Article

Charisma as signal: An evolutionary perspective on charismatic leadership

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  • VU University Amsterdam and University of Oxford
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Abstract

We present an evolutionary perspective on charismatic leadership, arguing that charisma has evolved as a credible signal of a person's ability to solve a coordination challenge requiring urgent collective action from group members. We suggest that a better understanding of charisma's evolutionary and biological origins and functions can provide a broader perspective in which to situate current debates surrounding the utility and validity of charismatic leadership as a construct in the social sciences. We outline several key challenges which have shaped our followership psychology, and argue that the benefits of successful coordination in ancestral environments has led to the evolution of context-dependent psychological mechanisms which are especially attuned to cues and signals of outstanding personal leadership qualities. We elaborate on several implications of this signaling hypothesis of charismatic leadership, including opportunities for deception (dishonest signaling) and for large-scale coordination.

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... Recent studies on the charismatic leadership (ANTONAKIS; BASTARDOZ; JACQUART; SHAMIR, 2016; GRABO; SPISAK; VUGT, 2017) attribute the charism not as an inherent characteristic of the behavior of the subject that exercises the leadership, but rather to "charismatic" effects that interfere with the vision of the world of the led people or followers. The charismatic effects defended by Grabo, Spisak and Vugt (2017) commonly found by them in a review of the literature on the charismatic leadership, have brought to light three effects that are normally adopted, recurrently, by charismatic leaders: to attract the followers' attention, awaken the followers' emotions, and share a vision of the world to the followers. ...
... Whereas the leader who has the ability to deal very well with the skills of rhetoric, in the vision of Grabo, Spisak and Vugt (2017), can inspire followers to achieve urgent and challenging goals. When the leader can share his or her vision of the world that reflects his or her values and life mission, contributes so that there is acceptance of the led people from the connection created in this process of communication. ...
... These evidences describe from Conger et al (1997) that these leaders present difficulties of rhetoric to defend the range of expected goals. Considering the vision of Grabo, Spisak and Vugt (2017) when they consider that the charismatic leader is the one who can involve the led people to achieve the objectives and goals based on their values and beliefs. In this sense, enthusiastic behaviors are necessary to ensure that this involvement occurs, and this was not possible to find in this research. ...
... In this study, we use signaling theory (Grabo, Spisak, & van Vugt, 2017;Spence, 2002) and embodiment theory of charismatic leadership (Reh, Van Quaquebeke, & Giessner, 2017) to investigate and test a conceptual model which proposes that CEO charismatic signals influence investors' trading behavior (Fanelli & Misangyi, 2006, F&M). We further adopt Antonakis, Bastardoz, Jacquart, and Shamir's (2016) definition of charisma as "values-based, symbolic, and emotion-laden leader signaling" (p. ...
... Second, we compare our current conceptual model of CEO charismatic leadership that integrates the embodiment perspective and signaling theory (Grabo et al., 2017;Reh et al., 2017) with a countervailing view that CEO letters act as a form of public impression management (e.g., Hooghiemstra, 2000;Patelli & Pedrini, 2014). In so doing, we evaluate whether charismatic elements of these letters serve to reinterpret previous organizational performance in a different light (i.e., impression management) or inspire shareholders to believe the CEO's plans for future performance (i.e., signaling). ...
... These signals include the use of various rhetorical techniques such as J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f metaphors, as well as more substantive statements, such as expressing moral conviction, which help external stakeholders to interpret organizational-specific information through an optimistic and appealing frame of reference (Yan et al., in press). Consistent with signaling theory and embodiment theory of charismatic leadership, we hypothesize that CEO written rhetorical charismatic signals will contribute to higher investor confidence (Grabo et al., 2017;Reh et al., 2017), thus enhancing investors' perception of firm quality and positively influencing investor participation following the charismatic signal. ...
Article
We investigate the market signaling capacity of Chief Executive Officer (CEO) charismatic rhetoric. We rely on signaling theory and embodiment theory of charismatic leadership to develop and test the hypothesis that written and visual charismatic signals have a positive influence on investor signal participation. Evaluating CEO letters of S&P100-listed firms from 2012-2015, we find evidence of the presence and interactive effects of both written and visual charismatic market signals. We also find that written or visual charismatic tactics, when assessed independently, have a counterproductive (negative) influence on investor signal participation. Additionally, CEO compensation acts to amplify the market signaling capacity of the combination of written and visual charismatic signals. This research contributes new insight to the literature on the potential downside to CEO charisma, and thereby provides guidance to those curating CEO messages to external stakeholders.
... In the initial example, the imaginary leader aims to convey her abilities and intention to lead; one potent way to do so is to signal charisma using all three aspects of the charisma signal (i.e., values, symbolism, and emotions) in her rhetoric. I will argue in this chapter that the charisma signal indicates one's (1) intelligence -because the production of values-based and symbolic rhetoric requires intelligence (Antonakis et al., 2016), and (2) intentions to coordinate group actions (Grabo et al., 2017) based on certain group values and emotions which are both antecedents of e ective leadership. Indeed, the charisma signal o ers crucial knowledge to followers on both the leader intelligence (i.e., abilities) and her willingness to lead based on specific values and group emotions (i.e., intentions). ...
... On one hand, framing CLTs demonstrate one's rhetorical prowess and mastery of symbolic thinking. The underlying attribute signaled is one's intelligence or ability to successfully lead followers and coordinate group activities (Antonakis et al., 2016;Grabo et al., 2017), which ultimately a ects the leader's credibility and eligibility for the role. Using symbolic rhetoric e ectively such as interesting and relevant stories or striking contrasts (e.g., think of JFK's famous "And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you -ask what you can do for your country") requires and reflects a high degree of intelligence, conveying the idea that the leader can understand and influence the group. ...
... To have evolved, the charisma signal had to be more costly to produce for those individuals who did not have the right ability and intentions. The charisma signal had to convey honest information about the leader, otherwise followers would have been repeatedly fooled and deceived, ultimately causing followers not to respond to charisma signals anymore (Grabo et al., 2017). The mere fact that charismatic leaders attract so much attention -sometimes irrationally -indeed suggests that following charismatic leaders was probably a beneficial strategy for followers. ...
Chapter
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To explain charisma, I use a signaling perspective regarding how humans transmit knowledge in a state of incomplete information. Applied to leadership, a signaling approach centers on how leaders communicate with and engage followers. A charisma signal concerns a leader’s values, emotions, and symbols, and thus transmits information about the leader’s intelligence and intentions. Such signals evolved because they enhanced the success of groups and explain followers’ attraction to the signal. I will argue that for charisma signals to remain credible indicators of leader qualities and intentions, followers should pay attention to other costly signals of intent such as self-sacrifice.
... But how can a prospective leader communicate that they would be best suited to lead a group? The act of selecting an able leader inherently confronts the group and the potential leader with an information asymmetry regarding a candidate's possession of certain resources, abilities, or traits, which enable them to lead effectively and solve the coordination problem (Grabo, Spisak, & Van Vugt, 2017). Signaling allows individuals to reduce this asymmetry by sending verbal or nonverbal cues (Connelly, Certo, Ireland, & Reutzel, 2011;Spence, 2002). ...
... Thus, it may be this very reason why such cues are used by employees to accurately assess an individual's ability to lead effectively. The sender, in turn, is raising their probability of emerging as a leader and of gaining followership to a larger degree than their competitors who lack the ability to signal in this way (Grabo et al., 2017). Thus, research has decidedly come to regard charismatic leadership as an effective form of organizational leadership (Banks et al., 2017;House, Spangler, & Woycke, 1991;Jacquart & Antonakis, 2015). ...
... So, an inference based on a nonverbal charismatic signal, like the chosen style of attire, might lead to various other inferences that themselves are not based on an actually perceived cue (Cantor & Mischel, 1977). For example, as a consequence of receiving such signals, followers might ascribe leaders a variety of desirable attributes associated with a typical leader, e.g., dominance, competence, and trustworthiness (Grabo et al., 2017;Reh et al., 2017;Van Vugt & Grabo, 2015). This results in an overall increased likelihood for this person to be approved as a leader, expressed by the proportion of individuals voting for them (Todorov, 2005). ...
Article
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Sneakers at a product launch, a leather jacket when heads of state meet, sunglasses at a formal reception. While popular media relishes leaders who catch the eye by way of such distinctive fashion, we know little about how this salient daily practice of dress specifically affects perceptions of leaders in their daily business. Addressing this gap, we investigated how dress impacts perceptions and approval of a leader. Firstly, we found formal attire to lead to ascriptions of prototypicality but not charisma (Study 1). Secondly, leaders’ charisma and approval were higher when a person’s clothing style contrasted their organization’s culture (Study 2). Lastly, we replicated the impact of informal clothing on both leader approval and charisma in a sample of CEOs of Fortune 1000 companies (Studies 3 and 4). Findings lend support to the notion that leaders can manipulate their style of attire to actively shape their followers’ impressions of themselves.
... Leaders essentially move people, and charismatic leaders excel in this regard (Shamir et al., 1993;Goleman et al., 2000;Riggio and Tan, 2013). Charisma, in the context of leadership, has been variously described as a gift from God (Greek translation), a disposition (e.g., Tskhay et al., 2017), a set of behaviors or values (e.g., Eagly et al., 2003;Antonakis et al., 2016), affect transferal (Erez et al., 2008;Sy et al., 2018), embodiment (Reh et al., 2017), and the signaling of traits and values (e.g., Gray and Densten, 2007;Grabo et al., 2017). Howell and Shamir (2005) emphasize charisma's role in leader-follower relationships. ...
... Social perceptions (studies 1a-d): The origins of charisma flow from the face-to-face nature of status relationships throughout human evolution (Van Vugt et al., 2008;Day and Antonakis, 2012;Castelnovo et al., 2017;Grabo et al., 2017). In particular, the way human nonverbal communication systems evolved enable the transfer of affect and experience between leaders and followers through mimicry, imitation, embodiment, and related identity processes (Erez et al., 2008;Wiltermuth and Heath, 2008;Anderson and Kilduff, 2009;Riggio and Riggio, 2010;Castelnovo et al., 2017;Reh et al., 2017;Knowles, 2018). ...
... Analyses revealed two distinct, defining, dispositional dimensions-affability and influence (Tskhay et al., 2017)-the latter including aspects of social power. In the extraordinary context of leader-follower relationships, theorists capture the "influence" dimension in their formulations of charisma by including leader dominance, competence, formidability, and anger (e.g., Castelnovo et al., 2017;Grabo et al., 2017;Reh et al., 2017). Thus, charisma in the more distal, extraordinary relationship context of leaders and followers matches the proximate, interpersonal relationship experience in the dual projection of a receptive, inviting sociable dimension and a formidable, threatening one. ...
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Status cues and signals act as guidance systems by regulating social approach and avoidance. Applied to leadership, we hypothesized that nonverbal displays conveying the dual-status messages of receptivity and formidability and the approach/avoidance motives they activate set conditions for charismatic, leader–follower relationships. We investigated perceptions of charisma, the nonverbal signals associated with them, the motives they energize, and the relationships they support across levels of analysis. At the social–perceptual level (studies 1a–d), eligible voters rated political leaders’ traits after viewing silent, 30-s videos of speeches presented online. As predicted, perceptions of politicians’ receptivity (warmth and attractiveness) and formidability (competence and power) were independently associated with perceptions of their charisma; perceptions of trustworthiness and authenticity showed weaker or negligible associations. Results were similar when the stimuli were female, Jamaican educational leaders. Leaders’ nonverbal behavior was linked to perceptions of their receptivity, formidability, and charisma in study 2. At the brain systems level, studies 3a and 3b tested predictions that charismatic nonverbal performances stimulate equivalent degrees of approach and avoidance motivation in observers. Brain recordings via electroencephalography (EEG) were made while undergraduates viewed leaders rated high or low in charisma. Discrepancies in alpha activity in the left and the right frontal hemispheres (associated with approach and avoidance, respectively) were relatively diminished when participants viewed highly charismatic political leaders, indicating that approach and avoidance motives are energized in response to charismatic performances. The EEG patterns for Jamaican leaders were similar but not significant. At the group level of analysis, study 4 sought evidence that charismatic leaders create uniquely influential relationships with followers. Video recordings of student leaders interacting with pairs of unfamiliar students during a group decision-making task were assessed for leader receptivity, formidability, and charisma by independent sets of undergraduate judges. Perceptions of student leaders’ receptivity and formidability predicted their charisma, and charismatic leaders were most influential in bringing followers to privately accept a controversial group decision. Across studies, evidence generally supported hypotheses generated from status cues theory: charismatic leadership builds upon the nonverbal projection of dual-status messages and the approach/avoidance motives they engender, setting conditions for a uniquely powerful brand of influence.
... The leadership role is crucial in determining organizational outcomes and employees' wellbeing, especially during a crisis (Grabo et al. 2017): Assuring the effectiveness of leadership in remote working is, therefore, very important. Most studies (pre-Covid-19, during pandemics, but also "in perspective") focus on analyzing the effects of positive leadership to define organizational actions and personal behaviors suitable for maximizing the achievement of objectives and the well-being of people (Grabo et al. 2017). ...
... The leadership role is crucial in determining organizational outcomes and employees' wellbeing, especially during a crisis (Grabo et al. 2017): Assuring the effectiveness of leadership in remote working is, therefore, very important. Most studies (pre-Covid-19, during pandemics, but also "in perspective") focus on analyzing the effects of positive leadership to define organizational actions and personal behaviors suitable for maximizing the achievement of objectives and the well-being of people (Grabo et al. 2017). ...
... Despite the large number of studies about the positive effects of transformational, charismatic, or authentic leadership (Grabo et al. 2017;Wong et al. 2010), little research has considered the dark side of leadership and its effects; however, some scholars, lately, have pointed out this aspect: Misconduct on behalf of people in coordination or supervision roles is not rare (destructive and constructive behaviors often alternate) and has important costs for people and for organizations Dirican and Erdil 2020;Fosse et al. 2019;Tepper 2007). Furthermore, a recent review by Kaluza et al. (2020) highlighted the negative relationship between destructive leadership and both followers ' and leaders' well-being. ...
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During the Covid-19 pandemic, people started teleworking intensively, which has led to some benefits in terms of economic continuity, but also some complaints. International teams of scholars have pointed out the new work-related challenges, underlining leaders' role in successfully managing them. This study aimed at investigating the role of destructive leadership in the job demands-resources and recovery model during the Covid-19 pandemic. In detail, this study intended to assess (1) whether destructive leadership is positively associated with off-work-hours technology-assisted job demand (off-TAJD) and cognitive demands, as well as whether it decreases autonomy, (2) whether two demands-off-TAJD and cognitive demands-and two resources-social support and autonomy-are respectively negatively and positively related to recovery, and (3) whether recovery mediates the relationship between demands, resources, and exhaustion. A total of 716 French remote workers (61% were women) took part in this study. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. A multi-group structural equation model was used to test the hypotheses. The findings confirmed a significant association between destructive leadership, the two job demands, and autonomy; furthermore, all three variables mediated the relationship between destructive leadership and recovery. The findings showed the key role played by recovery as a mediator between, on one hand, off-TAJD, cognitive demands, autonomy, and social support, and, on the other hand, exhaustion. This study highlighted the role of destructive leadership, job resources, job demands, and recovery as determinants of exhaustion, illustrating their relationships in a sample of remote workers. Practical implications are discussed.
... The receiver (the party with less information) actively looks for signals from the sender (the party with more or better information) to make a judgment and/or determine a course of action (Connelly et al., 2011). Signaling theory has been applied to the study of leadership in a number of areas (Banks et al., 2021;Grabo, Spisak, & van Vugt, 2017). In a leadership context, the leader typically has more or better information than the follower, and the follower seeks information. ...
... In other words, people use online cues to form an "ideal" evaluation of the other person or people with whom they are communicating. Ascribed status is triggered by such cues (e.g., face, race-not consciously signaled) which are different from signals (like rhetoric; Abrantes, 2011;Grabo et al., 2017). This idealized evaluation then increases identification with the other person and makes the communication more enjoyable (Walther et al., 2015). ...
Article
Drawing upon signaling theory, charismatic leadership tactics (CLTs) have been identified as a trainable set of skills. Although organizations rely on technology-mediated communication, the effects of CLTs have not been examined in a virtual context. Preregistered experiments were conducted in face-to-face (Study 1; n = 121) and virtual settings (Study 2; n = 128) in the United States. In Study 3, we conducted virtual replications in Austria (n = 134), France (n = 137), India (n = 128), and Mexico (n = 124). Combined with past experiments, the meta-analytic effect of CLTs on performance (Cohen’s d = 0.52 in-person, k = 4; Cohen’s d = 0.21 overall, k = 10) and engagement in an extra-role task (Cohen’s d = 0.19 overall; k = 6) indicate large to moderate effects. Yet, for performance in a virtual context Cohen’s d ranged from −0.25 to 0.17 (Cohen’s d = 0.01 overall; k = 6). Study 4 (n = 129) provided mixed support for signaling theory in a virtual context, linking CLTs to some positive evaluations. We conclude with guidance for future research on charismatic leadership and signaling theory.
... (3) minimizing perceived risk and cooperation; and (4) aligning these followers towards common goals (Grabo & Van, 2016). There are four aspects in this style: (1) individual traits, it is the unique set of skills and abilities the leader possesses; (2) follower behavior, it is how and why followers are motivated; (3) organizational or contextual influence, it is the extent to which the leader interacts with the needs of followers and organizational goals; (4) results, it is linking leader's charisma to measures of success such as increased team productivity or job satisfaction (Grabo et al., 2017). ...
... The second part of the survey comprised 35 indicators for all variables. Each instrument was adopted and developed from theory and its context; charismatic leadership (Lovelace et al., 2018), (Grabo et al., 2017), (Javidan & Waldman, 2003), entrepreneurial leadership (Thornberry, 2006), (Wahab & Tyasari, 2020), (Mitchelmore & Rowley, 2009), (Pihie, 2017), (Esmer & Dayi, 2016), transformative leadership (Iii et al., 2018), (Jensen et al., 2016), (Turnnidge & Côté, 2016), transactional leadership (Jensen et al., 2016), (Oterkiil & Ertesva, 2014), and crisis management (Smith & Riley, 2012), (Bundy et al., 2016). ...
Article
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The research aimed to explore the types of effective principal leadership styles in crisis management at school. Data analysis using structural equation modeling. The results showed that transformational leadership had a strong positive effect on crisis management, charismatic leadership and transactional leadership had a positive but weak effect on crisis management. In contrast, entrepreneurial leadership had a negative but weak effect on crisis management.
... Waldman & Yammarino (1999) further define charismatic leadership as the relationship between the leader and followers, resulting in 'an internalized commitment to the leader's vision, a very strong admiration and respect for the leader, and the identification of followers with the leader, vision, and collectives formed by the leader. Conceptualization suggests that charisma only exists if followers say it or followers behave in a certain way (Banks et al., 2017;Grabo et al., 2017). ...
... The study stated that charismatic leaders are more likely to excite active members by increasing their intrinsic motivation. In another study, it has been suggested that charismatic leadership is more likely to produce positive performance by displaying behaviors that stimulate followers' inner needs (Grabo et al., 2017). In contrast to behavior knowledge sharing leader-member that stimulates individual extrinsic motivation with goals driven by external goals, such as material rewards and position promotion, a charismatic leader demonstrates idealized influence on followers by articulating a clear vision and instilling a sense of belonging to organizational goals. ...
Article
This study aims to examine the effect of charismatic leadership on intrinsic motivation and tacit knowledge sharing. This study also investigates the central role of intrinsic motivation as a mediating variable between charismatic leadership and tacit knowledge sharing. This study adopted a simple random sampling method with 61 samples of employees from five MSME companies in Banten. With the help of SmartPLS 3.0 software, the results of this study indicate that charismatic leadership has a significant direct effect on intrinsic motivation but does not directly affect tacit knowledge sharing. However, this study found the fact that charismatic leadership has a significant indirect effect on tacit knowledge sharing through the mediation of intrinsic motivation. So, intrinsic motivation acts as a full mediator in this research model.
... Unlike wearing a wig, these rhetorical skills are hard to acquire and thus credible-and honest-signals of an individual's qualities. These arguments, and similar ones regarding signaling (Grabo, Spisak, & van Vugt, 2017;Reh, Van Quaquebeke, & Giessner, 2017) parallel discussions in economic or evolutionary models of costly signaling (cf. Bliegebird & Smith, 2005;Spence, 2002;Zahavi, 1977). ...
... Results showed that only verbal charisma significantly predicted all outcomes with slight improvements in variance predicted (see Appendix I). Still to impose a more robust test on our hypotheses we will control for host of nonverbal signals including cues like attractiveness as well as voice intensity and pitch, body language, as well as other cues like reputation, and professional status (see Grabo et al., 2017;Reh et al., 2017). ...
Article
Informal leaders in social media currently characterize a large part of political and economic communication on various challenges societies face, whether localized or transborder (e.g., COVID-19 pandemic, global warming). Scholars have theorized that charismatic signaling is effective in informal leadership settings; yet empirical evidence remains scarce in understanding a ubiquitous phenomenon that marks our times and plays an important role in shaping public opinion. In this article, we used two unique data sets extracted from social media to investigate the success of charisma for informal leaders, leaders who signal their beliefs and preferences to others but having no formal authority over them. Social media offers us a standardized medium as well as a natural environment to test our predictions. Using a sample of TED talks and tweets, we coded for objective markers of charisma and found that using more verbal charismatic signals predicted (a) higher views for TED talks as well as higher ratings for the extent to which the talk was found to be inspiring—beyond attractiveness and nonverbal behavior—and (b) more retweets. We discuss the implications of such results for both theory and practice in the media age.
... These preferences evolved to improve survival (Antonakis & Eubanks, 2017). In terms of leadership, such preferences enable followers to pay particular attention to cues displayed by leaders who successfully coordinated and facilitated group responses to survival challenges (Grabo, Spisak, & van Vugt, 2017). Global leaders need to understand this "cueprocess" link within the contextualization of cultural systems to lead effectively in global settings (Curran, 2019). ...
... The link between these cues and mechanisms has evolved to respond to the need for social interactions to survive (Antonakis & Eubanks, 2017). Grabo et al. (2017) argue that from an evolutionary psychology perspective, our ancestral environment required group responses to increase the likelihood of survival. Thus, the preference for a leader would be for individuals able to successfully coordinate group responses to survival challenges. ...
Chapter
This chapter investigated how preexisting ideas (i.e., prototypes and antiprototypes) and what the eyes fixate on (i.e., eye fixations) influence followers’ identification with leaders from another race. A sample of 55 Southeast Asian female participants assessed their ideal leader in terms of prototypes and antiprototype and then viewed a 27-second video of an engaging Caucasian female leader as their eye fixations were tracked. Participants evaluated the videoed leader using the Identity Leadership Inventory, in terms of four leader identities (i.e., prototypicality, advancement, entrepreneurship, and impresarioship). A series of multiregression models identified participants’ age as a negative predictor for all the leader identities. At the same time, the antiprototype of masculinity, the prototypes of sensitivity and dynamism, and the duration of fixations on the right eye predicted at least one leader identity. Such findings build on aspects of intercultural communication relating to the evaluation of global leaders.
... Previous framings of leadership in institutional practice and its theorisation in academia have often revolved around the heroic charisma of individuals who influenced the behaviour of others and brought about radical social, political and economic changes within organisations or communities (Banks et al., 2017;Grabo et al., 2017;Nisbett & Walmsley, 2016;Shamir & Howell, 2018). Fairman and Mackenzie (2015) criticise this individualistic conceptualisation of leadership, arguing that it ignores the positive energies within social units that can be harnessed for overall task effectiveness. ...
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Succession to monarchical thrones has often generated violent conflicts among royal families in Ghanaian communities. Numerous conflict resolution approaches are often employed by different conflict resolution agencies. Many studies have examined the appropriateness and effectiveness of some of these approaches adopted to resolve chieftaincy conflicts in Ghana. However, to the best of the researchers’ knowledge, the extent to which conflict resolution institutions or agencies collaborate in the resolution of chieftaincy succession conflicts in the specific region of the Bole Traditional Area is less studied. By integrating an inductive thematic analytical approach into collaborative leadership theory, we unpacked a deeper level of disharmonised efforts of multiple conflict resolution agencies in the peace processes in the Bole Traditional Area.
... Weber's extraordinary charismatic leader appears like a demigod like figure despite his involvement in secular matters. The scholars Grabo, Spisak and Vugt (2017) based the notion of Charisma on the ability to motivate people in dire situations so they define a charismatic leader "as an individual who signals their ability and willingness to swiftly mobilize group action in the face of an urgent coordination challenge" (p. 24). ...
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This article focuses on the play of political power through manipulative charisma in the novel The Black Coat by Neamat Imam. The author has tried to maintain that Sheikh Mujib has used his charismatic image to control people's will by exaggerating the negligence of west pakistan towards the plight of Bengalis and through the propagation of half-truth about the economical condition of newly liberated Bangladesh. The article has made use of Tucker's concept of charismatic leadership-which itself is indebted to Weber's theory of Charisma-to study the importance of socio-political condition in the construction of charismatic image of the given leader. Wrong's concept of manipulation has been used as a guiding principle to study the episode of Mujib's life where charisma used manipulation for the sustenance of political power. The research has found out that in the selected novel Sheikh Mujib and his party first exploit people's desire for a divine rescuer in the moment of stress and then use their blind belief to pursue the party's agenda.
... Based on Grabo et al. (2019), the definition of charisma can be summarized as an attribute that shapes a followership's psychology while arguing the benefits of a successful coordination. The subsequent successful coordination leads to a contentdependent psychological mechanism. ...
Thesis
Through globalization and cultural awareness, more focus has been set on gender-related issues and the treatment of women throughout the world. Particular research attention has focused on the achievements and setbacks of female leaders as a major aspect of global organizations’ success. The purpose of this qualitative comparative phenomenological study was to analyze the relationship between culture and gender in leadership, specifically with female leaders in Germany and Iran. The study aimed to get insights into the cultural challenges and opportunities women face in gaining access to leadership positions in these two countries. Cultural aspects and the symbiotic acceptance of gender-specific traits were analyzed in relation to effective leadership in order to describe and document the perceptions of female leaders in Germany and Iran. Female leaders from Germany and Iran were interviewed to share their experiences regarding challenges, opportunities, cultural perceptions of their roles, and, finally, their best practices of how to overcome the barriers. By clustering the participants’ responses into themes and sub-themes and with the application of thematic coding, the research obtained a reflection of female leaders’ experiences in Germany and Iran. Study participants agreed that leadership is difficult and had challenges for all women, even more for women in Iran where structural barriers are more apparent. Agreement was achieved regarding male dominance in both cultures and the support men receive in management positions. Women often have to work harder and are missing the feeling of belonging. Participants agreed that women who are naturally competitive may have fewer challenges in leadership positions. Women seek mentorship; however, while this exists in Germany, the concept is missing in Iran. German women incorporate their organization’s mission statement and ethical values into their own work, and Iranian women consider themselves more ethical. While legal and corporate structures in Germany are working toward incorporating women into the workforce, these structures do not exist in Iran. Germany prefers the sustainable leadership style in combination with transformational leadership. Iranian leaders are drawn toward servant leadership. The result of the study demonstrates that culture is related to the challenges women face in leadership positions. While opportunities have a cultural correlation, they differ based on the societal expectations of females. Last but not least, women in both countries are able to develop their best practices with different leadership styles. Keywords: gender, gender diversity, culture, cultural diversity, cultures, leadership, Iran, Germany, servant leadership, Sustainable leadership, virtual leadership, transformational leadership, female leaders
... The past two decades have evidenced expansive research around the concept of leadership with emphasis on the styles that can ensure organisational competitiveness through efficient management of resources and effective leadership of people (Grabo et al., 2017). However, current studies seem to be shifting to mandates that are more aligned to ethical and moral dispensations of leaders and their abilities to actively engage with their followers (Burch & Guarana, 2014;Hinojosa et al., 2014). ...
... Research clearly indicates that a crisis such as a pandemic might bring about a change in leadership styles (Stoker et al. 2019), and organizations can expect themselves and their leaders to be prepared for the change only if they have invested in their professional development. To be effective and persuasive enough, leaders must (a) be able to state their values clearly, which will serve as a guide for institutional actions; (b) be able to comprehend the struggles and hopes of the organization; (c) be able to clearly communicate an ambitious vision that will guide the organization toward the same; and (d) exude and inspire confidence that strategic goals can be achieved (Antonakis et al. 2016;Grabo et al. 2017). ...
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The unprecedented nature and scale of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in mass lockdowns around the world, and millions of people were forced to work remotely for months, confined in their homes. Our study was aimed at understanding how pandemic-imposed remote work arrangements affected millennial workers in India. With signs of the pandemic slowing down, but with the likelihood of organizations retaining some of these work arrangements, the paper also explores how these are likely to affect the future of work, and the role that organizations and leaders have in managing the workforce in the ‘new normal’. The study follows an interpretivist paradigm and qualitative research approach using the narrative method as a key research strategy. The data was collected using in-depth interviews from Indian millennial respondents employed in both private and government sectors. The findings show a kind of work-life integration for the workers as a result of the pandemic-imposed remote work arrangements. This integration has been caused by four different types of issues that have also emerged as four major themes which have resulted in a further 10 sub-themes. The four major themes identified in this research are Managerial Issues, Work Issues, Logistical Issues, and Psychological Issues.
... Although the transformational approach consists primarily of behaviour that can be learned and developed, there are relatively lasting personality characteristics of leaders that partially influence whether and how much the leader will apply the transformational approach. These can be suitable criteria for selecting new candidates for managerial positions 58, 59 . ...
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Leadership and its styles have been in the spotlight for many years. The changing military environment and demands on army readiness bring new questions and perspectives to leadership. Leaders now face constant changes and specifications of the new modern era. Concerning these changes and transformations in society and the Army, there are new demands on soldiers and leaders at all levels of the Army of the Czech Republic. This paper provides insight and muse about both transactional and transformational leadership styles and investigates an approach to these styles by Czech military students. This paper aims to identify what leadership style Czech military students prefer at the University of Defence. This research focused on evaluating the personal characteristics required for a leadership position. To verify the relevance of the gained results, we employed paired t-test.
... We also find in the review that a majority of studies use humility as a personality characteristic that has interpersonal implications. A social view of humility whereby individuals form a sort of perceived humility as opposed to someone who assesses humility as part of this own self-view as in intrapersonal approaches (Owens et al. 2013) matches the view of modern leadership theories that see perceptual constructs such as charisma as attributed (Antonakis et al. 2011;Grabo et al. 2017;Jacquart and Antonakis 2015). Although trait and state humility are correlated, we believe in line with the literature (Banker and Leary 2019) that it would be beneficial to move humility from a purely trait-based approach toward a more state and relational approach. ...
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Humility, defined as a multidimensional construct comprising an accurate assessment of one’s characteristics, an ability to acknowledge limitations and strengths, and a low self-focus, is a complex trait to potentially counterbalance detrimental effects of “negative” personal traits (e.g., narcissism), thereby making it relevant to researchers and practitioners in Management and Psychology. Whereas the study of the humility construct has become ubiquitous in Social Psychology, to our best knowledge, a review of the effects of humility in the contexts of company leaders (i.e., Chief Executive Officers) is lacking. Our systematic review suggests that CEO humility, directly and indirectly, affects a variety of individual, team, and organizational level constructs. Implications for research and practice are discussed, providing a future agenda for the construct to reach its full potential despite its relative novelty.
... The present study was for the first time and based on authentic, real-life data able relate patterns of speech prosody or prosodic charisma to entrepreneurial success, i.e. the placement of entrepreneurs' presentations in the German investor-pitch contest series Rheinland Pitch. The provided empirical evidence suggests a positive answer to question (1). That is, a significant prediction performance of investor-pitch rankings can be achieved solely by means of pitch features. ...
... In short, this would mean that smiling can best be perceived in contrast to not smiling (like all perceptible properties in hearing and vision rely on contrasts [26]); and it could mean that speakers who permanently smile and lack such a contrast are at a certain point in time no longer perceived as smiling, but only as shorter (due to the increases in f0 and the dispersion and levels of formants [2,3,5,8,11]). Shorter speakers are perceived as less charismatic [27,28,29]; in this way, permanent smiling couldat least in the auditory domainreduce rather than support speaker charisma. ...
... Relatively recent work in evolutionary psychology also raises an interesting and important issue regarding perceptions of charisma. Although charisma as a leader trait may be largely stable and may become actionable when confirmed by follower recognition (Weber, 1947), an evolutionary perspective indicates that perceptions of charisma may be context-specific (e.g., Grabo et al., 2017;van Vugt & Grabo, 2015). If so, it is also possible that perceptions of charisma might change over time as contextual patterns change. ...
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Despite the attention given to leadership and its understanding, the overwhelming number of approaches remain focused on one specific theory, resulting in minimal integration across theoretical borders. A leadership typology combining aspects of transformational leadership (TFL) with leader–member exchange (LMX) theory is presented in order to focus attention on the relationship between TFL behaviors and LMX outcomes. The typology demonstrates that LMX outcomes are contingent on context and develop within a richer pattern of behaviors, perceptions, and interactions than typically captured by a focus on dyadic interactions alone. LMX success thus can be seen as the result of a process that co‐evolves on the basis of interactions between leaders and followers by means of specific practices and perceptions.
... The charismatic leaders typically influence employees to be more productive at the workplace by helping them to cope with the changes that might negatively affect their performance sustainability. The charismatic leadership enable a sustainable work environment for the employees by inspiration, communicating vision, and handling the harsh situation (Itoya,2020, Watts et al., 2019, Grabo et al., 2017. The impact of charismatic leaders on SEP is huge as employees are able to perform the job by identified vision, proper communication, get supports for performance, able to identify needed to change. ...
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Sustaining employees performance is a critical process. Employee sustainability is crucial for achieving organizational sustainability. For an organization, it's important to understand the individual employees perspective based on their age differences. Needs and resources are different for young employees and old employees. This paper proposes a model of sustaining employees performance of diverse age groups of employees by considering individual employee's based on Herzberg two factor theory, the motivational theory of lifespan development, and transformational leadership theory. This is a conceptual paper in nature and has successfully developed a model. The proposed model has covered important areas which can create employees satisfaction to retain them in the organization. Employee retention has been proposed as a mediator which is a strong component to build employee's sustainable performance. For the researcher and practitioners, it will be recommended to test this model to identify its impact on employees and employers.
... Now, ethical leadership integrates a series of emerging types of leadership, with different names, but with ethical roots as their essence and with mutual affinity. These are authentic leadership (Semedo et al. 2019); spiritual or virtuous leadership (Pio and Tampi 2018;Smith et al. 2018); shared leadership (Choi et al. 2017;Zhu et al. 2018); affective or care leadership (Maggeni 2021); integrative leader-ship (Zhang et al. 2018); inspirational leadership (Salas-Vallina et al. 2020;Murnieks et al. 2016); charismatic leadership (Graboa et al. 2017;Jamal and Bakar 2017). All of the above leadership types are of a positive tendency and are linked directly or indirectly to the dimensions under study. ...
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The new economy and the knowledge-based society brought significant changes in all the areas of our daily lives. Also, the COVID-19 pandemic and the COVID-19 crisis implicated tremendous transformations in all the domains, on the one hand, threatening the balance of our society and, on the other hand, challenging the dynamic of the new economy development and the rhythm of the societal modernization. In these delicate times, the all-important relationship between ethics, leadership, teamwork, effective communication, productivity, and performance is brought to the attention, in particular, due to its benefits for our society, taking into consideration the pivotal advancement that a well governed relationship of this type could provide to the knowledge-based economy. The present research describes the implication of ethics in leadership, teamwork, effective communication, and productivity, which includes the application of ethical values as university graduates assume the role of each of the mentioned dimensions of study in the organizations. The absence of research that relates ethics to these four elements simultaneously was noticed. This information is essential to know how these dimensions influence the organizational level. The sample that included 410 university graduates was applied in Baja California, Mexico, and the industrial nucleus of great relevance, bordering California in the United States of America. The data was obtained using a questionnaire. A reliability and validity analysis of the measurement instrument was carried out in terms of the ethical values associated with the dimensions mentioned using the exploratory factor analysis by the principal components method. Qualitative items were also analyzed using the constant comparison method. The results obtained in this research provide a greater perspective and practical knowledge and support of usefulness and practical reality to businesspeople and employees, leaders and university graduates; and also extensive to students, teachers, and human beings in general, in order to be better prepared to give and apply solutions with their consequent ethical and productive achievements desired by all. Additionally, this current research has the purpose to raise the will to understand, at a higher level and at a more in-depth degree of knowledge, the relationship between ethics, leadership, teamwork, effective communication, productivity, and performance, in the attempt to foster a creative and innovative business environment, based on a robust and sustainable business administration and business competencies, capable to position at higher ranks the strengths, opportunities, aspirations and outcomes that today’s new economy is due to offer and diminish the dangerous effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the COVID-19 crisis in all the domains.
... We propose that the magnitude of the relationship between empowering leadership behavior and management innovation via voice depends on middle managers' collectivist orientation. We base this proposition on signaling theory which sees leadership as an active signaling process (Grabo, Spisak, & van Vugt, 2017). We infer that empowering leadership behavior is positively related to middle managers' voice behavior, thereby promoting management innovation. ...
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Exposing under which conditions management innovation diffuses within firms, this study investigates at the individual level the mediating influence of middle managers’ voice behavior on the relationship between CEOs’ empowering leadership behavior and perceived management innovation. We also propose that the magnitude of this relationship depends on middle managers’ collectivist orientation. This study exploits a unique Moroccan sample of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and utilizes structural equation modeling to analyze the studied relations. We found that the positive relationship between CEOs’ empowering leadership behavior and management innovation is mediated by middle managers’ voice. This effect is conditioned by middle managers’ collectivist orientations, which positively influence their attention to CEOs’ signals and the value and frequency of their contributions to management innovation. While research has identified the external and organizational factors that shape management innovation, our study concentrates on the individual level and accentuates that middle managers’ closeness to management processes, combined with their access to technical knowledge, renders them essential to management innovation. We contradict arguments that middle managers may be less inclined to help management innovation to emerge. SMEs can systematically invest in management innovation by advancing their managerial capabilities and considering individual value orientations.
... It has been proposed that charisma can be understood either in terms of the inherent personality features of an individual (Burke & Brinkerhoff, 1981) or observer perception and outcomes (Awamleh & Gardner, 1999). Others have conceptualized charisma in terms of both personality features and observer perception/outcomes (Conger & Kanungo, 1994) and through the lens of signaling theory (Grabo et al., 2017). Despite the complexity and inherent ambiguity of the construct, there is a general consensus that charismatic individuals have extraordinary social skills, exert influence over others, evoke emotional arousal, inspire followership and action, and are prone to leadership roles (e.g., Antonakis et al., 2016;House, 1977;Shamir et al., 1993). ...
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Psychopathic traits are associated with negative outcomes; however, they have also been associated with adaptive outcomes (e.g., corporate success, etc.). We tested the Moderated-Expression Model of psychopathy in a sample of community adults (N = 315; 50.8% female; 22-65 years) utilizing a battery of self-report measures (Self-Report Psychopathy Scale; Triarchic Psychopathy Measure; Conger & Kanungo Scale of Charismatic Leadership; General Charisma Inventory; Evading Detection/Punishment; and Occupational Success). The effect of psychopathic traits on evading detection and punishment (not occupational success) was moderated by leadership (and to a lesser extent, general) charisma, net of the effects of pathological narcissism and several other covariates. These results support the Moderated-Expression Model and warrant further research on the associations among psychopathy, charisma, and success.
... Positive leadership can establish transparent communication with followers aimed at understanding conciliation problems and requests for extra work [62,63]. The role of leadership is also critical to organizational outcomes and employee well-being in times of crisis [64], such as the Covid 19 epidemic, where leadership effectiveness in managing remote work was critical [19]. ...
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The ongoing epidemiological crisis has suddenly steered us towards a new futuristic work scenario in which most service sector employees work remotely, which could be a permanent reality for most service sector employees. This paper focuses on the strategic role that leadership could play in the radical change process that is taking place in work environments. Particular attention was paid to the role of ‘middle managers’ who perform an important function as a link between the strategic vision of top management and the workforce. In addition, special attention was paid to gender differences in work-life dynamics, which are particularly relevant in countries with traditional cultural identities. As this is a conceptual contribution, the most recent studies on this specific role of middle managers have been taken into account and embedded in the current scenario. Therefore, the main contribution in terms of originality was that the current review aimed to leverage such a legacy of knowledge and create a system of evidence-based practical implications for effectively supporting change in organizational culture through the identification of the most appropriate middle management leadership models for remote working that could prevent and/or limit any psychosocial risks (e.g., workaholism and technostress) and longer-term outcomes such as sustainable work-life interface.
... Waldman & Yammarino (1999) lebih lanjut mendefinisikan kepemimpinan karismatik sebagai hubungan antara pemimpin dan pengikut, menghasilkan 'komitmen yang diinternalisasi terhadap visi pemimpin, kekaguman dan rasa hormat yang sangat kuat terhadap pemimpin, dan identifikasi pengikut dengan pemimpin, visi, dan kolektif yang dibentuk oleh pemimpin. Konseptualisasi menunjukkan bahwa karisma hanya ada jika pengikut mengatakannya atau pengikut berperilaku dengan cara tertentu (Banks et al., 2017;Grabo et al., 2017). ...
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This study aims to examine the effect of charismatic leadership on the psychological safety climate and tacit knowledge sharing. This study also investigates the central role of psychological safety climate as a mediating variable between charismatic leadership and tacit knowledge sharing. This study adopted a simple random sampling method with 63 samples of teachers from a Madrasah Tsanawiyah in Banten. The results of this study indicate that charismatic leadership has a significant direct influence on the climate of psychological security and tacit knowledge sharing. Likewise, the psychological security climate has a significant direct influence on tacit knowledge sharing. This study also finds evidence that charismatic leadership has a significant indirect effect on tacit knowledge sharing through the mediation of a psychological security climate. Thus, the psychological safety climate acts as a partial mediator in this research model.
... Waldman & Yammarino (1999) further define charismatic leadership as the relationship between leader and follower, resulting in 'an internalized commitment to the leader's vision, a very strong admiration and respect for the leader, and the identification of followers with the leader, vision, and collectives formed by the leader. Conceptualization suggests that charisma only exists if followers say it or followers behave in a certain way (Banks et al., 2017;Grabo et al., 2017). ...
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This study aims to examine the effect of charismatic leadership on the psychological safety climate and tacit knowledge sharing. This study also investigates the central role of psychological safety climate as a mediating variable between charismatic leadership and tacit knowledge sharing. This study adopted a simple random sampling method with 61 samples of employees from five of MSME companies in Banten. With the help of SmartPLS 3.0 software, the results of this study indicate that charismatic leadership has a significant direct influence on the psychological safety climate and tacit knowledge sharing. Likewise, the psychological safety climate has a significant direct effect on tacit knowledge sharing. This study also found evidence that charismatic leadership has a significant indirect effect on tacit knowledge sharing through mediating the psychological safety climate. Thus, the psychological safety climate acts as a partial mediator in this research model.
... Beyond the Machiavellian value of social savvy, evidence suggests that large brains and their corresponding cognitive advantages may have been selected for as a result of their sexual appeal (Crow, 1993;McKeown, 2013;Miller, 2000;Miller & Todd, 1998;Schillaci, 2006). In line with signaling accounts, charisma in the form of humor and leadership abilities has been argued to function as an honest signal of desirable qualities, including cognitive ability (Greengross & Miller, 2011;Grabo et al., 2017). In biology, an "honest signal" is one that conveys accurate information about an unobservable trait to another organism. ...
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Navigating social systems efficiently is critical to our species. Humans appear endowed with a cognitive system that has formed to meet the unique challenges that emerge for highly social species. Bullshitting, communication characterised by an intent to be convincing or impressive without concern for truth, is ubiquitous within human societies. Across two studies ( N = 1,017), we assess participants’ ability to produce satisfying and seemingly accurate bullshit as an honest signal of their intelligence. We find that bullshit ability is associated with an individual’s intelligence and individuals capable of producing more satisfying bullshit are judged by second-hand observers to be more intelligent. We interpret these results as adding evidence for intelligence being geared towards the navigation of social systems. The ability to produce satisfying bullshit may serve to assist individuals in negotiating their social world, both as an energetically efficient strategy for impressing others and as an honest signal of intelligence.
... Despite this, it is now understood that charismatic leadership can be found at all levels of an organization (Shamir, 1995). Weber defined charismatic leadership as a person outfitted with unique and extraordinary qualifications who emerges as a result of a social crisis in society, offers radical solutions to crises, and is believed by observers to have extraordinary powers (Grabo et al., 2017). If these characteristics of the charismatic leader positively affect the employees, the leader's organization is likely to be successful in innovation and performance. ...
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Objective of the Study: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between the variables of diversity management, charismatic leadership, innovation speed, innovation performance, and company performance. Methodology/Approach: A survey study was conducted with 427 employees (both technicians and engineers) working at companies that operated in the manufacturing industry in the scope of the research purpose. SPSS 25 and SPSS AMOS programs were used incrementally, and the acquired data were evaluated and analyzed. Originality/Relevance: In this research, white-collar workers constituted our sampling group because they play a key role in product innovation. While gathering the analysis data, the first 500 companies registered in Istanbul Chamber of Industry were determined, and manufacturing companies operating in Istanbul constituted the main part of the study. Main Results: As a result of the analysis, it is understood that diversity management and charismatic leadership have a positive influence on innovation and performance. Theoretical/Methodological Contribution: In terms of innovation and company performance, the study revealed the mediation effect of charismatic leadership linked to diversity management. Social/management contributions: In order for organizations to carry out creative and innovative activities, it is very important to effectively manage different ideas and thoughts within organizations. In fact, charismatic leadership positively affects employees, helping them to perform better. Therefore, employees must be actively involved in order to successfully carry out innovation.
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Rethinking charismatic leadership in organizations: an evolutionary approach This integrative review of literature offers a new perspective on a research object that generates as much fascination as distrust in the research field: charisma as a source of leadership. This research is conceptual and uses the evolutionary perspective to rehabilitate charismatic leadership as a relevant object of study in organizations. Charisma is studied as a signal, and charismatic leadership as a signaling process aiming at unifying a group toward a common goal. This research draws on early developments in the evolutionary approach to propose an in-depth reflection on the identification of charismatic signals, their effects on the group, and the information that is communicated. The objective is to propose a precise and complete understanding of what charismatic leadership is and how it can be used in organizations. The contributions of this research are therefore firstly theoretical: to extend the first developments of the evolutionary approach applied to charismatic leadership and to answer the main criticisms of the concept. The originality of this work is also to have rehabilitated the role of the body as a tool for the transmission of information in the leadership process. But the contributions are also managerial: by converting charismatic signals into verbal and non-verbal communication techniques, we show that they can be used as a strategic resource in organizational leadership.
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Every organization has the internal capacity to innovate, the only question is whether it will use that capacity or not. Unfortunately, most ideas are never realized. Managers are the ones who need to create a working environment, i.e. an organizational culture that encourages and supports a high-level innovation of employees, because competitiveness and market recognition today are built on this particular ability of the organization. Therefore, the paper discusses the strategic aspect of innovation of economic entities by size in the Republic of Serbia, in terms of: the trend of innovative activities; the share of innovators; rank of the Republic of Serbia within the Global Innovation Index; the most significant shortcomings of the innovation policy in the Republic of Serbia; as well as desirable innovation policies. Special emphasis is placed on the importance of learning for innovation and the role of managers in that, with a focus on lifelong learning and strengthening the culture of learning and application of acquired knowledge. Key words: organization, innovation, strategic management, employees, education, Republic of Serbia
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Adopting a cognitive and follower-centric approach to charismatic leadership, we hypothesized that followers show lower levels of cognitive effort, reflected in superficial processing of factually correct information when listening to and viewing a charismatic leader. We conducted two experiments, using a 2 (charismatic versus neutral) × 2 (female versus male leader) between-subjects design and videos of trained actors delivering a speech. We examined the effects of leader charisma on (1a) followers’ ability to detect factually false information, (1b) accuracy to remember information from the leader (study 1, N = 100), (2a) the persuasiveness of factual messages, (2b) followers’ prosocial behavior and (2c) the mediating effect of the leader’s persuasiveness on followers’ prosocial behavior (study 2, N = 140). We did not find support for the effect of leader charisma on detecting false information, the persuasiveness of messages, or increased prosocial behavior among followers. We found an effect of leader charisma on memory. Participants recognized fewer messages in the charismatic compared to the neutral leader conditions. Exploratory analyses provided mixed results for an interaction effect of leader charisma and sex on detecting and remembering false information. Our studies offer first insights into the cognitive outcomes of the charismatic signaling process.
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Despite a tremendous amount of research on the topic, we still have little evidence regarding the extent to which transformational leader behaviors (TLBs) cause a number of outcomes. The primary inhibitors include a lack of theoretical precision, the conflation of leader (follower) behaviors with evaluations, as well as measurement and design issues which prevent causal inferences. To address such concerns, we reframe the transformational leadership literature from a signaling theory perspective. Study 1 reviewed existing definitions of transformational leadership. Building on this, we introduce a new definition of TLB: Leader signaling through developmental and prosocial behaviors tailored for each unique stakeholder (e.g., person, dyad, group, organization). Leveraging topic modeling, Study 2 involved the analysis of open-ended survey responses. Using a constant comparative approach, six TLBs were identified: 1. teaching life lessons, 2. introduction to developmental opportunities, 3. providing different perspectives, 4. seeking different perspectives, 5. questioning critical assumptions, and 6. speaking words of affirmation. Studies 3 and 4 were preregistered experiments that showed TLBs cause variation in follower evaluations of the leader as transformational (n = 416; Cohen’s d = .50) and contributions to a public good (n = 320; Cohen’s d = .36), respectively. We conclude with recommendations for theory and practice.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the interdependence between organizational culture and leadership. It explores the presentation of leadership models. Except in the case of radical changes in the leadership of an organization, culture tends to be self‐replicating and stable over time. Clan culture characterizes organizations that function like a family. The role of the leader has a parental dimension; loyalty, tradition, participation, collaboration and team spirit are particularly valued. Transformational leadership is characterized by the importance of the leader's symbolic behavior. Unlike transformational or charismatic leadership, authentic leadership allows for the building of a trusting relationship through a mechanism of self‐disclosure, allowing for the identification of each other's strengths and weaknesses, and for a consistent and informed response to situations and problems encountered. 4.0 leaders must be able to support the transition to Industry 4.0, foster idea confrontation and feedback from employees, be responsive while supporting employee responsiveness, and provide opportunities and resources for continuous learning.
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ÖZET İnsanlık tarihiyle yaşıt olan liderlik kavramı klasik dönemlerden modern ve post-modern dönemlere kadar çeşitli değişim ve dönüşümlerden geçmiştir. Bu dönüşüm sürecinde kavrama yeni yorumlar ve yeni açılımlar getirilmiştir. Bu çalışmanın amacı iş yaşamında sürekli olarak dönüşen ve yeni kavramlar ile ilişkilendirilen liderlik kavramıyla ilgili akademik yazındaki güncel durumu tespit edebilmektir. Bu maksatla Web of Science (WoS) veri tabanlarında Sosyal Bilimler Atıf Dizini (SSCI) üzerinden 2015-2020 yılları arasında yönetim ve işletme kategorilerinde “Leadership Quarterly” ve “Leadership” dergilerinde, başlığında “liderlik” ifadesi olan makaleler taranmıştır. Tarama sonucu ulaşılan 290 makaleye ilişkin bibliyometrik analiz gerçekleştirilmiştir. İlk olarak makalelere dair performans analizi yapılmıştır. Sonraki aşamada bilimsel haritalama analizi ile alan yazınına dair ilişki ağları saptanmaya çalışılmıştır. Analiz sonuçlarına göre “karizmatik liderlik” kavramına olan ilginin klasik yönetim anlayışı döneminden bu yana eksilmediği anlaşılmaktadır. “Dönüşümcü liderlik” ve “etkileşimci liderlik” ise en çok çalışılan liderlik yaklaşımlarıdır. Ayrıca “otantik liderlik, manevi liderlik, etik liderlik, dağıtımcı liderlik, paylaşımcı liderlik” gibi yeni liderlik yaklaşımlarının çalışmalarda yer alan güncel liderlik yaklaşımları olduğu görülmektedir. Sonuç olarak geleneksel dönemdeki “tek-adam, büyük-adam liderlik" anlayışının modern dönemlerde giderek "lider-üye etkileşimi" anlayışına dönüştüğü görülmektedir. Bugünün liderinin daha çok hizmet eden, daha çok güdüleyen, daha çok paylaşan ve daha dinamik olması çalışmalarda genel kabul görmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Liderlik, Etkileşimci Liderlik, Dönüşümcü Liderlik, Bibliyometrik Analiz, Karizmatik Liderlik ABSTRACT The concept of leadership, which is as old as the history of humanity, has gone through various changes and transformations from classical periods to modern and post-modern periods. In this transformation process, new interpretations and new expansions have been brought to the concept. The aim of this study is to determine the current situation in the academic literature on the concept of leadership, which is constantly transformed in business life and associated with new concepts. For this purpose, articles with the phrase "leadership" in the title were searched in the "Leadership Quarterly" and "Leadership" journals in the management and business categories between 2015-2020 through the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) in Web of Science (WoS) databases. A bibliometric analysis was performed on 290 articles that were accessed as a result of the search. First, a performance analysis of the articles was made. In the next stage, it was tried to determine the relation networks related to the literature with scientific mapping analysis. According to the results of the analysis, it is understood that the interest in the concept of "charismatic leadership" has not decreased since the period of classical management understanding. “Transformational leadership” and “transactional leadership” are the most studied leadership approaches. In addition, it is seen that new leadership approaches such as "authentic leadership, spiritual leadership, ethical leadership, distributed leadership, shared leadership" are current leadership approaches included in the studies. As a result, it is seen that the understanding of "oneman, great-man leadership" in the traditional period gradually transforms into "leader-member interaction" in modern times. It is generally accepted in studies that today's leader is more serving, more motivating, more sharing and more dynamic. Keywords: Leadership, Transactional Leadership, Transformational Leadership, Bibliometric Analysis, Charismatic Leadership
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STRATEGIC EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND CREATING PRODUCTIVE WORK M Radovic-Markovic, S Vujicic, Z Medic
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Charisma is best understood as an intersubjective phenomenon irreducible to individual psychology, though to some extent the phenomena of charisma and narcissism overlap. From its earliest stipulation by St. Paul as a gift of grace to Weber’s (1922 Weber, M. (1922). Economy and Society [Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft]: A New Translation, ed. & trans. K. Tribe. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 2019. [Google Scholar], 1946 Weber, M. (1946). From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, ed. & trans. H. H. Gerth & C. W. Mills. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. [Google Scholar], 1968 Weber, M. (1968). On Charisma and Institution Building: Selected Papers, ed. S. N. Eisenstadt. Chicago, IL: Univ. of Chicago Press. [Google Scholar]) seminal work on charismatic authority and its inevitable routinization, the concept has evolved into a more nuanced construct that can be useful in formulating leadership/followership dynamics. Via a case vignette, the author illustrates how charismatic organization functions in the clinical situation. Linking Weber’s work on enthusiasm to Bion’s (1958 Bion, W. R. (1958). On arrogance. Int. J. Psychoanal., 39:144–146.[Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]) stipulation of arrogance and stupidity, he shows how the concept of charismatic organization bridges recent social science research and psychoanalytic understanding and provides a way of relating certain clinical phenomena to events on the larger sociopolitical stage.
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This chapter analyses the institutional speeches of six European leaders (N=19) to identify the emotional and rational frames used when explaining the measures implemented to address the first wave of COVID-19. The results of the analysis show the importance of frames of different categories, and the trust and leadership shown by political leaders, who sought to give speeches that would provoke a feeling of security in citizens based on their capacity to lead. Emotionality, built on values such as protection, gratitude, social sacrifice, and citizen unity, is rounded off with a rational approach based on science and economics. With none of the leaders being populist, their personalities were heterogeneous, from Merkel's empathy to Conte's confidential tone, Johnson's instructive discourse, Macron's commitment to Europe, and Sánchez and Costa's pedagogical vocation.
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Charismatic leadership has been conceptualized as a signaling process whereby a leader influences followers to achieve effective management. Although there have been many studies on charismatic leadership, no scale exists to measure tour leaders’ charismatic guiding. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable charismatic-guiding scale for tour leaders, from the perspectives of both tour leaders and tour members. Through a rigorous development process, the study’s 20-item, 4-dimensional tour leaders’ charismatic-guiding scale was proven to be valid and reliable. The novel scale may function as a tool for tour leaders to measure their charismatic guiding as well as for travel agencies in their assignment of tour leaders. This study applied charismatic leadership theory to tourism, furthering knowledge of charismatic guiding in tour leaders and establishing a foundation for future theoretical development.
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THE EVOLUTIONARY ORIGINS AND PSYCHOLOGY OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP
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This study aims to examine the effect of charismatic leadership on the psychological safety climate and tacit knowledge sharing. This study also investigates the central role of psychological safety climate as a mediating variable between charismatic leadership and tacit knowledge sharing. This study adopted a simple random sampling method with 61 samples of ustadz/ustadzah from a Pesantren in Banten. The results of this study indicate that charismatic leadership has a significant direct influence on the climate of psychological security and tacit knowledge sharing. Likewise, the psychological safety climate has a significant direct influence on tacit knowledge sharing. This study also finds evidence that charismatic leadership has a significant indirect effect on tacit knowledge sharing through the mediation of a psychological safety climate. Thus, the psychological safety climate acts as a partial mediator in this research model.
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An extensive literature in political science shows how citizens' evaluations of politicians—as well as their electoral behavior—are affected by trait impressions of these politicians. However, deeper, interdisciplinary theory building that seeks to address when and for whom specific trait impressions come to guide candidate evaluations remains absent. In this article, I outline the theory of adaptive followership that seeks to address this shortcoming. Grounded in evolutionary psychology, I argue that leadership evolved as a solution to problems of intragroup coordination in ancestral small‐scale societies. In order to understand the traits that drive followers' and voters' evaluations of leaders and politicians, one should therefore focus on problems related to group coordination and ask how these problems might regulate followers' prioritizations of various traits in leaders. On this basis, I outline an analytical framework consisting of three predictions that simultaneously formulate how (1) contexts and (2) individual differences of relevance to a given group‐coordination problem regulate trait preferences, and (3) how such preferences differ between leaders and nonleaders (i.e., other social categories). The analytical framework is applied for structuring two reviews (including new empirical studies) of the ways through which intergroup conflict and disease threat, respectively, affect followers' trait preferences in leaders. Finally, directions and suggestions for future research on trait‐based candidates and leader evaluations are discussed.
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The Routledge International Handbook of Charisma provides an unprecedented multidimensional and multidisciplinary comparative analysis of the phenomenon of charisma – first defined by Max Weber as the irrational bond between deified leader and submissive follower. It includes broad overviews of foundational theories and experiences of charisma and of associated key issues and themes. Contributors include 45 influential international scholars who approach the topic from different disciplinary perspectives and utilize examples from an array of historical and cultural settings. The Handbook presents up-to-date, concise, thought-provoking, innovative, and informative perspectives on charisma as it has been expressed in the past and as it continues to be manifested in the contemporary world by leaders ranging from shamans to presidents. It is designed to be essential reading for all students, researchers, and general readers interested in achieving a comprehensive understanding of the power and potential of charismatic authority in all its varieties, subtleties, dynamics, and current and potential directions.
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This theory lays out the need for strong theory in the field of business communication. A set of strong, widely recognized theories can improve the field in many ways. Theory helps improve research in the field by giving us a uniting scaffold that we can build upon. The chapter also describes how such a set of theories can help the field’s reputation, cohesiveness, pedagogy, and application.
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review Kelman's (1958) theory on social influence processes and deduce from it hypotheses concerning a differential use of social influence processes by socialized and personalized leaders [review] the work of McClelland and his colleagues on the power motive and deriving hypotheses concerning the two types of charismatic leadership based on a differential exercise of power describe the behaviors of the two charismatic types the effects of socialized and personalized leaders on followers and on the perpetuation of the mission are outlined, citing examples from the literature to illustrate the varying effects discuss the implications for theory on organizational and individual effectiveness (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies, one with 2- to 3-month-olds and one with 6- to 8-month-olds, were conducted to examine infant preferences for attractive faces. A standard visual preference technique was used in which infants were shown pairs of color slides of the faces of adult women previously rated by other adults for attractiveness. The results showed that both the older and younger infants looked longer at attractive faces when the faces were presented in contrasting pairs of attractiveness (attractive/unattractive). When the faces were presented in pairs of similar levels of attractiveness (attractive/attractive vs. unattractive/unattractive) the older but not the younger infants looked longer at attractive faces. The results challenge the commonly held assumption that standards of attractiveness are learned through gradual exposure to the current cultural standard of beauty and are merely "in the eye of the beholder.".
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We propose a model of vision communication that emphasizes the mediating role of follower collective possible selves-that is, self-conception in terms of what the collective (team, organization) which one is a member of may become in the future that can be held by individuals but can also be shared by multiple individuals. Our model is the first to provide an integrative account of how vision communication may stimulate the pursuit of the vision by individuals and collectives, and it complements and extends prior research in three important ways. First, in contrast to an earlier emphasis on the role of individual perceptions of the current self, our model puts perceptions of the future self at the forefront. It captures how vision communication can invite social sharedness of these perceptions, thus doing justice to visions' nature as images of a future for the collective. Second, in contrast to earlier work on vision communication focusing on general indicators of leadership effectiveness, our model puts what is arguably the most important outcome for vision communication center stage: vision pursuit, the followers' actions aimed at making the vision reality. We argue that the creation of collective possible selves by followers is crucial for vision communication because collective possible selves explain how vision communication relates to vision pursuit. Third, our model also addresses aspects of vision communication that may facilitate the processes through which visions become internalized as possible selves, and it captures the processes through which such possible selves become shared among members of a collective and lead to collective vision pursuit.
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Physical height is associated with beneficial outcomes for the tall individual (e.g., higher salary and likelihood of occupying a leadership position), presumably because being tall constituted an adaptive characteristic in ancestral societies. Although this account hinges on the presence of an evolved positive social-perceptual bias toward tall people, little direct evidence exists for this claim. Physical height literally implies the ability to reach higher, see further, and have greater overview; it also affords dominance, which others may equate with ability as well. Hence, leaders' physical height may be positively related to followers' belief that a leader has extraordinary talents, that is, charisma. However, because leadership positions were, in ancestral societies, occupied by males, an evolutionary perspective might further suggest that height is less relevant to followers' perceptions of female leaders. In line with this reasoning, the current study found a positive relationship between male leaders' height and their followers' perceptions of charisma, while no such relationship was found for female leaders.
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Previous research indicates that followers tend to contingently match particular leader qualities to evolutionarily consistent situations requiring collective action (i.e., context-specific cognitive leadership prototypes) and information processing undergoes categorization which ranks certain qualities as first-order context-general and others as second-order context-specific. To further investigate this contingent categorization phenomenon we examined the "attractiveness halo"—a first-order facial cue which significantly biases leadership preferences. While controlling for facial attractiveness, we independently manipulated the underlying facial cues of health and intelligence and then primed participants with four distinct organizational dynamics requiring leadership (i.e., competition vs. cooperation between groups and exploratory change vs. stable exploitation). It was expected that the differing requirements of the four dynamics would contingently select for relatively healthier-or intelligent-looking leaders. We found perceived facial intelligence to be a second-order context-specific trait—for instance, in times requiring a leader to address between-group cooperation—whereas perceived health is significantly preferred across all contexts (i.e., a first-order trait). The results also indicate that facial health positively affects perceived masculinity while facial intelligence negatively affects perceived masculinity, which may partially explain leader choice in some of the environmental contexts. The limitations and a number of implications regarding leadership biases are discussed.
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Theories of transformational and charismatic leadership provide important insights about the nature of effective leadership. However, most of the theories have conceptual weaknesses that reduce their capacity to explain effective leadership. The conceptual weaknesses are identified here and refinements are suggested. The issue of compatibility between transformational and charismatic leadership is also discussed. Finally, some methodological problems involving construct validation and theory testing are identified, and suggestions for future research are provided.
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There is a widely shared consensus that charismatic–transformational leadership is a particularly effective form of leadership. In a critical assessment of the state-of-the-science in this area of research, we question the validity of that conclusion. We identify four problems with theory and research in charismatic–transformational leadership. First, a clear conceptual definition of charismatic–transformational leadership is lacking. Current theories advance multi-dimensional conceptualizations of charismatic–transformational leadership without specifying how these different dimensions combine to form charismatic–transformational leadership, or how dimensions are selected for inclusion or exclusion. Second, theories fail to sufficiently specify the causal model capturing how each dimension has a distinct influence on mediating processes and outcomes and how this is contingent on moderating influences. Third, conceptualization and operationalization confounds charismatic–transformational leadership with its effects. Fourth, the most frequently used measurement tools are invalid in that they fail to reproduce the dimensional structure specified by theory and fail to achieve empirical distinctiveness from other aspects of leadership. Given that these problems are fundamental and inherent in the approaches analyzed, it is recommended that current approaches be abandoned, and that the field forego the label of charismatic–transformational leadership in favor of the study of more clearly defined and empirically distinct aspects of leadership.
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Human adults attribute character traits to faces readily and with high consensus. In two experiments investigating the development of face-to-trait inference, adults and children ages 3 through 10 attributed trustworthiness, dominance, and competence to pairs of faces. In Experiment 1, the attributions of 3- to 4-year-olds converged with those of adults, and 5- to 6-year-olds' attributions were at adult levels of consistency. Children ages 3 and above consistently attributed the basic mean/nice evaluation not only to faces varying in trustworthiness (Experiment 1) but also to faces varying in dominance and competence (Experiment 2). This research suggests that the predisposition to judge others using scant facial information appears in adultlike forms early in childhood and does not require prolonged social experience.
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Why does beauty win out at the ballot box? Some researchers have pos