Article

Aspectos da interacção transregional na Pré-História Recente do Sudoeste Peninsular: interrogando as conchas e os moluscos nos Pedigões.

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  • Era Arqueologia SA
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Abstract

In face of an insufficient research of the circulation and consumption of molluscs and shells in transregional interaction networks, the present paper questions the presence of these faunal remains in the ditched enclosures of Perdigões, not in terms of subsistence (in this case irrelevant), but rather in an ideological perspective of consumption in the context of the social role played by exogenous products in large aggregation centres of inner Alentejo region. An inventory and taxonomic classification are presented and a diachronic and contextual analyses is developed, highlighting the scarce, but growing, consume of molluscs and the importance conceded to the use of some shells, underlining the preponderance of the imported material. The comparing with other regional available collections shows the specific character that these faunal remains may represent in Perdigões in the context of the interregional network integrated by this site.

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... Todos os elementos malacológicos determinados pertencem a ambientes marinhos tendo sido à época, facilmente recolhidos ao longo da costa atlântica Portuguesa, as mesmas consideradas espécies autóctones. O estudo dos invertebrados permite perceber as estratégias de subsistência, hábitos alimentares e dinâmicas sociais relacionadas com os variados usos atribuídos às conchas, nomeadamente enquanto pendentes, pulseiras e contas ou mesmo como recipientes destinados a práticas rituais ( Valera & Lino, 2016/2017). A lapa (Patella), o mexilhão (Mytilus edulis), a bolota do mar (Balanus sp.) e o perceve (Pollicipes pollicipes) são espécies relativamente próximas no sentido em que, provêm e coexistem em áreas rochosas intermarés, que acabam por ficar a descoberto possibilitando a sua recolha (Macedo, 1996, p. 69, 133). ...
... Todos os elementos malacológicos determinados pertencem a ambientes marinhos tendo sido à época, facilmente recolhidos ao longo da costa atlântica Portuguesa, as mesmas consideradas espécies autóctones. O estudo dos invertebrados permite perceber as estratégias de subsistência, hábitos alimentares e dinâmicas sociais relacionadas com os variados usos atribuídos às conchas, nomeadamente enquanto pendentes, pulseiras e contas ou mesmo como recipientes destinados a práticas rituais ( Valera & Lino, 2016/2017). A lapa (Patella), o mexilhão (Mytilus edulis), a bolota do mar (Balanus sp.) e o perceve (Pollicipes pollicipes) são espécies relativamente próximas no sentido em que, provêm e coexistem em áreas rochosas intermarés, que acabam por ficar a descoberto possibilitando a sua recolha (Macedo, 1996, p. 69, 133). ...
... O número de invertebrados é reduzido não traduzindo de forma alguma a subsistência da população, mesmo que tenha existido uma ocupação temporá ria do local por comunidades Neo-Calcolíticas ou Romanas. No caso de dois fragmentos de valva plana de Pecten maximus (possivelmente do mesmo indivíduo) é possível afirmar que a circulação/transporte desta foi feita de forma intencional, para o consumo do molusco em si e não exclusivamente pela concha, de forma oposta ao que acontece nos Perdigões onde se encontrou a valva convexa (não detentora do molusco) ( Valera & Lino, 2016/2017). Na Lapa da Mouração reconhece-se a presença exclusiva de invertebrados de ambientes marinhos/ estuarinos (ver Tabela 1), denunciando importações transregionais, muito provavelmente relacionadas com o papel simbólico conferido a estes elementos. ...
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... However, the theoretical and empirical revolution that is taking place in the last 15 years in the South-West of Iberia has made available some useful data. According to that, even if just provisionally, it appears that the first ditched enclosures in the region date back to the last third of the 4 th millennium bc, while the last ones were abandoned near the end of the 3 rd millennium Jiménez-Jáimez, 2010, 2013;Valera, 2013b y c;André, 2016-2017;Valera et al., 2014Valera et al., , 2017). This will be our chronological framework. ...
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Towards the end of 1996 a major archaeological discovery was made in the Alentejo area. Perdigões, an impressive group of monuments, includes a settlement, a necropolis and a cromelech. In spite of the clarity of the outlines of the settlement, which is obvious from the darker areas of soil indicating the various ditches and walls or palissades, this site, which covers more than 16 ha, is much more complex than originally suggested by the aerial photographs. The archaeological investigation was carried out following agricultural work on lands belonging to FINAGRA, S.A., work which disturbed the archaeological context. Era-Arqueologia, Ltd. was responsible for carrying out the preliminary investigation and it is hoped that this will be the beginning of a wider program of investigation which will enhance the true importance of this major group of monuments. The first phase involved systematic field survey and the recording of surface data. 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Os dados preliminares apontam para um povoado que cronologicamente se terá desenvolvido a partir da segunda metade do IV e durante III milénio. O trabalho agora apresentado, inclui a descrição e interpretação dos principais contextos arqueológicos identificados, a análise de diversos aspectos da cultura material e de restos humanos provenientes de um monumento funerário tipo tholos e ainda algumas leituras prévias de enquadramento deste sítio nos processos de transformação ocorridos durante o IV e III milénios a.C. na região de Reguengos de Monsaraz e na Península Ibérica em geral. ABSTRACT Towards the end of 1996 a major archaeological discovery was made in the Alentejo area. Perdigões, an impressive group of monuments, includes a settlement, a necropolis and a cromelech. In spite of the clarity of the outlines of the settlement, which is obvious from the darker areas of soil indicating the various ditches and walls or palissades, this site, which covers more than 16 ha, is much more complex than originally suggested by the aerial photographs. The archaeological investigation was carried out following agricultural work on lands belonging to FINAGRA, S.A., work which disturbed the archaeological context. Era-Arqueologia, Ltd. was responsible for carrying out the preliminary investigation and it is hoped that this will be the beginning of a wider program of investigation which will enhance the true importance of this major group of monuments. The first phase involved systematic field survey and the recording of surface data. The aim of the second phase was the excavation of the archaeological context in five specific areas, and the third led to a final report which is broadly summarised in this article. 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Apesar da nitidez dos contornos do Povoado, que nos é dado pelas manchas de terras mais escuras relacionadas com as suas diversas linhas de fossos, muralhas ou paliçadas, este sítio é muito mais complexo do que inicialmente é sugerido pela imagem aérea do conjunto, que ocupa mais de 16 ha. O programa arqueológico implementado foi desenvolvido na sequência de trabalhos agrícolas, realizados numa propriedade da FINAGRA, S.A, que revolveram e afectaram os contextos arqueológicos. Após a realização de concurso, a Era-Arqueologia, Lda. concretizou as diferentes fases previstas, no que se espera ser o arranque de um vasto programa de investigação e de valorização deste importante conjunto monumental. A primeira fase implicava a realização de prospecções sistemáticas e o levantamento de dados de superfície; a segunda destinou-se à escavação de contextos arqueológicos em cinco áreas específicas; a terceira produziu um relatório final de que o presente trabalho é um resumo alargado. Os dados preliminares apontam para um povoado que cronologicamente se terá desenvolvido a partir da segunda metade do IV e durante III milénio. O trabalho agora apresentado, inclui a descrição e interpretação dos principais contextos arqueológicos identificados, a análise de diversos aspectos da cultura material e de restos humanos provenientes de um monumento funerário tipo tholos e ainda algumas leituras prévias de enquadramento deste sítio nos processos de transformação ocorridos durante o IV e III milénios a.C. na região de Reguengos de Monsaraz e na Península Ibérica em geral.
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