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Südliches Afrika (Südafrika, Mosambik, Swasiland, Lesotho) - Bericht zur Hauptexkursion 2016

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Grocery retailing was, and is still often considered to be a prevailing domestic economic activity. Trends, however, are changing. In the meantime, an internationalisation of grocery retailing, which took off at two decades ago allowed for the development of a coexistence of both domestic and international structures. Against this background, the chapter takes a closer look at the latter by investigating upon two specific features of grocery retail internationalisation: spatial expansion patterns and foreign market strategies. Given the fact, that business activities abroad generate additional costs for foreign firms in relation to their domestic counterparts, the former have to face certain liabilities. In order to delimit or overcome these liabilities foreign firms can choose between two opposite ends of a market development continuum: embeddedness or otherness. Although both types of market development – embeddedness and otherness – aim to confine competitive disadvantages, the means and approaches are fundamentally different. We relate these market development approaches especially to developing economies and emerging markets. Starting with a summary of theoretical approaches towards embeddedness and otherness in the context of internationalisation, we juxtapose both market development approaches with regard to (1) to different types of spatial expansion patterns and (2) foreign market strategies where we show selected cases of effects of ambivalent processes on different stakeholders within the grocery retail value chain (e.g suppliers, other retailers, consumers) driven by these two phenomena. We conclude that both the puzzling geographical patterns of the largest international grocers and the complexities of market penetration connected to different aceess towards various value chain stages showed that only a balanced and fine-grained approach towards internationalisation taking both embeddedness and otherness into account can lead to successful strategy abroad.
Article
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Grocery retail internationalisation in developing economies is a dynamic process that began just a decade ago. It was initially dominated by a North-South expansion of large retail MNE from Western Europe and North America. Hereby, only a limited number of grocery retail chains expanded to these markets, typically with formats such as hyper-/super-markets. Super-/hypermarketisation is, however, no longer only a peculiarity and a dominant pattern of a North-South expansion, increasingly retail grocers from the Global South are both setting up similar types of stores in their home markets and gaining a foothold in neighbouring countries at the same time, leading to a new pattern of South-South expansion. Elaborating upon the crucial conditions for grocery retail internationalisation in general, the article analyses rationales, formats and selected companies that piloted this process, followed by a closer look upon the characteristics of spatial patterns in the expansion process. The latter were heavily influenced by spatial and socio-cultural proximity in the early days, whereas currently regionally and culturally more distant markets are penetrated.
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Dieses Buch beschreibt in kompakter Form die Grundlagen und vielfältigen Aspekte des Transports. Transport ist die bedeutendste Funktion in allen Gesellschafts- und Wirtschaftssystemen von lokaler bis hin zur globalen Ebene. Er verbindet unsere arbeitsteilige Wirtschaft für die Produktion und ermöglicht die Erschließung der Märkte beschaffungs- und absatzseitig. Der Transport ist mit digitaler Unterstützung ein unverzichtbares Instrument, um die Vorhersehbar- und Nachvollziehbarkeit von Transportströmen zu erhöhen, Schwankungen des Transportaufkommens abzufedern und die Effizienz der Transportleistung im gesamtwirtschaftlichen Kontext sicherzustellen. Er ist somit das Schlüsselelement in jedem Logistik-Netzwerk und zentrale Aufgabenstellung im modernen Supply Chain Management. Der Inhalt Grundlagen des Transports von Gütern Transportarten und -techniken Transportinfrastruktur und -suprastruktur Transportplanung Transportleistungserstellung und -vermarktung Transportmärkte und Verkehrspolitik Die Autoren Prof. Dr. habil. Harald Gleißner ist Dekan des Fachbereichs Duales Studium (Wirtschaft und Technik) und Direktor des Instituts für Logistik der Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht in Berlin. Dr. J. Christian Femerling ist Geschäftsführer der Investa Holding GmbH, Eschborn, und lehrt Logistik und Supply Chain Management, insbesondere logistische Infrastruktur und Logistikimmobilien an der Rheinischen Fachhochschule Neuss.