Technical ReportPDF Available

The Prevalence of Online and Land‐Based Gambling in New Jersey

Authors:
ThePrevalenceofOnline
andLandBasedGambling
inNewJersey
Reporttothe
DivisionofGamingEnforcement
Submittedby:
LiaNower,J.D.,Ph.D.
CenterforGamblingStudies
RachelA.Volberg,Ph.D.
GeminiResearch
KyleR.Caler,MSW,ABD
CenterforGamblingStudies
CenterforGamblingStudies
RutgersUniversity
SchoolofSocialWork
539GeorgeStreet
NewBrunswick,NJ08901
ii | Page
ToCiteThisReport:Nower,L.,Volberg,R.A.&Caler,K.R.(2017).ThePrevalenceofOnlineandLandBasedGamblingin
NewJersey.ReporttotheNewJerseyDivisionofGamingEnforcement.NewBrunswick,NJ:Authors.
Copyright©2017byL.Nower,R.A.Volberg,K.R.Caler.
TableofContents
ListofTablesandFiguresiii
Acknowledgementsiv
Glossaryv
ExecutiveSummary1
Introduction7
OverviewofProjectandMethods7
BackgroundLiterature8
Methodology10
TelephoneSurvey10
OnlinePanelSurvey12
GamblingParticipation15
KeyTerms15
Regions15
PastYearGambling:Demographics16
PerspectivesonOnlineGambling24
GamblingActivitiesandFrequencyofPlay25
ProblemGamblingSeverity33
ProblemGamblingPrevalence33
FrequencyandProblemSeveritybyDemographicVariables35
OtherGamblingRelatedActivities:HighRiskStocksandDaily
FantasySports
43
HighRiskStocks43
DailyFantasySports43
SubstanceUse,AddictiveBehaviorsandOtherMentalHealthIssues49
SummaryandRecommendations58
References62
iii | Page
ListofTablesandFigures
Table1.TelephoneSampleResponseRateCalculations11
Table2.Tele
p
honeSam
p
leFinalDis
p
osition 11
Table3.Res
p
onseRatesandCate
g
oriesofFinalDis
p
ositionsforTele
p
honeNumbers 12
Table4. Surve
y
QuotaOb
j
ectives14
Table5PastYearGamblin
g
Partici
p
ationb
y
Activit
y
andPanelT
yp
e16
Table6.PastYearGamblersb
y
Re
g
ionandVenueT
yp
e17
Table7.Percenta
g
eofPastYearGamblersOverall
,
b
y
GenderandPanelT
yp
e18
Table8.FemaleGamblersb
A
eCate
g
or
y
andPreferredGamblin
g
Activit
y
18
Table9.MaleGamblersb
y
A
g
eCate
g
or
y
andPreferredGamblin
g
Activit
y
19
Table10.Percenta
g
eofGamblersb
y
A
g
e
,
PanelT
yp
eandVenuePreference19
Table11.Percenta
g
eofGamblersb
y
Race
/
Ethnicit
y
andMaritalStatus 20
Table12.Percenta
g
eRe
p
resentationb
y
Race
/
Ethnicit
y
andMaritalStatusb
y
Venue21
Table13.EverGambledinthePast12Monthsb
y
Income 22
Table14.EverGambledinthePast12Monthsb
y
EducationLevel 23
Fi
g
ure1.Pro
p
ortionofGamblersb
y
EducationLevel 23
Table15.Past
y
earGamblin
g
b
y
Em
p
lo
y
mentStatus 24
Table16Advanta
g
esandDisadvanta
g
esofOnlineGamblin
g
25
Table17Percenta
g
eBreakdownofGamblin
g
VenueT
yp
esb
y
Gamblin
g
Fre
q
uenc
y
26
Table18.Fre
q
uenc
y
ofGamblin
g
Activities 27
Fi
g
ure2.Gamblin
g
Fre
q
uenc
y
b
y
Re
g
ion 27
Table19.Gamblin
g
Fre
q
uenc
y
b
y
Re
g
ion
(
N=2
,
536
)
28
Table20.LowFre
q
uenc
y
Gamblersb
y
Activit
y,
GenderandA
g
e29
Table21.ModerateFre
q
uenc
y
Gamblersb
y
Activit
y,
GenderandA
g
e30
Table22.Hi
g
hFre
q
uenc
y
Gamblersb
y
T
yp
e
,
GenderandA
g
e31
Table23.Gamblin
g
Fre
q
uenc
y
b
y
Gender
,
A
g
e
,
andRace
/
Ethnicit
y
32
Table24.ProblemGamblin
g
Severit
y
b
y
Fre
q
uenc
y
andNumberofGamblin
g
33
Table25.Gamblin
g
ProblemSeverit
y
b
y
PanelT
yp
e
(
GamblersOnl
y)
34
Table26.Com
p
arativePrevalenceRatesofProblemGamblin
g
b
y
CombinedRiskLevel 34
Table27.NumberandPercenta
g
eofGamblin
g
Grou
p
b
y
Venue:OnlinePanelOnl
y
35
Table28.NumberandPercenta
g
eofGamblin
g
Grou
p
b
y
Venue:PhonePanelOnl
y
35
Table29.ProblemGamblin
g
Severit
y
b
y
Re
g
ionandVenuePreference 36
Table30.ProblemGamblin
g
Severit
y
b
y
GenderandA
g
e37
Table31.Percenta
g
eb
y
RaceofEachProblemSeverit
y
Grou
p
38
Table32.ProblemSeverit
y
Grou
p
sb
y
HouseholdIncomeCate
g
or
y
andEducation39
Table33.Partici
p
ationinActivitiesb
y
LevelofProblemGamblin
g
Severit
y
40
Table34.Gamblin
g
Activit
y
Preferencesb
y
LevelofProblemGamblin
g
Severit
y
41
Table35.Activit
y
b
y
VenueT
yp
eandRiskGrou
p
42
Table36.DFSPla
y
ersWhoGambleB
y
Re
g
ionandVenue 44
Table37.DFSPla
y
ersWhoGambleb
y
Activit
y
andGender 45
Table38.DFS
p
la
y
ersb
y
Gamblin
g
ProblemSeverit
y
andGamblin
g
Fre
q
uenc
y
45
Table39.DFSPla
y
ersb
y
A
g
eandVenuePreference 46
Table40.DFSPla
y
ersb
y
Race
/
Ethnicit
y,
MaritalStatus
,
andEducation 46
Table41.DFSPla
y
ersb
y
HouseholdIncomeandEm
p
lo
y
mentStatus 47
Table42.DFSandnonDFSGamblersb
y
SubstanceUse
,
AddictiveBehaviors
,
Mental48
Table43. SubstanceUse
,
AddictiveBehaviors
,
MentalHealthb
y
Gamblin
g
andVenue 49
Table44.SubstanceUse
,
AddictiveBehaviors
,
MentalHealthStatus:ProblemGambli
n
50
Table45.SubstanceUse
,
AddictiveBehavior
,
MentalHealthb
y
GenderandA
g
e51
Table46.SubstanceUse
,
AddictiveBehavior
,
MentalHealth:Race
/
Ethnicit
y
an
d
53
Table47.SubstanceUse
,
AddictiveBehaviors
,
MentalHealthb
y
HouseholdIncome54
iv | Page
Table48.SubstanceUse,AddictiveBehaviors,MentalHealthbyEducationLevel55
Table49.SubstanceUse
,
AddictiveBehaviors
,
MentalHealthb
y
Em
p
lo
y
mentStatus56
Acknowledgements:ThisstudywassupportedbyagrantfromtheNewJerseyDivisionsofGaming
Enforcement(DGE),incollaborationwiththeDivisiononAddictions,DepartmentofMentalHealth
andAddictiveServices(DMHAS).TheresearcherswouldliketothankDirectorDavidL.Rebuck,
RobertMoncrief,andAfshienLashkarioftheDGEandSuzanneBorysfromDMHASfortheir
assistancewiththisongoingresearch.Wewouldalsoliketoacknowledgethecontributionsof
RobertJ.WilliamsandRobertT.Wood(Canada)andNerileeHing,SallyGainsbury,AlexRussell,
andAlexBlaszczynski(Australia)whogenerouslyassistedusinadaptingthissurveytotargetonline
gambling.WewouldalsoliketothankSimonJaworskiandLanceHenikofLegerforalltheirwork
onthisproject.
v | Page
Glossary
Highfrequencygamblers:Respondentswhogambledonceaweekormoreinthepastyear.
Highriskproblemgamblers:Respondentswhogambledinthepastyearandendorsed8+problem
gamblingsymptomsonthePGSI.Thesegamblerswouldbeclassifiedas“disordered”gamblersoras
having“gamblingdisorder”inotherstudies.
Lowfrequencygamblers:Respondentswhogambledlessthanonceamonthinthepastyear.
Lowriskproblemgamblers:Respondentswhogambledinthepastyearandendorsed1to2
problemsymptomsonthePGSI.
MixedVenueGambler:Gambledonlineandinlandbasedvenues.
Moderatefrequencygamblers:Respondentswhogambledonceortwiceamonthinthepastyear.
Moderateriskproblemgamblers:Respondentswhogambledinthepastyearandendorsed3to7
problemgamblingsymptomsonthePGSI.
Nongamblers:Respondentswhoindicatedtheyhadnotgambledonanyforminthepastyear.
Nonproblemgamblers:Respondentswhogambledinthepastyearbutdidnotendorseany
problemgamblingsymptomsonthePGSI.
Panel:Groupsofsurveyrespondentswhoansweredthequestionnaireeitheronline(onlinepanel)or
bylandlineorcellphone(phonepanel).
Regions:CountiesinNewJerseygroupedasfollows:GreaterAtlanticCity(AtlanticCounty),Delaware
River(Burlington,Camden,Gloucester,Mercer,andSalemcounties),Gateway(Bergen,Essex,
Hudson,Middlesex,Passaic,andUnioncounties),Shore(MonmouthandOceancounties),Skyland
(Hunterdon,Morris,Somerset,Sussex,andWarrencounties),andSouthernShore(CapeMayand
Cumberlandcounties).
ProblemGamblers:Thiscategoryisacombinationofthelowriskandmoderateriskgamblersonthe
PGSI.Thisclassificationbestcorrespondstosubthresholdproblemgamblersinotherstudies.
ii | Page

1 | Page
ExecutiveSummary
Overall,nearly70%ofNewJerseyresidentsreportedgamblinginthepastyear,though
percentagesvariedbyregionanddemographicvariables.Amajorityofthosewhogambled
didsoatlandbasedvenues(75.5%).Only5.3%ofthesampleexclusivelygambledonline,
though19.2%gambledatbothonlineandlandbasedvenues.
Theprevalencerateofgamblingdisorderinthetotalsamplewas6.3%aboutthreetimeshigher
thantheaveragerateinotherpopulationsamples.Inaddition,14.9%ofthesamplereported
gamblingproblems,whichisalsonearlythreetimeshigherthantheaveragerateacrossstudies.
Thesefindingsarelargelyduetothehighrateofgamblingproblemsintheonlinepanelsample,
whichreportedarateof10.5%fordisorderand21.6%forproblemgambling.Incontrast,the
rateofgamblingdisorderinthetelephonesamplewaswellbelowaverage.0.3%,andthe
problemratewasaboutaverage,5.7%.Forpurposesofcomparison,however,itisimportantto
notethatsomeprevalencestudiescontinuetoconductdatacollectionusingonlyrandomdigit
dialingoflandlinephones;thismethodologycangrosslyunderestimatetheprevalencerate
becauseitexcludesthosewhouseonlycellphones,thatis,youngeradultsandethnicminorities
whotraditionallyhavehigherratesofgamblingandgamblingproblems.
Region:
TheGreaterAtlanticCityandSouthernShoreregionsreportedthehighestpercentages
ofpastyeargamblers(72.2%and76.4%),followedbytheSkylandandShoreregions
(72.1%and71.3%).
TheGreaterAtlanticCityRegionreportedthehighestpercentageofthosewhoonly
gambledonlineaswellasthosewhogambleonlineandatlandbasedvenues.
About80%ofrespondentsintheShoreRegiongambledonlyatlandbasedvenues;this
wasthehighestrateofanyregionandsignificantlyhigherthanGreaterAtlanticCitybut
nototherregions.
Gender:
Men(72.8%)weresignificantlymorelikelythanwomen(66.9%)tohavegambledinthe
pastyearandtogambleeitheronlineonlyoronlineandatlandbasedvenues.
Ahigherproportionofwomen(84.3%),comparedtomen(67.2%),endorsedlandbased
onlygambling.
Overall,menwereoverrepresentedinthehighfrequency(onceaweekormore)group
andwomen,inthelowfrequency(lessthanonce/month)group.
Womenprimarilyendorsedapreferenceforpurchasingscratchoffandlotteryticketsand
playingbingo.Menweremorelikelythanwomentoengageinsportsbetting,livepoker,
casinotablegames,andbetonhorses;oldermen,however,endorsedapreferencefor
gamingmachines.
2 | Page
Menaveragedslightlymoregamblingactivitiesthanwomen(3.4v2.6)andwere
overrepresentedinalltheproblemgamblingcategories(low,moderateandhighrisk);in
contrast,womencomprisedalargerproportionofnonproblemgamblers.
Age:
Thespectrumofgamblingproblemswasproportionatelyrepresentedacrossallage
categories,exceptforthetwooldestwhererateswerelowest.Only7.7%ofmoderate
riskproblemgamblerswere55to64yearsoldandonly3.1%of55to64yearoldswould
meetcriteriaforgamblingdisorder(highriskproblem).Similarly,only9%ofmoderate
riskproblemgamblersand0.9%ofhighriskproblemgamblerswere65yearsandolder,
thelowestproportionofanyagecategory.
Race/Ethnicity:
About71%ofWhite,comparedto69%ofHispanicand68.6%ofBlackorAfricanAmerican
respondents,reportedgamblinginthepastyear.ThosewhoendorsedAsian/Other
reportedthehighestratesofgamblingonlineonly(9.1%),followedbyHispanics(6.9%).
Asiansalsoreportedthehighestratesofmixed(onlineandlandbased)gambling(30.3%),
followedbyHispanics(29.4%),thougheachconstitutedjust12%ofallmixedvenue
gamblers.Whitesagainmadeupthehighestoverallproportionoflandbasedgamblers
(65.3%oftotal);ofthoseWhitegamblers,80.7%gambledonlyinlandbasedvenues,
thehighestpercentageofanyrace,followedbyBlackorAfricanAmericans(77.9%).
AsignificantlyhigherproportionofWhitesascomparedtoothergroupsgambledless
thanoncepermonth.Hispanicswereoverrepresentedamonghighfrequencygamblers
(onceaweekormore),followedbyAsian/OtherandBlackorAfricanAmericans.
Overall,ratesofproblemgamblingwerehighestamongHispanics,with16.2%classified
inthehighriskproblemgamblinggroup,followedbyAsian/Others(14.1%).Overall,
Whites(76.1%)weresignificantlymorelikelythanothergroupstobeclassifiedasnon
problem,andBlackorAfricanAmericans(18.5%),aslowriskproblemgamblers.
MaritalStatusandHouseholdIncome
Amajorityofthosewhogambledatanyvenueweremarried.Proportionately,however,
singlegamblerswereoverrepresentedamongonlineonlygamblers,anddivorced,
separatedorwidowedgamblerswereoverrepresentedamongbothlandbasedand
mixed(onlineandlandbased)venuegamblers.
Highriskproblemgamblersweresignificantlylesslikelytobe
divorced/separated/widowedthanothergroups.Incontrast,moderateriskproblem
gamblersweremorelikelytobesingle/nevermarriedthantobemarriedordivorced,
separatedorwidowed.
Gamblingparticipationincreasedwithhouseholdincome,uptothethresholdof
$69,999,where76.1%ofrespondentsendorsedgambling.Ratesweresignificantly
3 | Page
higherintheonlinepanel,whererespondentsreportedincreasingratesofparticipation
through$149,999.
Individualsreportingthelowesthouseholdincomealsoreportedthelowestrateofpast
yearparticipationingambling;however,thosewhomadelessthan$15,000peryear
werealsothemostlikelytogambleexclusivelyonline.
Householdsreporting$100,000to$150,000inincomehadthehighestratesofboth
onlineandlandbasedgamblingandthelowestratesofgamblingexclusivelyonlineor
onland.
Education:
Byeducationlevel,participantswithahighschooldiplomaorGEDreportedthehighest
rateofgamblinginvolvement,followedbythosewhohadsomecollege.
Gamblingrateswerelowestamongthoseinthehighest(Master’s,Doctorate)andlowest
(<HSorGED)educationalbrackets.
Intheonlinepanel,thosewithaprofessionaldegreebeyondaBachelor’sdegreeorsome
collegewerethemostlikely,andthosewithlessthanahighschooleducationorGEDwere
leastlikelytohavegambledinthepastyear.
Inthephonepanel,ratesofgamblingwerehighestamongthosewithatwoorfouryear
collegedegreeandlowestamongthosewithlessthanahighschooleducationorGED.
ThosewithaMaster’sorDoctoratedegreewerethemostlikelytogambleonlyonlineand
thosewithaprofessionaldegreebeyondabachelor’sweretheleastlikely.However,nearly
30%ofthosewithlessthanahighschooleducationorGEDgambledbothonlineandon
land,followedbythosewithaprofessionaldegreebeyondcollege.
Gamblerswithmorethanayearofcollegewerethemostlikelytogambleinlandbased
venues,followedbythosewithahighschooldiplomaorGEDandlessthanayearofcollege.
Gamblingproblemsoccurredacrossthespectrumofeducationlevels,however,problem
gamblersweresignificantlymorelikelythanothergroupstohavelessthanahighschool
educationorGED,buttheywerealsooverrepresentedamongthosewithprofessional
anddoctoratedegreesintheonlinepanelonly.
Employment:
Threefourthsofthosewhowereemployedforwagesreportedpastyeargambling,
followedbythosewhowereselfemployedoroutofworklessthanoneyear.
Thelowestratesofgamblingparticipationwerefoundamongthosewhowereretired,
unabletowork,orstudents.
OnlineversusLandBasedGambling
About5.3%ofgamblers(n=134)gambledexclusivelyonlineand19.2%(n=487)gambled
bothonlineandatlandbasedvenues.
Amajorityofhighfrequencygamblersgambledbothonlineandinlandbasedvenues,
followedbyonlineonlyandlandbasedonly.
Theaveragegamblerinthestudyparticipatedinthreegamblingactivities.Thosewho
gambledonlyatlandbasedvenuesendorsedslightlymorethantwoactivities,andthose
4 | Page
whogambledonlyonlineendorsedthreeactivities.However,thosewhogambledat
mixedvenuesindicatedtheygambledonnearlysixactivities.
Problemgamblingseveritywashighestinthemixedgroup(landbasedandonline),
followedbyonlineonlyandlandbasedonlygamblers.
AmajorityofonlinegamblersreportedgamblingbeforegamblingwaslegalinNew
Jersey,butonethirdindicatedtheybegangamblingafterlegalization.
Themostinfluentialfactorsininitiatingonlinegamblingwere,inrankorder:
convenience,247access,thecomfortofgamblingfromhome,prizessuchasbonuses
andfreecredits,anduseoffreeplayorsocialmediasites.
Onlinegamblerslistedthemainadvantagesas,inrankorder:convenience,247access,
comfort,freedomfromdrivingtolandbasedvenues,andprivacy/anonymity.
Themaindisadvantages,accordingtoonlinegamblers,were,inrankorder:easeof
spendingmoneyonline,“moreaddictive”thanlandbasedgambling,concernsabout
accountsafetyonline(money,personalinformation),anddifficultyjudgingthefairness
ofthegames.
Morethan31%ofonlinegamblersindicatedtheygambledonlinefromworkorduring
workhours;ofthosegamblers,40%gambledoneortwodaysaweekandnearly24%
gambledthreetofivedaysperweek.
ProblemGambling
Inthisstudy,frequencyofreportedgambling,thenumberofgamblingactivities,and
mixedplay(onlineandlandbased)washighlycorrelatedwithseverityofgambling
problems.
Nearlyhalfofnonproblemgamblers(42.4%)gambledlessthanoncepermonth(low
frequency).However,amongthelowrisk,moderaterisk,andhighriskproblemgambling
groups,ratesofhighfrequencygamblingwere51.6%,61.3%and89.4%,respectively.
Thenumberofgamblingactivities,likewise,increasedsignificantlywithlevelofgambling
problemseverity:fromtwoactivitiesfornonproblem,tomorethanthreeforlowrisk,
fourformoderaterisk,andsevenforhighriskproblemgamblerswhowouldclassifyas
disordered.
Ratesofproblemgamblingintheonlinepanelwerehigh,particularlyamongtheonline
onlyandmixedvenuegroups,wheremorethanathirdofgamblershadsomelevelof
gamblingproblem.
Inthephonepanel,ratesofproblemseveritywereconsiderablylower,withonly3.6%of
thosewhopatronizedbothlandbasedandonline(mixed)venuesreportingserious
gamblingproblemsthatwouldlikelymeetcriteriafordisorder.However,eveninthe
phonepanel,asignificantproportionofrespondentsreportedgamblingproblems,
rangingfrom8.3%inlandbasedonlysampleto19.6%intheonlineand27.8%inthe
mixedvenuesamples.
Bygamblingactivity,thehighestpercentageofhighriskproblemgamblersbetonlive
poker(43.2%),followedbysports(41.9%)andothergamesofskill(33.5%);only10.7%of
problemgamblersplayedthelottery.Moderateriskproblemgamblersweremostlikely
tofavorsportsbetting(18.6%)followedbybingo(14.2%)andgamesofskill(14.1%)and
5 | Page
theywereleastlikelytopurchaselotterytickets(9.2%).However,amongnonproblem
gamblers,lottery(66.9%)andinstantscratchoffs(60.5%)werethetwomostfrequently
endorsedactivities.
Withinproblemseveritycategories,asignificantlyhigherproportionofhighriskproblem
gamblers,comparedtoothergamblers,gambledonallgamblingactivities.Similarly,non
problemgamblershadthelowestoverallratesofparticipationacrossactivities.
SubstanceUse,AddictiveBehaviors,andMentalHealthIssues
Comparedtonongamblers,gamblersweresignificantlymorelikelytousetobacco,
alcoholandillicitdrugsaswellastobingedrinkandreportproblemswithdrugsor
alcohol.Morethanthreefourthsofgamblersdrank,andnearly20%endorsedbinge
drinking.Theywerealsosignificantlymorelikelythannongamblerstoreportproblems
withaddictivebehaviors.
Respondentswhogambledinmixedvenues(onlineandlandbased)reported
significantlyhigherratesoftobaccouse,bingedrinking,illicitdrugusage,andproblems
withdrugsoralcohol,overeatingandsexorpornography.Mixedvenuegamblersalso
reportedthehighestratesofsuicidalideation(9.6%)andsuicideattempts(6.0%),
followedbythosewhogambledonlineonly(6.1%,3.7%,respectively).
Highriskproblemgamblers,thosewhowouldlikelymeetcriteriafordisorder,hadthe
highestratesofsmoking,bingedrinking,illicitdrugusage,problemswithdrugsor
alcohol,overeating,sexorpornography,andexcessiveexercise.Theyalsohadthe
highestratesofseriousmentalhealthproblemsinthepastmonth(42.7%),suicidal
ideation(20.3%)andsuicideattempts(15.4%).Theratesofsuicidality,whichincrease
withgamblingproblemseverity,areparticularlynotablewhencomparedtothosefor
nonproblemgamblers,whereonly1.2%reportedcontemplatingand0.2%reported
attemptingsuicide.
DailyFantasySports:
Atotalof336respondentsinthesampleindicatedthattheyhadplayeddailyfantasysports
(DFS)inthepastyear.Ofthose,allbutsevenalsogambled.
MenwhoplayedDFSoutnumberedwomenfourtooneandwereslightlymorelikely
togambleonlinethanwomen,whoweremorelikelytogambleonlyatlandbased
venues.
MorethanhalfofthesampleofDFSplayersgambledongamingmachines,bingo,live
casinotablegames,othergamesofskill,sports,andhorses.
Notably,95%oftheDFSplayerswhowerealsohighriskproblemgamblersgambledonce
aweekormoreoften(highfrequency),andnonewerelowfrequencygamblers.Indeed,
acrosscategories,DFSplayerswhogambledweremostlyinthehighfrequencygroup
(69.6%to95.0%),withonly1.7%ofthemoderaterisk,10.7%ofthelowrisk,and3.5%
ofthenonproblemgamblinggroupsindicatingtheygambledlessthanoncepermonth
(lowfrequency).
DFSplayerswere,onaverage,25‐to44yearsold,WhiteorHispanic,marriedorliving
withapartner,collegeeducated,middleincomeearners,andemployed.
6 | Page
GamblerswhoplayedDFSreportedsignificantlymoresubstanceuse,behavioral
problemsandmentalhealthissuesthannonDFSgamblers.Forexample,halfthesample
usedtobacco,fourfifthsusedalcohol,andonethirdreportedbingedrinkingandusing
illicitdrugs.DFSplayersweremorethantwiceaslikelyasothergamblerstoendorse
problemswithovereating,nearlyfourtimesmorelikelytohaveproblemswithsexand
pornography,andfivetimesmorelikelytoexerciseexcessively.Morethanonefourth
ofDFSplayersreportedseriousmentalhealthissuesinthepast30days,twiceasmany
asothergamblers.
Notably,13.9%ofDFSplayersreportedsuicidalideation,comparedtojust1.8%ofother
gamblers;9.2%ofDFSplayersindicatedtheyhadattemptedsuicide,comparedto0.5%
ofothergamblers.
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Introduction
In2013theStateofNewJerseybecamethethirdstatetolegalizeInternetgamblingforthose
locatedinthestate.Atthattime,theCenterforGamblingStudieswascommissionedtosubmit
fourannualreports,examiningtheyearlydemographicsandplayerpatternsofonlinegamblers
inNewJersey.Internetplayerdatalacksmeasuresofgamblingproblemseverity;therefore,while
itispossibletodevelopplayerpatternsthatarestatisticallycorrelatedwithhigherfrequency,
duration,andexpendituresonplay,itisnotpossibletoidentifyplayerswhowouldmeetclinical
criterialforgamblingdisorder.Forthisreason,theresearchersundertookastatewide
prevalencestudytobetterunderstandtherelationshipofplaypatternsandgamblingbehaviors
togamblingproblemseverity.
Thisreportpresentsresultsfromthefirstoftwoprevalencestudies,18monthsapart,which
examineselfreportedpatternsofplayatonlineandlandbasedvenues,associatedaddictiveand
mentalhealthcorrelates,levelsofproblemgamblingseverity,demographicfeaturesofplayers
byfrequencyandseverity,playerpreferences,andothergamblingrelatedactivitiessuchasdaily
fantasysports.Thesecondprevalencestudyisscheduledfordatacollectionin2017.Ideally,
suchapopulationprevalencestudywouldhavebeenconductedat“baseline”beforethe
introductionofInternetgambling.However,thecurrentstudywasconductedwithinthefirst
fullyearofplayandprovidesabasisforunderstandingtheprevalenceofgamblingandeach
activity,theprevalenceofproblemgamblingacrosslevelsofseverity,andtherelationshipof
frequency,venuechoiceandotherfactorstoproblemgamblingseverity.Thisinformationisauseful
complementtoInternetgamblingdatabecauseitprovidescontextforexaminingonlinegambling
behaviorinlightofmoretraditionalplay.Findingshavepublicpolicyimplicationsforestimatingthe
numberofproblemgamblersinneedoftreatment,typesofservicesneededforspecificpopulations,
andthetypesofgamblingmoststronglyassociatedwithproblemgambling.Inaddition,changesin
theprevalenceofproblemgamblingfromonetimeperiodtothenext,and/ordifferencesbetween
theprevalenceinonejurisdictionrelativetoanother,provideimportantinformationaboutthe
potentialeffectivenessofpoliciesimplementedtomitigategambling’sharm(Volberg,2007).
OverviewofProjectandMethods
Thisreportincludesareviewofepidemiologicalresearchongambling,apresentationofthe
resultsofbothanonlineandtelephonesurveyofNewJerseyresidentsabouttheirgambling
habitsandrelatedbehaviors,examinationofdailyfantasysportsplay,andasummaryand
recommendationsforthefuture.Thestudyprovidesbaselineinformationtoguidepolicy
examinationsintotheimpactofonlineandlandbasedgaminginNewJerseyandimplications
forfutureexpansion.TheProblemGamblingSeverityIndex(PGSI)oftheCanadianProblem
GamblingIndex(Ferris&Wynne,2001)wasusedtoassesslevelofgamblingproblems.The
surveyofNewJerseyresidentsexaminestheprevalenceofnonproblem,lowriskand
moderateriskproblemgamblingaswellashighriskproblemgamblingwhichcorrelatesto
gamblingdisorderinrelationtosociodemographicfactors,includingage,sex,race/ethnicity,
householdincome,educationlevel,andgeographicregion.Thesurveyalsoexploresthe
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relationshipofproblemgamblingseveritytogamblingfrequency,preferredgamblingvenues,
andcomorbidhealthconditions,aswellasemployment,financialandinterpersonalproblems.
ThisstudywasconductedbytheCenterforGamblingStudies(CGS)ofRutgersUniversity,School
ofSocialWorkinNewBrunswick,NewJersey.Dr.LiaNowerwastheleadinvestigatorwithDr.
RachelA.VolbergofGeminiResearch,whohasconductedamajorityofthegamblingpopulation
prevalencestudiesworldwide.TheCGSresearchteamincludedKyleR.Caler,projectofficer,Dr.
RongjinGuan,statistician,andJoseRicardoVargasGarcia,researchassociate.Leger,the
ResearchGroup,underthedirectionofSimonJaworski,conductedthedatacollectionforthe
projectunderthedirectionofDrs.NowerandVolberg.
BackgroundLiterature
Overthepast30years,anumberofU.S.statesandglobaljurisdictionshavecommissioned
populationprevalencestudiestoexaminetheprevalenceofproblemgamblingbehavior.
Williamsandcolleagues(2012)estimatethatapproximately200prevalencesurveyshavebeen
completedsince1975.Ingeneral,reportsestimatebetween78%and86%ofadultsintheU.S.
willgambleintheirlifetimes,63%to82%inthepastyear(Kessleretal.,2008;Gersteinetal.,
1999;Welte,Barnes,Wieczorek,Tidwell,&Parker,2002).Amajorityoftheseadultswillgamble
occasionallyandforrecreationonly.However,aproportionofthosewhogamblewilldosoto
excess,resultinginseriousadverseconsequencessuchasunemployment,divorce,bankruptcy,
criminalcharges,andhomelessness(NationalResearchCouncil,1999).
Theprevalenceofgamblingdisorderandsubthresholdproblemgamblingvarieswidelyamong
jurisdictions,dueprimarilytodifferingsamplingmethodologies,assessmenttools,andmethods
ofanalysis,aswellasculturalandgeographicallybaseddifferences.Inaworldwidereviewof
prevalencestudies,Williams,Volberg,andStevens(2012)reportedthatthestandardizedpast
yearrateofproblemgambling,whichincludesgamblingdisorder,rangesfrom0.5%to7.6%,with
ameanof2.3%.LowerthanaveragerateshavebeenreportedinGreatBritain,SouthKorea,
Iceland,Hungary,Norway,France,andNewZealand.TheUnitedStates,Canada,Australia,
Sweden,Switzerland,Estonia,Finland,andItalyreportaveragerates.Aboveaveragerateshave
beenfoundinBelgiumandNorthernIrelandwiththehighestprevalenceratesobservedin
Singapore,Macau,HongKong,andSouthAfrica(Williamsetal.,2012).
IntheU.S.,researchershavepublishedsixnationalpopulationprevalencestudies(Gersteinet
al.,1999;Kallick,Suits,Dielman,&Hybels,1979;Kessleretal.,2008;Petry,Stinson,&Grant,
2005;Welte,Barnes,Tidwell,Hoffman,&Weiczorek,2015;Welte,Barnes,Weiczorek,Tidwell,&
Parker,2001).Twometaanalyseshavealsoreportedonstateandregionalprevalencedata
(NationalResearchCouncil,1999;Shaffer,Hall,&VanderBilt,1997).Inaddition,31stateshave
commissionedprevalencestudies,withhigherratesofgamblingproblemstypicallyreportedin
stateswithgreatergamblingavailability:Louisiana,Minnesota,Mississippi,Nevada,andNew
Jersey(Williamsetal.,2012).RatesofproblemanddisorderedgamblingintheU.S.rangefrom
0.9to8.1,withanaveragerateof2.2(Williamsetal.,2012).Overall,ratesofproblemand
disorderedgamblingroseduringperiodsofrapidgamblingexpansioninthe1980sand1990s.
9 | Page
Ratesappeartohaveleveledoffinthepast10years(HorváthandPaap,2012;Welteetal.,2015,
Williamsetal.,2012),althoughstudieshaveidentifiedhigherprevalenceratesamongthosein
closerproximitytogamblingvenues(Gersteinetal.,1999;Shaffer,LaBrie&LaPlante,2004;
Welteetal.,2007).Higherratesofproblemgamblingarestillprevalentinareaswithincreased
accesstocasinos,lotteriesandotherformsofgambling.
Inonerecentnationalstudy,Welteandcolleagues(2015),comparedtheresultsoftwo
telephonesurveysconductedwithU.S.adultsin19992000andin20112013.Theresearchers
reportedthatpastyeargamblingdecreasedfrom82.2%to76.9%overthe12yearperiodand
thatonlyinternetgamblingparticipationincreasedduringthattime,from0.3%to2.1%.The
authorsnotedthatproblemgamblingincreasedsignificantlyamongmen(4.15%to6.8%)but
decreasedslightlyamongwomen(2.9%to2.5%)overtime.Ratesofproblemgamblingwere
highestamongyoungeradults(aged18to30)andamongthoseinthelowestsocioeconomic
group(Welteetal.,2015).
NewJerseyhasalonghistoryofgambling,datingbacktotheopeningofFreeholdRacewayin
the1930s.Asnotedabove,in2013,NewJerseybecamethethirdstatetosanctionandregulate
onlinegambling,afterNevadaandDelaware.Onlyonestudyhasdirectlyexaminedgambling
behaviorandprevalenceofdisorderinNewJerseyusingvalidatedinstruments(Volberg&
Steadman,1989).Findingsfromatelephonesurveyof1,000participantsclassified2.8%of
participantsasproblemgamblersand1.4%aspathologicalgamblers,thatis,likelytomeet
clinicalcriteriaforthedisorder(Volberg&Steadman,1989).In1999,150landbasedcasino
patronsfromNewJerseyandNevadawereincludedinanationalprevalencestudy,which
reportedthat7.9%ofparticipantsmetclinicalcriteriaforgamblingdisorder,5.3%hadgambling
problemsand14.3%wereatriskforproblems(Gernsteinetal.,1999).Findingsfromarandom
digitdialingtelephonesurveythatincludedNewJerseyresidentsreportedthepastyearrateof
disorderat0.1%,andtheproblemandatriskratesat0.4%and2.3%,respectively.
Worldwide,itisestimatedthat0.1%to13%oftheadultpopulationgamblesontheInternet
(Broda,etal.,2008;Sproston,Hing&Palankay,2012,Wardleetal.,2011;Wood&Williams,
2011).Regulatorystandardsworldwidevaryconsiderably,fromthosethatarefocusedonplayer
protection(e.g.,U.K,NewJersey)tothosethatare,essentially,unregulated(e.g.CostaRica)
(Wiebe&Lipton,2008).However,inmostjurisdictions,ratesofonlinegamblingareincreasing,
due,inpart,tothepotentialforhigherwinsandfasterplayinaconvenientandrelatively
anonymousenvironment(Wood&Williams,2009).Onlinegamblerstendtobemale,younger,
andemployedwithhigheraveragehouseholdincomes(Wood&Williams,2009).Studieshave
identifiedhigherratesofrisktakingbehavior,greaterconsumptionofalcoholandillicitdrugs,
andhigherlevelsofproblemgamblingseverityamongonlinegamblers(Kairouz,Paradis,&
Nadeau,2012;Wood&Williams,2011).However,comparedtolandbasedgamblers,online
gamblersalsotypicallyengageinahighernumberofgamblingactivities,bothonlineandonland
(Gainsburyetal.,2012);thismakesitdifficulttoassesswhetheronlinegamblingissimplyan
additionalmediumforhighlyinvolvedgamblersorwhetheronlineplayhasaroleinmoving
individualsfromrecreationalgamblingtoproblematicplay.
10 | Page
Methodology
TelephoneSurvey
TheCenterforGamblingStudiesattheRutgersUniversity,SchoolofSocialWork,togetherwith
Leger,amarketresearchfirmwithcorporateheadquartersinMontrealandaUnitedStatesoffice
inFortWashington,Pennsylvania,administereda16minutesurveytoarandomsampleofNew
Jerseyadults(aged18andover)withtheobjectiveofachievingafinalsamplesizeof1,500.This
surveyincludedtelephonenumbersobtainedfromaRandomDigitDialing(RDD)sample,aswell
ascellphonenumbersinthepoolofeligiblenumbers.
Theuseofcellphonenumbersinthedialingpoolfortelephonebaseddatacollectioniscritical
whenconductingresearchofthisnature,asitisnowrecognizedthatanincreasingproportionof
householdsarewithoutatraditionaltelephonelandline.Moreover,cellphoneonlyuseisknown
tobedisproportionatelycommonamonglowincomehouseholds,youngadults,andsomeethnic
groups,whichtraditionallyhavehigherratesofgamblingparticipationandproblems.
Thetelephonedatacollectionprocessincluded:
Pilottestingofthequestionnaire
RandomDigitDialing(RDD)usingcomputerizedassistedsurveyadministration(CATI)
Stratifiedsamplingtoensureminimalageandgenderquotas1
Geographicalmonitoringofregioncountsduringthefieldperiod(Gateway,Skyland,
Shore,DelawareRiver,GreaterAtlanticCity,andSouthernShore)
Randomselectionoftherespondents,basedonselectingthose18yearsorolderat
theirmostrecentbirthday
Recontacting‘softrefusals’todetermineiftheywouldbewillingtoparticipate
Useofashort(averageof16minutes)interviewtohelpincreasethechancesof
participation
Useofbilingualinterviewers,whereappropriate,toadministertheinterviewtoa
respondentwhopreferredtodosoinSpanish
Periodicaudioevaluationoftheinterviewbyasupervisorforqualityassurance.
ThefieldworkforthetelephoneinterviewstookplacebetweenNovember17andDecember16,
2015.Amongthe1,500completesobtainedfromthetelephoneinterviews,1,050were
completedwitharespondentonalandlinetelephone,while450interviewswerecompletedby
contactingarespondentonacellphone(mobilephone).
TelephoneResponseRates
1 Duringthefieldperiod,countswereprovidedbyage(1824;2534;3544;4554;5564;65+),gender(male,
female),ethnicity(White,Black/AfricanAmerican,Asian,Other),andforHispanicvs.nonHispanic.
11 | Page
ResponserateswerecalculatedusingproceduresrecommendedbytheCouncilofAmerican
SurveyResearchOrganizations(CASRO)andtheAmericanAssociationforPublicOpinion
Research(AAPOR),withbothoftheseorganizationscalculatingresponseratesbasedonthe
numberofcompletedinterviewsdividedbytheestimatednumberofeligiblerespondents(see
Table1).Theobtainedresponserateforlandlineandcellphonesinthepresentstudywas5.3%.
Table1.TelephoneSampleResponseRateCalculations
INELIGIBLETOTAL
Notinservice;fax/modem;businessnumber;badline;languagedifficulties;
physical/mentalincapacity;doesnotmeeteligibilitycriteria;indemographic
groupwhosequotaisfilled
15,581
TERMINATES1,485
ELIGIBILITYNOTDETERMINED(ND)TOTAL
Linebusy/neveranswered/householdrefusal/otherrefusals76,789
Refusals(Softrefusals,hardrefusals,donotcalllist)15,342
CompletedInterviews1,500
ELIGIBLETOTAL(Completes+Refusals)16,842
ELIGIBILITYRATE
ELIGIBLETOTAL16,842÷(ELIGIBLETOTAL16,842+INELIGIBLETOTAL15,851)51.5%
ESTIMATED#OFELIGIBLES
ELIGIBLETOTAL16842+(ELIGIBILITYNDTOTAL76,789xELIGIBILITYRATE51.5%)56,400
RESPONSERATE
COMPLETEDINTERVIEWS+TERMINATES(1,500+1,485=2,985)
÷ESTIMATED#OFELIGIBLES56,400
5.3%
FinalSampleDisposition
ThefinalsampledispositionandresponseratesareprovidedinTables2and3.Atotalof1,500
surveyswerecompletedviatelephoneoverall.
Table2.TelephoneSampleFinalDisposition
 Final
LabelDispositionFrequency%
IAnsweringMachine18,77319.9%
NRBusinessNumber2890.3%
NCBusy2170.2%
DDisconnected#10,60011.3%
U1LanguageBarrier27933.0%
CComplete1,5001.6%
NCFaxorModem790.1%
ERRefusal15,34216.3%
ERInterviewerTerminate340.0%
NCNoAnswer37,99140.4%
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ERPartial(RespondentTerminate)1190.1%
ERScheduleCallback44664.7%
JTerminates(Overquota)1,3731.5%
JTerminates(RefusedAgeorRace)1120.1%
JWrongNumber/ChangedNumber4520.5%
GrandTotal94,140100.0%
Table3.ResponseRatesandCategoriesofFinalDispositionsforTelephoneNumbers
Final Sample
LabelCategoryCount%
CInterviewCom
p
lete1,5001.6
ERInterviewEligible,Incomplete 19,96121.2
DNonWorkin
g
10,60011.3
IAnsweringMachine18,77319.9
JIneli
g
ibleHouseholds1,9372.1
NCNonContact38,28740.7
NRNonResidential2890.3
U1KnownHouseholds,Unscreened 2,7933.0
Total94,140100
ResolutionRate:(C+ER+D+J+NR+U1)/(Total)39.4%
ScreenerRate:(C+ER+J)/(C+ER+J+U1)89.3%
InterviewRate:C/(C+ER)7.0%
CASROResponseRate: