ArticleLiterature Review

Coaching Effectiveness: The Coach-Athlete Relationship at its Heart

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Coaching has been often viewed as a context within which coaches operate to largely bring about changes in athlete’s performance and wellbeing. One key factor to successful outcomes in coaching is the quality of the relationship between coaches and athletes. In this article, I propose that the coach-athlete relationship is at the heart of coaching. Moreover, the aim is to describe and explain how the quality of the relationship coaches and athletes develop and maintain over the course of their sporting partnership alongside coaches and athletes’ knowledge and outcomes, form a system that is capable of defining coaching effectiveness and success.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... What does the relationship between the player and the coach entail, and what is its definition? Currently, the most cited and used definition in sports literature is the one by Jowett (2017) [20], which describes the relationship between player and coach as dyadic and mutually influencing. In other words, how one feels or behaves affects the feelings and behavior of others. ...
... In other words, how one feels or behaves affects the feelings and behavior of others. The coach and the player need each other to achieve sporting success [21]. A successful relationship is understood as one where both tangible (victory) and intangible (skills, well-being) outputs occur [22]. ...
... Thanks to this, the coaching process can be fully activated, which includes listening, guidance, support, acceptance, and much more. As a result, there is mutual development and, thus, joint success [21]. Jowett & Shanmugam (2016) [20] have intensively researched the quality and function of the player-coach relationship over the last twenty years. ...
Article
Providing maximum performance in a long-term competitive load is associated with a quality relationship between the player and his coach. A coach plays one of the most important roles in an athlete's sports career and has the potential to positively or negatively impact the mental health of athletes. The aim of the presented paper is to map the bond between the quality of the relationship between the player and the coach and the sports self-confidence of elite junior tennis players. The research sample consisted of 236 elite junior tennis players competing at the national and international levels. The average age was 17.2 years. Data collection was carried out using the questionnaire methods of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q) and the Sport Confidence Inventory (SCI). The results found significant differences in the perception of the quality of the coaching relationship between Czech and foreign athletes. Gender differences were also found among Czech athletes. A significant relationship was found between the quality of the player-coach relationship and sports self-confidence. The results point to the connections between performance, mental well-being, and the quality of the relationship between the player and the coach and can be the basis for further studies and motivate coaches to think about whether there is a need to modify the ways of training and dealing with their athletes. Doi: 10.28991/HIJ-2023-04-02-01 Full Text: PDF
... In the last decade, there has been a significant increase in the amount of research on the quality of the coach-athlete relationship (CAR), [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] which was predominantly concentrated in the UK. [1][2][3][4][5][6]12 This region stands out wide in the world for the work developed by researchers, who over the last decades have leveraged research focused on social interactions in the sports environment, with a view to build psychometric scales to assess CAR, as well as to use these scales for consultancy work and for the training of coaches across different sports and performance levels. ...
... In the last decade, there has been a significant increase in the amount of research on the quality of the coach-athlete relationship (CAR), [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] which was predominantly concentrated in the UK. [1][2][3][4][5][6]12 This region stands out wide in the world for the work developed by researchers, who over the last decades have leveraged research focused on social interactions in the sports environment, with a view to build psychometric scales to assess CAR, as well as to use these scales for consultancy work and for the training of coaches across different sports and performance levels. ...
... [13][14][15] On the other hand, CAR based on distancing and absence of commitment, for example, can result in interpersonal conflicts, dissatisfaction, and lack of motivation inside and outside the sports context. [1][2][3][4][5] Researchers have been more concerned with the search for contexts that promote positive experiences, happiness, and well-being, as opposed to the exclusive focus on the development of the technical and tactical aspects of sports. 2,3 Research 3, 9,11 has been indicating significant associations between basic psychological needs (BPN) (autonomy, competence, and relationship) and the CAR. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Coach–Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q) in a sample of 1344 Brazilian youth and adult athletes. Participants completed the CART-Q and the Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale (BNSSS). Data analysis was conducted through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), Cronbach's alpha, composite reliability, multigroup analysis, and Pearson's correlation ( p < .05). CFA confirmed a multidimensional structure containing the three dimensions of Closeness, Commitment, and Complementarity: χ² (37) = 264.10; χ²/df = 5.13; CFI = .96; TLI = .94; and RMSEA = .068. Internal consistency was satisfactory (>.70). SEM model showed an acceptable fit ( χ² (56) = 593.28; χ²/df = 2.71; CFI = .90; TLI = .90; RMSEA = .057), indicating that the three dimensions of the CART-Q predicted positively all basic needs satisfaction subscales (β range = .11 to .38). CART-Q was revealed to be invariant across gender, sport type, and age group. It was concluded that the CART-Q can satisfactorily be used in research studies involving Brazilian athletes regardless of their age group, gender, and sport.
... There are many empirical studies on the topic of coaching styles and approaches, coaching behaviour and its impact on players (Becker, 2009(Becker, , 2013Côté & Gilbert, 2009;Cowden, Anshel, & Fuller, 2014;Jowett, 2017). However, in context of Iraq, few research studies are available into particular coaching practices at the elite level (cf. ...
... However, these authors cautioned that the team's success is not the sole responsibility of the coach. Jowett (2017) confirmed that coaching approaches that prioritize motivation can lead to successful performance outcomes, evaluated on the basis of individual player development, win/loss percentages, and positive psychological response outcomes in athletes. ...
... Schempp (1993) argued that procedural knowledge of coaches, such as knowing "how" to run a coaching session, should include questioning. Jowett (2017) reiterated the importance of questioning, while Facao and Bloom (2018) and Falcao et al., (2017) argued that humanistic coaching should enable players to take increasing control of their own destiny. These kinds of exchanges were not evident in the cultural-discursive arrangements of coaching sessions, which appeared to reflect the broader societal expectations that (male) coaches were to be obeyed. ...
... Coaches have a profound and lasting impact on their athletes and teams (Jowett, 2017). They are responsible for developing athletes' mental, physical, technical, and tactical abilities, and in addition contribute to positive and optimal group functioning (Jowett & Nezlek, 2012). ...
... Therefore, investigating the coach role, the coachathlete relationship, in a given context, and in particular the associated challenges can provide a better understanding of the coaching role, relationship, and process and subsequently contribute to improving the coaching process and the athlete's development and performance. Highperformance sports environments (e.g., professional athletes and teams) require intense commitment and a long-term, high-quality relationship between the athletes and coach (Jowett, 2017). High-performance coaching is challenging and demands that coaches are knowledgeable about performance variables and obstacles that influence them (Lyle, 2002). ...
... For the male coaches, 'missing the locker room' is not about losing authority but about being denied from an area that they perceive as valuable for understanding or influencing the players and the team. Thus, it is understandable that the male coaches negatively view their inability to fully access the locker room; this is a well-suited space for close and personal communication that would enable them to establish close and trusted coach-athlete relationships (Jowett, 2017). Moreover, several studies have highlighted that female athletes prefer coaches that show interest in them beyond their athletic performance (Norman, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated challenges perceived by coaches when working with elite women’s soccer teams. Six men and four women coaches with experience in the first Norwegian League or Norwegian national team participated. Semi-structured interviews were carried out, and the data was analyzed using thematic interpretational analysis. Participants identified professionalism, early-career termination, mental characteristics, intrateam communication, romantic relationships, access to the locker rooms (men only), and team selection (women only) as the specific challenges they face when coaching these teams. The findings are discussed in relation to ensuring that good performance and development are achieved when coaching elite women’s soccer teams and helping future coaches optimize their coaching techniques when working with elite women players.
... Communicating expectations on the partners and their behavior can help in such misperceptions. Researchers emphasize the need to develop quality interpersonal relationships between coaches and athletes (Jowett, 2017). Underestimating the importance of the coach-athletes relationship can prevent players from developing their full potential (Rhind et al., 2012). ...
... Training/ development of stress-coping strategies in coaches can influence the stress and quality of the coach-athlete relationship (Thelwell et al., 2017). Despite many intervening variables, we can conclude that a coach's effectiveness depends on quality coach-athlete relationships (Jowett, 2017). Future research can examine the three main factors of the Leadership Efficacy Model (leadership cycles, leadership styles, and antecedent factors of leadership) in stress-coping conditions for both the coaches and athletes, as well as analyze how the interaction between coaches and athletes change along the sport season and affect performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Building positive relationships and interactions between coaches and athletes is critical to an athlete’s success. The current study aimed to overview how coaches and their young athletes perceive three elements of the Leadership Efficacy Model (philosophy, practice, and criteria). The aim was examined with four goals of analysis: the perceptions of coaches and athletes about coaches’ leadership philosophy, practice, and criteria (1); the differences between athletes’ and coaches’ perceptions of leadership cycles (2); the differences between athletes’ and coaches’ perceptions of leadership styles (3); and the differences between athletes’ and coaches’ perceptions of leadership antecedent factors (4). Methods: The study involved 304 athletes and 20 coaches competing in the youth national leagues U15, U16, U17, and U19. Two-source data collection was applied: coaches completed the questionnaires from their point of view, and so did athletes. The coaches were paired then with their athletes to compare the answers. Coaches fulfilled Leadership Cycles Questionnaire (LEQ), Multidimensional Scale of Leadership in Sport (MSLS), and Leadership Antecedent Factors Questionnaire (LAFQ). Athletes completed the same questionnaires as the coaches did and also fulfilled the Sport Performance Perception Questionnaire (SPPQ). Athletes’ age and SPPQ served as control variables. Results: Both athletes (37.5%) and coaches (40%) perceived that the philosophy of the leadership efficacy model should be increased. Coaches evaluated their philosophy (F = 4.43; p = 0.036; η2 = 0.014), support in MSLS (F = 5.05; p = 0.025; η2 = 0.016) and active management in MSLS (F = 4.08; p = 0.044; η2 = 0.013) higher than their athletes. The athletes assessed the maturity of the team members (LAFQ dimension) (F = 13.98; p <0.001; η2 = 0.044), negative feedback in MSLS (F = 6.02; p = 0.015; η2 = 0.020), and passive management in MSLS (F = 4.95; p = 0.027; η2 = 0.016) higher than their coaches. Discussion: The tendency of coaches to have a more positive perception of their leadership behavior compared to their athletes represents the coach-athlete perception gap of leadership. Future research can examine the efficacy of congruent perceptions of leadership between athletes and coaches during the sports season and the impact produced by objective performance indicators.
... Scholars have spent years designing studies and examining questions surrounding the overarching theme summarized by the following question: "What makes an effective coach?" (Becker & Wrisberg, 2008;Hodgson, 2018;Hodgson et al., 2017;Jowett, 2017). Contemporary scholarship defines an "effective" coach as someone who applies their professional, interpersonal, and intrapersonal knowledge to improve athlete outcomes in specific contexts (Cote & Gilbert, 2009). ...
... While these findings do not seem to mean much on their own, they begin to take on new meaning when we understand the interrelationships between and among variables. As data would indicate variables like trust are essential to the coach-athlete relationship and effective coaching (Jowett, 2017;Jowett & Arthur, 2019). Athletes report a tendency to trust coaches who possess greater CE or appear more confident in their abilities (Kao et al., 2017). ...
Article
Emotional intelligence (EI) is recognized as an indicator of success, yet little research has examined the role of EI in coaching success. This cross-sectional study assessed the power of EI in predicting coaches’ career winning percentage in 277 head collegiate coaches including 51 basketball and 226 volleyball coaches. Coaches were on average 41.47 years old ( SD = 9.68), had 12.17 years of head coach experience ( SD = 9.40), and a career winning percentage of 50.67% ( SD = 16.5). Coaches completed an online questionnaire including the Assessing Emotions Scale, which was used to assess their EI. Career winning percentage was calculated by extracting data from institutional websites and NCAA databases. Regression analyses revealed EI was not a significant predictor of coaching success when all coaches were analyzed together, F (4, 272) = 0.7504, p = .5585. However, when examined separately, EI was a significant predictor of basketball coaches’ success, F (4, 46) = 2.678, p = .0433, but not volleyball coaches’ success, F (4, 221) = 0.363, p = .0835. Thus, the current body of evidence indicates EI has a nonuniform impact on coaching success. While acknowledging sample size limitations, these novel findings nevertheless indicate that EI may disproportionally influence the coaching process and downstream success by sport.
... Indeed, since recent studies suggest that the social support resulting from the activity significantly benefits the patient's mental health and psychological well-being [35,36], we suggest that a collective sport of this type can create a supportive social environment. This raises the question of whether the links that are built up between the patients (considered here as athletes) and the coaches [37] play a significant role in the maintenance of physical activity and the patients' physical and psychological well-being. In addition, several studies have corelated the quality of the coach-athlete relationship with athletes' well-being [38][39][40]. ...
... In addition, the proposed programme will be designed to allow the development of the constitutive dimensions of an effective coach-athlete relationship [37], from the point of view of both coach and athlete. To encourage autonomy, flotation aids and sport equipment will be provided so that the participants can adapt the activity or initiate a specific warm-up according to their needs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: Physical activity has been shown to have many benefits, including reducing cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and improving psychological and physical recovery from breast cancer. Some authors have shown the benefits of aquatic practice, while others have detailed the benefits of group and supervised practice. We hypothesize that an innovative sports coaching proposal could allow a significant adherence of patients and contribute to their health improvement. The main objective is to study the feasibility of an adapted water polo programme (aqua polo) for women after breast cancer. Secondarily we will analyse the effect of such a practice on patients' recovery and study the relationship between coaches and participants. The use of mixed methods will allow us to question the underlying processes precisely. This is a prospective, non-randomized, monocentric study with a sample of 24 breast cancer patients after treatment. The intervention is a 20 week programme (1 session per week) of aqua polo in a swim club facility, supervised by professional water-polo coaches. The variables measured are patient participation, quality of life (QLQ BR23), CRF (R-PFS) and post-traumatic growth (PTG-I) as well as different variables to observe physical capacity (strength with dynamometer, step-test and arm amplitude). The quality of the coach-patient relationship will be evaluated (CART-Q) to explore its dynamics. Participatory observations and interviews will be carried out to report on the interactions between the coach and the participants during the sessions. Registration number and name of trial registry: No. EudraCT or ID-RCB: 2019-A03003-54 and NCT: NCT04235946.
... Generally, the coach-athlete relationship is defined as a relationship that is framed by the coach and the athlete's shared thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (Jowett, 2017). This implies that coach and athlete share a special connection that is bound to a situation characterized by their social function. ...
... Sample items include: "I feel close to my athlete/coach," "I feel that my sports career is promising with my coach/athlete," and "I feel appreciation for the sacrifices my athlete/coach has experienced to improve his/her performance. CART-Q indicated adequate reliability and validity (Jowett, 2017). For this study, the CART-Q obtained (α=.96) for closeness, (α=.97) for commitment, and (α=.97) for complementarity respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
An increasing number of studies have shown the salient effect of pleasant emotions in sports and its association with sports performance. However, little is known about how the coach and athlete relationship affects athletes' engagement through pleasant emotions. This study scrutinized the mediating role of positive emotions on the relationship between the coach-athlete relationship and the sports engagement of athletes. A total sample of 227 consisting of 60.8% male (N=138) and female (39.2%; N=89) tertiary athletes of diverse sports completed an online questionnaire assessing the coach-athlete relationship, sports engagement, and sports emotions. The results revealed that pleasant emotions mediate the link between the coach-athlete relationship and the sports engagement of athletes. These findings show that athletes with strong connections with their coaches are more likely to experience greater levels of pleasant emotions, resulting in increased sports engagement of athletes.
... Indeed, since recent studies suggest that the social support resulting from the activity significantly benefits the patient's mental health and psychological well-being [35,36], we suggest that a collective sport of this type can create a supportive social environment. This raises the question of whether the links that are built up between the patients (considered here as athletes) and the coaches [37] play a significant role in the maintenance of physical activity and the patients' physical and psychological well-being. In addition, several studies have corelated the quality of the coach-athlete relationship with athletes' well-being [38][39][40]. ...
... In addition, the proposed programme will be designed to allow the development of the constitutive dimensions of an effective coach-athlete relationship [37], from the point of view of both coach and athlete. To encourage autonomy, flotation aids and sport equipment will be provided so that the participants can adapt the activity or initiate a specific warm-up according to their needs. ...
Article
Introduction : Physical activity has been shown to have many benefits, including reducing cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and improving psychological and physical recovery from breast cancer. Some authors have shown the benefits of aquatic practice, while others have detailed the benefits of group and supervised practice. We hypothesise that an innovative sports coaching proposal could allow a significant adherence of patients and contribute to their health improvement. The main objective is to study the feasibility of an adapted water polo programme (aqua polo) for women after breast cancer. Secondary we will analyse the effect of such a practice on patients’ recovery and to study the relationship between coaches and participants. The use of mixed methods will allow to question precisely the underlying processes. Methods and analysis : This is a prospective, non-randomised, monocentric study with a sample of 24 breast cancer patients after treatment. The intervention is a 20 week programme (1 session per week) of aqua polo in a real sports setting. The variables measured are patient participation, quality of life (QLQ BR23), CRF (R-PFS) and post-traumatic growth (PTG-I) as well as different variables to observe physical capacity (strength with dynamometer, step-test and arm amplitude). The quality of the coach-patient relationship will be evaluated (CART-Q) to explore its dynamics. Participatory observations and interviews will be carried out to report on the interactions between the coach and the participants during the sessions. Ethics and dissemination : Study procedures have been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Institute (IPC 2019-028) and the National Ethics Committee (SI:20.01.20.54741). Consent is given in person to each participant. The information collected on the participants contain only a non-identifiable study identifier. The results of this protocol will be published in a scientific paper and communicated to the medical staff of the medical center. Trial registration number ID-RCB: 2019-A03003-54 Keywords: Quality of the relationship, Aquatic exercise, Quality of life, Sport Citation Format: Sarah Cuvelier, Charlène Goetgheluck-Villaron, Monique Cohen, Agnès Tallet, Leonor Lopez Almeida, Jean-Marie Boher, Sophia Jowett, Sébastien Justafré, Pierre Dantin, Patrice Viens, Sarah Calvin. Aqua polo: Preliminary feasibility and efficacy study of a programme of adapted, supervised water polo to reduce fatigue and improve women’s psychological and social recovery after breast cancer treatment. A mixed-method design. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 2022 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; 2022 Dec 6-10; San Antonio, TX. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2023;83(5 Suppl):Abstract nr P6-05-40.
... En d'autres termes, le développement de compétences interpersonnelles aussi bien chez l'entraîneur que chez les pongistes (e.g., qualité des relations entraîneur-athlète en termes de proximité, de complémentarité et d'engagement) s'affirme comme une piste d'intervention particulièrement fructueuse et prometteuse (Duda & Appleton, 2016). Dans cette perspective, il pourrait être pertinent de concevoir une intervention visant au développement des compétences interpersonnelles tant chez les entraîneurs que chez les athlètes qui s'ancrerait aussi bien sur les propositions de la théorie de l'autodétermination (Ryan & Deci, 2017) que sur le modèle 3+1C de la relation entraîneur-athlète (Jowett, 2017). En se basant sur le programme d'intervention mis en oeuvre par Cece et al. (2022), une première journée de formation pourrait consister en une présentation des bases théoriques de la théorie de l'autodétermination (Ryan & Deci, 2017) et du modèle 3 + 1 C (Jowett, 2017), agrémentée de temps d'échanges au travers d'enregistrements vidéo pour rendre plus palpables les points clés de ces deux théories. ...
... Dans cette perspective, il pourrait être pertinent de concevoir une intervention visant au développement des compétences interpersonnelles tant chez les entraîneurs que chez les athlètes qui s'ancrerait aussi bien sur les propositions de la théorie de l'autodétermination (Ryan & Deci, 2017) que sur le modèle 3+1C de la relation entraîneur-athlète (Jowett, 2017). En se basant sur le programme d'intervention mis en oeuvre par Cece et al. (2022), une première journée de formation pourrait consister en une présentation des bases théoriques de la théorie de l'autodétermination (Ryan & Deci, 2017) et du modèle 3 + 1 C (Jowett, 2017), agrémentée de temps d'échanges au travers d'enregistrements vidéo pour rendre plus palpables les points clés de ces deux théories. Par la suite, trois à quatre ateliers pratiques pouvant prendre différentes formes (e.g., analyses de pratique au moyen d'enregistrements vidéo d'une séance d'entraînement précédente, jeux de rôle) pourraient être proposés pour accompagner les entraîneurs et les pongistes sur l'acquisition de compétences interpersonnelles renvoyant à différentes composantes de la relation entraîneur-athlète (e.g., co-orientation entre les entraîneurs et les athlètes ; comportements soutenant les besoins psychologiques fondamentaux). ...
Article
Full-text available
La littérature scientifique sur la relation entraîneur-entraîné, les comportements de l’entraîneur ou le leadership de l’entraîneur reconnaissent largement le rôle central joué par la relation entraîneur-entraîné sur le bien-être et la performance des athlètes. C’est d’autant plus prégnant dans les sports individuels où l’athlète est en constante interaction avec son entraîneur au cours des entraînements et des compétitions. En tennis de table, les entraîneurs et leurs pongistes partagent bon nombre d’expériences (plaisantes et déplaisantes) au cours de la carrière sportive de l’athlète, et il n’est pas rare que les entraîneurs de jeunes pongistes les accompagnent jusqu’au plus haut niveau de pratique à l’âge adulte. Ainsi, la diffusion des connaissances relatives à la relation entraîneur-entraîné, ainsi que les implications pratiques qui en découlent, s’affirment comme des pratiques essentielles à même de permettre aux différents acteurs (i.e., pongistes, entraîneurs, parents, psychologiques du sport, préparateurs mentaux) d’optimiser les ressources et la performance des athlètes. La première partie visera à présenter brièvement les différents modèles théoriques de la relation entraîneur-entraîné. La deuxième partie consistera à envisager les implications pratiques concrètes qui pourraient en découler pour optimiser les différents temps de la vie du pongiste (i.e., accueil du pongiste au club, entraînement, compétition, match). Enfin, la troisième partie consistera à présenter les résultats de protocoles de recherche interventionnelle et à proposer des pistes pour la construction de protocoles de recherche interventionnelle qui pourraient être envisagées pour optimiser la relation entraîneur-entraîné en tennis de table.
... At the heart of athletic coaching are social interactions and relational dynamics between athletes and coaches. Jowett (2017), among others, positions coach-athlete relationships as the determinant of broader athletic experiences, including motivation, learning of sporting techniques, affective evaluations of coaches, sports participation, and team performance (Cranmer, Ash, et al., 2020;Kassing & Infante, 1999;Mazer et al., 2013;Rey et al., 2022;Turman, 2008). As such, the extent to which sporting experiences are enjoyable or beneficial depends on the social dynamics between athletes and coaches. ...
... In this study, athlete performance was the sole predictor of high-quality exchanges and explained 21% of the variance, further underscoring the importance of task accomplishment within sporting contexts. Such assertions parallel coach communication literature that finds athlete ability is associated with coach investment and distribution of developmental resources (e.g., Cranmer, Arnson, et al., 2019;Turman, 2001), and reiterates that desires to win inform sporting relationships (Cranmer & Brann, 2015;Jowett, 2017). Traditional LMX scholarship suggests that supervisors' performance assessments, compared to those of subordinates, are more central in LMX formation (Gerstner & Day, 1997;Martin et al., 2016). ...
Article
Leader-member exchange theory (LMX) has proliferated as a framework for understanding coach-athlete interactions, as the exchanges of communicative resources greatly influence athletes’ sporting experiences. The current study uses coaches’ perceptions of task and social determinants of LMX to reveal comparative insights about forming low- and high-quality exchanges. Data collected from 380 coaches, spanning 14 different sports, at 160 high schools indicated that high-quality exchanges are solely determined by athletes’ abilities. In contrast, low-quality exchanges are determined by coaches’ negative affect towards athletes, and to a lesser extent, athletes’ poor performances and lack of competitiveness. Findings contribute to sports communication literature by examining LMX from coaches’ perspectives and identifying the unique determinants of various groupings within LMX. Both coaches and athletes may find utility in the current findings as they look to create meaningful relationships and positive sporting experiences.
... whereby individuals tend to present themselves in a favourable manner". For coaches to be effective, they must make decisions based on the environment around them, for example, responding to interpersonal cues in coach-athlete interactions to gauge the level of stress an athlete may be experiencing (Jowett, 2017). As a strategy to overcome potential bias, coaches could consider reflective practices to improve self-awareness (Whitehead et al., 2016). ...
... Stakeholders should be seen as "information assets" and "co-creators" of the TDE (Henriksen et al., 2010). Coaches have a responsibility to be open and aware to environment feedback, the coach-athlete relationship should be seen as a key factor in this, and coach reflective practices may be a useful tool (Jowett, 2017;Whitehead et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Talent Development Environments (TDEs) aim to provide the appropriate conditions for youth athletes to realise their full sporting potential. How TDEs are designed and operated is therefore of great importance for the development of elite athletes. Stakeholders are vital in this process, yet their perspectives are poorly understood. This study assessed the quality of TDEs across 5 European countries, comparing athlete, parent and coach perceptions. A total of 571 athletes (Mean age = 15.2 ± 1.5 years), 759 parents and 134 coaches were recruited from TDEs across 27 sports. Participants completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 or adapted versions. Overall, perceptions of European TDEs were positive. Coaches reported higher perceptions of TDE quality compared to athletes and parents, athletes reported marginally higher perceptions compared to parents. Across stakeholders, Long-Term Development was highest rated, followed by Communication. Support Network was lowest rated. Stakeholder perceptions varied most for the Holistic Quality Preparation subscale, highlighting perceived differences in TDE support for rounded athlete development. From an organisational perspective , identified strengths and weaknesses provide direction to coach and parent education. Practically, TDE leaders should consider how they can refine stakeholder coordination through integrating stake-holder perceptions as valuable feedback into their environment, especially for intangible factors. ARTICLE HISTORY
... In terms of task-related competences, head coaches should lead and influence, manage relationships, and be an educator. Upon reflecting on the quality of such interpersonal relations to optimize coaching effectiveness, Jowett (2017) argued that coaches and athletes are locked in a two-person relationship whose knowledge and outcomes are important interconnected factors. In agreement, Olympic coaches in the United States perceived they needed to establish high levels of trust and credibility with their athletes to influence performance, highlighting benefits from coaching staff chemistry and team cohesion (Gould et al., 2002). ...
... Hence, coaches must be "a people's manager in a setting where athletes have a huge autonomy" (S25), switching from potential conflicts to "understanding the needs of players, their personal wishes, and their dissatisfactions" (C11). In line with Jowett's (2017) arguments about how the interconnectivity between coaches and athletes manifests on coaching effectiveness, one staff member advocated that "a good relationship makes the whole difference, as it is noticeable through informal conversations with athletes" (S17). Coincidentally, two practitioners shared a similar outlook: ...
Article
Theoretically, professional coaches should improve team performance through a sustained, progressive, and structured training and competitive program. Nevertheless, the reality poses different expectations around football activities in Brazil, where coaching spells have lasted on average 65 days during the domestic league season. Adopting the conceptual foundation designed by the International Sport Coaching Framework (ISCF), this research aims to examine the competences perceived to be important for professional football coaches and compare them to the ISCF. This study asks the following research question: what coaching competences are expected and valued in Brazilian football, and how do they compare to the ISCF? Qualitative, semistructured interviews were conducted with 29 head coaches and 30 staff members. A directed content analysis yielded similarities around the ISCF's functional competences, while also outlining one additional category: deliver short-term winning results. The findings reveal a set of subcategories that support the contextual idiosyncrasies of high-performance football in Brazil. Within their domestic territory, elite coaches must navigate across a puzzle of nonfootball demands to adapt to their social and political reality which apparently ranks short-term game results above the essence of sport coaching practice.
... Para o efeito, foi desenvolvido o programa desportivo Skills4Genius suportado pelos pressupostos científico-teóricos do Modelo de Desenvolvimento para a Criatividade no Desporto (Santos, et al . , 2016;2017) . O Skills4Genius tem como propósito desenvolver competências sociais e emocionais, com especial enfoque na adaptabilidade, resolução de problemas e pensamento criativo, assim como, a criatividade motora através da utilização de modelos de ensino centrados na criança e estratégias de aprendizagem ativas . ...
... João Bernardo Ramos 1 ; Pedro Vigário 1 ; Ricardo Pereira 1 ; Tiago Ferreira 1 ; Daniel Duarte 1 ; Pedro Teques 1 a040713@ipmaia . pt N2i, Instituto Politécnico da MaiaA relação treinador-atleta tem sido investigada em várias modalidades desportivas(Jowett, 2017) . Contudo, pouco se sabe acerca das características da relação treinador-atleta nas grandes competições de seleções nacionais . ...
... This deficiency notably impacted their performance, especially during the Olympics and the preparatory phase leading up to it. Given the well-documented influence of the coach-athlete relationship on performance, as noted by Jowett (2017), the lack of a strong bond with a coach (as in the case of Olympian 1) and frequent changes in coaching staff without involving the athlete in discussions (as experienced by Olympian 4) are matters sport governing bodies should consider when strategizing and framing support mechanisms for the Olympics. In this respect, the role of coaches extends beyond enhancing athletic performance to influencing the overall well-being of the athletes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This study explores the experiences of Olympian judokas, examining both their pursuit of excellence to compete at the Olympics and their subsequent transition out of judo. The aim is to offer empirical evidence regarding the challenges they face in realizing their Olympic dreams, and to shed light on the transitional challenges, available resources, and needs they face as they move toward post-athletic lives. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with eight Olympian judokas: five males and three females, all of whom have retired from competitive judo. These participants are from Portugal ( n = 1), Republic of Korea ( n = 2), and the United Kingdom ( n = 5). We employed thematic analysis, which led to the identification of five main themes: (a) From Dreams to Olympic Reality, (b) Facing the Void: Loss of Goals and Identity, (c) The Crucial Role of Social Support, (d) Dual Aspects of Pre-Retirement Planning, and (e) The Double Edge of Organizational Support. Findings The findings highlight the significant challenges faced by Olympian judokas, including goal and identity loss post-retirement, and the need for comprehensive and accessible organizational support, particularly psychological assistance, to assist in their transition to post-athletic life. Implications The findings not only enhance our understanding of judokas’ experiences during transition but also offer insights that could guide the development of tailored support programs. It is critical for sport governing bodies and practitioners to apply these insights in creating comprehensive and easily accessible support systems, which will ensure a smoother transition to post-athletic life for high-performance athletes.
... Numerous athletes stated that the quality of the coach-athlete relationship is fundamental. The literature has already shown that the quality of this relationship affects athletes' performances and well-being (Hampson & Jowett, 2014;Jowett, 2017). We thus hypothesize that if this relation is not good, athletes will experience more stress and will be less involved in a health-related lifestyle because they lack motivation and the opportunity to talk with their coach on this subject. ...
... Situated as such, coaching science retains an anthropocentric and linear conception of sport coaching, with the coach serving as the starting point (i.e. the subject enacting coaching practices) and the athlete serving as the ending point (i.e. the subject performing athletic feats). Dedicated lines of inquiry have focused on the coach-athlete relationship, which has been deemed the primary affiliation enacting the mechanisms at the heart of sport performance (Jowett, 2017). Conventional inquiries in coaching science are thus mainly confined to humans, subordinated to the study of coaching performances oriented towards linear and predefined ends. ...
Article
Coaching science is a thriving sport science with a history of overlapping topical, methodological, and conceptual shifts drawing from humanist and poststructural lenses. Recently, a deeper engagement with the possibilities of inquiring through a posthumanist lens has been proposed, opening ontological passageways for coaching scholars to think and do coaching science differently. In efforts to expand upon recent posthumanist experiments in coaching science, the purpose of the present paper lies in situating sport coaching as intra-action using Barad’s (2007) agential realist ontology and diffractive methodology. Ontological shifts from learning to becoming and reflection to diffraction are proposed, setting the stage for moving inquiry in coaching science from the coach to coaching intra-action. By situating sport coaching in agential realist rhythms, coaching scholars can promote creativity, expand horizons for what coaching science can do, and multiply who/what is included in coaching intra-action.
... 43 Thus, good communication and proper messaging related to competition (eg, expectations, outcomes) should be emphasized among the academy leadership to improve the quality of coach-athlete relationships, enhance sport enjoyment, and ensure both the coach and athlete perceive similar goals for development. 17,[70][71][72] Limitations and future directions Several limitations are worth noting. First, burnout was evaluated at a single point in time, and this measure is believed to represent the athletes' current state, whereas predicted antecedents (ie, sports engagement history) were measured at the same point in time but represented events over time or those that occurred in the past, recalled retrospectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Previous theoretical frameworks focusing on burnout have identified numerous antecedents and psychosocial risk factors; however, the influence of early sport-specific experiences on burnout in developmental athlete populations remains less understood. Objectives: We explored the associations between burnout and prior sports engagement (ie, milestones, practice time, performance, injury history) in a sample of subelite academy alpine ski racers in the United States (N = 169, M age = 15.82 ± 1.80). Methods: Participants completed retrospective practice history profiles (milestones, practice time, injury), while their respective performance data were collected using an online national ranking registry. Simple and mixed-effect regressions were implemented to assess the associations between these measures and subscales of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire. Results: The results indicated that greater participation in the coach-led group and individual practice during adolescence mitigated burnout responses (ie, greater sense of accomplishment, less sport devaluation), whereas more play earlier in development was associated with greater devaluation. Furthermore, poorer performance and more injury incidences were associated with increased burnout (ie, reduced sense of accomplishment). Conclusions: The structure of training and past experiences during early career years appear to influence burnout among alpine ski racing during their adolescent years, the implications of which are discussed in relation to sport developmental pipelines.
... Existing literature highlights the importance of the coachathlete relationship for all sports contexts (Jowett, 2017). Coaches acknowledged during interviews that remote coaching helped facilitate increased connections with athletes, allowing them to develop and build interpersonal relationships. ...
Article
Remote coaching via the use of digital technologies has been utilized within Paralympic Sports since 2015 to address challenges experienced by coaches. These technologies have connected coaches and athletes in real time, alleviating time and travel costs. However, very little is known about the experience of coaching in these environments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the experiences of coaches' use of remote coaching technologies. Seven coaches from five Paralympic Sports were recruited for this study and participated in semistructured interviews. Additionally, observations were conducted of remote coaching sessions that were part of their regular training schedules. Coaches' insights highlight that remote technologies created opportunities to increase coach-athlete interactions and positively impact the development of interpersonal relationships. This allowed coaches to explore and exploit newly discovered information from within training environments to aid athletes in skill development. Additionally, remote coaching provided unexpected opportunities for coach development. However, coaches also reported new environmental and logistical challenges which disrupted their usual coaching approach. Overall, remote coaching technologies were perceived as being beneficial despite the challenges experienced. However, future research that looks to understand how to impact coach and athlete development through the online environment is encouraged.
... However, there are several factors other than coaching that ultimately can influence whether an athlete or a team is successful or not such as match location, home advantage, quality of opposition and match status. According to Jowett (2017) coaching is probably the most important constituent of success as this is the activity that implies that the coach spend time with his athletes in order to develop them to reach peak performance. In order to be carried out at a level as high as possible, coaching has to borrow managerial instruments of planning, implementing and evaluating. ...
Article
Full-text available
Effective training is about providing not only quantity but also quality programs. Coaching effectiveness is defined as the degree to which coaches can apply their knowledge and skills to positively influence the learning and performance of their athletes. A coach has to visualise what it would take to achieve success, and then translate this vision into a training module where the coach can plan, implement and evaluate athletic performances towards building up for success. In order to be successful, a tennis player must have a high level of commitment and be willing to persist in a rigorous training programme. Coaches are responsible to explain and to train their athletes systematically on the basic technical skills and shot patterns that make up the game. Game Situations training is a viable method in enhancing the performance of tennis players. A sound background of physical, psychological, technical and tactical training program should prepare athletes for competitions. Further investigation on the relationship of technical and tactical skills with other performance attributes will allow more information and develop specific training program to improve the performance of the players. Incorporating match like situations into routine training however increases the probability that players will transfer skills from practices to matches effectively. These training characteristics was further developed into training model and used as guidelines in designing effective training development program in order to enhance the vital performance attributes of potential young tennis players. RAHIM Training Model which is an acronym for Repetition, Attitude, High intensity, Independence and Movement, was formulated as guidelines for future training program or research. The aim of formulating an effective training program is to provide a guideline for tennis coaches at various levels in preparing and designing quality training programs.
... There is an abundance of literature that has considered the interpersonal dynamics of the coaching process (e.g., Jowett and Cockerill, 2003;Cronin et al., 2018). This literature is well established and supportive of the notion that the coach-athlete relationship is a core element of effective coaching (Jowett, 2017). The insights presented here support this notion. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite significant empirical work in the sport coaching domain, there remains a paucity of evidence to inform practice in high-performance sport coaching. As a result, there are gaps in our understanding regarding coaching expertise at different levels of athlete performance. A significantly underutilized approach in coaching research is Cognitive Task Analysis and it’s knowledge elicitation tools. Addressing these concerns, here we utilize applied Cognitive Task Analysis and a semi-structured interview protocol to elicit the cognitive challenges and use of knowledge by a group of N = 7 high-performance endurance sport coaches from a single national governing body. Analysis suggested prominent and ongoing challenges in day-to-day practice which, in turn require significant adaptive skill. In addition, results show how coaches used knowledge flexibly and conditionally to meet the demands of their role. A novel finding being the identification of the use of curriculum knowledge to mentally project the needs of athletes. The findings suggest opportunities for utilizing Cognitive Task Analysis to investigate the cognitive challenges of sport coaching and enhance coach development practice.
... However, relationships of low quality undermine effective communication, hindering successful coordination [43], and potentially impairing the student athlete's academic and sporting development. According to Jowett [64], viewing coaching as centred around the coach-student athlete relationship, in which coaches and student athletes are meaningfully connected, can promote mutually empowering inclusivity. Such meaningful partnerships can also function as a tool that motivates, guarantees, pleases, and supports well-being, performance, and experiences [65]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Despite its small population, Norway wins a disproportionately large number of medals in international competitions. Therefore, it has been thought that the Norwegian sports model and sports school programs are influential in developing young Norwegian athletes to achieve such results. Today, more than 110 Norwegian private and public schools offer the elite sports program in Norway. Most student athletes attending those schools combine their high school education with elite sports, where they attend training sessions at both school and clubs. The number of people involved with the student athlete on a daily basis (i.e., other student athletes, club coaches, school coaches, schoolteachers, parents, and health personnel) indicate the importance of optimal communication and coordination. However, to the authors' knowledge, no previous studies have explored communication and coordination among this population group. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to use a holistic analysis of team dynamics using the Relational Coordination Survey as a measure to explore the relational coordination within and between student athletes, club coaches, and school coaches. A secondary objective of this study was to explore student athletes', club coaches', and school coaches' relational coordination with schoolteachers, parents, and health personnel. In addition, the study aimed to explore differences in student athletes' relational coordination with their significant others according to sport, school, performance level, sex, and school year. Methods: The quality of relational coordination was measured by a cross-sectional questionnaire of student athletes (n = 345), club coaches (n = 42), and school coaches (n = 25) concerning training load and life load. Multiple one-way analyses of variance were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The results show that student athletes, club coaches, and school coaches perceived moderate to weak relational coordination with parents, schoolteachers, and health personnel. Student athletes' relational coordination score with parents was the only strong score observed. Furthermore, the results reveal notable differences in student athletes' relational coordination with the roles according to their characteristics. Conclusions: The findings suggest a potential for enhancing relationships and communication within and between the significant roles involved with student athletes. The results further indicate that those involved with the student athlete should consider a holistic approach to enhance communication and coordination, including physical, psychological, and other life factors, for optimal student athlete management and development. More resources are necessary to facilitate effective communication and coordination regarding the student athlete's total load.
... Component skills of MI such as accurate empathy themselves predict improved outcomes in research on psychotherapy and counseling (Bohart et al., 2002;Elliott et al., 2018;Truax and Carkhuff, 1967). Nor are such effects limited to psychotherapy; student outcomes vary by their teachers (Chetty et al., 2014), surgical outcomes by physicians (Mehta et al., 2017), and athletes' outcomes by coaches (Jowett, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
This review traces the development of motivational interviewing (MI) from its happenstance beginnings and the first description published in this journal in 1983, to its continuing evolution as a method that is now in widespread practice in many professions, nations and languages. The efficacy of MI has been documented in hundreds of controlled clinical trials, and extensive process research sheds light on why and how it works. Developing proficiency in MI is facilitated by feedback and coaching based on observed practice after initial training. The author reflects on parallels between MI core processes and the characteristics found in 70 years of psychotherapy research to distinguish more effective therapists. This suggests that MI offers an evidence-based therapeutic style for delivering other treatments more effectively. The most common use of MI now is indeed in combination with other treatment methods such as cognitive behaviour therapies.
... As such, the development of PCDEs within a talent development environment appears to require a nuanced approach to account for differences at an individual level. The importance of knowing the athlete is a well-understood construct in coaching (Jowett, 2017) and an essential factor in assessing and monitoring their needs as they engage in a talent pathway. The PCDEQ-2, particularly when used at an individual level and as a formative tool to guide development rather than selection decisions, seems to be well placed to support this function (A. ...
Article
Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence (PCDEs) are a range of psychological factors that play a key role in the realisation of potential. We examined PCDE profiles across a female national talent development field hockey programme in North America. Two-hundred-and-sixty-seven players completed the Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence Questionnaire version 2 (PCDEQ-2) prior to the competitive season. One-hundred-and-fourteen players were classified as juniors (under-18) and 153 as seniors (over-18). Eighty-five players were classified as non-selected (not-selected to their age-group national team), and 182 as selected (selected to their age-group national team). A MANOVA showed multivariate differences based on age, selection status and their interaction, within this already homogenous sample, suggesting that sub-groups within this sample vary depending on their overall PCDE profiles. ANOVA showed differences in imagery and active preparation, perfectionist tendencies and clinical indicators between juniors and seniors. Furthermore, differences in imagery and active preparation, and perfectionist tendencies, were observed between selected and non-selected players. Subsequently, four individual cases were identified for further analysis based on their multivariate distance to the average PCDE profile. The use of the PCDEQ-2 at group- and particularly at individual-levels seems an important tool to support athletes as they navigate their development journey.
... Thus, the results in the current study give reason to indicate that the coaches in the elite groups were perceived by their athletes to be more competent than their peers in the general groups. This argument has support in earlier research (65,66). However the cause of such a difference may be a question for future research to investigate. ...
Article
Full-text available
Schmid MA, Solli GS, Talsnes RK and Moen F (2023) Place of residence and coach-athlete relationship predict drop-out from competitive crosscountry skiing. The current study investigated whether factors such as living residence, the coach-athlete working alliance, goal orientation, and intrinsic motivation could explain drop-out, and whether these factors differed between athletes included in the elite-vs. general sport programs during high school years. In total 257 crosscountry skiers, graduated from three different Norwegian Top Sport schools during the period from 2015 to 2019, were recruited to retrospectively investigate their experiences related to the time period when they participated in programs for crosscountry skiing at high school. In total 116 of these athletes completed an online survey including validated and standardized instruments for the assessment of the coach-athlete working alliance (CAWAI), goal orientation (GO), perceived satisfaction with their performances (PAP) and intrinsic motivation (IM). The results showed that 84% of the athletes had dropped out from crosscountry skiing, while 16% were still active. The highest ranked fixed statements of causes for drop-out was "a natural choice" (3.79 ± 1.11), "priority of education or work" (3.61 ± 1.30), "lack of motivation" (3.49 ± 1.28), "negative performance development" (3.46 ± 1.18), and "challenges with health" (3.25 ± 1.54). There were significant differences between active and drop-out in scores for reciprocity between the coaches' and the athletes' perceptions of goals (CAWAI-goal; 5.87 ± .98 vs. 5.07 ± 1.15; p = .004), the coach-athlete relationship bond (CAWAI-bond; 6.08 ± .91 vs. 5.07 ± 1.38; p = .001), and tasks chosen to reach the defined goals (CAWAI-task; 5.61 ± .92 vs. 4.90 ± 1.09; p = .006). Furthermore, active athletes had higher mastery orientation (22.11 ± 2.88 vs. 20.00 ± 3.74; p = .010). A hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis showed that place of residence and the coach-athlete working alliance were significant predictors of drop-out while mastery and performance goal orientation or intrinsic motivation were not significant. All five predictors explained 23% of the variability in drop out from crosscountry skiing. Overall, 58% and 42% of the athletes participated in the elite and general programs for crosscountry skiing during high school, respectively. The athletes that took part in the elite programs reported significantly stronger coach-athlete working alliances (CAWAI-sum; 14.46±3.10 vs. 14.28±3.37; p = .000), higher mastery orientation (21.19±3.50 vs. 19.36±3.66; p = .008), and performance satisfaction (PAP; 19.17 ±5.98 vs. 15.69±5.19; p = .001) compared to the athletes attending general programs. The results are discussed in terms of existing knowledge on how place of residence, the coach-athlete working alliance, goal orientation, performances, and motivation might impact drop-out in crosscountry skiing.
... A strength and conditioning coach is an educator, teaching the athlete not only the skills of weightlifting, in this case, but also how to train effectively as well as develop the athlete as a person (140). Building confidence, developing positive self-worth, responsibility, and integrity are important outcomes of the beginner's coaching process (149). To establish the development of such attributes, it is essential that the strength and conditioning coach ensures that the athlete maintains an appropriate progression rate which is based on their abilities. ...
Article
Comfort, P, Haff, GG, Suchomel, TJ, Soriano, MA, Pierce, KC, Hornsby, WG, Haff, EE, Sommerfield, LM, Chavda, S, Morris, SJ, Fry, AC, and Stone, MH. National Strength and Conditioning Association position statement on weightlifting for sports performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2022-The origins of weightlifting and feats of strength span back to ancient Egypt, China, and Greece, with the introduction of weightlifting into the Olympic Games in 1896. However, it was not until the 1950s that training based on weightlifting was adopted by strength coaches working with team sports and athletics, with weightlifting research in peer-reviewed journals becoming prominent since the 1970s. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on the use of weightlifting-based training to enhance performance in nonweightlifters because of the biomechanical similarities (e.g., rapid forceful extension of the hips, knees, and ankles) associated with the second pull phase of the clean and snatch, the drive/thrust phase of the jerk and athletic tasks such as jumping and sprinting. The highest force, rate of force development, and power outputs have been reported during such movements, highlighting the potential for such tasks to enhance these key physical qualities in athletes. In addition, the ability to manipulate barbell load across the extensive range of weightlifting exercises and their derivatives permits the strength and conditioning coach the opportunity to emphasize the development of strength-speed and speed-strength, as required for the individual athlete. As such, the results of numerous longitudinal studies and subsequent meta-analyses demonstrate the inclusion of weightlifting exercises into strength and conditioning programs results in greater improvements in force-production characteristics and performance in athletic tasks than general resistance training or plyometric training alone. However, it is essential that such exercises are appropriately programmed adopting a sequential approach across training blocks (including exercise variation, loads, and volumes) to ensure the desired adaptations, whereas strength and conditioning coaches emphasize appropriate technique and skill development of athletes performing such exercises.
... Indeed, managing the athlete-coach relationship is one of the most acute difficulties in training and competition (e.g. Jowett, 2017;Thelwell, 2017). The low use of imagery (F2) was similar to the finding of Saward et al. (2019) in a study of soccer players: at the end of the talent development process, these players displayed low use of this skill. ...
Article
In this study we examined changes in a psychological skill set, defined as crucial for the growth of talented athletes, through repeated assessments of the six-factor Psychological Characteristics of Development Excellence Questionnaire (PCDEQ). In a first phase of this study, we built and evaluated a French adaptation of the PCDEQ: the PCDEQ-SV (18 items). After confirmatory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha revealed that scales for its six factors ranged from very good to just below minimally acceptable as a model fit. The mean inter-item correlations for the scales, built on three items per scale, were optimal, leading us to assume that this short version was reliable. In the second phase, we analyzed the changes in the skill sets of 67 talented Swiss athletes who were given the PCDEQ-SV three times over 1 year. Feedback on the scores was provided to participants in comparison to the test's cutoffs after T1 and T2. The analysis then focused on those who scored below the cutoffs and their resources for skill improvements. We found that the highest number of participants scored below the cutoffs at testing times, T1 and T2 on Factors 2, 6 and 1. Changes in scores were characterized by overall dynamics of improvement. The resources most used to effect those changes were "personal work with no outside help," "discussions with significant others," and "specific work with the coach." The results are discussed in relation to the iGen's resources for self-determination of psychological skills improvement.
... Research on the coach-athlete relationship is primarily contributed by English-speaking research groups (e. g. Jowett & Poczwardowski, 2007;Jowett, 2017). The aim of this issue is, therefore, to present current research on the coach-athlete relationship and, in this way, to promote the state of research especially in German-speaking countries. ...
... Although this issue has been extensively investigated, the majority of researches focused on the satisfying the autonomy need (Jowett, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Annotation. The purpose of this study, which was conducted with a sample of healthy adult males, was to reveal how adults of different ages perceive a coach's interpersonal behavior during sports. The study results showed the perception of interpersonal behavior among coaches and physically active men, influenced by their ages. Support and thwarting behaviors analysis of older individuals rated perceived coach support with higher scores. Younger men experienced more control and pressure during training.
... Coaching is a complex, social process where strong dyadic relationships are formed in order to achieve individual and collaborative goals (Gilchrist and Mallett, 2017;Jowett, 2017). The development of relationships and the development of strong social bonds and relationships is also a key idea, and seen as a major part in providing a holistic education and helping students develop skills that will help them outside of their formal education (International Baccalaureate Organisation, n.d.). ...
Research
IBO World Schools are guided in their day-to-day practices by a robust set of standards and practices, and approaches to teaching and learning. Sports programmes in the same domain would benefit from a similar set of guiding principles, underpinned by the IBO vision of education and contemporary research into sports coaching. Encouraging students to learn how to learn and become lifelong learners are broad goals within an IB program. Inspiring higher levels of intrinsic motivation in students is key in achieving these goals, as explicitly stated in the IBO literature. In attempting to align practices in the sports programme with those in the school, adopting approaches to improve student-athlete motivation, well-being, increased participation and improved performance is the overriding goal of this coaching framework. Drawing on self-determination theory and basic psychological needs theory, I will pull together research and best practice that will help to promote needs-supportive behaviours in coaches working in this domain. Theories and empirical evidence supporting autonomous, competence and relatedness-supportive behaviours will be used to build the framework. In keeping with the IBO approaches to teaching and learning, I also propose using a constraints-led approach to skill acquisition, underpinned by nonlinear pedagogy, as a way of providing structure (important for competence support) and complementing the approaches to education in this domain. The framework is a first step in improving and standardising coaching practices in line with best practice in this context.
... That is, the tool offers the potential for the CD to infer the social intuition of the coach, the "rapid and automatic evaluation of another person's cognitive and/or affective state" (69, p. 308). In essence, allowing CDs to quasi-systematically observe a coach's learning design (89), their pedagogic approach (90), interpersonal dynamics (91), and infer the experience of athletes (33). Parallel consideration of these interlinking constructs presents the ability to reflect on these observations through multiple lenses, including the pedagogic, various "ologies", and, where appropriate, the technical and tactical (19). ...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing recognition of the value of “in situ” coach development practice across a variety sporting contexts. Unfortunately, however, there remains a limited number of tools available with which to observe coaching practice. In this study, we pilot and test a quasi-systematic tool for observation in the form of the 3Ps. Drawing on a range of representational perspectives, the theoretically neutral labels of “procedure”, “planning”, and “process” were developed for the purpose of holistic observation. In order to test the tool, a group of experienced coach development practitioners (n = 10) integrated the tool into their practice over a 12-month programme of professional development. Those participants subsequently took part in semi-structured interviews, in which they expressed a strong sense of acceptability, perceiving effectiveness and positive opportunity cost. We propose that the 3Ps tool presents a holistic and practically useful means of observing coaches’ professional judgment and decision making. We also suggest future directions for the researcher who seeks to generate evidence in a naturalistic coaching context.
... Mageau and Vallerand (2003) observed that the actions exercised by the coaches can be one of the greatest motivational influences within the sports environment. Some motivational mechanisms can explain how coach's behavior can influence the motivation of young athletes and, consequently, other positive outcomes (e.g., motivation, team cohesion, hope, basic needs satisfaction, resilience) (Contreira, Caruzzo, Aizava, Passos, & Fiorese, 2020;Nascimento Junior et al., 2020;Jowett, 2017;Jowett et al., 2017;Vieira et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This cross-sectional study investigated if the coach's autonomy support, age and time of practice are associated with the development of life skills among 461 young Brazilians athletes (325 boys and 136 girls) aged between 10–17 years (Mage=15.12, SD=1.44). Data collection was conducted via the Life Skills Scale for Sport (P-LSSS) and Perceived Autonomy Support: Exercise Climate Questionnaire (PASECQ). Data analysis was conducted through independent t test, Pearson’s correlation and Multiple Regression (p<.05). Main results showed that coach´s autonomy support made the largest positive contribution to all eight dimensions (βrange=.07-.19, p<.05) and total life skill (β=.18; p<.001). Age made the largest positive contribution to the dimensions of teamwork, goal setting, leadership and communication (βrange=.11-.19, p<.05) and total life skills (β=.13; p<.01). However, practice time showed no contribution to life skills. This study revealed that coach´s autonomy support and age are associated positively with life skills development among youth athletes. Este estudio transversal investigó el association del apoyo a la autonomía del entrenador, la edad y el tiempo de práctica en el desarrollo de habilidades para la vida entre 461 jóvenes atletas brasileños (325 niños y 136 niñas) de entre 10 y 17 años (Mage = 15,12, SD = 1,44). La recopilación de datos se realizó mediante la Escala de habilidades para la vida para el deporte (P-LSSS) y el Apoyo a la autonomía percibida: Cuestionario de clima de ejercicio (PASECQ). El análisis de los datos se realizó mediante prueba t independiente, correlación de Pearson y regresión múltiple (p <.05). Los resultados principales mostraron que el apoyo a la autonomía del entrenador hizo la mayor contribución positiva a las ocho dimensiones (β rango = .07-.19, p <.05) y la habilidad para la vida total (β = .18; p <.001). La edad hizo la mayor contribución positiva a las dimensiones de trabajo en equipo, establecimiento de metas, liderazgo y comunicación (βrange = .11-.19, p <.05) y habilidades para la vida total (β = .13; p <.01). Sin embargo, el tiempo de práctica no mostró ninguna contribución a las habilidades para la vida. Este estudio reveló que el apoyo a la autonomía del entrenador y la edad son associados positivos del desarrollo de habilidades para la vida entre los atletas jóvenes. Este estudo transversal investigou se o suporte de autonomia do treinador, idade e tempo de prática estão associados ao desenvolvimento de habilidades de vida entre 461 jovens atletas brasileiros (325 meninos e 136 meninas) com idade entre 10-17 anos (M = 15,12, DP = 1,44). A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio da Escala de Habilidades de Vida para o Esporte (P-LSSS) e Suporte à Autonomia Percebida: Questionário de Clima de Exercício (PASECQ). A análise dos dados foi realizada por meio de teste t independente, correlação de Pearson e regressão múltipla (p <0,05). Os principais resultados mostraram que o suporte à autonomia do treinador deu a maior contribuição positiva para todas as oito dimensões (faixa β = .07-.19, p <.05) e habilidade de vida total (β = .18; p <.001). A idade deu a maior contribuição positiva para as dimensões de trabalho em equipe, estabelecimento de metas, liderança e comunicação (βrange = .11-.19, p <.05) e habilidades de vida totais (β = .13; p <.01). No entanto, o tempo de prática não mostrou nenhuma contribuição para as habilidades de vida. Este estudo revelou que o suporte à autonomia do treinador e a idade estão associados positivamente ao desenvolvimento de habilidades para a vida entre jovens atletas.
Article
Developing high-quality athlete–coach (A–C) relationships improves both athlete performance and well-being. However, content relating to the A–C relationship has been underrepresented within coach education. The study evaluates how coaches completing the English Football Association’s Union of European Football Associations A and B licenses develop knowledge of the A–C relationship. It does so by drawing on the perspectives of those who design and deliver the courses. Semistructured interviews were completed with nine experienced Football Association coach developers alongside a document analysis of seven key course documents. Data were analysed through an inductive thematic analysis and five themes were generated: (a) coach developers understand that the A–C relationship is built on trust, care, and hard and soft interpersonal approaches; (b) the triad of knowledge impacts on the A–C relationship, not just interpersonal knowledge; (c) the A–C relationship is not meaningfully addressed in the formalised course content; (d) in situ visits provide an effective medium to develop knowledge of the A–C relationship; and (e) the assessment framework does not align with the formalised course content. Findings demonstrate, despite a diversification in content, the A–C relationship is introduced in a superficial manner. Future research should clarify the knowledge coaches require to develop high-quality A–C relationships within a high-performance footballing context.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this research was to describe and interpret the processes of developing the coach-athlete relationship in a women's university sports team across one competitive season. Data were generated from observations of 19 team practices and 11 games, and two individual interviews with the coach and three athletes. Participants' unique perspectives of developing the coach-athlete relationship were examined through the use of Jowett's (2007) 3+1Cs model. Findings highlight the ambiguous and often contradicting ways that participants understood and interpreted the processes of their coach-athlete relationship, due in part by the performance and social agendas at play. This research makes a contribution to knowledge about the processes of the coach-athlete relationship in a team environment and application of the 3+1 Cs model by primarily attending to its processes rather than outcomes. In doing so, we showed some of the complexities in these processes and the challenges this offers to coaches and athletes.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Referencial do Comitê Olímpico do Brasil sobre o Desenvolvimento Esportivo com foco na formação de atletas e treinadoras e treinadores no contexto do alto rendimento esportivo. Aqui estão reunidas tendências atuais do Brasil e do mundo sobre o Desenvolvimento Esportivo. Entendendo a relevância desses processos, todo conteúdo apresentado ao longo do documento está referenciado em dezenas de materiais nacionais e internacionais e na produção científica mais atual sobre desenvolvimento de atletas e treinadoras/es no Brasil e no mundo.
Article
Full-text available
A fundamental feature in successful coaching outcomes and athlete performance is rooted in the quality of the coach-athlete relationship which is impacted by coaches' way of being. This investigation examined whether perceived coach behaviour associates with the coach-athlete relationship quality and self-rated season performance among members from two South African male senior national para-sport teams (n = 23, M age = 32.65). The predictive utility of coaches' perceived behaviour on the dyadic relationship quality and athletes' views on their own performance was also determined. Cross-sectional quantitative data were collected by means of the Coaching Behaviour Scale for Sport, Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire and a Likert-scale item recording athletes' subjective rating of perceived standard of performance for the respective competition season. The team members' reported fairly good standard of season performances and sound relationship standings with their involved head coaches who were seen to exhibit behaviours most illustrative of mental preparation, personal rapport, and competition tactics. Inferences drawn from the correlation analyses advised that particular adoptive coach behaviour in para-sport coaching appears to be a meaningful construct associated with the establishment and maintenance of relationships with athletes. Regression analyses also exposed coaches' competition strategy behaviour to be a significant predictor of complementarity in the coach-athlete relationship, which along with the noted positive correlations provide a good basis for further exploration in similar sport contexts.
Article
Online coaching has grown in popularity, in which the coach and athlete work together using Internet-based platforms, without meeting in person. Kettlebell lifting has been using the online format for some time. The majority of Kettlebell lifters are Masters Athletes (MAs), over the age of 35 years, and competing in registered events around the world. Adult-oriented psychosocial coaching approaches that prioritize relationship development have proven to be successful when coaching MAs. While the coach–athlete relationship has been extensively examined, it is not known how the coach–athlete relationship is created and maintained in an online-only environment. The purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of MAs’ relationships with their online coaches. Five kettlebell lifters were interviewed to explore their experiences of having online coaches. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, the lifters’ individual experiences within the online coaching environment were examined. Three higher order themes suggest (a) initial relationship building involves the coach selection by the MA, as well as developing closeness and complementary behaviors; (b) progressing in the relationship through communication; and (c) coach programming that is adaptable and negotiated. The coach–athlete relationship for mature adults in an online-only platform can be fostered through adult-oriented approaches.
Chapter
The quality of relationships that coaches and athletes establish regulate the effectiveness of coaching, and obsessiveness is a personality trait outlined as striving for perfection and having astoundingly high-performance standards, as well as a propensity to overly, appraise one's own or another’s actions. As a consequence, we sought to investigate the meta-analyses to gain further insight into coaching effectiveness and perfectionism. However, little is known about coaching effectiveness, and perfectionism is being studied throughout the following years. For data collection, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) statements were used as a formal systematic review guideline. We identified relevant publications by using Web of Science and Scopus. The analysis is based on publications in English that were promulgated between the years 2017 and 2022 as well as the inclusion criteria. A systematic review focusing on evaluating papers on coaching effectiveness (n = 9) and perfectionism (n = 11) was being used to conspectus these studies. As a result, the findings systematically evaluate cross-sectional observation-based studies, indicating that coaching effectiveness is essential for controlling athletes’ perfectionistic predilections during and/or when participating in any sporting activity. Analyses presented here suggest that coaching effectiveness significantly influences athlete performance and that athletes’ perfectionistic behaviours are one determinant of their eagerness to triumph. To conclude, implementing coaching effectiveness towards athlete performance is vital for athletes’ perfectionistic behaviours to achieve the desired efficiency whilst minimising athlete disappointment perfectionistic behaviours to achieve the desired efficiency whilst minimising athlete disappointment.KeywordsCoaching effectivenessPerfectionistAthletes’ performance
Article
Women coaches have remained underrepresented within sports coaching at all levels. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to describe the factors surrounding the development, progression, and retention of women coaches within the United Kingdom. The study involved semistructured interviews with 15 women coaches who were coaching female athletes in team sports. Content analysis of the qualitative data identified barriers and enablers at individual, interpersonal, organisational, and sociocultural levels. Results indicated that women coaches face several barriers because of their gender, which their men counterparts do not often encounter. Practically, individuals and organisations can both take action to reduce damaging stereotypical ideologies that produce challenging predicaments for women within the coaching landscape.
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Teacher-Student relationship (TSR) is instrumental for young children and adolescents' socio-emotional development and wellbeing as well as academic engagement and progress. Aims: The primary aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties, including reliability and factorial, convergent, and predictive validity, of the Teacher-Student Relationship Quality Questionnaire (TSRQ-Q) with two samples of students. Sample(s): Participants were 294 students from secondary schools in the East Midlands and the East of England. Participants were separated into two samples; those who completed the TSRQ-Q with their physical education teacher in mind (n = 150 students) and those who completed it with their mathematics teacher in mind (n = 144 students). Method: A multi-section questionnaire comprised of the TSRQ-Q and other validated measures was completed on one occasion by students in both samples to assess their perceptions of the quality of the TSR, positive and negative affect, intrinsic motivation, physical self-concept, enjoyment, and perceived competence. Results: In both samples, the TSRQ-Q demonstrated good internal consistency, factorial, convergent, and predictive validity. The quality of the TSR had both direct and indirect effects through positive affect on student outcomes in mathematics and physical education. Conclusions: The TSRQ-Q is a valid measure for assessing students' perceptions of the quality of the relationship with their teacher. The conceptual and practical significance of this unique relationship was reflected by its dual pathway effect on a range of student outcomes and via influencing students' positive affect in the classroom.
Article
Menstruation is widely considered a taboo subject, one that is not openly discussed and is often misunderstood. Although recent social movements have created more public awareness, there is still a lack of research and advocacy on menstrual health in sport. This study aims to contribute new knowledge on this important topic, including its impact on athletes, its role in coach education and on strategies for supporting athletes. In collaboration with Scottish Swimming, our study included semi-structured interviews with 13 coaches and 6 athletes. Both coaches and athletes felt they lacked knowledge and expressed a strong desire for menstrual health education in sport. Notably, most coaches were not confident that their knowledge would enable them to offer practical advice. Athletes indicated an openness about discussing the menstrual cycle, especially as they got older. We conclude that menstrual health education should be formally incorporated into coaching education, which will improve athlete experience.
Article
The purpose of this study was to systematically review the variables associated with the coach–athlete relationship (CAR) from the coaches’ perspective. Three databases were searched; 57 studies published between January 2000 and May 2021 met the inclusion criteria. Correlates ( n = 35) were grouped into three categories: coach variables, athlete variables, and coaching behaviors. Variables positively associated with the coaches’ perspective of the CAR included coaching satisfaction, the teaching of life skills, and engaging in need-supportive behaviors. Negative correlates included coaching burnout, athletes’ avoidant attachment style, and coaches’ controlling behaviors. Aside from coach satisfaction, many of the relationships mentioned came from only one or two studies; therefore, replication studies are needed examining CAR from the coaches’ perspective. In conclusion, the better coaches report CAR to be, the more they also report fostering a caring and autonomy-supportive environment, teaching life skills, and being satisfied with their coaching experience.
Chapter
Gender, the non-physiological aspects of being male and female, is engrained in the expectations that society holds for us. It helps us understand how and why behavior and experiences in sport may vary. As a female athlete, the psychology of sport is heavily influenced by socially driven gender expectations. It is important that these gender perspectives are understood because their influences can ultimately impact sport performance. In the case of a female athlete, the influence of gender in sport is more often negative than positive. This chapter examines the nuances of the psychology of the female athlete from a gender perspective. It covers the gender differences often observed in the levels of self-confidence and the management of competitive state anxiety. The chapter goes on to discusses the research underpinning the gender differences in motivation to engage in and excel in sport and the distinctiveness of the cohesion–performance relationship in all-female teams. An assessment is made of sport-related stressors specific to the female athlete and common approaches to coping, including the increasingly important role of self-compassion. In addition, the high-risk status of female athletes in regard to weight pressures, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating is addressed, including the influential role of the coach in this equation. Coaching, coach behaviors, and the coach–female athlete relationship are examined alongside the deleterious role of microaggressions that single out gender as the identifying characteristic of the female athlete—not her strength, dedication, or performance. Overall, this chapter will provide the background necessary to understand the psychology of female sport performance, from a gender perspective.
Article
Full-text available
Les recherches sur l’intervention en sport et en EPS ont connu un développement conséquent en France, avec une résonance internationale croissante, comme en témoigne la présence de travaux empiriques menés en contexte francophone au sein de revues anglophones reconnues en sciences du sport et de l’éducation. Ces recherches se caractérisent par une grande variété d’approches théoriques et méthodologiques. Elles visent un enrichissement des connaissances sur l’activité de l’intervenant et une formalisation de pistes d’intervention ou de dispositifs d’entraînement/enseignement (incluant notamment une évaluation des effets de ces dispositifs sur l’activité des pratiquants). Cet article a pour objectif de caractériser les recherches sur l’intervention en sport et en EPS, en délimitant leur positionnement par rapport à des champs scientifiques établis en sciences du sport et de l’éducation, et en illustrant la réflexion dans les activités de raquette. Cette analyse introductive prend appui sur les travaux empiriques présentés dans ce numéro spécial, desquels elle tire trois préconisations pour les praticiens et l’intervention : (1) construire une relation positive avec les pratiquants ; (2) concevoir et analyser des dispositifs favorisant l’intérêt et l’apprentissage des pratiquants ; (3) connaître les fondements socio-historiques des activités proposées. Au terme de cette réflexion, deux perspectives pour la recherche sur l’intervention sont présentées : (1) analyser les relations entre l’intervention de l’entraîneur/enseignant et les dispositifs d’entraînement/d’enseignement proposés ; (2) approfondir l’analyse de l’intervention en sport et en EPS à partir de méthodes mixtes.
Article
Sport coaching faces gender inequality and tackling it may not be simple. There are far too few women coaches in the coach workforce around the world. The aim of this paper is not an exhaustive literature review of this topic but an essay with a scope to describe the problem of underrepresentation of women in coaching, outline reasons for its presence and put forward recommendations for tackling it. With stronger commitment, greater focus, purposeful coordination and partnership, as well as sound leadership the required step change could be made to change the status quo that has persisted for women in coaching since the beginning of the Olympic ideals. Such a significant change is in line with recent calls that have been made for greater focus on diversity, inclusivity, and equity in coaching by key sport stakeholders around the world.
Article
The present study investigated the role of quality coach–athlete relationships and coaching efficacy on coaches’ well-being and performance. We examined whether coaches’ direct and meta-perspectives of the coach–athlete relationship quality predicted dimensions of coaches’ efficacy, hedemonic and eudaimonic well-being, and coach-related performance. A total of 233 male and female Swedish coaches from various team and individual sports completed the Coach–Athlete Relationship Questionnaire, the Coaching Efficacy Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Scale, Subjective Vitality Scale, and a one-single item developed to measure perceived coach performance. Structural equation modelling analyses revealed that quality coach–athlete relationships as defined by closeness, commitment, and complementarity associated with all four dimensions of coach efficacy. While coach–athlete relationship quality was linked with coaches’ positive affect, vitality, and satisfaction with coaching performance, only the motivational dimension of coach efficacy was associated with indicators of coach well-being and coach-related performance. Further analyses showed that the motivational dimension of coach efficacy explained the link between coach–athlete relationship quality, well-being, and coach-related performance. Overall, the findings extended the coach efficacy model by investigating the coach–athlete relationship as a predictor and coach well-being as an outcome. Our findings emphasize the importance of relationships for coaches’ efficacy and well-being.
Article
Full-text available
The interpersonal dynamics of the parent/coach-child/athlete relationship were explored in the context of family change as this pertains to the athlete's transition into and through adolescence. A single dyad participated in the study whose parent/coach-child/athlete relationship commenced approximately at the onset of the athlete's adolescence and experienced performance success during a period of seven years of partnership. Data were collected utilising two parallel interview schedules and analysed employing a combination of content and narrative analyses. The dyad described both the coach-athlete relationship and the parent-child relationship in positive terms. However, analysis revealed that the dyad experienced difficulties in co-ordinating their dual roles and expressed a sense of dislike toward each others behaviours. The child/athlete reported conflict more often than her parent/coach. The results of this study are discussed considering relevant theory and research on parent-child relationships during adolescence.
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on ideas from social psychology, in particular those associated with relational schemas and complexity theory, the purpose of this paper is to present an alternative perspective of coaching. Following the introduction, current conceptualizations of coaching are critiqued as being inadequate. The case is then made that such work could alternatively profit from an examination of coaches' agency within their structurally created relational schemas to better understand the nature of the activity. Recent empirical work on coaches is subsequently drawn upon to support the theoretical position proposed, which postulates practitioners as working near or on "the edge of chaos." Finally, a conclusion draws together the main points made, particularly in relation to the value of the position taken for coach education.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a study that aimed to explore the rules of the coach–athlete relationship. Using semi-structured interviews, data were obtained from a sample of British athletes (n = 15) and an independent sample of British coaches (n = 15). Content analysis was employed to analyse the data. Results indicated that athletes’ and coaches’ perceptions of relationship rules were corresponding. Rules appeared to guide the conduct of the ‘professional relationship’ (e.g. by respecting one another) and the conduct of ‘business’ (e.g. by being prepared to instruct and learn skills). The main functions of relationship rules were to minimize interpersonal conflict (e.g. arguments) and provide rewards (e.g. happiness). It was also evidenced that interpersonal dimensions that define the quality of the coach–athlete relationship served as rules that increased reward and reduced conflict.
Research
Full-text available
To be a technically good coach is one thing, but what gives the coach the “edge” (i.e., the extra effectiveness) in this unforgiving and relentless competitive sport environment, is the connection developed between the coach and athlete (see Figure 1). It is this connection that makes a difference to technical coaching because it supplies coaches with the key to opening the door to their athlete’s capabilities, capacities, and potential. The best athletes in the world (following success in World, Olympic Championships) often state that their coaches have been instrumental to their success. In contrast, it is rare to hear athletes who have won gold medals and broken records attacking and criticising their coaches. This is neither random nor coincidental. This unique partnership or relationship developed between a coach and an athlete, we call relational coaching. Relational coaching is the ways coaches and athletes connect to bring about performance success and personal satisfaction.(...)
Article
Full-text available
The present preliminary study aimed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a new sport-specific self-report instrument designed to assess ath-letes' and coaches' attachment styles. The development and initial validation comprised three main phases. In Phase 1, a pool of items was generated based on pre-existing self-report attachment instruments, modified to reflect a coach and an athlete's style of attachment. In Phase 2, the content validity of the items was assessed by a panel of experts. A final scale was developed and administered to 405 coaches and 298 athletes (N = 703 participants). In Phase 3, confirmatory factor analysis of the obtained data was conducted to determine the final items of the Coach-Athlete Attachment Scale (CAAS). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed acceptable goodness of fit indexes for a 3-first order factor model as well as a 2-first order factor model for both the athlete and the coach data, respectively. A secure attachment style positively predicted relationship satisfaction, while an insecure attachment style was a negative predictor of relationship satisfaction. The CAAS revealed initial psychometric properties of content, factorial, and predictive validity, as well as reliability.
Article
Full-text available
Background: The goals of participation youth sports are primarily concerned with the facilitation of positive youth development as opposed to outright success. Consequently, there are strong theoretical and empirical links between sports coaching and athlete development. Transformational leadership behaviours, in particular, have been theoretically linked to positive developmental outcomes within a youth sport context, while the coach–athlete relationship is a key tool used by coaches who aim to teach life skills to young athletes. Outright team success has also been shown to correlate with important developmental variables such as a mastery climate and athlete perception of youth sports coaches. Aims: The purpose of this study was to test the relationship between coach transformational leadership behaviours, the perceived quality of the coach–athlete relationship, team success, and the positive developmental experiences of adolescent soccer players. Method: Cross-sectional data were taken from 455 adolescent athletes aged between 11 and 18 years. Each participant was competing in a local soccer competition that is classified as a participation sport. Thus, the theoretical focus is on developmental and skill gains. Each participant completed the Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory for Youth Sport, the Coach–Athlete Relationship Questionnaire, and the Youth Experience Survey for Sport. Team success was measured by the total number of competition points accumulated during the season. Findings: The results show that coach transformational leadership behaviour and the coach–athlete relationship have a moderate positive correlation with developmental experiences. Team success has no relationship with overall developmental experiences. The best predictor of developmental experiences is a combination of coach transformational leadership behaviour and the quality of the coach–athlete relationship. The most influential leadership behaviours are individual consideration, intellectual stimulation, and appropriate role modelling. Discussion: Transformational leadership and the quality of the coach–athlete relationship may work synergistically to influence positive athlete outcomes within youth sports. Importantly, coaches who practise within the youth sport context are able to facilitate positive developmental outcomes from both team success and team failure by taking advantage of naturally occurring teachable moments. The best way to take advantage of these may be to engage in intellectual stimulation, individual consideration, and positive role modelling, in addition to facilitating positive, developmentally appropriate coach–athlete relationships. Future coach education programmes should incorporate relevant interpersonal and intrapersonal skills that allow youth sports coaches to engage in these behaviours. Longitudinal work is needed in order to make causal inferences between transformational leadership behaviour, the quality of the coach–athlete relationship, and positive youth development through sports.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine whether collective efficacy can mediate the association between (a) coach-athlete relationship and athlete satisfaction and (b) team cohesion and athlete satisfaction. The sample consisted of 135 Greek-Cypriot athletes who participated in interactive sports and responded to four questionnaires including the Collective Efficacy Questionnaire for Sport, Greek Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire, Group Environment Questionnaire and three subscales of the Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire. The results from a series of regression analyses indicated that dimensions of collective efficacy have the capacity to explain the association between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete satisfaction as well as between team cohesion and athlete satisfaction. Unity, preparation, and ability were dimensions of collective efficacy that appeared to be the best mediators. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the current paper is to present an integrative definition of coaching effectiveness and expertise that is both specific and conceptually grounded in the coaching, teaching, positive psychology, and athletes' development literature. The article is organized into six sections. The first section is used to situate the proposed definition in the predominant conceptual models of coaching. The second, third, and fourth sections provide detailed discussion about each of the three components of the proposed definition of coaching effectiveness: (a) coaches' knowledge, (b) athletes' outcomes, and (c) coaching contexts. The proposed definition is presented in the fifth section along with a clarification of common terminology and guiding postulates. The final section includes implications for practice and research.
Article
Full-text available
The purposes of this paper are twofold. First, we argue that the rationalistic assumptions on which dominant conceptions of the coaching process rest are rather unrealistic. We therefore hold that they have relatively limited potential either for a theoretical understanding of coaching or for guiding practitioners. Second, we tentatively offer the alternative metaphor of ‘orchestration’, derived from research on the management of complex change, as one starting point for developing a more realistic conception of coaching. We assert that this way of thinking about coaching has greater potential as a basis for future research and theorising, with the longer-term aim of informing efforts to improve the practice of coaching and of coach education.
Article
Full-text available
The present study explored the construct validity of a Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory and its relationship with team cohesion and performance level. Three hundred and nine club standard ultimate Frisbee players in the United Kingdom (mean age = 24.30 years, SD = 3.90) completed an adapted version of Hardy, Arthur, Jones, Shariff, Munnoch, Isaacs, and Allsopp et al.'s (in press) Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory and the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed evidence for the factorial and discriminant validity of the leadership inventory. Furthermore, results demonstrated that the leadership behaviors of fostering acceptance of group goals and promoting team work, high performance expectations, and individual consideration significantly predicted task cohesion; and fostering acceptance of group goals and promoting teamwork significantly predicted social cohesion. Performance level moderated these relationships. These results are discussed with reference to the conceptualization and measurement of transformational leadership, and how coaches’ leadership behaviors may influence cohesion depending on the level of athletes’ performance.
Article
Full-text available
The study investigated the association between coach–athlete relationship inter-dependence and satisfaction level as a function of competition level, relationship length, and gender composition. A series of multilevel modelling analyses found that the associations between relationship interdependence and sport-related satisfaction were weaker for lower-level competitors than they were for higher-level competitors, as well as for short-term relationships compared to long-term relationships. We also found that all female dyads were more satisfied with training and instruction than other gender combinations. Moreover, the associations between relationship interdependence and sport-related satisfaction were weaker for female coach-male athlete dyads than they were for other gender combination dyads. The findings and their implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
In an attempt to investigate the nature of the coach-athlete relationship in a systematic way, Jowett and colleagues (e.g., Jowett & Cockerill, in press; Jowett & Meek, 2000a) employed the interpersonal constructs of Closeness, Coorientation, and Complementarity (3 Cs) to reflect coaches’ and athletes’ emotions, cognitions, and behaviors respectively. This study utilized the 3 Cs in order to examine the nature of a single typical coach-athlete dyad that experiences interpersonal conflict. The dyad was interviewed and their responses were content analyzed. The analysis revealed a marked difference in the coach’s and athlete’s perceptions about their athletic relationship and areas of emotional isolation, disagreements, and incompatibility. The findings are discussed within the 3 Cs model.
Article
Full-text available
In light of the paucity of research addressing the critical concerns of social interaction at the micro level of the coaching process, this study aimed to generate an in-depth understanding of the coaching behaviours utilized by a top-level English football coach. A mixed-method approach was used to not only identify the pedagogical behaviours used by the subject in the practice environment, but to also generate an in-depth insight into the rationales that underpinned their use. Using the concepts of 'social role', 'power' and 'the presentation of the self' [E. Goffman (1959) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (Garden City, Doubleday)] to analyse the data, it is suggested that the subject's coaching practice was influenced by his perceived need to establish a strong social bond between himself and his players; a bond founded on the players' respect for his professional knowledge and personal manner.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Despite an increasing recognition of the existence of a process of coaching, and a resulting increase in research activity, there remains a lack of a clear conceptual base for sports coaching. This situation has left coaching without a clear set of concepts and principles that reflect coaching practice. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to critically examine current conceptualisations of the coaching process, principally in terms of how they have been generated and their contribution to coaching knowledge. By exploring models for (idealistic representations) and of (empirically based) the coaching process, this paper examines the model's nature and conceptual underpinnings, in an attempt to position them within a broader framework of understanding coaching and the coaching process. Conclusions: The analysis suggests that the current set of models result in a representation of the coaching process that is often reduced in complexity and scale, and the essential social and cultural elements of the process are often underplayed. This is particularly illustrated through examining in-situ models of coaching practice, which identify coaching as a complex, interrelated and inter-dependent process that is firmly embedded within specific social and cultural contexts. Contribution of Research: Because of the inherent complexity of the coaching process, it is argued that the contextual purpose, particularities, and subjectivities of coaching must be examined before guidelines of recommended practice can be made.
Article
Full-text available
Rosenbaum's (1986) interesting attempt to demonstrate the irrelevance of similar attitudes is unsuccessful for several reasons. In three of the four attraction experiments he conducted, similar-attitude conditions were not compared with neutral control conditions as required, but instead they were compared with positive trait adjective conditions. In addition, it is not possible to create a no-attitude "control" condition because people assume a high level of self–other similarity even when the other person has relatively negative characteristics. Thus, the comparison of a similar-attitude condition with an assumed similar-attitude condition does not provide an adequate test of his hypothesis. Further, the quantitative aspects of similar and dissimilar attitudes, physical attractiveness, occupation, trait descriptions, and political affiliation have been ignored. When the quantitative aspects are considered, it is shown that Rosenbaum's obtained values do not differ from those predicted by the attraction model. Altogether, his attraction experiments and those using a learning paradigm do not contain the conditions necessary to test the proposition that similarity has no important consequence. Appropriate designs are suggested in order to provide such tests. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The coach–athlete relationship has been purported to be shaped by coaches’ and athletes’ self-perceptions (e.g., I trust my coach/athlete) and metaperceptions (e.g., My coach/athlete trusts me) of closeness, commitment, and complementarity (3Cs). The development of the Coach–Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q; S. Jowett & N. Ntoumanis, 2004) has enabled the assessment of coaches’ and athletes’ self-perceptions of the relationship as defined by the 3Cs. The author conducted 2 studies to examine the factor structure and criterion-related validity of the CART-Q when its items are worded to express metaperceptions. In the 1st study, confirmatory factor analyses employing a sample of athletes (n = 201) supported the validity of a 3-dimensional model in which the factors were separate but correlated for metacloseness, metacommitment, and metacomplementarity. The 2nd study provided further evidence of validity when the 3 factors were examined relative to criterion variables with 2 independent samples: athletes (n = 189) and coaches (n = 138). These results highlight that the conceptual model from which the CART-Q was developed captures the relationship quality through athletes’ and coaches’ feelings (closeness), thoughts (commitment), and behaviors (complementarity). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Used an expert system approach to identify and conceptualize the knowledge of 17 Canadian expert high-performance gymnastic coaches. The knowledge elicitation process consisted of open-ended questions and various questioning methods to unveil, explore, and prove important information about coaching. Data were analyzed following the procedures of grounded theory. The inductive analysis process allowed the meaning units of the interview transcripts to be regrouped into properties, categories, and components. The components emerging from the analysis consisted of (1) competition, (2) training, (3) organization, (4) coach's personal characteristics, (5) gymnast's personal characteristics and level of development, and (6) contextual factors. These components were further developed into a model representing coaches' knowledge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the extent to which athletes' perceptions of their relationship with their coach add to the prediction of team cohesion beyond what is predicted by perceptions of coach leadership. Four self-report instruments that measure perceptions of group cohesion, coach leadership, and the nature of coach-athlete relationships were completed by 111 university athletes. Multiple regression analyses revealed the variance accounted for by the hierarchically ordered sets of variables in task and social cohesion. Overall, the results revealed that leadership variables predicted more variance in task and social cohesion when relationship variables were included. Moreover, leadership and relationship variables were shown to be better and stronger predictors of task cohesion (R² = .34) than social cohesion (R² = .15). Limitations and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
abStract The quality of the coach-athlete relationship can be affected by multiple factors. These factors include physical in terms of performance, psychological in terms of motivation, social in terms of "significant others," and environmental in terms of cul-ture. This study explores the impact of race/ethnicity on the coach-athlete relation-ship by utilizing a qualitative research design. A semi-structured interview schedule was developed to examine the meaning twelve (12) black soccer players ascribe to the athletic relationship with their respective white coaches. Analysis revealed that a number of participants viewed the ethnic background as a meaningful and influential factor for the relationship which they had developed with their coaches in two ways: content and intensity of bond. Participants' narratives revealed that the opportunity to be coached by a black coach would have allowed a higher degree of communication exchange and empathy. The results are discussed in relation to previous literature.
Article
Full-text available
During this study, 10 expert coaches were interviewed to examine their views on aspects of their individual coaching practice. Four themes emerged from the interviews: (a) the long-term approach, (b) the authentic coaching environment, (c) creating a learning environment, and (d) the quality and quantity of training sessions. These coaches were consistent in their attempts to facilitate learning experiences for the athletes, while setting high standards in both training and competition. The study's findings show that expert coaches have to orchestrate a large number of variables when planning and executing a training session, and their success depends on their coaching knowledge and their skill at contextualizing the necessary components for specific situations.
Article
Full-text available
Increasingly the professional development literature in sports coaching encourages coaches to coach holistically. Yet the phrase holistic coaching is mired in ambiguity and has the potential to become meaningless. The aims of this article are to explore the relationship between holism, humanistic psychology, humanism and sports coaching, and to pose some challenges, which could support the field to move beyond the influence of humanistic psychology. Multi-Science Publishing
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to present a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship that describes how coaches may influence athletes' motivation. In line with cognitive evaluation theory (Deci and Ryan, 1980, 1985) and the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Vallerand, 1997, 2000), a motivational sequence is proposed where coaches' personal orientation towards coaching, the context within which they operate, and their perceptions of their athletes' behaviour and motivation influence coaches' behaviours. Also, coaches' behaviours in the form of autonomy-supportive behaviours, provision of structure and involvement have a beneficial impact on athletes' needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness, which, in turn, nurture athletes' intrinsic motivation and self-determined types of extrinsic motivation. Here, we first review coaches' autonomy-supportive behaviours. We then describe the psychological processes through which coaching behaviours have a positive influence on athletes' intrinsic and self-determined extrinsic motivation. Finally, we identify social and personality processes that determine coaching behaviours.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that measures the nature of the coach-athlete relationship. Jowett et al.'s (Jowett & Meek, 2000; Jowett, in press) qualitative case studies and relevant literature were used to generate items for an instrument that measures affective, cognitive, and behavioral aspects of the coach-athlete relationship. Two studies were carried out in an attempt to assess content, predictive, and construct validity, as well as internal consistency, of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q), using two independent British samples. Principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to reduce the number of items, identify principal components, and confirm the latent structure of the CART-Q. Results supported the multidimensional nature of the coach-athlete relationship. The latent structure of the CART-Q was underlined by the latent variables of coaches' and athletes' Closeness (emotions), Commitment (cognitions), and Complementarity (behaviors).
Article
Full-text available
Current research in coaching development infers that coaching is predominantly a decision-making process. The same and other research is not, however, informing the coaching development process due to a lack of a big picture approach. Consequently, there is a need for a model of coaching. In this paper, we offer such a model in the form of a schematic that reflects the coaching process from both a content and information-processing stance. To assess the validity of the schematic, 16 expert coaches were interviewed to elicit a complete description of their coaching process. The coaches were then shown a copy of the schematic and asked to comment on its design and content with respect to its accuracy in reflecting their coaching process. Following analysis of the interview, six general categories emerged: Roles, Goals, Typical Actions, Required Knowledge, Support for the Schematic, and Factors Influencing Development. The first four categories clearly displayed an implicit support for the schematic. Furthermore, all coaches offered explicit support for the schematic. Such strong support confirmed that the schematic was valid and could form the basis of focused interventions in coaching development.
Article
The importance of the role of the relationship between the coach and the individual has been emphasised in the literatures of both sports coaching and executive coaching. Two relationship models from the sport psychology and coaching psychology domains respectively that share an assumption of the centrality of the relationship to the coaching process; that have been used in research to assess associations with important outcomes; and share similarities at conceptual, operational and measurement levels were compared and contrasted. Both models highlight affective ties of closeness and bond for effective coaching outcome, and reflected potential synergies in the area of co-operation, as well as possibly diverging on their emphasis on the chronological sequence of the development of bond in relation to other aspects of the relationship. It is concluded that cross-fertilisation of ideas across psychological disciplines and future work with both models may be useful in contributing to the extant literature in their own and the other’s domain in promoting our understanding of the purposive and collaborative work of coaching and in establishing, developing and maintaining effective and successful relationships.
Article
Although social and personal relationships are vital for productivity, health and wellbeing, conflict is inevitable and is likely to cause upset and hurt feelings as well as anxiety and distrust. Despite the potentially central role of interpersonal conflict in sport, researchers have yet to pay concerted attention to exploring the nature of conflict, its antecedents and consequences. Following a thorough literature search 80 research papers were identified, of which only a small number (6) studied interpersonal conflict directly, most captured dysfunctional interpersonal processes such as breakdown of communication. The current review aims to provide a critical summary of the existing literature around the psychological construct of interpersonal conflict, including its antecedents, management strategies and outcomes within the context of coach–athlete relationships as well as other relational contexts in sport. Based on the relevant literature, a framework of interpersonal conflict is proposed, which includes a specific focus on a key dyad within sport coaching – namely the coach–athlete dyad. Future research directions and potential practical implications for sport psychology consultants, coach educators, coaches and athletes as well as other stakeholders are discussed.
Article
The present study examined the influence of personality traits on the quality of the Chinese coach–athlete relationship and satisfaction through a dyadic research design. A total of 350 coach–athlete dyads completed a self-report instrument that assessed personality traits, as well as perceptions of relationship quality and satisfaction with training. Results revealed that: (a) actor effects (i.e., actor's personality will predict his or her own perceptions of relationship quality) of personality traits, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on both coaches' and athletes' perceptions of relationship quality and (b) partner effects (an actor's own personality will predict his or her partner's perceptions of relationship quality) of only athletes' personality, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on their coaches' perceptions of relationship quality. The findings suggested that each relationship member's personality trait contributed independently to relationship quality, and both actor and partner effects of the relationship quality on satisfaction with training were found to be significant. In Chinese sports culture, there presents a unique dynamics of personality and relationship quality among coach–athlete dyad.
Article
This paper explores my "sense making" when a male cross-country runner I was coaching performed below expectation. My initial understanding of his poor performance was to blame him for "lacking" the appropriate mental toughness. As a result, I located the "problem" within him and subsequently ignored many of my own taken-for-granted coaching practices as perhaps contributing to his poor performance. In this paper, I provide an alternative reading of my judgement of this athlete's poor performance through Michel Foucault's theory of disciplinary power. I conclude by suggesting that many everyday coaching practices may have a number of "hidden" or problematic consequences attached to them that coaches should consider in an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of their coaching and to enhance their athletes' performances.
Article
Grounded in self-determination theory, this study aimed to examine the links of the social environment, as defined by coach interpersonal behaviors and coach-athlete relationships, with athletes' psychological need satisfaction and indexes of well-being. Athletes (N = 300) completed a multi-section questionnaire assessing the study variables. Bootstrap mediation analysis highlighted significant indirect effects whereby the competence need mediated associations between the social environment of coaching and athletes' vitality, negative affect, and physical self-concept (defined as skillfulness and performance). Findings support theoretical assumptions and highlight that athletes' perceptions of what coaches do, and how they relate, are important to their psychological needs satisfaction and optimal functioning.
Article
Background: A number of countries have heavily invested in the provision of large scale coach education programmes, often framed by elaborate qualification frameworks. Despite this investment, scant research has been conducted on coach education programmes. Given the limited amount of literature on coach education, and the relatively recent emergence of literature that foregrounds the educational aspect of the coaching process, it is probably not surprising that the concept of curriculum has received scant attention despite the increasing interest in pedagogy amongst members of the sport coaching community.Setting: In the middle of 2000, a Ministerial Taskforce on Sport, Fitness and Leisure was established to examine the structure of New Zealand sport. In 2001, one of the ‘actions’ stemming from the Ministerial Taskforce was the restructuring of the sport, leisure and fitness sectors, resulting in the establishment of Sport and Recreation New Zealand (SPARC). One mandate given to SPARC was to review and upgrade coaching practice and resourcing. Subsequently, SPARC published two policy documents: The New Zealand Coaching Strategy and the Coach Development Framework (CDF).Purpose: The purpose of the article is two-fold; first to report on an analysis of the language used in The New Zealand Coaching Strategy and the Coach Development Framework and second, to explain why particular language was used.Methods and analysis: The first method was a text analysis, which was used to analyse The New Zealand Coaching Strategy and the Coach Development Framework. The second method was interviewing, which was conducted with the members of the working party involved in designing the CDF to gain insight into why particular language was used.Findings: We provide examples that demonstrate how The New Zealand Coaching Strategy and the Coach Development Framework reflect, or not, a paradigmatic shift in the conceptualisation of educating coaches in the New Zealand context. The examples specifically focus on a shift from coach education to coach development, from generic courses for all coaches to coaching communities, and from formalised accreditation to the provision of learning opportunities and experiences.Conclusion: Drawing on empirical examples from the above documents, and the interview texts from the members of the working party, we contend there has been a paradigm shift in the coach education sector in New Zealand because there has been a move (at least at policy level) from an accredited and certified, standardised programme, to an ongoing professional development process informed by an applied athlete-centred philosophy.
Article
In chapter 6, Ronald Smith and Frank Smoll present a cogent description of the work on the mediational model of coach leadership. The fundamental assumption of the model is that coaches' actual behaviors affect athletes' thoughts and feelings through the athletes' recall and understanding of their coaches' behaviors. The characteristics and processes that influence coaches' behaviors and mediate their effects on athletes are delineated in detail. The model has guided considerable research to date; research findings are discussed and suggestions for further research are put forward. Smith and Smoll conclude by highlighting potential practical implications of current research efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The study examined the independent and combined effects of coach leadership and coaching relationships on team efficacy. A total of 150 sport performers from football teams across a range of competitive levels completed a multisection self-report instrument to assess their individual perceptions of the level of collective efficacy, the type of coach leadership, and the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. Multiple regression analyses revealed that perceptions of both coach leadership and the coach-athlete relationship predicted variance in team efficacy. Overall, the findings suggest that the quality of coach-athlete relationships added to the prediction of individuals' collective efficacy beyond what was predicted by coaches' behaviors of leadership alone. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.
Article
The purpose of this concept/review article is to critically discuss the application of sports coaching leadership models to coaching practice. The focus of the discussion will be on the coherence and impact of the numerous models in the current literature, and the accumulated impact that they have on practitioners. This discussion will be framed in current conceptions of sports coaching and expected athlete outcomes. This article can serve an important role in the continuing dialogue about the essence of sports leadership; particularly in relation to how it is defined, how it is measured, and how the leadership literature can be applied in the field.
Article
This study investigated a motivational sequence hypothesizing relationships between athletes' meta-perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship, achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation. Participants (N = 194) completed a multi-sectional questionnaire assessing the targeted variables. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that athletes who viewed their coaches to be more cooperative, committed, and close in their relationships were more likely to endorse a mastery-approach goal, and less likely to adopt a performance-avoidance goal. Subsequent findings confirmed the hypothesized positive relationship between a mastery-approach goal and intrinsic motivation. Finally, a mastery-approach goal was found to partially mediate the link between athletes' meta-perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship and intrinsic motivation. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical utility.