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Human Factors in Systems Engineering / A. Chapanis.

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Abstract

Introducción al campo de los factores humanos en la ingeniería de sistemas, dividida en los siguientes capítulos: 1. Introducción. 2. Sistemas e ingeniería de sistemas. 3. Estándares, códigos, especificaciones y otros productos de trabajo. 4. Métodos de factores humanos. 5. y 6. Cacterísticas humanas físicas y mentales. 7. Selección de personal y capacitación. 8. Requisitos de los sistemas. 9. Posdata.

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... Nonetheless, and more generally, HF&E experts' contributions during earlier phase of design like Conceptual Design or pre-conceptual design (PCD) are not frequent. If participation of HF&E experts to the conceptual phase of systems design is not new (e.g., [2]), up to our knowledge, there is no already described and structured HF&E method to contribute to a pre-conceptual design (PCD) phase. ...
... In this case, HF&E experts' job is twofold [1]. Firstly, they can participate to the definition of some elements of the future situation like, the information and the way it will be displayed on human system interface, or the function allocation between human and automation (see [2] for a review of major HF&E experts' tasks in system design). Secondly, they have to anticipate the effects of the various elements of the situation on human activity. ...
... The contribution of HF&E experts to the conceptual phases of system design is explicitly mentioned by [2]. This approach is based on many techniques including operational analysis (projected analysis of the foreseen operational situations operators are likely to face with the new system), and the analysis of similar socio-technical system that are well suited for conceptual design. ...
Chapter
Contributing to the earliest phases of design is an old challenge of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF&E) experts. If HF&E contributions to Basic Design and Detailed Design of Nuclear Power Plants is acknowledge, HF&E experts’ contributions to earlier phase of design like Conceptual Design or pre-conceptual design (PCD) are not frequent. Therefore, if participation of HF&E experts to the earliest phase of systems design is not new, up to our knowledge, there is no already described, validated and structured HF&E method to contribute to a pre-conceptual design (PCD) phase. The aim of the PCD phase is to prepare and address the scientific issues of a proposed new design. From an HF&E point of view, the scientific issues are related to the concept of operations envisioned for the new system. The paper presents the approach we are currently leading at EDF R&D during the PCD phase of the design of innovative small modular reactors (ISMR) in order to define its concept of operations. This approach is based on several methods we propose to articulate in order to contribute to fill the lack of described and validated HF&E method to contribute to PCD. The theoretical foundations of our approach are based on work analyses in reference work situations [1] and operational analysis [2]. The paper describes each step of the approach developed and the organizational conditions for the participation of HF&E experts into PCD.
... Many system engineering authors discuss the role of humans in the context of various sociotechnical systems. Chapanis (1996), in his Human Factors in Systems Engineering book, describes human factors as a body of information about human abilities, human limitations, and other human characteristics that are relevant to design. This notion of design is essential in the context of engineering, as it assists in planning and modelling systems engineering tools, machines, systems, tasks, jobs, and environments for safe and effective human use (Chapanis, 1996). ...
... Chapanis (1996), in his Human Factors in Systems Engineering book, describes human factors as a body of information about human abilities, human limitations, and other human characteristics that are relevant to design. This notion of design is essential in the context of engineering, as it assists in planning and modelling systems engineering tools, machines, systems, tasks, jobs, and environments for safe and effective human use (Chapanis, 1996). The essential role of the game theory in assisting systems engineering design is the comprehensive analysis of the interaction between parts of the whole, especially in situations of decentralised control. ...
... Game theory can also help systems engineer in the decision-making processes. These processes are usually accompanied by uncertainty and lack of information associated with different systems (Chapanis, 1996). The general game-theoretic decision-making process starts with identifying the problem, designing a solution, actual decision making, and implementing the solution. ...
Article
Game theory is a useful modelling approach to analyse complex systems with multiple stakeholders, describe their decision-making process, and the impact these decisions have on the overall system performance. In this paper, we review the use of game theory models in the systems engineering domain. Our approach was to conduct an extensive literature review in systems engineering related journals on game theory and systems engineering content. We have identified major application areas of game theory within systems engineering, such as electricity markets, security systems, and supply chain; which we discuss in detail. This paper aggregates notable research to date to provide an overview of the models that have been used to analyse different systems engineering problems. The paper also provides an extensive description of different game properties. This work aims to highlight the potential contribution game theory brings to solving systems engineering problems and its potential for the future.
... The BowTie method is designed to provide a clear and understandable visualization of the relationship between the causes of events and prepared measures that minimize their negative effects. In the most common use, the ultimate goal is to demonstrate control of event, safety and environmental hazards [5]. The BowTie method consists of 7 essential elements that illustrate how it works: • Hazard, • Highlight event (Top Event), • Causes of the culmination event (threats), • Consequences, • Barriers: preventive / recovery barriers, • Factors for reducing the effectiveness of the above-mentioned barriers (escalation factors), • Control methods for the above-mentioned factors (escalation factor controls). ...
... Where possible, dedicated questions for the ECCAIRS 4 database were developed for each Security Problem in order to identify events related to each Security Problem. The ERCS 5 chart ( fig. 3) shows the number of events in the ECR for each Safety Problem (in case it was possible to prepare an appropriate query for the ECCAIRS database) [5]. Loading of luggage and goods on passenger planes is the main Safety Problem (considering the number of events in the ECR). ...
... Polish Civil Aviation Authority, Report on the state of civil aviation safety for 2017, Edition 2018.4 European Co-ordination Centre for Accident and Incident Reporting Systems.5 European Risk Classification Scheme. ...
Article
Full-text available
The role of the human factor in aviation is a critical element for the safety of flight operations. It is described by methods such as SHELL and BowTie, which propose solutions to minimize the risk of occurrence of aviation events. The work presents the development of these concepts by introducing the method of testing the predisposition of airport staff using a specialized system which is the Polipsychograph - a system dedicated to designing and carrying out psychological tasks testing human mental, cognitive and motor skills in connection with the assessment of his professional capabilities. The work contains the results of 40 tests performed on employees dealing with airport ground handling on a daily basis. Research has shown that the employee’s predisposition depends on the quality of work entrusted to him. The paper presents a method of assessing the psychophysical predisposition of an employee allowing him to be directed to work corresponding to his qualifications.
... En ingénierie de conception par exemple, les besoins sont vus comme l'expression d'une volonté relative au futur par un mandant. En ergonomie de conception des systèmes informatiques, les besoins permettent de construire et de justifier les fonctionnalités, les propriétés et les caractéristiques du futur système (Burkhardt & Sperandio, 2004 ;Chapanis, 1996). Couix (2012) les assimile notamment aux repères descriptifs pour la conception en ergonomie des situations de travail (Daniellou, 2004). ...
... Dans l'approche Human Factors, le rôle de l'ergonome est de produire des connaissances scientifiques sur l'homme au travail et de les synthétiser dans des manuels ou sous forme de recommandations ergonomiques utilisables par les concepteurs. L'ergonome n'intervient alors pas toujours directement dans la conception, ce qui peut présenter des limites, notamment pour que les concepteurs s'approprient les nombreuses recommandations disponibles dans la littérature (Chapanis, 1996). ...
... La principale différence avec l'assistance à maîtrise d'ouvrage réside dans la plus grande implication des ergonomes dans la définition des spécifications. Pour ces deux types de démarche, Chapanis (1996) (Couix, 2012, p. 31) Comme nous l'avons vu, les besoins sont rarement exprimés en tant que tels par les utilisateurs futurs qui émettent plutôt des attentes vis-à-vis du futur système. L'ergonome doit alors identifier les besoins sous-jacents à ces attentes « latentes » (Sperandio, 2001). ...
Thesis
Les Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication pour l’Enseignement (TICE) peuvent transformer profondément les pratiques pédagogiques. Cependant, pour que ce bénéfice potentiel se réalise, il faut que les solutions produites en conception puissent à la fois s’intégrer à ces pratiques et être sources d’innovation potentielles, en termes de plus-values pour les activités d’enseignement et d’apprentissage. L’objectif de cette thèse est de mettre en avant des facteurs de conception qui permettent d’articuler ces enjeux dans le cadre d’un projet de conception sur technologie émergente pour l’enseignement. Ainsi, la recherche s’intéresse à une démarche participative mise en œuvre dans la conception conjointe d’un système technique (l’application sur table interactive) et des pratiques enseignantes (par l’intermédiaire de scénarios pédagogiques). Nos hypothèses concernent les effets de différents facteurs sur l’élaboration d’un compromis entre des enjeux d’intégration et d’innovation : implication de futurs utilisateurs « pionniers » ; opportunités de confrontation de leurs hypothèses de conception ; cadrage du champ des possibles. Les analyses portent sur l’ensemble de la démarche de conception, afin de caractériser ces effets d’un point de vue longitudinal en les situant par rapport aux différentes méthodes mobilisées et à l’avancement des solutions de conception. En particulier, les justifications des choix de conception relatifs à certaines composantes de l’artefact en cours d’élaboration sont étudiées pour caractériser, d’une part, les facteurs de la conception qui ont contextualisé ces choix et, d’autre part, leurs liens avec les enjeux d’innovation ou d’intégration, voire les deux. Les résultats montrent que : (i) la mobilisation et la redéfinition des scénarios pédagogiques, l’implication d’enseignants en tant que co-concepteurs, la confrontation des solutions de conception sur prototype et en simulation et enfin le recueil des besoins favorisent la définition de caractéristiques techniques et l’intégration du système technique ; (ii) la définition des caractéristiques techniques de l’application, l’implication d’enseignants pionniers, l’identification de leurs besoins et la simulation des solutions favorisent l’adaptation des pratiques enseignantes aux caractéristiques de la technologie en vue d’optimiser son intégration ; (iii) les différentes formes de confrontation à la nouvelle technologie ainsi que les apprentissages mutuels en conception participative vis-à-vis du potentiel technique et interactif des tables interactives contribuent à l’exploitation de ce potentiel par les concepteurs ; (iv) les caractéristiques innovantes des tables interactives, l’anticipation de leurs usages potentiels en salle de classe, la mise en œuvre des solutions de conception en situation réelle, la participation d’enseignants futurs utilisateurs leur permettant de s’approprier la nouvelle technologie et l’identification de leurs difficultés actuelles favorisent l’innovation dans les scénarios pédagogiques et l’amélioration des activités d’enseignement et d’apprentissage.
... ...they may be disrupting a current market, or entering a new market, potentially with competition from other similar technological offerings to be early entrants or fast followers to define, refine, and rollout offerings for market expansion. 3 A current example of a widely recognized emerging technology is the autonomous vehicle. Autonomous vehicles have been envisioned as a futuristic technology since the 1940's. ...
... To present an idea of the maturity of development, perceived expectations, and timing of emerging technologies for 2019, the Gartner hype cycle for 2019 is shown inFigure 1.Emerging technologies follow a systems lifecycle. All new systems, whether new inventions or iterative improvements of well-defined solutions, follow a development lifecycle.[3] An emerging technology is a unique occurrence whereby the mass market or mass-scale deployment of the system is unknown, or in the process of defining its own market. ...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging technologies constitute a “grey zone” that occurs between research and development (R&D) and engineering for commercial or mass scale production. The pace of innovation is more rapid than technology knowledge transfer and comprehension by the policy and regulatory community. Just as emerging technologies constitute a “grey zone” between R&D and mass scale or mainstream offerings, the emerging market represents a “grey zone” between a developed market and an undeveloped market in either general economic terms or industry specific terms. Digital emerging technologies deviate from traditional supply chains, involve new business models, create unexpected or unpredictable outcomes, and can bring challenges to governance. Emerging technologies may be a strategic benefit to emerging markets, such as Hungary, and developing countries, such as Suriname, to help expand their economies. Who is responsible for governing the emerging technology solution if multiple countries are part of the development or operating environment, and is there a need for collaborative governance? Who is liable in the case of bad actors or saboteurs? Full Text Available here - https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/grey-zones
... Likewise, ISO helps meet diverse international regulations that provide companies with a certain degree of competitiveness (Clementes 1997;Samaras and Horst 2005). This book views manufacturing systems as an interactive combination at any level of complexity among people, materials, tools, machines, software, facilities, and processes that are designed to work together and meet a common goal (Chapanis 1996). However, manufacturing systems can also be conceived as a combination of smaller systems, known as subsystems; any changes made to one of such subsystems or parts can affect other parts or the complete manufacturing system ( . ...
... Ergonomics operates along with product development and processes, as it belongs to a systematic development framework rigorously structured and applied in systems engineering. This framework allows for maximizing the advantages of ergonomics during the whole product life cycle or process (Chapanis 1996;Samaras and Horst 2005). Figure 3.1 depicts the systems engineering domain- requirements engineering, compliance engineering, and reliability engineering- and the range of activities-economics, ergonomics, software and hardware-that are part of ergonomics (microergonomics). ...
Book
Full-text available
Macroergonomics dates back to 1982 in Seattle, WA, USA. A group of concerned physical ergonomics researchers concluded that increasing the physical aspects of the job was important but not enough to improve human conditions in labor settings. Thus, to improve work conditions, a new approach was necessary for evaluating the organizational context. Under this scenario, the notion of Organizational Design and Management (ODAM) emerged as an attempt to consider the organizational structure in ergonomic evaluations. Then, years later, ODAM gave birth to macroergonomics, a subdiscipline or branch of ergonomics. Since then, macroergonomics has become popular. Originally, macroergonomics addressed work and job positions from an organizational approach, yet now it has evolved and extends beyond these aspects. Nowadays, it is also interested in manufacturing systems, healthcare systems, safety systems, and sustainable systems, among others. This book proposes a macroergonomic approach to evaluating manufacturing systems, which is why both terms—macroergonomics and manufacturing systems —must be clearly established from the beginning. That said, experts such as Hendrick (1995), Hendrick and Kleiner (2002), Carayon (2012) view macroergonomics as a branch of ergonomics that is both a top-down and a bottom-up approach to sociotechnical systems. Macroergonomics encompasses organizational structures, policies, and processes that support the design of work systems and interfaces, such as the human–work, human–machine, human–software, and human–environment interfaces. Its fundamental purpose is to make sure that work systems are fully harmonized and compatible with their sociotechnical characteristics to achieve synergic improvements within a broad range of organizational effectiveness criteria (e.g., safety and health, comfort, productivity) (Carayon 2012; Zink 2014).
... This paper describes the development and application of a new methodology to assess current SHSPs against two criteria that can be used prior to the SHSPs being implemented. The first set of criteria are the seven elements of a newly developed comprehensive framework for road safety management, based on systems theory and practice [5,6]. The second criteria represent the changes that are expected in the transport system and its context that are likely to affect road safety [4,7,8], including the changing and variable nature of future transport [6,[9][10][11]. ...
... Similar to road safety, safety management in hazardous industries evolved through several paradigms and approaches. However, in contrast to road safety, safety management in hazardous industries over the past 20 years has moved away from the human-machine-environment interface model and causal sequence analysis that considered parts in isolation [6,31] and has adopted and applied systems theory [32][33][34][35][36] developed from early applications in industry [5,24,[37][38][39][40]. A sociotechnical system may be defined as "an interacting combination, at any level of complexity, of people, materials, tools, machines, software, facilities, and procedures designed to work together for some common purpose" ([5], p22). ...
Article
Full-text available
While road safety in the United States (U.S.) has been continually improving since the 1970's, there are indications that these improvements are becoming increasingly difficult to sustain. Strategic Highway Safety Plans (SHSPs) are prepared by States to guide road safety management, however assessing the appropriateness of these plans remains a significant challenge, especially for the future in which they are to be applied. This study developed a new methodology to assess SHSPs from the perspectives of comprehensive system-based safety management and relevant future issues that can be applied before SHSPs are implemented, thereby avoiding long periods after implementation before assessing the appropriateness of the plans. A rating scale was developed and applied to assess 48 U.S. SHSPs against two key criteria: 1. a comprehensive framework for road safety, and 2. the anticipated changing, difficult and unpredictable nature of future transport and its context. The analysis concluded that current SHSPs have good national oversight with several strengths but were weak in some areas of content and did not address future challenges. Improvements are suggested to strengthen the plans’ thoroughness by being consistent with systems theory and practice, as well as ways that these SHSPs can be more resilient to future circumstances. Implementing the recommendations in this paper provides the opportunity to adopt a system-based safety management practice that has been successful in other hazardous industries. Doing so is expected to most efficiently and effectively continue the recent improvements to road safety, which is likely to be increasingly difficult otherwise.
... Likewise, ISO helps meet diverse international regulations that provide companies with a certain degree of competitiveness (Clementes 1997;Samaras and Horst 2005). This book views manufacturing systems as an interactive combination at any level of complexity among people, materials, tools, machines, software, facilities, and processes that are designed to work together and meet a common goal (Chapanis 1996). However, manufacturing systems can also be conceived as a combination of smaller systems, known as subsystems; any changes made to one of such subsystems or parts can affect other parts or the complete manufacturing system ( . ...
... Ergonomics operates along with product development and processes, as it belongs to a systematic development framework rigorously structured and applied in systems engineering. This framework allows for maximizing the advantages of ergonomics during the whole product life cycle or process (Chapanis 1996;Samaras and Horst 2005). Figure 3.1 depicts the systems engineering domain- requirements engineering, compliance engineering, and reliability engineering- and the range of activities-economics, ergonomics, software and hardware-that are part of ergonomics (microergonomics). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we present the most popular macroergonomic methods for the evaluation of work systems. More specifically, macroergonomic approaches and microergonomic perspectives are compared. Some of these methods have been adapted from more popular methodologies aimed at studying the organization and behavior of variables and factors. For every method, a brief description is offered to discuss its major advantages, drawbacks, and implementation areas. Also, whereas the majority of the methods presented below are composed of a series of instruments for data collection, others represent more comprehensive methodologies aimed at analyzing sociotechnical systems and organizational structures in terms of the technological and person subsystems and external environmental aspects. All these methods have contributed to the development and rapid growth of macroergonomics as a subdiscipline of ergonomics.
... Likewise, ISO helps meet diverse international regulations that provide companies with a certain degree of competitiveness (Clementes 1997;Samaras and Horst 2005). This book views manufacturing systems as an interactive combination at any level of complexity among people, materials, tools, machines, software, facilities, and processes that are designed to work together and meet a common goal (Chapanis 1996). However, manufacturing systems can also be conceived as a combination of smaller systems, known as subsystems; any changes made to one of such subsystems or parts can affect other parts or the complete manufacturing system ( . ...
... Ergonomics operates along with product development and processes, as it belongs to a systematic development framework rigorously structured and applied in systems engineering. This framework allows for maximizing the advantages of ergonomics during the whole product life cycle or process (Chapanis 1996;Samaras and Horst 2005). Figure 3.1 depicts the systems engineering domain- requirements engineering, compliance engineering, and reliability engineering- and the range of activities-economics, ergonomics, software and hardware-that are part of ergonomics (microergonomics). ...
Chapter
This chapter offers a definition of macroergonomic compatibility concept. For this, firstly, it mentions the different macroergonomic factors and elements existing in literature. Then, the chapter presents the history, goals, and definition of symvatology, a subdiscipline of ergonomics and science of artifact–human interaction. Finally, the chapter provides a definition of macroergonomic compatibility.
... According to Chapanis (1996), ergonomics is "the research and application of information about human behavior, abilities, limitations and other characteristics to design appropriate environments to ensure safe, efficient, effective and comfortable use of human factors". According to Bridger (2003), systems can be developed as follows to get better results in terms of ergonomics: • designing the user interface to make it more compatible with the task and the user. ...
... It also has close links with applied medicine and engineering disciplines. Chapanis (1996) broadly defines it as a multidisciplinary field contributed by psychology (primarily experimental psychology), anthropometry, applied physiology, environmental medicine, architecture, engineering, statistics, and industrial design. On the other hand, Wickens et. ...
Article
Full-text available
Libraries provide learning, study, and research environments for their users. For libraries, the issue of suitability for the physical, anatomical, and psychosocial needs of users is crucial. Through on-site investigations and surveys, we investigated library units at two universities in the context of ergonomics to see to what extent they are suitable for the user's physical and psycho-social needs. Library A is a library building on a campus and Library B is a library unit is in a multipurpose campus building. On-site investigations and survey results showed that both university libraries could not provide the optimum library conditions for the users. Regression model for Library A showed improvement on equipment and space can increase satisfaction by 35%. Regression model for Library B showed improvement on space can increase satisfaction by 44%. Library A, achieved more successful results in terms of user satisfaction compared to Library B. This paper discusses the importance of taking user expectations into account in libraries, regardless of the type of library or concepts used. Attention should be paid to the concept of ergonomics in library units in order to meet user needs, increase efficiency in research and learning activities, and create a healthy and safe environment.
... Likewise, ISO helps meet diverse international regulations that provide companies with a certain degree of competitiveness (Clementes 1997;Samaras and Horst 2005). This book views manufacturing systems as an interactive combination at any level of complexity among people, materials, tools, machines, software, facilities, and processes that are designed to work together and meet a common goal (Chapanis 1996). However, manufacturing systems can also be conceived as a combination of smaller systems, known as subsystems; any changes made to one of such subsystems or parts can affect other parts or the complete manufacturing system ( . ...
... Ergonomics operates along with product development and processes, as it belongs to a systematic development framework rigorously structured and applied in systems engineering. This framework allows for maximizing the advantages of ergonomics during the whole product life cycle or process (Chapanis 1996;Samaras and Horst 2005). Figure 3.1 depicts the systems engineering domain- requirements engineering, compliance engineering, and reliability engineering- and the range of activities-economics, ergonomics, software and hardware-that are part of ergonomics (microergonomics). ...
Chapter
This chapter presents the most influential theories, models, and methodologies that set the bases for the development of a macroergonomic compatibility index (MCI) for manufacturing work systems. The contribution of fuzzy logic to index generation is highlighted, since it is a logic operation method useful for evaluation capable of simulating human reasoning. Likewise, the role of multiattribute methods in decision making are discussed, as well as the different approaches to characterize manufacturing work systems in terms of sustainability, agility, safety, and ergonomics. The chapter concludes by commentign on the importance of developing accurate measurement indices to meet the exigencies of the modern manufacturing industry.
... Likewise, ISO helps meet diverse international regulations that provide companies with a certain degree of competitiveness (Clementes 1997;Samaras and Horst 2005). This book views manufacturing systems as an interactive combination at any level of complexity among people, materials, tools, machines, software, facilities, and processes that are designed to work together and meet a common goal (Chapanis 1996). However, manufacturing systems can also be conceived as a combination of smaller systems, known as subsystems; any changes made to one of such subsystems or parts can affect other parts or the complete manufacturing system ( . ...
... Ergonomics operates along with product development and processes, as it belongs to a systematic development framework rigorously structured and applied in systems engineering. This framework allows for maximizing the advantages of ergonomics during the whole product life cycle or process (Chapanis 1996;Samaras and Horst 2005). Figure 3.1 depicts the systems engineering domain- requirements engineering, compliance engineering, and reliability engineering- and the range of activities-economics, ergonomics, software and hardware-that are part of ergonomics (microergonomics). ...
Chapter
This chapter presents a hypothetical model that studies the relationship between tasks, as a macroergonomic factor, and the performance of manufacturing work systems. More specifically, the model studies how Work Demands, a macroergonomic element of the Task factor, can be associated with performance variables such as Customers, Production Processes, and Organizational Performance. As in previous chapters, the data used to develop and test the model were collected among Mexican manufacturing companies located in Chihuahua. Results revealed that Work Demands are an essential element to increase competitiveness since they have significant effects on performance variables. Similarly, we found that Customers and Production Processes play a role in Organizational Performance.
... Likewise, ISO helps meet diverse international regulations that provide companies with a certain degree of competitiveness (Clementes 1997;Samaras and Horst 2005). This book views manufacturing systems as an interactive combination at any level of complexity among people, materials, tools, machines, software, facilities, and processes that are designed to work together and meet a common goal (Chapanis 1996). However, manufacturing systems can also be conceived as a combination of smaller systems, known as subsystems; any changes made to one of such subsystems or parts can affect other parts or the complete manufacturing system ( . ...
... Ergonomics operates along with product development and processes, as it belongs to a systematic development framework rigorously structured and applied in systems engineering. This framework allows for maximizing the advantages of ergonomics during the whole product life cycle or process (Chapanis 1996;Samaras and Horst 2005). Figure 3.1 depicts the systems engineering domain- requirements engineering, compliance engineering, and reliability engineering- and the range of activities-economics, ergonomics, software and hardware-that are part of ergonomics (microergonomics). ...
Chapter
The macroergonomic factors and elements can have different effects on workers and manufacturing systems. As for workers, these effects may include aspects such as health and safety, job satisfaction, creativity, and individual performance. The effects on manufacturing systems, on the other hand, range from solving problems and reducing staff absenteeism to increasing customer satisfaction and loyalty, thereby improving productivity and competitiveness. In this chapter, we discuss the impact of macroergonomics on workers or employees and manufacturing work systems.
... For example, adaptation to different and new e-learning systems is affected by transfer of learning [20]. Transfer of learning can be either positive or negative [5]. In positive transfer, the learner correctly applies the knowledge, skills, and abilities learned in one setting to another, while in negative transfer, knowledge and skills from a previous experience impede proper performance in a different setting. ...
... We note that the wheelchair's interface, simulating that of a real-world wheelchair interface, was harder to manipulate than the carrying platform's interface. Hence, the difference in performance time might be due to this difference in operation difficulty, and not necessarily a consequence of negative transfer of learning [5]. The greater number of collisions, however, can be linked directly to the erroneous mental model [8,14,25] of the carrying platform's size: the participants perceived the platform as smaller than its real size because of the persistence of their mental model of the wheelchair's size and hence collided more often with the obstacles. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current research examined whether or not the interface of an extender attached to an assistive device should be identical to the interface of the assistive device. Given the profile of assistive devices such as wheelchairs and the need to extend them in special cases such when maneuvering over rough terrain or obstacles such as stairs and steep inclines, the interface design of these extenders (attached to existing assistive devices) should be evaluated. We have simulated a carrying platform for a wheelchair that is larger than the user’s regular wheelchair. We have examined whether participants used to handling their wheelchair, when asked to operate the carrying platform, handle the latter’s interface better or worse than their wheelchair’s interface. Participants (61) were assigned to one of two between-participants groups. Both groups were trained to navigate a wheelchair using the wheelchair’s interface and then operated the carrying platform. The Familiar Interface group navigated the carrying platform using the wheelchair’s interface, and the New Interface group navigated it with a new interface. The results demonstrated that the Familiar Interface group took longer to perform the task and collided more often with obstacles, compared to the New Interface group. The greater number of collisions can be linked directly to an erroneous mental model of the carrying platform’s size. The insights we reach can be linked to both extenders attached to an assistive device and other technological extenders.
... Likewise, ISO helps meet diverse international regulations that provide companies with a certain degree of competitiveness (Clementes 1997;Samaras and Horst 2005). This book views manufacturing systems as an interactive combination at any level of complexity among people, materials, tools, machines, software, facilities, and processes that are designed to work together and meet a common goal (Chapanis 1996). However, manufacturing systems can also be conceived as a combination of smaller systems, known as subsystems; any changes made to one of such subsystems or parts can affect other parts or the complete manufacturing system ( . ...
... Ergonomics operates along with product development and processes, as it belongs to a systematic development framework rigorously structured and applied in systems engineering. This framework allows for maximizing the advantages of ergonomics during the whole product life cycle or process (Chapanis 1996;Samaras and Horst 2005). Figure 3.1 depicts the systems engineering domain- requirements engineering, compliance engineering, and reliability engineering- and the range of activities-economics, ergonomics, software and hardware-that are part of ergonomics (microergonomics). ...
Chapter
The macroergonomic compatibility of the Person factor can have positive effects on manufacturing systems. In this chapter, we analyze the direct, indirect, and total effects of the macroergonomic compatibility of human-related elements on manufacturing system performance. Namely, we evaluate the effects of the compatibility of three Person-related variables—Physical Characteristics, Psychological Characteristics, and Motivation and Needs—on three manufacturing system performance variables—Customers, Production Processes, and Organizational Performance. To conduct this evaluation, we propose ten hypotheses and validate the effects between the variables using a structural equation model. To collect data regarding these variables, we developed a Macroergonomic Compatibility Questionnaire (MCQ) and administered it among senior and middle managers of Mexican manufacturing work systems. Our results revealed that macroergonomic elements of the Person factor have significant effects on manufacturing system performance.
... Likewise, ISO helps meet diverse international regulations that provide companies with a certain degree of competitiveness (Clementes 1997;Samaras and Horst 2005). This book views manufacturing systems as an interactive combination at any level of complexity among people, materials, tools, machines, software, facilities, and processes that are designed to work together and meet a common goal (Chapanis 1996). However, manufacturing systems can also be conceived as a combination of smaller systems, known as subsystems; any changes made to one of such subsystems or parts can affect other parts or the complete manufacturing system ( . ...
... Ergonomics operates along with product development and processes, as it belongs to a systematic development framework rigorously structured and applied in systems engineering. This framework allows for maximizing the advantages of ergonomics during the whole product life cycle or process (Chapanis 1996;Samaras and Horst 2005). Figure 3.1 depicts the systems engineering domain- requirements engineering, compliance engineering, and reliability engineering- and the range of activities-economics, ergonomics, software and hardware-that are part of ergonomics (microergonomics). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we define the term “manufacturing” to later conceptualize manufacturing systems. In addition, we describe the components of manufacturing systems to introduce the terms that will be used throughout the book.
... This paper describes the assessment of current road safety strategies in Australia against two frameworks. The first is the seven elements of a newly developed comprehensive framework for road safety management based on systems theory and practice (Chapanis, 1996;Hughes et al., 2016;Hughes, 2017). The second framework is the changes that are expected in the transport system and its context that are likely to affect road safety (EU, 2016;NTC, 2016), including the changing and variable nature of future transport (Rasmussen, 1997;Eurocontrol, 2013;Bennett & Lemoine, 2014;Hughes, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The improvements to road safety since the 1970’s are becoming increasingly difficult to sustain in many developed countries. This paper analyses ten Australasian Government road safety strategies against two key criteria: 1. a comprehensive framework for road safety, and 2. the anticipated changing, difficult and unpredictable nature of future transport and its context. The analysis concludes that current Australasian road safety strategies are weak in some areas of content and do not address future challenges. Improvements are suggested to strengthen strategies’ thoroughness and robustness, as well as ways that the strategies can be more resilient to future circumstances.
... The research field of human factors and ergonomics (HF&E) essentially deals with the design of artefacts and tools to fit the human body and its cognitive abilities (e.g. Chapanis, 1996). As such, the field has long played an important role when it comes to optimising human performance, explaining why the manufacturing application, particularly human based manufacturing, has been a large driving force in the development of the HF&E research field. ...
Article
Full-text available
In order to deepen the understanding of the intrinsic interactions and interplay between humans, tools, and environment from a systems perspective, research in the wild (RITW) approaches have gained traction during recent decades as they provide a higher ecological validity of findings. This paper presents a RITW study, investigating how assembly, in this case dock assembly of forwarders, was done in practice. As our theoretical foundation, we used the framework of distributed cognition, which is one of the main pillars of RITW. The findings are presented in narrative form, describing and highlighting that the workers achieve an efficient production outcome by being integral parts of the whole production process and doing so through coordination of activities benefitting the shared goal of the distributed socio-technical system.
... As a result, work-related injuries and accidents are approaching pandemic levels [28]. The lack of design for the human user is one of the reasons why so many machines and systems are unsafe, difficult or inconvenient to use [17]. The organisation must get along to get the required operational behaviour. ...
Article
Full-text available
Efficiencies and the productivity of the assembly line are crucial in the manufacturing sector. It is very unusual opportunity to visualise and analyse the production system, which used in defence manufacturing sector. This research study focuses on the performance of an existing production line for Malaysia's automotive defence manufacturing industry. The main issues that arise are first, the delivery is always behind the schedule and second, the human factor that contributes to the increase of rejected parts and slow down the production line. WITNESS simulation will be utilised to analyse the dynamic issues associated with the whole performance of the manufacturing system. A methodology for production layout improvement will bring into notice. DELMIA simulation can improve employee's working condition, which is to optimise the production line efficiency. The assembly line can be better in many ways, for example, the arrangement of working layout, the summit of the workplace and massive machines handling method by the worker. All of these are imperative to increase the efficiency of the employees. Continuous improvement of the proposed methodology includes progress in model design, training of operators, follow-up of implementing changes and investigations in the measurement of manufacturing line efficiencies.
... Compliance with laws and regulations guarantees that employees subordinated to the employer will be ablebodied (Berger A.A., 2011, Chapanis A., 1996. ...
... In addition to the evaluation of physical control room ergonomics, evaluation workshops will also help to identify potential HSI design issues and the development of recommendations for human factors enhancements of the proposed HSI designs. Applicable human factors criteria can be derived primarily from NUREG-0700 and supplementary literature ( (Parasuraman and Mouloua, 1996), (Chapanis, 1996), (Salvendy, 2012), (Tufte, 2001), (ISO, 2008)), and also international standards (ISO 9241 (ANSI/ISA, 2015), ISO 11064 (ISO, 2000) and ANSI-ISA-101 (Kovesdi et al., 2017)). Selected criteria, as well as heuristic evaluation and expert review can then be applied to a range of display design elements, including graphical displays such as process flow diagrams, mimic diagrams, system symbology, graphs, labeling, and numeric/alphanumeric indications. ...
Article
Control room modernization is one of the most challenging and complex upgrade projects that a nuclear power plant can undertake. It can have almost as big an impact on operations as, for example, turbine replacement. The challenges of migrating an analog control system to a distributed control system are already well known and a number of nuclear utilities have embarked upon various levels of effort to upgrade some of the systems in the control room. When planning for control room upgrades, plants have to deal with a multitude of engineering, operational, and regulatory impacts. This will inevitably include several human factors considerations, such as workstation ergonomics, viewing angles, lighting, seating, new interaction modalities, new communication requirements, and new concepts of operation. In helping nuclear power utilities to deal with these challenges, the United States Department of Energy researchers located at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have developed research-based human factors design and evaluation methods to be used in the development of end-state concepts for modernized control rooms and to manage the various phases of the upgrade life cycle. The methodology includes interactive sessions with operators in INL’s Human System Simulation Laboratory, three-dimensional modeling to visualize control board changes and operator-system interaction, and development of human-system prototypes to evaluate various aspects of proposed modifications. This methodology has been applied at a number of U.S. nuclear power plants where modernization projects are underway, including Exelon’s Braidwood and Byron plants, and Arizona Public Service's Palo Verde plant. It was demonstrated that including this methodology in the plant’s engineering process helps to ensure an integrated and cohesive outcome that is consistent with human factors engineering principles and provide substantial improvement in operator performance.
... Several methods have been developed for arranging interface elements in CPs (Chapanis, 1996;Oulasvirta, 2017a). Process-analysis techniques perform a functional analysis of the interaction studying different steps of the process. ...
Article
Establishing the best layout configuration for software-generated interfaces and control panels is a complex problem when they include many controls and indicators. Several methods have been developed for arranging the interface elements; however, the results are usually conceptual designs that must be manually adjusted to obtain layouts valid for real situations. Based on these considerations, in this work we propose a new auto-matized procedure to obtain optimal layouts for software-based interfaces. Eye-tracking and mouse-tracking data collected during the use of the interface is used to obtain the best configuration for its elements. The solutions are generated using a slicing-trees based genetic algorithm. This algorithm is able to obtain really applicable configurations that respect the geometrical restrictions of elements in the interface. Results show that this procedure increases effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of the users when they interact with the obtained interfaces.
... Task analysis methods are widely used by human factors professionals for a variety of purposes, including risk assessment of human activities and tasks within a system (Kirwan, 1998). Common task analysis representations include Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA; Annett and Duncan, 1967), Link Analysis (Chapanis, 1996), Operational Sequence Diagrams (Kirwan and Ainsworth, 1992), Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA; Stanton et al., 2005) as well as more general process and flow-chart techniques. The data for these representations are usually captured through observations, analysis of documentation, and/or interviews. ...
... The life of the potential system may need to be determined when considering time be tween failures. All systems have a certain life cycle that is intended to predict how long a developed system is expected to last (Chapanis, 1996). It is currently unknown how long these camera imaging systems should last, how often they should be maintained, and when they should be replaced. ...
Technical Report
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Video technology has advanced rapidly and is available today at relatively low cost, with relatively high performance and small size. An important potential application for this technology is in heavy vehicles. It can be used to provide views to the driver that were previously unavailable (“enhancements”), and it can also be used to take the place of certain mirrors (“surrogates”). Enhancement applications are directed toward reducing blind spots or allowing better views around the heavy vehicle, whereas surrogate applications are directed toward replacement of essential mirrors. Such mirrors create aerodynamic drag and require the need for external structures. Consequently, there is a desire to replace them with video, if it is feasible to do so. This research project had the main objective of devising and testing a variety of concepts for the use of camera/video imaging systems (C/VISs) applied to heavy vehicles, with emphasis on tractor trailers but potentially also applying to other heavy vehicles. Part of the objective was to develop operational specifications for feasible C/VISs, which would be supported by the research results. The current report provides an overview of the research conducted to support the final specifications which are provided in a companion document (Wierwille, Schaudt, Gupta, Spaulding, & Hanowski, 2007). The current report reviews all of the work performed. Earlier topics covered in summary in the report include: review of video technology, identification of viewing needs, development of candidate use concepts, conducting a driver focus group, and preparation of initial specifications. Later topics included experimentation; specifically, the following were carried out: preliminary road testing of various C/VISs, preparation and performance of formal road testing, analysis of all results, and documentation of the entire project. Both the earlier and later topics are covered in the current report and form the justification for the final specifications document.
... For this reason, another important dimension to consider is the operational objective that the company wants to achieve with the design or redesign of technology-based production and logistics processes. In particular, they can be strictly related to human activities, since they concern (Chapanis, 1996): ...
Article
Many industrial companies are introducing new automation and digital technologies to improve their manufacturing and logistics processes, thereby implementing the Industry 4.0 paradigm. Nevertheless, choosing and adopting the most appropriate technologies is challenging and requires companies to consider many factors, including human and organizational aspects. This paper aims to present a reference framework to guide the choice of new technological solutions to introduce in manufacturing and logistics processes, starting from identifying the company objectives through a detailed analysis of the tasks and human factors (HF) involved.
... Over the decades, Ergonomics and Human Factors advanced as a systematic and interdisciplinary approach to designing for people and society (Bennett, Degan, & Spiegel, 1963;Christensen, 1962;Cumming & Corkindale, 1969;Grether, 1968;Hanson, 1983;Van Cott & Kinkade, 1972). Many interdisciplinary scholars developed practices, tools, methods, models, and theories to design for people's psychological and physiological attributes (e.g., Alexander, 1986;Bailey, 1982;Chapanis, 1996;Proctor & Van Zandt, 1994;Reason, 1990;Rouse & Boff, 1987;Stanton, Salmon, Walker, & Baber, 2005;Wickens, 1984;Woodson, 1981). These Human-centered Design approaches developed further through new technological advancements, such as computer systems. ...
... For this reason, another important dimension to consider is the operational objective that the company wants to achieve with the design or redesign of technology-based production and logistics processes. In particular, they can be strictly related to human activities, since they concern (Chapanis, 1996): ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many industrial companies are introducing new automation and digital technologies to improve their manufacturing and logistics processes, thereby implementing the Industry 4.0 paradigm. Nevertheless, choosing and adopting the most appropriate technologies is challenging and requires companies to consider many factors, including human and organizational aspects. This paper aims to present a reference framework to guide the choice of new technological solutions to introduce in manufacturing and logistics processes, starting from identifying the company objectives through a detailed analysis of the tasks and human factors (HF) involved.
... 2.1. European production systems: development and principles Chapanis (1996) defines a production system (PS) as 'an interacting combination, at any level of complexity, of people, material, tools, machines, software facilities, and procedures designed to work together for some common purpose.' Since the days of Taylorism, different PSs have been developed with the help of the tools available at each moment and place. ...
Article
Many new model launches in Europe do not meet the quality, cost and production targets set by automotive companies during production ramp-up. Although increasing car complexity could be a key factor in explaining this issue, it is not sufficient to explain why production sites are not able to meet these important targets. This article analyses whether the production system used in European car manufacturing plants are suitable for achieving performance goals during the production ramp-up phase. First, the differences between serial production and the production ramp-up phase are analyzed through the conceptual framework of the European Production System in the automotive industry. Second, a case study using real data from a European automotive plant is presented, and the evidence calls into question the appropriateness of maintaining the same production system during the ramp-up phase. The study concludes that there is a need to make the production system in Europe more flexible during the ramp-up phase. In particular, changes should be more oriented towards fostering organizational improvement capability in order to reduce the stops that occur in the production line, avoid using pull systems as a constraint or limitation, and help to build a new culture of stopping to fix problems.
Chapter
As we mentioned in the first chapter, the concept of “quality” for a product (For the meaning of the term “product” used in this book, see Sect. 1.1.) or a system is, in this book, dealt with starting from the assumptions and perspective of Ergonomics, in particular, the HCD approach.
Chapter
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are common and costly health problems that inflict port workers around the globe. Given that MSDs are results of many interwoven factors and their prevalence rates vary among different body sites, this review study aims to investigating the causes, prevalence and intervention means for MSDs among port workers. The study entailed a sizeable search of academic databases. Based on reviewed literature, the present study summarized lower back as the most affected body part by MSDs, followed with lower back, neck, shoulder and joint among port workers. Further, ergonomic studies and applications designed to prevent and alleviate port-related MSDs are badly proposed.
Chapter
Human reliability and human error are factors that are present in all areas: industrial, economic, social, etc. All these areas require to a greater or lesser extent a physical and mental effort to satisfy their own needs, those of others, or established requirements that, depending on the circumstances and the nature of the person, can lead to errors. Certainly, it is not possible to find a single human reliability method that can meet all the expectations and technical demands related to the analysis of human errors. However, it is important to note that the orientation of all human reliability methods is focused on the study and analysis of the risk factor (frequency by consequences). In other words, as can be observed throughout this chapter, all human reliability methodologies seek to help us reduce the uncertainty in the process of evaluating the frequencies of unforeseen events (human errors) and the consequences that such human errors can bring to safety, the environment, and the operations within the framework of an industrial production process.
Book
This book presents a co-design detailed methodology that will enable the reader to develop human-centered product designs, considering the user’s needs, skills, and limitations. The purpose of this book is to produce an ergonomic design methodology in which the "user’s voice" can be translated into product requirements in a way that designers and manufacturers can use, characterizing it as a co-design methodology. It discusses important topics including ergonomics and product design, design specifications, project evaluation, modeling and prototyping, product safety, human error, kansei/affective engineering, usability and user experience, models of usability, methods for research and evaluation of usability, methods for evaluation of user-experience, preliminary strategic design planning, detailing design, and design, ergonomic and pandemics. The book offers a human-centered design methodology that allows the reader to carry out analysis and design projects for both products aimed at the disabled user population and those that serve the general population. It will be a valuable reference text for undergraduate and graduate students and professionals in the fields of ergonomics, design, architecture, engineering, and related fields. It can also be used by students and professionals of physiotherapy and occupational therapy interested in designing products for people with special needs.
Thesis
Full-text available
One vital piece of equipment worn by soldiers is the ballistic combat helmet. Whilst there are established standards and validated methods for evaluating the protection capabilities of a combat helmet, the measures and approaches for evaluating the ergonomic aspects are lacking. There are issues with consistency in the measures used, studies have tended to limit the focus on one or two ergonomic attributes, there is a lack of acceptability criteria, and underpinning these issues is a lack of a model of the ergonomic attributes related to combat helmets and a lack of understanding of the relationships between these attributes. The implications of these issues are inefficiency and inconsistency in the efforts of Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E) practitioners working in the area of combat helmet evaluation. The objective of this thesis is to address the current gaps in ergonomic evaluations of combat helmets. Research to address these knowledge gaps will not only advance knowledge, and the application of knowledge, but provide a significant contribution to the conduct of ergonomics testing of combat helmets by improving efficiency and consistency for HF/E practitioners working in the area of combat helmet evaluation. The key findings were: • There are 13 ergonomic attributes related to the evaluation of a combat helmet but there were not clear definitions, outcome measures, or criteria (thresholds) for all these attributes. • There is a dearth of user input into what should be measured and how measuring should be conducted. • There is a lack of information in the literature as to how a measure(s) has been selected for use and a lack of evidence of validity and reliability for the chosen measures. • There is a need to understand the tasks of the soldiers to enable construction of relevant measures and system level evaluations. The research included collection of secondary evidence through a literature review, collection of user input through administration of a Delphi survey, construction of a systems model using data from both literature and users, completion of a hazard-based task analysis, development of a process for outcome measure selection including the conduct of focus groups, and conduct of a primary study to assess the psychometric properties of a developed measure. A user-centered, systems approach was used to structure and guide the research. In addition, the research also explored how to adopt these approaches to the ergonomic evaluation of combat helmets, and potentially to other items of the soldier combat ensemble. The research outcomes were used to construct an evaluation framework that can be used by HF/E practitioners to conduct consistent, systematic evaluations of combat helmets. The processes used and resultant framework can also be applied to other items of equipment worn by dismounted combatants.
Chapter
The introduction of new health information technologies provides both great opportunities but presents significant cognitive challenges. Cognitive science is a multidisciplinary domain of inquiry devoted to the study of cognition and its role in intelligent agency. It incorporates basic science research related to attention, memory, reasoning, and comprehension as well as applied research pertaining to human-computer interaction and human factors. This chapter introduces cognitive research in healthcare and informatics, a discipline referred to as cognitive informatics. It presents the basic theoretical underpinnings of cognitive science with a focus on information-processing, natural language representation and distributed cognition frameworks. The chapter begins with a historical overview of research in related areas such as medical cognition, the acquisition of expertise and patient safety.
Book
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Książka ta dotyczy dydaktyki procesu szkolenia lotniczego (dydaktyka zajmuje się procesami nauczania i uczenia się). Książka składa się z czternastu rozdziałów, które tworzą dwa wzajemnie przenikające się obszary – psychologii i metodyki szkolenia lotniczego. W niektórych rozdziałach są przybliżone podstawowe prawa uczenia się takie jak, np.: warunkowanie klasyczne, instrumentalne czy modelowanie, a treść niektórych rozdziałów znana jest z książki autorów pt. Czynnik ludzki w operacjach lotniczych. Uwarunkowania psychofizjologiczne. Książka ta jest zgodna z Wytycznymi Prezesa Urzędu Lotnictwa Cywilnego z dnia 16 lipca 2012 r., poz. 67, s. 120 „Człowiek – możliwości i ograniczenia”. Książka jest autorstwa dwóch instruktorów: Tomasza Smolicza instruktora-pilota pracującego w PLL „Lot” (o nalocie ponad 20 000 godzin) i Ryszarda Makarowskiego, psychologa Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, a zarazem instruktora--pilota lotnictwa sportowego o nalocie około 2500 godzin na samolotach i szybowcach. Tomasz Smolicz, w swoim lotniczym życiu pilota, które zaczęło się gdy miał 14 lat, spotkał wielu pilotów-instruktorów, ale tylko paru z nich zapamiętał. Większość z nich pozostała w pamięci bezimienna, byli - po prostu - narzędziem lub częścią procesu szkolenia.
Technical Report
Control room modernization is one of the most challenging and complex upgrade projects that a nuclear power plant can undertake. It can have as big an impact on operations as, for example, turbine replacement. The challenges of migrating an analog control system to a distributed control system are already well known and a number of nuclear utilities have embarked upon various levels of effort to upgrade some of the systems in the control room. When planning for control room upgrades, plants have to deal with a multitude of engineering, operational, and regulatory impacts. This will inevitably include several human factors considerations, such as workstation ergonomics, viewing angles, lighting, seating, new interaction modalities, new communication requirements, and new concepts of operation. In helping nuclear power utilities to deal with these challenges, the United States Department of Energy researchers located at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have developed research-based human factors design and evaluation methods to be used in the development of end-state concepts for modernized control rooms and to manage the various phases of the upgrade life cycle. The methodology includes interactive sessions with operators in INL's Human System Simulation Laboratory, three-dimensional modeling to visualize control board changes and operator-system interaction, and development of human-system prototypes to evaluate various aspects of proposed modifications. This methodology has been applied at a number of U.S. nuclear power plants where modernization projects are underway, including Exelon's Braidwood and Byron plants. It was demonstrated that including this methodology in the plant's engineering process helps to ensure an integrated and cohesive outcome that is consistent with human factors engineering principles and provide substantial improvement in operator performance.
Book
Full-text available
Książka opisuje osoby uprawiające sportylotnicze, doktórych zaliczamy: • akrobację lotniczą • spadochroniarstwo • szybownictwo • sport samolotowy • sport śmigłowcowy • lotniarstwo • paralotniarstwo • baloniarstwo
Book
Full-text available
Książka omawia następujące zagadnienia: Fizjologia lotnicza, Złudzenia w lotnictwie, Spostrzeganie i pamięć, Gdy emocje są przeszkodą, Przywódca, Podejmowanie decyzji, Dezorientacja przestrzenna, Zarządzanie zasobami załogi, Błąd pilota, Komunikacja i współpraca, Działania ryzykowne, Loty VFR w nocy, Automatyzacja lotu, Czynnik ludzki w pracy na pokładzie pasażerskim,Lotnictwo wojskowe, Śmigłowcowe loty VFR, System Sterowania Bezpieczeństwem S-M-S, Rekrutacja do linii lotniczych, czyli jak zostać pilotem samolotu pasażerskiego.
Book
Czynnik ludzki w procesie szkolenia lotniczego
Article
This paper investigates how to better understand end users’ human values at an early phase of system design in an innovative new‐energy project. By early involvement of end‐user, companies can avoid making costly design mistakes that reduce the usability of the system. For the innovative system there were no end‐users from where to directly obtain the operational knowledge. The paper has adopted research methods from the Design Thinking process, and uses industry‐as‐laboratory, conducting in‐depth interviews with end‐users from related applications. The research focuses on needs that originate from “human values” defined as an expressed emotional feeling addressing how the users perceive the system. The interviews resulted in 105 user needs translated into 17 relevant stakeholder requirements. The results showed that conducting interviews showing an illustrative ConOps gave 17% more chance of finding needs originating from human values compared to not using this attribute. This research proposes a process for integrating the human values into the early phase of systems engineering.
Chapter
Through an extensive literature review, this article aims to promote systemic innovation, which is presently too much influenced by context and too limited by rationality. As such, the article argues for the use of systems design methods and tools for anticipating future needs in the development of innovative products and services. Building upon theoretical concepts, such as “Bounded Rationality”, “Situated Design” and “Practice Theory”, systems design methods and tools, such as the Function-Task Interaction Matrix Method and Dependence Structure Matrix, should be made more comprehensive by extending technical and user elements with contextual elements. These matrices help to identify problem fields as well as opportunities by juxtaposing and force-fitting technical, user, and contextual elements.
Chapter
Current product and production development tends to become more complex where principal design decisions are made in very early development phases when product data only exist in virtual formats. To support this virtual product realisation process there exist a number of tools and technologies. Considering ergonomics and human factors in an increasingly complex process with often complex tools requires competent people able to handle multidisciplinary development challenges in a proactive manner. To answer the need for educational programs to cover these issues the School of Engineering Science at University of Skövde has developed a new master (second cycle) program Virtual Ergonomics and Design. The aim with the program is to give students and future product and production developers, necessary knowledge and skills to effectively use virtual tools for analysis, development, and verification of ergonomics and integrate ergonomics and user aspects into the product realisation process. This is achieved through a number of courses that partly forms a core within the subject Virtual product realisation but also provides in-depth knowledge in ergonomics. Students will in a possible future role as design or production engineers have a great influence on ergonomics in manufacturing departments but also better perception of ergonomics, higher motivation and knowledge of support tools and methods for ergonomics integration.
Chapter
Office managers, safety, and health personnel recognize the imminent necessity of making workplaces comfortable and safer. The federative science and technology of ergonomics (deriving from the Greek word, ergon, epyov—work, and nomos, voµoς—principle or law) has emerged as an interdisciplinary area of study of the man–machine–environment system. The chapter includes a historical trend of emergence of the discipline, with noticeable opening up towards systems orientation, drawing the role of humans in complex systems, the design of equipment and facilities for human use, and environments for comfort and safety. Since the conventional office environment and traditional office organization are fast replaced by the newer office environment, such as VDT workstations, operator–equipment–environment–customer interaction, Office Ergonomics is shaped as a newer domain, both in abstract and in examples. The chapter identifies multiple stressors in computer and office work, such as task-related (cognitive), work-schedule, environmental, psychosocial, role, career-related, traumatic, and organizational stressors. These stressors lead to a multitude of organizational issues, such as absenteeism, decreased employee performance, errors and accidents, healthcare costs, workplace dissension.
Book
Full-text available
Tomasz Smolicz
Chapter
The increased use of information systems (IS) has led to a number of changes in the workflow of the private and public sectors; they play a vital role when they are reliable and of high quality. The quality of the information systems plays a decisive role in the success of the system, and the best performance of the organization depends on the successful implementation of the IS. The quality and success of the information system have been widely discussed over the past two decades. As systems and technologies are improved and developed, researchers and practitioners have debated debates about their effectiveness and evaluation. In addition to the major concern about the effectiveness of information systems, the factors influencing the efficiency of information systems are also important. Several researchers have created models for measuring quality and the success of the information system [1, 2]; highlighting the need for better and more consistent success factors. However, several authors claim that there are several measures of success of an IS, which generates a certain amount of confusion, especially since there are few recognized criteria for choosing indicators of success [3], These same authors add that the current measuring instruments of IS’s success rest on poor theoretical foundations. To this end, our contribution in this paper is to propose a new holistic model that brings together several factors (technological, organizational, human and change management) to measure the quality and success of an information system, and to apply the AHP multicriteria prioritization method for the selection and prioritization of these criteria.
Chapter
Full-text available
Nowadays, much has been said about user-experience (UX) as an attribute of a product or service intended to be offered. Many companies consider a good user-experience as one of the leading value propositions and work strategically to deliver it in the best way. However, the definition of what a user-experience is and how it affects people’s lives and companies’ businesses is still very plural. Some define the user-experience as a result perceived by the user of an interaction with a digital interface, considering as a fundamental part of the usability of the interface (Falbe, Andersen and Frederiksen 2017, Brooks 2014, Tullis and Albert 2008, 2013). While others arrive at broader concepts, interpreting the user-experience as the totality of the perceptions a user has with an ecosystem, where the digital interface can be one of the parts included (Norman 2013, Kuniavsky 2010, Ou 2017, Hartson and Pyla 2019, Rosenzweig 2015). However, UX’s concept comes from a transition that the consumer society has been going through, where digital technology has its essential role but is not the only factor.
Conference Paper
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Circular Economy approaches are increasingly recognized as a solution also in the textile industry to foster a world-wide call to action in terms of sustainable production, sale, use, and recycling of materials and products. When supported by technical, economic, and political systems, such efforts help to integrate more efficient process-es and production lines as well as to maintain valuable materials and components for re-use and re-cycling, to target closed material cycles, develop or re-arrange production chains, and reframe consumption behaviors. In this paper we focus on clothing from a circular economy perspective. Textiles are the number two consumer goods market worldwide. Production, sale, use, and recycling of clothing must be better synchronized to increase sustainability. However, social factors and existing behaviors often affect these sustainable endeavors on different levels. Clothing is progressively regarded as a low-quality single-use-like object in a fast fashion world, discarded after only a few wears. Whilst it is also generally considered a personal item with individual attributions, not easily shared, or borrowed. Individual attributions of value and sensitivity, as well as technical barriers conflict with the requirements of longest possible use and subsequent reuse, and recycling. New concepts of ownership, sharing, pricing, and renting such as deposit trousers challenge the market and consumer sensibilities. In this article, we describe the opportunities and challenges of socially accepted circular economy approaches for clothing, conflicting technical, economic, and social forces that limit their viability, and outline strategies and an interdisciplinary research agenda to overcome these challenges.
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