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Assessing Individual Variation in Personality and Empathy Traits in Self-Reported Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response



Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) is a self-reported multi-sensory phenomenon described as a pleasant tingling sensation, triggered by certain auditory and visual stimuli, which typically originates at the back of the head and tends to spread throughout the whole body resulting in a relaxed and sedated state. Despite growing reports of ASMR there is a lack of scientific investigation of this intriguing phenomenon. This study is the first to examine whether self-reported ASMR is associated with individual differences in personality characteristics compared to general population. To do so we administered the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Inter-Personal Reactivity Index (IRI) to a group of individuals reporting to experience ASMR and a matched control group. Our findings showed that ASMR self-reporters scored higher on Openness to Experience and lower on Conscientiousness measures of BFI. They also showed greater scores on Empathic Concern and Fantasizing subscale of IRI. These findings are discussed in the context of the personality profile found in synaesthesia, which has been recently suggested to be more prevalent among people reporting ASMR experiences.
[Running head: Individual variation in personality and empathy in ASMR.]
Assessing Individual variation in personality and empathy traits in self-reported
Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response
Agnieszka B. Janik McErlean1 and Michael J. Banissy2
1. Department of Psychology, James Cook University, Singapore
2. Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths University of London, UK
Address correspondence to:
Dr Agnieszka Janik McErlean
Department of Psychology
James Cook University
149 Sims Drive
Singapore 387380
Tel: +65 6709 3735
Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) is a self-reported multi-sensory
phenomenon described as a pleasant tingling sensation, triggered by certain auditory
and visual stimuli, which typically originates at the back of the head and tends to
spread throughout the whole body resulting in a relaxed and sedated state. Despite
growing reports of ASMR there is a lack of scientific investigation of this intriguing
phenomenon. This study is the first to examine whether self-reported ASMR is
associated with individual differences in personality characteristics compared to
general population. To do so we administered the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the
Inter-Personal Reactivity Index (IRI) to a group of individuals reporting to experience
ASMR and a matched control group. Our findings showed that ASMR self-reporters
scored higher on Openness to Experience and lower on Conscientiousness measures
of BFI. They also showed greater scores on Empathic Concern and Fantasizing
subscale of IRI. These findings are discussed in the context of the personality profile
found in synaesthesia, which has been recently suggested to be more prevalent among
people reporting ASMR experiences.
Keywords: ASMR, personality, IRI, BFI, synaesthesia
Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) is a self-reported multi-sensory
phenomenon involving pleasurable tingling sensation induced by specific auditory or
visual triggers, which originates on scalp and spreads down the spine and through the
whole body (Barratt & Davis, 2015). The term itself refers to the euphoric sensation
induced by the various subjective triggers (Cheadle, 2012). Despite a lack of scientific
investigation into ASMR, there are an abundance of social networking sites dedicated
to this phenomenon. There are also hundreds of YouTube channels (see Barratt &
Davis, 2015 for a list of some of the most popular channels), where new ASMR
triggering videos are uploaded daily, resulting in a total of 2.6 million such videos
produced to date (Fairyington, 2014).
ASMR videos often include whisper, crinkly sounds, repetitive and mundane actions
such as ‘towel folding’ and role-plays focused on giving personal attention to the
viewer (e.g. a pretend haircut or make-up); however, due to a lack of scientific
investigation the validity of these experiences and the underlying mechanisms remain
unclear. Recent work by Barratt and Davis (2015) has provided some insights into the
reasons why ASMR responders watch inducing stimuli. They found that 82% of the
viewers self-reported watching ASMR videos to help them sleep, 70% use them to
cope with stress, and 81% reported watching such videos prior to going to sleep. In
addition, the authors suggest that the multi-sensory experiences that constitute ASMR
may be associated with synaesthesia (where one property of a stimulus triggers a
secondary experience not typically associated with the first e.g. hearing words
evoke the experience of tasteWard, 2013; Simner & Ward, 2003). This was based
upon a greater self-reported prevalence of synaesthesia among people claiming to
experience ASMR (5.9%) relative to previously published prevalence rates of
synaesthesia in the general population (4.4%; Simner et al., 2006). It is of note,
however, that methodological differences may account for the association between
synaesthesia and ASMR reported by Barratt and Davis (2015) because in their study
the authors relied upon self-reported experience of synaesthesia, whereas in the study
by Simner and colleagues (2006) participants were tested on objective measures to
verify the authenticity of this condition. It is well known that the prevalence of self-
reported synaesthesia is higher than that of those who pass objective measures
verifying synaesthetic experiences (e.g. Simner et al., 2006; Banissy et al., 2009) and
some self-report prevalence studies of synaesthesia suggest that over 20 percent of
individuals report experiencing synaesthesia (e.g. Simner et al., 2006).
Recently, self-reported ASMR has been linked to atypical functional brain
connectivity in the default network relative to controls (Smith et al., 2016). This
finding was interpreted as a potential reflection of a reduced ability to supress multi-
sensory experiences in individuals that experience ASMR (Smith et al., 2016). The
authors also drew further parallels with synaesthesia by suggesting that their findings
of reduced connectivity of the thalamus in ASMR-Responders may play a role in
multi-sensory experiences in a similar way to previous reports of acquired sensory-
emotional synaesthesia, which is descriptively similar to some ASMR experiences,
following a thalamic infarct (Schweizer et al., 2013).
Taking into account the existing findings (Barratt and Davis, 2015; Smith et al., 2016)
and reports of a potential association with synaesthesia, it is feasible to suspect wider
individual differences associated with ASMR compared to the general population. For
example, it has been shown that individuals who experience synaesthesia in which
colour is the evoked sensation have an atypical personality profile, which has been
characterised by higher levels of Openness to Experience, Positive Schizotypy,
Neuroticism, and Absorption / Fantasizing (Banissy et al., 2013; Chun & Hupe, 2016;
Rader & Tellegen, 1987; Janik McErlean & Banissy, 2016; Banissy et al., 2012; Rouw
& Scholte, 2016). Synaesthesia has also less consistently been linked with lower
levels of Agreeableness (Banissy et al., 2013; but see Rouw & Scholte, 2016 and
Chun & Hupe, 2016) and Conscientiousness (Rouw & Scholte, 2016; but see Banissy
et al., 2013 and Chun & Hupe, 2016). Whether a similar atypical personality profile is
present in individuals who report ASMR experiences remains to be determined. To
address this, here we sought to explore whether ASMR is associated with individual
differences in personality by administering the Big Five Inventory (John et al., 1991),
which measures five dimensions of the Big Five personality characteristics
(Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to
Experience). We also administered the Inter-Personal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1980),
which measures four components of trait empathy (Perspective Taking, Fantasizing,
Empathic Concern, Personal Distress) to a group of individuals reporting ASMR
experiences and to age and gender matched controls. Both of these instruments have
been previously used to examine personality traits in synaesthesia (Banissy et al.,
Material and Methods
83 ASMR-Responders (58 female, 25 male; age M = 27.22 SD = 5.92) and 85
controls (68 female, 17 male; age M = 25.12 SD = 10.55) took part in this experiment.
The two groups did not significantly differ in age [t (132.886) = 1.595, p = .113] or
gender [
(1, N = 168) = 2.29, p = .130]. ASMR-Responders were recruited via a
Facebook site dedicated to ASMR (
All of them were members of the ASMR Facebook group and all reported
experiencing ASMR when provided with a description and question about the
experience. More specifically participants were told ‘ASMR is defined as a
pleasurable tingling sensation that originates on scalp and can spread through the
whole body, which is typically induced by certain sounds (e.g. turning pages, crinkly
wrapping paper, finger tapping), watching someone perform repetitive mundane
actions (e.g. folding towels, going through items in a handbag), watching someone
closely inspecting day-to-day objects, hearing whisper, watching someone's hair being
brushed or watching videos with various role plays (visit to a doctor, spa or a shop)’.
They were then asked ‘Do you experience ASMR?’ All of the ASMR-Responder
Group gave a positive response to this question, none of the controls did.
Additionally, to ensure the genuineness of ASMR experience, all of the AMSR-
Responder Group gave detailed descriptions of their personal ASMR triggers. For
instance, they would explain that ‘Crinkling paper, typing, and writing sounds seem to
be a trigger for me. I usually watch roleplay videos to experience ASMR. Cleaning
sounds without any speaking is a trigger as well, spray bottles, scrubbing and wiping
sounds’. Control participants were recruited among university students, who were
given course credits for their participation. Only those who answered ‘No’ to the
question whether they experience ASMR accompanied by the aforementioned
description of the phenomenon, were included in the control group. Participants gave
electronic consent to take part in this study. This study was conducted online and
participants completed the questionnaires in their own time in one sitting.
Participants completed the Inter-Personal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980), which
is a widely used measure of trait empathy. It consists of four subscales: Perspective
Taking (7 items), Fantasizing (7 items), Empathic Concern (7 items) and Personal
Distress (7 items). Perspective Taking subscale examines one’s ability to adopt
someone else’s point of view and contains statements such as e.g. I sometimes try to
understand my friends better by imagining how things look from their perspective’.
Fantasizing refers to a propensity to get immersed in a novel or a film and contains
statements such as e.g. ‘I really get involved with the feelings of the characters in a
novel’. Empathic Concern is related to an individual’s ability to feel sorry and
concerned for others in distress and contains statements such as e.g. ‘I often have
tender, concerned feelings for people less fortunate than me’. Personal Distress refers
to feelings of anxiety induced by others’ distress and contains statements such as e.g.
‘In emergency situations, I feel apprehensive and ill-at-ease’. In total IRI consists of
28 items measured on a five point Likert scale ranging from 0 (“does not describe me
well”) to 4 (“describes me very well”).
Additionally, participants completed the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John et al., 1991),
which is a well-established self-report measure of the Big Five personality trait. It
consists of five subscales: Extraversion (8 items), Agreeableness (9 items),
Conscientiousness (9 items), Neuroticism (8 items), and Openness to Experience (10
items). The Extraversion subscale relates to how sociable and energetic one is and
contains items such as e.g.’ I see myself as someone who generates a lot of
enthusiasm’. The Agreeableness subscale taps one’s propensity for altruism and
compliance and contains items such as e.g. I see myself as someone who is
considerate and kind to almost everyone’. Conscientiousness relates to the degree of
dutifulness, competence and self-discipline and contains items such as e.g. I see
myself as someone who is a reliable worker’. Neuroticism examines individual’s level
of anxiety, self-consciousness and vulnerability and contains items such as e.g. ‘I see
myself as someone who gets nervous easily’. The Openness to Experience subscale
refers to how imaginative, excitable and curious one is and contains items such as e.g.
I see myself as someone who is curious about many different things’. The instrument
consists in total of 44 items to which a rating on a five point Likert scale ranging from
1 (“disagree strongly”) to 5 (“agree strongly”) is given by a participant to reflect how
well each statement describes their own characteristics.
In addition, participants were asked to describe their favourite triggers and to indicate
what type of a response they have to several triggers commonly used in ASMR videos
including whispering, finger tapping, hair brushing, closely inspecting day-to-day
objects, going through items in a handbag, folding towels, people eating, typing,
crinkly plastic, crinkly paper, and role-plays such as a ‘visit to a doctor’, ‘spa visit’
and ‘office’. They were asked to indicate whether these triggers have no effect, mild
effect or a strong effect in terms of ease of inducing ASMR sensations or whether they
feel unpleasant/uncomfortable. Participants were also asked about their motivation for
watching ASMR videos.
Descriptive breakdown of ASMR triggers and motivation behind watching ASMR
videos in ASMR-Responders
ASMR-Responders provided extensive descriptions of their triggers. The majority of
participants indicated that a whisper or soft speaking was their favourite trigger (41
%), followed by crisp sounds (36.1 %) and personal attention (34.9 %). Concentrating
on things and giving instructions/explaining something in detail were also popular
triggers (both reported by 10.8% of participants). Lip smacking or other eating sounds
were also reported to induce ASMR by 8.5% of participants (see Table 1 for a full
ASMR-Responders also indicated the degree of responsiveness to some of the triggers
commonly used in ASMR videos by choosing one of four possible answers: ‘No
effect’, ‘It feels unpleasant/uncomfortable’, ‘Mild effect’, ‘Strong effect/Easily
induces ASMR’. Whispering was reported to induce a strong response by 54.2% of
participants, followed by finger tapping (53%) and hair brushing (49.4%). Role
playing involving personal attention such as 'visit to a doctor' or ‘spa visit’ were
reported to easily induce ASMR by 44.6 % and 39.8 % of participants respectively.
While 9.6 % of ASMR-Responders reported ‘people eating’ to be a strong trigger, as
many as 25.3% found it to be unpleasant or uncomfortable (see Table 2 for a full list).
When it comes to the motivation for watching ASMR inducing videos, 85.5% of
ASMR-Responders reported watching ASMR videos to relax or to experience ASMR,
41% reported that ASMR videos help them fall asleep and 10.8% stated that ASMR
videos help reduce their anxiety.
Trait Empathy in ASMR-Responders compared to Controls
Mauchly’s test indicated that the assumption of sphericity was violated,
(5) =
39.45, p < .001, therefore a Greenhouse-Geisser correction was used. Performance on
the IRI was analysed using a 2 (Group) x 4 (IRI subscales) ANOVA, which yielded a
significant main effect of group [F (1, 166) = 35.01, p < .001, ŋp² = .17], due to
ASMR–Responders (M = 25.15) scoring on average higher than controls (M = 22.90).
There was also an interaction effect [F (2.60, 432.71) = 12.61, p < 0.001, ŋp² =.07].
Follow up Bonferroni-corrected paired comparisons showed a significant group
difference on Fantasy Scale (Cronbach’s alpha = .716; t (166) = 6.57, p < 0.001,
Cohen’s d = 1.01) due to ASMR-Responders (M = 28.15, SD = 4.31) scoring higher
than controls (M = 23.80, SD = 4.27). There was also a significant group difference
on Empathic Concern (Cronbach’s alpha = .658; t (130.69) = 6.75, p < 0.001, Cohen’s
d = 1.04), due to ASMR-Responders (M = 27.42, SD = 4.55) scoring higher than
controls (M = 23.52, SD = 2.63) (Fig 1). No significant group differences were found
for Perspective Taking (p = .130 uncorrected) and Personal Distress (p = .695
uncorrected) subscales of the IRI, implying that the differences between ASMR-
Responders and controls were not simply due to a non-specific response bias.
Personality Traits in ASMR-Responders compared to Controls
Mauchly’s test indicated that the assumption of sphericity was violated,
(9) =
54.20, p < .001, therefore a Greenhouse-Geisser correction was used. Performance on
BFI was analysed using 2 (Group) x 5 (BFI subscales) ANOVA, which yielded a non-
significant main effect of group [F (1,166) = 3.842, p = .052, ŋp² = .023]. Importantly,
there was an interaction effect [F (3.39, 562.66) = 11.80, p < 0.001, ŋp² =.066].
Follow up Bonferroni-corrected paired comparisons showed a significant group
difference on Openness to Experience (Cronbach’s alpha = .740, t (159.81) = 6.630, p
< .001, Cohen’s d = 1.02) with ASMR-Responders (M= 40.98 SD = 4.30) scoring
higher than controls (M = 36.01, SD = 5.37) (Fig 2). There was also a significant
difference on Conscientiousness [Cronbach’s alpha = .759, t (166) = 2.68, p = .04,
Cohen’s d =.41] with ASMR-Responders (M = 29.01, SD = 5.98) scoring lower than
controls (M = 31.47, SD = 5.88). ASMR-Responders also scored higher than controls
on Neuroticism (Cronbach’s alpha = .817, p = .021 uncorrected, Cohen’s d = 0.35),
but this difference did not survive multiple correction. No other significant group
differences were found (Extraversion: p = .529 uncorrected, Agreeableness: p = .470
This study sought to elucidate whether ASMR is associated with individual
differences in terms of personality traits. To do so, we compared a group of ASMR-
Responders to a group of age and gender matched controls on the BFI (John et al.,
1991) and the IRI (Davis, 1980). Our findings showed that individuals reporting to
experience ASMR scored higher on Empathic Concern and Fantasizing subscale of
IRI. ASMR was also linked to greater scores on the Openness to Experience and
lower scores on Conscientiousness subscales of BFI.
Empathic Concern relates to a person’s predisposition for compassion and concern for
others (Davis, 1983). ASMR-Responders scored higher on this subscale of IRI
suggesting that ASMR is associated with increased levels of sympathy for those who
might be experiencing distress. Openness to Experience refers to individual’s
curiosity and preference for novel and stimulating experiences, increased creativity
and interest in art, as well as a tendency to fantasize (John et al., 2008). At the same
time the Fantasizing dimension of IRI taps into a person’s ability to identify with the
actions and emotions of fictional characters (Davis, 1983). As the two constructs are
conceptually similar and tap on one’s imaginative propensity it is not surprising that
ASMR–Responders scored high on both measures. Current results may also suggest
that having an increased tendency to fantasise and the ability to imaginatively
transpose oneself into a fictional or virtual reality may be a key skill related to video-
induced ASMR. Indeed, the videos, especially those involving role-plays where the
viewer receives personal attention (e.g. gets a pretend haircut), require the viewer to
get imaginatively immersed in the video in order to feel as if he/she really was part of
it. Whether individuals who experience ASMR in their daily lives but do not watch
ASMR videos would present a similar profile with regards to these traits remains to
be established.
ASMR-Responders also scored lower than controls on the Conscientiousness subscale
of the BFI, which taps into individual differences in self-discipline, impulse control
and goal orientation (John et al., 1991). Therefore, low scores on this dimension of the
BFI may suggest that ASMR-Responders have the propensity for greater flexibility
and spontaneous behaviour but at the same time they may experience a general lack of
These findings are interesting in the context of Barratt and Davis’ (2015) report on the
prevalence of synaesthesia among people claiming to experience ASMR. They
reported that 5.9% of their ASMR sample claimed experiencing some form of
synaesthesia. Prior work has linked synaesthesia with a similar personality profile to
that reported here for ASMR-Responders. Namely, synaesthesia for colour has been
associated with lower Conscientiousness, increased Openness to Experience and
higher scores on Fantasizing (Rouw & Scholte, 2016; Banissy et al., 2013; Chun &
Hupe, 2016). Synaesthetes have also been reported to show higher levels of
absorption (Rader & Tellegen, 1987), which is a related construct to the Fantasising
scale of IRI. Absorption is defined as a disposition to become deeply involved with
the current experience (Rader & Tellegen, 1987), and it has been previously linked to
daydreaming (Crawford, 1982). Although we did not employ any measures of
absorption in this study, we would expect ASMR to be linked to a heightened level of
this construct as intense concentration on the triggering stimuli such as e.g. closely
inspecting every-day objects, flipping pages or tapping is a pre-requisite for the
pleasurable ASMR sensations (Barratt & Davis, 2015). However, the relationship
between ASMR and absorption remains to be experimentally established.
Current results also showed that the main reasons for watching ASMR videos reported
by ASMR-Responders were similar to those found in the Barratt and Davis (2015)
study. Namely, most people reported watching videos in order to relax, fall asleep and
to reduce anxiety. In addition, the pattern of results in terms of the types of preferred
triggers was very similar across this and Barratt and Davis (2015) study. Especially so
when comparing our results based on participants’ descriptions of their triggers, which
were grouped into broader categories rather than on their responses to a selection of
pre-defined triggers which were perhaps too specific. For instance, finger tapping or
typing were listed separately although they could have been put under one category of
crisp sounds. The three most popular triggers across this and Barratt and Davis (2015)
study were whisper, crisp sounds and personal attention. However, it is of note that
the percentages of people reporting these experiences across the studies were not the
same. This is most likely due to the methodological differences. Namely, the current
study asked participants to describe their motives and preferred triggers and also
requested them to choose one of four answers regarding their response to a few
popular ASMR triggers. At the same time, Barratt and Davis (2015) employed Likert
type ratings of common triggers, which were more broadly defined than the ones used
in the current study. Nevertheless, the results regarding the types of triggers and
motivation for watching ASMR videos across the two studies are similar.
Additionally, the current study found a small percentage of ASMR-Responders
reporting eating sounds to be a trigger. At the same time a substantial proportion of
this group (25.3%) found this stimulus to be unpleasant or uncomfortable. Enhanced
sensitivity to sound, in particular sound produced by humans, is termed misophonia
which literally means ‘hatred of sound’ (Jastreboff & Jastreboff, 2002) and is
estimated to be present in 20% of the general population (Wu, Lewin, Murphy, &
Storch, 2014). People who suffer from misophonia often find sounds such as eating,
breathing or finger tapping so distressing that they may resort to avoidant behaviour,
feel compelled to mimic the sounds or even become physically or verbally aggressive
(Wu, 2014). Interestingly the same sounds are often used in ASMR videos to induce
the pleasurable tingling sensation. In this context it is worth considering that it has
been suggested that misophonia and ASMR might represent two ends of the same
spectrum of sound sensitivity, and that both of these phenomena may be associated
with synaesthesia (Baratt & Davis, 2015). Indeed, the mechanisms of all three
conditions are somewhat similar as all of them involve specific triggers that elicit a
particular response. In case of ASMR and misophonia, the triggers involve human
generated sounds and behaviours, which elicit either pleasurable tingling sensation in
case of ASMR (Barratt and Davis, 2015) or unpleasant physical or emotional response
in case of misophonia (Wu et al., 2014). However, while the current findings may hint
at a greater prevalence of misophonia among ASMR-Responders as evidenced by a
high proportion of them reporting eating sounds to be unpleasant or uncomfortable
this needs to be tested in a more direct manner. It will also be important to more
directly examine other charachertisics that might distinguish synaesthesia from
ASMR and misophonia (and vice versa) including automaticity and consistency of
A further important consideration for future work will be to examine personality
characteristics of ASMR-Responders who were not previously aware of ASMR. As
our sample of ASMR-Responders was mainly comprised of individuals from a
Facebook Group dedicated to this experience, it could be argued that it is not
surprising that individuals who seek out membership in groups like this are more
likely to differ on traits like Openness to Experience. A similar argument can be made
for previous findings linking colour synaesthesia to greater levels of Openness to
Experience (e.g. Banissy et al., 2013; also see Chun & Hupe, 2016 for similar
discussion), since in that study the synaesthetes were sampled from a group of
participants whom had typically sought out research groups and volunteered to
participate in research. It could be argued that volunteers that seek out research are
more likely to have higher Openness to Experience than those who do not, although it
is of note that in the context of synaesthesia higher Openness to Experience is still
found when controlling for sampling method used (Chun & Hupe, 2016; Rouw &
Sholte, 2016). Extending these findings to a systematically recruited sample to help
counter selection bias will be an important next step for future research examining
individual differences in personality traits in ASMR.
Despite this, the degree of similarity in the personality profiles of individuals who
experience synaesthesia and ASMR-Responders is interesting. When paired with the
self-reported prevalence rate of synaesthesia in the Barratt and Davis (2015) study,
this suggests that a systematic examination of the prevalence of synaesthesia in
ASMR using objective measures to verify synaesthetic experiences (e.g. Eagleman, et
al., 2007) will be an interesting avenue for further investigation.
In summary, ASMR appears to not only be linked to unusual multi-sensory
experiences, but is also associated with individual differences in personality traits.
The current findings show that ASMR-Responders score higher on the Openness to
Experience and lower on Conscientiousness dimensions of BFI (John et al., 1991) as
well as higher on Fantasizing and Empathic Concern subscales of IRI (Davis, 1980)
compared to non-responders. Similar personality characteristics have been previously
demonstrated in synaesthesia (Banissy et al., 2013; Chun & Hupe, 2016; Rouw &
Scholte, 2016), which has recently been suggested to be more prevalent among
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(ASMR). Social Neuroscience, 31, 1-5.
Ward, J. (2013). Synesthesia. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 49-75.
Wu, M. S., Lewin, A. B., Murphy, T. K., and Storch, E. A. (2014). Misophonia:
incidence, phenomenology, and clinical correlates in an undergraduate student
sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70, 994 – 1007. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22098
Figure Legends
Figure 1. Mean responses for ASMR-Responders (N = 83) and controls (N = 85) on
the IRI. Error bars represent SEM. * p < .05, ** p < .005, *** p < .001
Figure 2. Mean responses for ASMR-Responders (N = 83) and controls (N = 85) on
the BFI. Error bars represent SEM. * p < .05, ** p < .005, *** p < .001
Table Legends
Table 1. Percentage of ASMR-responders reporting particular responses to different
Table 2. Percentage of ASMR-responders reporting tingling sensation to particular
... This suggests that ASMR experiencers have a greater inclination for experiential involvement and the ability to fully engage in current experience (Jamieson, 2005;Tellegen, 1981). Moreover, greater absorption has been linked to an elevated openness-toexperience (Glisky et al., 1991;Weibel et al., 2010), which has been found to be also enhanced among ASMR experiencers (Fredborg et al., 2017;McErlean & Banissy, 2017). Thus, the combination of increased absorption and openness-to-experience may contribute to the individual's likelihood of experiencing ASMR (McErlean & Osborne-Ford, 2020). ...
... This suggests that flow may be necessary to achieve sensations associated with ASMR (Barratt & Davis, 2015). Intriguingly, some of the most popular ASMR triggers, such as the hand movements of specialists, in immensely focused states (e.g., carrying out medical exams) or engaged in repetitive tasks (e.g., folding towels), are typical examples of being in a state of flow (McErlean & Banissy, 2017). Thus, ASMR is induced by obtaining a flow-like state that is facilitated by observing others in a similar state; this transference of a state from performers to audience has been examined in studies on the role of mirror neurons (Barratt & Davis, 2015). ...
... On the other hand, spoken-only (e.g., with affirmations and positive discussions) ASMR videos strengthened their awareness of others and made them more prone to help. This finding aligns with previous studies on ASMR research in which the spoken-only ASMR videos made participants feel more socially connected (Poerio et al., 2018) and in studies noting the importance of social interactions (McErlean & Banissy, 2017). Lochte et al. (2018) suggested that the attention-receiving contents of many ASMR videos were similar to being cared for by someone, and this aligns with the current study. ...
Full-text available
Autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is an atypical and multisensory phenomenon in which specific audiovisual stimuli elicit a pleasurable, head-oriented tingling sensation and feelings of relaxation. The purpose of this research was to analyze the ASMR experiences of university students in the light of well-being theory. Two-phased, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with three Finnish university students who identified themselves as ASMR experiencers. Data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Coding was guided by the domains of well-being in the PERMA model: positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. The objective was to explore the effect of students' ASMR experiences on their well-being. The findings show that ASMR videos enhanced the well-being of the participants through a mindfulness-like experience. The potential of ASMR videos to promote psychosocial wellbeing is intriguing, and this research provides a new understanding about ASMR experiences and their meaning.
... On top of that, Ko Wai's (2020) results were not seen of major relevance, as they only carried out interviews with three participants. McErlean and Banissy (2017) also demonstrated an association of ASMR with some facets of empathy. ASMR self-reporters demonstrated significantly higher scores on empathic concern of the Inter-Personality Reactivity (IPR) Index. ...
... Empathic concern was defined as the ability to feel sorry and concern for others in distress (McErlean & Banissy, 2017). It may include aspects of compassion and sympathy (Niezink et al., 2012). ...
... Thus, the broadness of sympathy and the helping component of compassion help to separate the two (Gerdes, 2011). To further differentiate the finding of McErlean and Banissy (2017) we proposed the sympathy and compassion hypotheses: ASMR experiencers exhibit higher scores of sympathy and compassion compared to non-experiencers. Because of the strong empathic concern effects in the study of McErlean and Banissy (2017) we also expected a positive correlation between higher rates of both sympathy and compassion and ASMR propensity within the ASMR experiencers (propensity sympathy and propensity compassion hypotheses). ...
... Several suggestions have been made to explain the occurrence of the ASMR-related tingling sensation, including having specific personality traits Janik McErlean and Banissy 2017) and the level of connectedness of the Default Mode Network (DMN) areas in the brain (Poerio et al. 2018;Smith et al. 2017). Furthermore, the type of trigger and the individual's surroundings might play a role in whether ASMR is felt or not (Barratt et al. 2017). ...
... Several studies have shown that the ability to experience ASMR is associated with personality characteristics. For example, compared to matched controls individuals experiencing ASMR had higher scores on scales of Openness-to-Experience and lower scores on scales of Conscientiousness Janik McErlean and Banissy 2017), higher scores on Neuroticism and lower scores on scales of Extraversion and Agreeableness . The occurrence of frisson and the experience of ASMR are both activated by focusing on triggering stimuli, while individuals with high openness-to-experience might be more sensitive or receptive to these triggers. ...
... As a consequence, only that part of our group of ASMR individuals that scored lower on Conscientiousness exhibits to the ASMR-induced physiological changes. As mentioned above, individuals experiencing ASMR have been found to score lower on scales of Conscientiousness Janik McErlean and Banissy 2017;Roberts et al. 2021). It may well be true that individuals scoring low on conscientiousness experience tingles and those experiencing tingles with still lower scores on conscientiousness exhibit physiological reactivity to ASMR videos. ...
Full-text available
Autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is a warm tingling sensation which is often accompanied by feelings of calmness and relaxation. The present study examined the effects of an ASMR video on mood, attention, heart rate (HR), electrodermal activity (EDA), electroencephalography (EEG) and the interaction with personality factors in 38 young adults (33 females and 5 males). Based on the ASMR-checklist responses of having tingles during watching the ASMR video 15 participants out of 38 were classified as ASMR-experiencers. Mood, attention and personality characteristics were measured by the Profile of Mood States, the Flanker task and HEXACO. EEG, HR and EDA were recorded during the ASMR and control videos. Depressive feelings decreased after watching the ASMR video in individuals experiencing tingles relative to those not experiencing tingles. Furthermore, in all participants, irrespective of experiencing tingles, a decrease of HR during watching the ASMR video was found. In ASMR-experiencers scoring low on Conscientiousness EDA tended to increase and HR tended-relatively to the group not experiencing tingles—to decrease during watching the ASMR video. EEG recordings indicated that watching the ASMR video was associated with decreased alpha power in ASMR-sensitive participants and decreased theta as well as increased beta power in the whole group of participants. The observed ASMR-induced decrease of alpha and theta power and increase of beta power and (only in low conscientious participants) EDA may reflect that, apart from relaxation, ASMR is related to arousal and focused attention.
... In Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), experience-centered design requires researchers to capture and analyze the experiences generated from interaction and adopt the understanding of these experiences in design practices [25]. ASMR is a unique experience insofar as only some users experience the "tingles" as a response to particular triggers, and the same trigger may have different effects on different people [18,28,41,54]. Over the years, ASMRtists developed highly stylized and conventionally patterned ASMR videos to engage their viewers, and as a way to enhance affect and intimacy [3,71]. ...
... Despite the popularity of this emerging video genre on YouTube, studies found ASMR triggers do not work for everyone, and some individuals only experience the tingles with very precise, idiosyncratic triggers [5,54]. ASMR was found to be associated with specific personality traits of individual viewers and to vary from person to person [18,28]. Users' diverse needs triggering effects drive ASMR consumers to constantly search for videos with the keyword "ASMR. ...
Conference Paper
ASMR (Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response) has grown to immense popularity on YouTube and drawn HCI designers' attention to its effects and applications in design. YouTube ASMR creators incorporate visual elements, sounds, motifs of touching and tasting, and other scenarios in multisensory video interactions to deliver enjoyable and relaxing experiences to their viewers. ASMRtists engage viewers by social, physical, and task attractions. Research has identified the benefits of ASMR in mental wellbeing. However, ASMR remains an understudied phenomenon in the HCI community, constraining designers' ability to incorporate ASMR in video-based designs. This work annotates and analyzes the interaction modalities and parasocial attractions of 2663 videos to identify unique experiences. YouTube comment sections are also analyzed to compare viewers' responses to different ASMR interactions. We find that ASMR videos are experiences of multimodal social connection, relaxing physical intimacy, and sensory-rich activity observation. Design implications are discussed to foster future ASMR-augmented video interactions.
... ASMR has been associated with specific personality traits, with individuals who experience ASMR having higher scores on openness to experience and neuroticism on the Big Five Inventory of personality (Fredborg et al., 2017). Individuals who experience ASMR may watch or listen to ASMR content several times a week to multiple times per day, usually for relaxation or sleep induction (Barratt and Davis, 2015;Barratt et al., 2017;McErlean and Banissy, 2017;Poerio et al., 2018;Kovacevich and Huron, 2019). ASMR is a common experience as seen by the ubiquity of virtual ASMR communities around the world (Liu and Zhou, 2019), and a high percentage of individuals reporting that they experience ASMR, with one study showing 81% of 1,002 participants experienced ASMR (Poerio et al., 2018). ...
... Rather, the types of sounds that induce ASMR vary depending on the person's specific sensitivity level and experiences with those sounds, which is also very similar to those who experience misophonia (Pruitt, 2019). In fact, some of the very same sounds that produce positive ASMR reactions in one person can produce completely opposite negative misophonic reactions in another person, especially chewing and other eating sounds (McErlean and Banissy, 2017). Sounds such as chewing or slurping would be considered emotionally neutral by most people, but this sound can either elicit heightened negative reactions in people with misophonia or heightened positive feelings in some who experience ASMR. ...
Full-text available
Misophonia can be characterized both as a condition and as a negative affective experience. Misophonia is described as feeling irritation or disgust in response to hearing certain sounds, such as eating, drinking, gulping, and breathing. Although the earliest misophonic experiences are often described as occurring during childhood, relatively little is known about the developmental pathways that lead to individual variation in these experiences. This literature review discusses evidence of misophonic reactions during childhood and explores the possibility that early heightened sensitivities to both positive and negative sounds, such as to music, might indicate a vulnerability for misophonia and misophonic reactions. We will review when misophonia may develop, how it is distinguished from other auditory conditions (e.g., hyperacusis, phonophobia, or tinnitus), and how it relates to developmental disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorder or Williams syndrome). Finally, we explore the possibility that children with heightened musicality could be more likely to experience misophonic reactions and develop misophonia.
... Other research suggests that ASMR and synesthesia share a broader neurocognitive phenotype. For instance, both ASMRresponders and synesthetes (compared to controls) typically score higher in the personality trait of openness to experience, lower in the personality trait of conscientiousness, and higher on the fantasizing subscale of the interpersonal reactivity index, an index of empathetic responding (Rouw and Scholte, 2016;McErlean and Banissy, 2017;Fredborg et al., 2018). Both are also associated with altered patterns of resting-state functional connectivity in largescale neural networks. ...
Full-text available
Autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is a complex sensory-emotional experience characterized by pleasant tingling sensations initiating at the scalp. ASMR is triggered in some people (called ASMR-responders) by stimuli including whispering, personal attention, and crisp sounds (termed ASMR triggers). Since its inception, ASMR has been likened to synesthesia, but convincing empirical data directly linking ASMR with synesthesia is lacking. In this study, we examined whether the prevalence of synesthesia is indeed significantly higher in ASMR-responders than non-responders. A sample of working adults and students ( N = 648) were surveyed about their experience with ASMR and common types of synesthesia. The proportion of synesthetes who were classified as ASMR-responders was 52%, whereas 22% of ASMR-responders were also synesthetes. These results suggest that: (1) over half of those identifying as synesthetes also experience ASMR, and (2) that synesthesia is up to four times as common among ASMR-responders as among non-responders (22% vs. 5%). Findings also suggest a prevalence rate for ASMR of approximately 20%. Overall, the co-occurrence of ASMR and synesthesia lends empirical support to the idea that ASMR may be driven by synesthetic mechanisms, but future research would benefit from examining how ASMR and synesthesia are different, as well as similar.
Full-text available
Autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is a phenomenon characterised by a static-like tingling sensation spreading from the scalp and neck to the periphery in response to a variety of audio, visual, and tactile triggers resulting in a highly relaxed state and boosted positive affect. The limited literature on this phenomenon points to a potential of ASMR to alleviate pain. Emerging evidence also suggests that ASMR may be linked to increased sensory sensitivity more broadly. This study aimed to objectively address these claims by administering an algometer (measure of pain tolerance), and a visual analog scale (VAS) (measure of subjective pain sensitivity) to ASMR experiencers and controls at baseline, following an ASMR video, and a control video. Findings indicate that ASMR experiencers have a higher pain sensitivity than controls; however, there was no difference between the two groups in terms of pain tolerance. In addition, any potential analgesic properties associated with experiencing ASMR may reflect protective properties of ASMR buffering against the increased pain sensitivity among ASMR experiencers relative to controls.
Full-text available
The characterisation of autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) as an audio-visual phenomenon overlooks how tactile experiences are not just perceptual concurrents of ASMR (i.e., tingling) but also commonly strong ASMR inducers. Here we systematically investigated whether ASMR-responders show altered tactile processing compared to controls. Using a screening measure of vicarious touch with a predefined cut-off for mirror-touch synaesthesia (MTS; a condition where tactile sensations are experienced when viewing, but not receiving, touch), we found that ASMR-responders had more frequent and intense vicarious touch experiences, as well as a strikingly higher incidence of MTS, than non-responders. ASMR-responders also reported greater reactivity to positive, but not negative, interpersonal touch. Correlations further showed these patterns to be more prevalent in those responders with stronger ASMR. We discuss the implications of our findings in terms of heightened sensory sensitivity, bodily awareness, and the underlying neuro-cognitive mechanisms driving vicarious tactile perception in ASMR and MTS.
The autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) produces tingling sensations induced by sounds and accompanied by positive emotions, whereas in misophonia, everyday sounds provoke maladaptive behaviors and negative emotions. People with autism spectrum disorders sometimes suffer hyperacusis. However, it is unknown whether the three types of auditory-related reactions are interdependent. We investigated ASMR, misophonia symptoms, and autistic traits in a non-clinical population (N = 552; 18-60 years) through self-reporting measures. 58 % of young adults reported that they watched ASMR videos, whereas only 12 % of participants over age 30 did so. The prevalence of misophonia, previously unknown in Japan, was estimated at 54 %. Misophonia Questionnaire (MQ) scores increased with advancing age. Scores were higher for females than for males, although we did not find a gender difference in sensitivity to ASMR. Factor analyses of eight questionnaire subscales (n = 180) demonstrated that ASMR scores are linked with MQ scores, but not with Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) sub-scores. The close link between ASMR and misophonia may be based on auditory processes underlying hyperacusis.
Full-text available
Autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is a perceptual and emotional phenomenon in which specific sensory stimuli elicit a feeling of calm as well as tingling sensations on the scalp, neck, and shoulders. In the current study, we use fMRI to examine whether the motoric and sensory regions of the spinal cord segments associated with these body parts show increased activity during ASMR experiences. Nine individuals with ASMR completed six spinal functional magnetic resonance imaging runs while passively viewing videos. Three of the videos were shown (through pre-testing) to elicit ASMR tingles and three videos did not (i.e., control videos). The results demonstrated that ASMR-related stimuli elicited activity in dorsal (sensory) regions of spinal cord segments C1, C5, and C6; activity was observed in ventral (motoric) regions of segments C2-C8. Similar activity was not detected in response to control videos.
Full-text available
Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) is a perceptual condition in which specific visual and auditory stimuli consistently trigger tingling sensations on the scalp and neck, sometimes spreading to the back and limbs. These triggering stimuli are often social, almost intimate, in nature (e.g., hearing whispering, or watching someone brush her hair), and often elicit a calm and positive emotional state. Surprisingly, despite its prevalence in the general population, no published study has examined the neural underpinnings of ASMR. In the current study, the default mode network (DMN) of 11 individuals with ASMR was contrasted to that of 11 matched controls. The results indicated that the DMN of individuals with ASMR showed significantly less functional connectivity than that of controls. The DMN of individuals with ASMR also demonstrated increased connectivity between regions in the occipital, frontal, and temporal cortices, suggesting that ASMR was associated with a blending of multiple resting-state networks. This atypical functional connectivity likely influences the unique sensory-emotional experiences associated with ASMR.
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Synaesthesia is a condition in which one property of a stimulus triggers a secondary experience not typically associated with the first (e.g. seeing achromatic graphemes can evoke the perception of colour). Recent work has explored a variety of cognitive and perceptual traits associated with synaesthesia. One example is in the domain of personality, where higher rates of positive schizotypy, agreeableness, and openness to experience have been reported in synaesthetes that experience colour as their evoked sensation relative to typical adult controls. Additionally, grapheme-colour synaesthetes have previously been reported to show elevated mental imagery compared to typical adults. Here, we aimed to further elucidate the relationship between personality, synaesthesia, and other cognitive traits. In Study 1, we examined self-reported schizotypy and self-reported visual imagery vividness in grapheme-colour synaesthetes and typical adults. Our results partially replicated previous findings by showing that synaesthesia was associated with greater positive schizotypy and enhanced self-reported imagery vividness. The results also extend previous reports by demonstrating that differences in positive schizotypy and mental imagery vividness are not related in grapheme-colour synaesthesia. In Study 2, we sought to build on prior work showing lower agreeableness and increased openness to experience in synaesthetes by examining whether grapheme-colour synaesthesia is associated with other conceptually related traits; namely lower self-monitoring and increased sensation seeking. We did not find any differences between synaesthetes and controls on either of these traits. These findings are discussed in relation to potential factors that may contribute to the observed personality profile in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.
Full-text available
Synesthesia has historically been linked with enhanced creativity, but this had never been demonstrated in a systematically recruited sample. The current study offers a broad examination of creativity, personality, cognition, and mental imagery in a small sample of systematically recruited synesthetes and controls (n = 65). Synesthetes scored higher on some measures of creativity, personality traits of absorption and openness, and cognitive abilities of verbal comprehension and mental imagery. The differences were smaller than those reported in the literature, indicating that previous studies may have overestimated group differences, perhaps due to biased recruitment procedures. Nonetheless, most of our results replicated literature findings, yielding two possibilities: (1) our study was influenced by similar biases, or (2) differences between synesthetes and controls, though modest, are robust across recruitment methods. The covariance among our measures warrants interpretation of these differences as a pattern of associations with synesthesia, leaving open the possibility that this pattern could be explained by differences on a single measured trait, or even a hidden, untested trait. More generally, this study highlights the difficulty of comparing groups of people in psychology, not to mention neuropsychology and neuroimaging studies. The requirements discussed here - systematic recruitment procedures, large battery of tests, and large cohorts - are best fulfilled through collaborative efforts and cumulative science.
Full-text available
Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) is a previously unstudied sensory phenomenon, in which individuals experience a tingling, static-like sensation across the scalp, back of the neck and at times further areas in response to specific triggering audio and visual stimuli. This sensation is widely reported to be accompanied by feelings of relaxation and well-being. The current study identifies several common triggers used to achieve ASMR, including whispering, personal attention, crisp sounds and slow movements. Data obtained also illustrates temporary improvements in symptoms of depression and chronic pain in those who engage in ASMR. A high prevalence of synaesthesia (5.9%) within the sample suggests a possible link between ASMR and synaesthesia, similar to that of misophonia. Links between number of effective triggers and heightened flow state suggest that flow may be necessary to achieve sensations associated with ASMR.
Examined the interrelationships between the following measures: hypnotic susceptibility (Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Forms A and C), imagery vividness (Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire; VVIQ), involvement in everyday imaginative activities (Tellegen Absorption Scale; TAS), and daydreaming styles (28 scales of the Imaginal Processes Inventory). Ss were 56 university students and staff members. Factor analysis produced a factor characterized as a positively vivid and absorptive imagination style. Hypnotic susceptibility, VVIQ, TAS, and positive-affect daydreaming styles all loaded on this factor. Two other factors were a dysphoric daydreaming style and a lack-of-attentional-control style. Stepwise multiple regressions suggested that males and females exhibit different relationships between hypnotic susceptibility and predictor variables. Similar differences were found for the VVIQ and the TAS and their daydreaming-scale predictor variables. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
To facilitate a multidimensional approach to empathy the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) includes 4 subscales: Perspective-Taking (PT) Fantasy (FS) Empathic Concern (EC) and Personal Distress (PD). The aim of the present study was to establish the convergent and discriminant validity of these 4 subscales. Hypothesized relationships among the IRI subscales between the subscales and measures of other psychological constructs (social functioning self-esteem emotionality and sensitivity to others) and between the subscales and extant empathy measures were examined. Study subjects included 677 male and 667 female students enrolled in undergraduate psychology classes at the University of Texas. The IRI scales not only exhibited the predicted relationships among themselves but also were related in the expected manner to other measures. Higher PT scores were consistently associated with better social functioning and higher self-esteem; in contrast Fantasy scores were unrelated to these 2 characteristics. High EC scores were positively associated with shyness and anxiety but negatively linked to egotism. The most substantial relationships in the study involved the PD scale. PD scores were strongly linked with low self-esteem and poor interpersonal functioning as well as a constellation of vulnerability uncertainty and fearfulness. These findings support a multidimensional approach to empathy by providing evidence that the 4 qualities tapped by the IRI are indeed separate constructs each related in specific ways to other psychological measures.
Objective Individuals with misophonia display extreme sensitivities to selective sounds, often resulting in negative emotions and subsequent maladaptive behaviors, such as avoidance and anger outbursts. While there has been increasing interest in misophonia, few data have been published to date.Method This study investigated the incidence, phenomenology, correlates, and impairment associated with misophonia symptoms in 483 undergraduate students through self-report measures.ResultsMisophonia was a relatively common phenomenon, with nearly 20% of the sample reporting clinically significant misophonia symptoms. Furthermore, misophonia symptoms demonstrated strong associations with measures of impairment and general sensory sensitivities, and moderate associations with obsessive-compulsive, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Anxiety mediated the relationship between misophonia and anger outbursts.Conclusion This investigation contributes to a better understanding of misophonia and indicates potential factors that may co-occur and influence the clinical presentation of a person with misophonia symptoms.