Macroergonomics dates back to 1982 in Seattle, WA, USA. A group of concerned physical ergonomics researchers concluded that increasing the physical aspects of the job was important but not enough to improve human conditions in labor settings. Thus, to improve work conditions, a new approach was necessary for evaluating the organizational context. Under this scenario, the notion of Organizational Design and Management (ODAM) emerged as an attempt to consider the organizational structure in ergonomic evaluations. Then, years later, ODAM gave birth to macroergonomics, a subdiscipline or branch of ergonomics. Since then, macroergonomics has become popular. Originally, macroergonomics addressed work and job positions from an organizational approach, yet now it has evolved and extends beyond these aspects. Nowadays, it is also interested in manufacturing systems, healthcare systems, safety systems, and sustainable systems, among others. This book proposes a macroergonomic approach to evaluating manufacturing systems, which is why both terms—macroergonomics and manufacturing systems —must be clearly established from the beginning. That said, experts such as Hendrick (1995), Hendrick and Kleiner (2002), Carayon (2012) view macroergonomics as a branch of ergonomics that is both a top-down and a bottom-up approach to sociotechnical systems. Macroergonomics encompasses organizational structures, policies, and processes that support the design of work systems and interfaces, such as the human–work, human–machine, human–software, and human–environment interfaces. Its fundamental purpose is to make sure that work systems are fully harmonized and compatible with their sociotechnical characteristics to achieve synergic improvements within a broad range of organizational effectiveness criteria (e.g., safety and health, comfort, productivity) (Carayon 2012; Zink 2014).