being used in the country. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to investigate how the sugar-ethanol industry in São Paulo state, which produces 60% of the domestic sugarcane, is adopting and using these techniques. For this purpose, primary data were used, which were obtained from a questionnaire sent to all companies operating in the sugar-ethanol industry in the region. The aim was to determine to what extent these companies are adopting and using PA technologies, and also to promote a more in-depth discussion of the topic within the sugar-ethanol industry. Information was obtained on the features of the companies, on sources of information that they use for adopting these technologies, on their impacts on these companies and on obstacles hindering their adoption. The main conclusions of this research suggest that companies that adopt and use PA practices reap benefits, such as managerial improvements, higher yields, lower costs, minimization of environmental impacts and improvements in sugarcane quality. KeywordsEthanol–Sugar–Sugarcane–Survey–Brazil
Article
The autonomous control of a tractor-trailer system in orchards and plantations has frequently been observed for the transportation, loading and unloading of products between plants and trees. The objective of this research was to develop a control algorithm for a single-sensor tractor-trailer navigation system for navigating within a row plantation and travelling between plots. A control scheme for stopping the tractor-trailer for various in-field tasks, such as product loading/unloading using a laser range finder (LRF), is presented. The LRF was used to navigate a full-size autonomous agricultural tractor equipped with a two-wheeled trailer. For ease of operation in narrow rows, a sliding hitch bar (SHB) was developed to control the trailer by adjusting the position of the hitch-point between the tractor and trailer. Compared to the tractor-trailer system driven by human, the control system could navigate the tractor-trailer with the RMS differences of 0.275 m (SD: 0.009 m), 0.373 m (SD: 0.030 m) and 0.518 m (SD: 0.022 m) for wide curve, tight curve and U-turn experimental paths, respectively. The SHB unit also supported the navigation system with wider turn for the trailer than conventional single hitch point about 0.383 m (7.66% of the 5 m path width, SD: 0.028 m), 0.762 m (15.23% of 5 m path width, SD: 0.010 m) and 1.094 m (21.88% of 5 m path width, SD: 0.037 m) for wide curve, tight curve and U-turn experimental paths, respectively. The control system also stopped the tractor-trailer at the specified landmarks. The results show that the navigation of the tractor-trailer was demonstrated with satisfactory accuracy and that the trailer position was controlled by the SHB with a wider turn in the experimental paths. Therefore, this laser-based landmark navigation system, and the SHB unit, can be adopted for different applications of autonomous tractor-trailer systems with controlled trailer positioning.
Article
So called automatic guidance systems are becoming more common in agricultural tractors, so that a driver does not need to steer the vehicle. The systems are mostly relying on GPS with correction. However, these systems usually steer only the tractor itself, despite the fact that the implement is the one that has to be run side by side with the previous swath. With towed implements, or trailers, it is not easy to keep the position of implement on track if the angle of the steering wheels of a tractor is the only resource under control. In this paper, a system with a standard tractor with front steering wheels and an active joint in the drawbar of the trailer are both controlled by the automatic guidance system. Besides, the positioning is not only based on GPS, but also with a local sensor that detects an edge of the previous swath;; and this sensor is installed on the trailer. To control this system with two inputs and two outputs with nonlinear kinematics, a multivariable controller is needed for trajectory control. In the paper, an approach to the trajectory control in case of the tractor-trailer system with nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) is studied. The test results show that the performance is better than with linear model predictive control that was tested in earlier study. Tests were done in driving speeds 8, 10 and 12 km/h. In a curved path, the tractor following error was typically less than 12 cm and in the implement less than 8 cm. The constant control cycle is achieved by alternating the prediction horizon length. By that way, the best possible solution is always gained at the limits of computation time.
Article
Machinery traffic monitoring and detailed analysis of machine passes across a field can be a tool for the field area determination which is excessively loaded with tire contacts. Excessive traffic is connected with soil compaction phenomena and its unfavourable effects. Also passes arrangement in fields is usually without any system and therefore random and GPS with a particular traffic system can help soil protection. A very simple equipment to monitor the vehicle trajectory was placed into every machine which entered the selected fields during one cropping season. Further, together with the data obtained and the tyre widths, the total area wheeled by the machinery was counted. The following facts were found out during our research. The system with ploughing showed up to 86.14 % of the total area covered with wheel passes, the conservation tillage system showed 63.75 % of the area affected by wheeling. To sum up the results, enormous intensity of agriculture machinery passes, when talking about random traffic in fields, was revealed. The results from our measurements on the CTF experimental plots using conservation tillage are as follows. Three systems with different machinery working widths were observed. Intensity of the wheeled area decreased when using a 4 m CTF system up to 37 % of the total run-over area. With 6 m machinery working width system the wheeled area was 33 % and when using 8 m system the wheeled area was only 31 %.
Conference Paper
So called automatic guidance systems are becoming more common in agricultural tractors, so that a driver does not need to steer the vehicle. The systems are mostly relying on GPS with correction. However, these systems usually steer only the tractor itself, despite the fact that the implement is the one that has to be run side by side with the previous swath. With towed implements, or trailers, it is not easy to keep the position of implement on track if the angle of the steering wheels of a tractor is the only resource under control. In this paper, a system with a standard tractor with front steering wheels and an active joint in the drawbar of the trailer are both controlled by the automatic guidance system. Besides, the positioning is not only based on GPS, but also with a local sensor that detects an edge of the previous swath; and this sensor is installed on the trailer. To control this system with two inputs and two outputs with nonlinear kinematics, a multivariable controller is needed for trajectory control. In the paper, an approach to the trajectory control in case of the tractor-trailer system with nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) is studied. The test results show that the performance is better than with linear model predictive control that was tested in earlier study. Tests were done in driving speeds 8, 10 and 12 km/h. In a curved path, the tractor following error was typically less than 12 cm and in the implement less than 8 cm. The constant control cycle is achieved by alternating the prediction horizon length. By that way, the best possible solution is always gained at the limits of computation time.
Revisão sobre o tráfego no canavial e suas condições (Review of traffic in cane fields and their conditions). In: Seminário internacional de mecanização e produção de cana-de-açúcar
  • L G Mialhe
Mialhe LG 2000. Revisão sobre o tráfego no canavial e suas condições (Review of traffic in cane fields and their conditions). In: Seminário internacional de mecanização e produção de cana-de-açúcar, Ribeirão Preto, IDEA pp. 22-45.
Measuring and mapping sugarcane gaps
  • J P Molin
  • Jps Veiga
  • D S Cavalcante
Molin JP, Veiga JPS and Cavalcante DS 2014. Measuring and mapping sugarcane gaps. In: Proceedings of the 12 th International Conference on Precision Agriculture, July 20-23, Sacramento, CA, USA.
Colheita de cana-de-açúar com auxilio mecânico (Harvest of sugarcane with mechanical assistance)
  • O A Braunbeck
  • Jta Oliveira
Braunbeck OA and Oliveira JTA 2006. Colheita de cana-de-açúar com auxilio mecânico (Harvest of sugarcane with mechanical assistance). Engenharia Agrícola 26 (1), 300-308.