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Design and Development of Arduino based Automatic Soil Moisture Monitoring System for Optimum use of Water in Agricultural Fields

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International Journal of Engineering Research & Science (IJOER) ISSN: [2395-6992] [Vol-3, Issue-5, May- 2017]
Page | 15
Design and Development of Arduino based Automatic Soil
Moisture Monitoring System for Optimum use of Water in
Agricultural Fields
Sudip Das1, Biswamoy Pal2, Partha Das3, Milan Sasmal4, Prabuddhamoy Ghosh5
Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, JIS College of Engineering, Kalyani, W.B.,India
Abstract The research aim was to the study the intelligent soil moisture control system in agricultural green house based
on Adriano Uno microcontroller automation control. This kind of intelligent soil moisture control system helps to control the
moisture level of the field and supply the water if required. In this research embedding a control system into an automatic
water pump controller depend upon the moisture of the soil. This system also ability to detect the level of methane gas in the
green house. The intelligent soil moisture control system in agricultural green house designed in the research had wonderful
effort of man-machine interface, it is very simple, cheep and convenient high degree of automation system. Not only that this
system helps to prevent wastage of water. This system is a prototype, which makes this self-sufficient, watering itself from a
reservoir. Solar energy is used in this system makes it more environment friendly.
Keywords ATmega328p microcontroller, temperature sensor, methane sensor, soil moisture sensor , solar cell, DC
Motor. L293D Motor Driver.
I. INTRODUCTION
India is a country where majority of our population are dependable on the agriculture to live their daily life. In this modern
technological era poor farmers of india cannot get enough assistance from others to help them with technology and
make their work easier. This project made automatic field monitoring & controlling system that can be utilize to improve the
condition of green houses. Arduino Uno microcontroller is the main controlling unit of whole system. This system performed
the following task:
1. Supply water according to moisture level of soil.
2. Automatic alarming system to avoid the burning of plants by excessive temperature of atmosphere.
3. Automatic methane gas detecting system in green house.
4. Reusing process of excessive water in the field.
II. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
The basic components of our projects are ATmega328p microcontroller, solar panel, dc motor, L293D motor driver module,
LM35 temperature sensor, MQ22 methane sensor.
2.1 LM35 Temperature Sensor
The temperature sensor is used to sense the temperature in the field and its output voltage is proportional to the centigrade.
The LM35 sensors have low output impedance, linear output and precise inherent calibration makes interfacing to the control
circuitry easy. It is shown in figure 1.
FIG.1 TEMPERATURE SENSOR
2.2 MQ2 Methane Sensor
It is used for gas leakage detecting (in home and industry).It can detect LPG, methane, i-butane, smoke and so on. Based on
its fast response time, measurements can be taken as soon as possible and necessary actions are taken. This type of sensor is
shown in figure 2.
International Journal of Engineering Research & Science (IJOER) ISSN: [2395-6992] [Vol-3, Issue-5, May- 2017]
Page | 16
FIG.2 METHANE SENSOR
2.3 Soil Moisture Sensor:
The soil moisture senses the moisture content in the soil and based on the value that is showed on the display, according to
the control circuit motor will be start ant it will pump the water with the help of a pump and the pumping actions will
continue till it fulfills the conditions. With the help of this sensor which is shown in figure 3 we can find whether the soil is
dry or wet. A local circuit connection is shown in figure 4.
FIG.3 SOIL MOISTURE SENSOR FIG.4 SOIL MOISTURE CIRCUIT
2.4 DC Motor & Drive Circuit:
There are two dc motors used in this project. The 1st dc motor works only to help the pump to pump water into the soil when
the moisture level of the soil shown in the monitor is below the rated level that has been set in microcontroller program.
And the 2nd dc motor works only in case when rain fall and execs water was suction by that motor. Stored in a supply tank for
reusing the store water. The fig.5 shows the dc motor which used in this system. In this project L293D used for conversion
binary data to mechanical data. The driver circuit as shown in figure 6.
FIG.5 DC MOTOR FIG.6 MOTOR DRIVER CIRCUIT
2.5 Arduino Uno
The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller is shown in figure 7 that has 14 digital input-output pins.6 analog inputs,16 MHz
ceramic resonator. It is connected with a computer with the help of a USB cable or powers it with ac to dc adapter or a
battery for power supply.
FIG.7 ARDUINO UNO MICROCONTROLLER
International Journal of Engineering Research & Science (IJOER) ISSN: [2395-6992] [Vol-3, Issue-5, May- 2017]
Page | 17
III. OBJECTIVES
In non conventional energy era, solar energy is one of the most effective energy sources , so solar cells are used to power
our circuit .The main objective of this project was to design a greenhouse monitoring system that is be highly reliable and
is useful for harvesting crops. Our project mainly focuses on the control of parameters such as-temperature, methane
quantity, soil moisture .The block diagram of the greenhouse monitoring system has been shown in Figure 8.
IV. BLOCK DIAGRAM
FIG. 8 BLOCK DIAGRAM
V. FLOW CHART
FIG. 9 FLOW CHART
VI. METHODOLOGY
In case of hardware implementation the sensors temperature sensor, soil moisture sensor, methane sensor were connected
with the ATmega328p microcontroller and was connected with the microcontroller with the motor driver module and the
power was supplied with the help of a solar panel. Flow chart of this entire project has been shown in Figure 9. The sensors
sensed the parameters such as temperature, methane quantity, soil moisture and the microcontroller sensed the values
from them and was displayed onto the LCD screen and accordingly the control actions were done that were needed. In case
of temperature sensor, if temperature is increased then the greenhouse door was closed manually and if the moisture
International Journal of Engineering Research & Science (IJOER) ISSN: [2395-6992] [Vol-3, Issue-5, May- 2017]
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quantity of the sand is less than the desired value then accordingly motor was on and vice-versa. Schematic diagram of this
project is shown in figure 10.
FIG.10 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
VII. RESULT
All Sensors determined the soil moisture level, Humidity, Temperature, Methane gas at the root zone. Arduino Micro
controller should get sensor data in per minute. Micro controller should record & analyze all the data and take correct action.
Soil moisture sensor takes an important role in an agricultural system controller. Soil moisture level set as per based on plant
specification, soil type, seasonal rainfall. Arduino microcontroller should upload that observed data in every hour and supply
water flow as per requirements.
Efficient results have been obtained from the following project. Table 1 shows the recorded data at field in several days. The
hardware implementations have been successful and they are reliable and the sensors that we are using are giving good
results and performing to the expectations.
TABLE 1
RECORDED DATA
Date & Time
(11.30am)
Atmospheric
Temperature
Atmosphere
Humidity()
Soil Temperature
Soil Moisture
()
20/04/2017
29
55
28
32
21/04/2017
28
52
27
30
22/04/2017
30
67
29
28
23/04/2017
32
75
31
26
24/04/2017
33
81
32
21
VIII. APPLICATION AND FUTURE SCHOPE
The application of greenhouse monitoring system in agricultural aspect is immense. The automated greenhouse monitoring
system will help to reduce the efforts and workloads of human and will be helping to produce plants at the absolute
parameters they want them to plant and it will reduce the error. Its ability to control appliances through internet may be
integrated for further case. In near future the system can be made 100% autonomous so that it can take all the necessary
actions and will result in a effective plant growth. And if we use the bi-directional motor pump, but the rest of the project set
up will be same, in that case the system will be cost effective.
IX. CONCLUSION
This project of greenhouse monitoring system has been developed based on the arduino Uno. The microcontroller circuit has
been developed with less number of components and is highly reliable. After verifying the data that was shown in got in
monitor, assured about the success of the project. Presence of each module has been systematic out and placed carefully, thus
contributing to the best working of the every unit. Thus, the Arduino Based Automatic soil moisture monitoring system has
been designed and tested successfully. Project snapshots are shown in figure 11.
International Journal of Engineering Research & Science (IJOER) ISSN: [2395-6992] [Vol-3, Issue-5, May- 2017]
Page | 19
FIG 11. SNAPSHOTS OF AUTOMATIC SOIL MOISTURE MONITORING SYSTEM
REFERENCES
[1] K.S.S. Prasad, Nitesh Kumar, Nitish Kumar Sinha and Palash Kumar Saha “Water-Saving Irrigation System Based on Automatic
Control by Using GSM Technology” Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 12 (12): 1824-1827, 2012.
[2] N.R. Mohantyandc.Ypatil, ”Wireless Sensor And Network Design For Greenhouse Automation”, International Journal Of
Engineering Technology,Volume3,Issue2,August 2013
[3] “Irrigation System Controllers”, SSAGE22, Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Florida Cooperative Extension
Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu
[4] Sanjukumar, R.V.Krishnaiah “ Advance Technique for Soil Moisture Content Based Automatic Motor Pumping for Agriculture Land
Purpose” Volume 04, Article 09149; September 2013.
[5] Khaled Reza, S.M., Shah Ahsanuzzaman Md. Tariq, S.M. Mohsin Reza (2010), ‘Microcontroller Based Automated Water Level
Sensing and Controlling: Design and Implementation Issue’. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer
Science, pp 220-224.
[6] WWW.PROJECTSOF8051.COM
[7] WWW.ARDUINO.CC
[8] WWW.CIRCUITSTODAY.COM
... To solve the problem of freshwater scarcity in many regions, scientists have developed ways of intelligent irrigation systems that minimize and properly manage the use of fresh water. Such systems are convenient to use in remote regions [2]- [15], which provide important information and feedback on the state of the irrigation process. ...
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This paper presents a fully automated stand-alone irrigation system with GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) module. Solar energy is utilized to power the system and it is aimed to conserve water by reducing water losses. The system is based on a DC water pump that draws energy from solar panels along with automated water flow control using a moisture sensor. It is also fitted with alert and protection system that consists of an ultrasonic sensor and GSM messages sender that transmits signals showing the levels of the water in the reservoir and the battery charge. The control system is designed to stop the water pump from pumping water either when the battery level drops to equal or less than 10% of its full charge, or when the water level becomes less than 10 cm high in the reservoir. The experimental results revealed that the system is appropriate to use in remote areas with water scarcity and away from the national grid.
... Bentuk sensor kelembaban tanah yang telah terpasang pada mikrokontroler arduino uno dapat dilihat pada Gambar 2a. (Das et al., 2017). ...
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This research conducted to designed, implemented, and tested an automatic rain pipe fertigation system using temperature and soil moisture sensors. The system applied to three irrigation treatments, namely manual fertilization, semi-manual fertilization, and automatic fertigation. The automatic fertigation actuator setting point is at temperature of ≥ 31 ° C and humidity of ≤ 60% to turn on the water pump and nutrient pump then the water pump will shut down when the temperature value of 25 °C and humidity of ≥ 80%. The results showed a significant difference in the use of irrigation water based on variance test results with an error value of 5%. The use of water from automatic fertigation is 12.770 ml or 65.9% more efficient than manual irrigation with the same growth in plant height. The height of oil palm plants in the main nursery with automatic fertigation is higher on days 7 to 12. Automatic fertilization requires a fertilizer of 1.8 tons per ha, less than manual fertilization which reaches 3 tons per ha. Keywords: fertigation, microcontroller, oil palm, sensors, soil moisture
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This project proposed an embedded system for automatic control of irrigation. This project has wireless sensor network for real-time sensing and control of an irrigation system. This system provides uniform and required level of water for the agricultural farm and it avoids water wastage. These paper have real time sensing and control of an irrigation system. When the condition of waterin the agricultural farm is abnormal then the system automatically switches ON the motor. When the water level reaches normal level the motor automatically switch OFF. In this project we are interfacing microcontroller through temperature sensor, humiditysensor and also interfacing to GSM through MAX 232.In this we set specified values of temperature, humidity and the conditioned is uniformly monitored by VB.NET.
Wireless Sensor And Network Design For Greenhouse Automation
  • N R Mohantyandc
  • Ypatil
N.R. Mohantyandc.Ypatil, "Wireless Sensor And Network Design For Greenhouse Automation", International Journal Of Engineering Technology,Volume3,Issue2,August 2013
Advance Technique for Soil Moisture Content Based Automatic Motor Pumping for Agriculture Land Purpose
  • R V Sanjukumar
  • Krishnaiah
Sanjukumar, R.V.Krishnaiah " Advance Technique for Soil Moisture Content Based Automatic Motor Pumping for Agriculture Land Purpose" Volume 04, Article 09149; September 2013.
Microcontroller Based Automated Water Level Sensing and Controlling: Design and Implementation Issue
  • S M Khaled Reza
  • Shah Ahsanuzzaman Md
  • S M Tariq
  • Mohsin Reza
Khaled Reza, S.M., Shah Ahsanuzzaman Md. Tariq, S.M. Mohsin Reza (2010), 'Microcontroller Based Automated Water Level Sensing and Controlling: Design and Implementation Issue'. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science, pp 220-224.