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Urticaceae-feeders from the family Tischeriidae: descriptions of two new species and new genus Paratischeria gen. nov.


Abstract and Figures

We describe a new genus Paratischeria Diškus & Stonis, gen. nov. and present the first observations of Urticaceae-feeding Tischeriidae species in South America and two new Urticaceaefeeding species (Paratischeria fasciata sp. nov. and P. ferruginea Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. from the Andes of Bolivia and Ecuador). Together with the African P. urticicolella (Ghesquière) (comb. nov.) from Congo, they are attributed to the newly designated ferruginea species group.
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BIOLOGIJA. 2017. Vol. 63. No. 1. P. 1–22
© Lietuvos mokslų akademija, 2017
Urticaceae-feeders from thefamily
Tischeriidae: descriptions of two new species
and new genus Paratischeriagen.nov.
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
1Lithuanian University of Educational
Sciences and Baltic-American
Biotaxonomy Institute, StudenSt.39,
Vilnius LT-08106, Lithuania
2Tadas Ivanauskas Zoological Museum,
Laisvės Ave.106,
Kaunas LT-44253, Lithuania
3Royal Botanic Gardens,
Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AE,
London, United Kingdom
We describe a new genus Paratischeria Diškus&Stonis, gen.
nov. and present the rst observations of Urticaceae-feeding
Tischeriidae species in South America and two new Urticaceae-
feeding species (Paratischeria fasciatasp. nov. and P. ferruginea
Diškus&Stonis, sp. nov. from theAndes of Bolivia and Ecuador).
Together with the African P. urticicolella (Ghesquière) (comb.
nov.) from Congo, they are attributed to thenewly designated fer-
ruginea species group.
Keywords: eAndes, leaf-mines, new genus, new species, Para-
tischeria, Phenax Wedd., South America, Tischeriidae, Urticaceae
e Tischeriidae represents the relatively small
family of Lepidoptera. emost recent detailed
family review was provided by Diškus, Puplesis,
2003. Among themost distinctive diagnostic fea-
tures of the
is thelong length of male anten-
nal sensillae (Fig.67); females possess
er sensillae, therefore, female
appear bare
in ventral view. Among other characters that also
have diagnostic importance for family recognition
are thefollowing: (1) frontal tu (Fig.26) project-
ing over triangular (or trapezoid) face smoothly
covered with scales; (2) sensillae trichodea with
strongly recurved
bases (Fig.67
); (3) strongly en-
larged 3rd antennal segment (Fig.67); (4) strongly
narrowed phallus (Figs.8, 33, 45), usually bifurcat-
ed or with spines at apex; (5) dark, short, strongly
thickened, stout peg setae on female ovipositor
(usually visible even without dissection) (Fig.29);
(6) specic rod-like or plate-like projections
modied 8th and 9th sternites in female genitalia
collectively referred as
prela (Fig.31)
Literature on Tischeriidae is still rather scarce
(for thehistory of research on thefamily inves-
tigation and a literature review, see Puplesis,
Diškus, 2003). Since then several papers have
been published, notably: Landry, Roque-Albelo,
2004; Puplesisetal., 2004; Mey, 2004, 2010; Puple-
sis, Diškus, 2005; Diškus, Stonis, 2006, 2012, 2015;
2Jonas R. Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Brigita Paulavičiūtė, Alex K. Monro
Stonis, Diškus, 2007, 2008; Lees, Stonis, 2007;
Stonisetal., 2008, 2014, 2016; Hua, Cai, 2009;
van Nieukerken, 2010; Navickaitėetal., 2011;
Diškusetal., 2014; Kobayashietal., 2016.
Tischeriidae are trophically associated with
plants belonging to rosid and asterid I core eu-
dicot angiosperm families Fagaceae (Fagales),
Rosaceae, Rhamnaceae (Rosales), Malvaceae
(Tilioideae, Sterculioideae, Malvales), and As-
teraceae (Asterales). A few represantatives of
Tischeriidae have also been recorded on plants
from the Combretaceae (Myrtales), Euphor-
biaceae (Malpighiales), Ericaceae, Symploca-
ceae (Ericales), Anacardiaceae (Sapindales),
eaceae (Ericales), Hypericaceae (Malpighi-
ales), Betulaceae (Fagales), and Apocynaceae
(Gentianales) (Diškus, Puplesis, 2003a, 2003b;
Kobayashietal., 2016). In temperate regions
the family is strongly associated with plants
from theRosaceae and Fagaceae, in theAmeri-
cas also with Malvaceae and Asteraceae. How-
ever, only a single record of the Urticaceae-
feeding species was previously known from
equatorial Africa (Puplesis, Diškus, 2005), and
no records from theAmericas.
In this paper, we review our recent ndings
in South America together with the previous
record of theUrticaceae-feeding species from
Congo, equatorial Africa (Fig.1). We illustrate
theAfrican species and describe two new Tisch-
eriidae species from theAndes: one trophically
associated with Phenax hirtus, other feeding on
unidentied Urticaceae plant but not Phenax.
Host plant Urticaceae is a medium-sized
family comprising ca 2,500 species and 50 gen-
era of woody shrubs, succulent herbs, trees and
vines that are found on all of theworld’s conti-
nents with theexception of Antarctica. Ashort
characterization of Urticaceae will be provided
in our other paper on theUrticaceae-feeding
Nepticulidae (Stonisetal., submitted).
Descriptions of new species are based on
the material deposited in the collection of
theZoological Museum, Natural History Mu-
seum of Denmark in Copenhagen, Denmark.
Collecting methods and protocols for spe-
cies identication and description are outlined
in Puplesis, Diškus (2003) and Diškus, Stonis
(2012). Aer maceration of theabdomen in 10%
KOH and subsequent cleaning, male genital
capsules were removed from the abdomen and
mounted ventral side uppermost. e phallus
was removed and mounted in Euparal separately
but on thesame genitalia slide. Abdominal pelts
and female genitalia were stained with Chlorazol
Black (Direct Black 38/Azo Black) (for adetailed
method’s description see Stonisetal., 2014).
Permanent slides were photographed and
studied using aLeica DM2500 microscope and
a Leica DFC420 digital camera. edescriptive
terminology of morphological structures fol-
lows Puplesis, Diškus (2003), except for theterm
“aedeagus” that is referred here as “phallus”, and
theterm “cilia” that is referred here as “fringe”.
For DNA extraction we used specimens
which were stored in 96% ethanol. Total
genomic DNA was extracted from head or tho-
rax using a Nucleospin Tissue Kit (Machery-
Nagel, Düren, Germany) according to thepro-
tocol of themanufacturer.
Amplication of a 577-bp fragment of
themtDNA region was performed using mito-
chondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit Igene
AAG ATA TTG G-3’) and HCO2198 (5’-TAA
(Folmeretal., 1994; Herbertetal., 2003a,
2003b). PCR were performed in 25µl volumes
including: 2µL DNA, 2µL of each primer (MBI
Fermentas, Lithuania), 0.5µL of Amplitaq
DNA polymerase (5U/µl), 2.5µl 25mM MgCl2,
2.5µL 10X Buer (Fermentas) and 1µL 10mM
dNTP (Fermentas) and water.
PCR were carried out in an Eppendorf Mas-
tercycler gradient, 5331 (Germany). Cycling
parameters were an initial denaturation step
at 94°C for 2min, followed by 94°C for 30s,
50°C for 45s, and 72°C for 1min. is cy-
cle was repeated 35 times, followed by 4 min of
extension at 72°C. PCR products were visual-
ized on 1.5% agarose gel stained with ethidium
bromide and UV light photographs of thegels
with DNA bands were taken using “Herolab
Urticaceae-feeders from the family Tischeriidae: descriptions of two new species and new genus...
transluminator (Germany). epositive bands
of the expected size range were excised from
thegel. DNA was extracted using theGeneJet
Gel Extraction kit (Fermentas, Lithuania). Am-
plicons were then sequenced in both directions
on an automated sequencer, ABI 3130xl (Ap-
plied Biosystems, USA).
Electropherograms were checked by eye
for poor base calls and sequence quality and
then sequences were edited and aligned using
theClustalW (omsonetal., 1994) algorithm
in MEGA v.7.0.21 (Kumaretal. 2015). Phy-
logenetic relationships among control region
haplotypes were reconstructed using theneigh-
bour-joining (NJ) method (Saitou, Nei, 1987).
NJ analysis was performed using theKimura-2
paratemeter correction model (Kimura, 1980)
by bootstrapping with 1000 replicates.
Partial fragment of Cytochrome oxidase I
(COI) gene were amplied in 21 Tischerii-
dae specimens. Amplied fragment produced
a577-bp sequence which corresponded to COI
gene sequence position 2239–2944.
e partial nucleotide sequences of theTis-
cheriidae species COI gene were added to
the GenBank database. Sequences accession
numbers are presented in Table.
Institutional abbreviations used in the text
of the current paper: MRAC – Museé Roy-
al de l’Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium;
ZMUC – Zoological Museum, University of
Copenhagen, Denmark.
Table 1. GenBank accession numbers of examined specimens of Tischeriidae
Examined specimens Accession number GenBank
Coptotriche marginea(1) (Haworth, 1828) HM244382
Coptotriche marginea(2) (Haworth, 1828) HM244379
Coptotriche marginea(3) (Haworth, 1828) HM244380
Coptotriche marginea(4) (Haworth, 1828) HM244381
Tischeria ekebladella(1) (Bjerkander, 1795) HM244384
Tischeria ekebladella(2) (Bjerkander, 1795) HM244385
Tischeria ekebladella(3) (Bjerkander, 1795) HM244383
Tischeria dodonea(1) Stainton, 1858 HM244386
Tischeria dodonea(3) Stainton, 1858 HM244387
Astrotischeriasp. 4848 HM244389
Astrotischeriasp. 4877, Paratischeriasp. HM244393
Astrotischeriasp. 4894, Paratischeria ferruginea
Diškus&Stonis, sp. nov.
Astrotischeriasp. 4909.1, Paratischeria neotropicana
(Diškus&Stonis, 2015)
Astrotischeriasp. 4909.2, Paratischeria neotropicana
(Diškus&Stonis, 2015)
Astrotischeriasp. 4910 HM244390
Astrotischeriasp. 4936, Paratischeria ferruginea
Diškus&Stonis, sp. nov.
Astrotischeriasp. 4937, Paratischeria neotropicana
(Diškus&Stonis, 2015)
Astrotischeria”sp. 4939, Paratischeriasp. HM244398
Astrotischeriasp. 4944.2 HM244397
Astrotischeriasp. 4957.1 HM244399
Astrotischeriasp. 49572 HM244400
4Jonas R. Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Brigita Paulavičiūtė, Alex K. Monro
Taxonomy of theUrticaceae-feeding Tisch-
ree currently known Urticaceae-feeding Ti-
scheriidae, including one Afrotropical and
two Neotropical species, together with some
American Malvaceae and Asteraceae-feeding
species, belong to a new genus, Paratischeria
Diškus&Stonis, gen. nov., which is described
Genus Paratisheria Diškus&Stonis, gen. nov.
Type species: Paratischeria ferruginea Diš-
kus & Stonis, sp.nov.
Diagnosis. In the male genitalia, the new
genus diers from Astrotischeria in theundi-
vided, usually narrow valva (divided in Astro-
tischeria), long undivided uncus (usually short
and divided in Astrotischeria), and thestrongly
though variously developed anellus (Figs.48–
53); from
Coptotriche it diers
in theslender
valva, well developed anellus with lateral papil-
lae and setae (Figs.48–53), also in theabsence
transtilla, absence of
spines on thediaphrag-
ma, larger vinculum, and dierently shaped
phallus (not tulip-shaped as in Coptotriche);
from Tischeria it diers in theabsence of
presence of
strongly developed anellus (absent
in Tischeria), and usually larger vinculum. A
see Figs.73, 74.
Head (Figs.54–67)
Scape with apecten. 3rd
antennal segment greatly enlarged.
Wing venation (Figs.68–70). Greatly re-
duced, similar to Astrotischeria (Fig. 71). In
vein Sc almost reaching middle
of wing; R with ve short radial branches
ing on costa; radial cell reduced; M with
two short
distally and with base ab-
sent; vein Cu single, very long and straight; 2A
but simple; in hindwing, Sc
very short; R, M and Cu expressed only in dis-
tal half (if
entirely reduced), vein Asingle
or represented by two short
Abdomen (Fig.72). Male with ashort anal
of piliform scales.
Uncus with long lateral
lobes (Fig.38). Socii not thickened, similar to
those in Astrotischeria. Tegumen large, with
strongly sclerotized anterior processes; poste-
riorly not extending into alobed pseuduncus.
Diaphragma smooth or with membranous
wringles but without
spines. Valva relatively
slender, undivided. Transtilla absent. Anel-
always well-developed, slightly thickened
with three or four pairs of papillae
and setae, sometimes additionally with ador-
sal sclerite (pseudotranstilla) (Figs.48–53).
Vinculum moderately large to
very large, anteriorly either broadly rounded
or gradually
narrowed. Phallus
long and dis-
tinctly bifurcate in apical half or apical third
(Figs.33, 45
Ovipositor lobes large
(Figs.29, 31); thesecond pair of lobes very small.
Anterior and posterior apophyses supplemented
with three pairs of shorter rod-like and plate-like
sclerites (prela) (Fig.31). Vestibulum membra-
nous or hardened but antrum absent
bursae slender, as long as anterior apophyses or
longer, usually
pectination; signa ab-
. Ductus spermathecae
membranous, slen-
der, with afew to many convolutions.
Biology. Larvae produce bloth-like mines
(Figs. 11–19) in leaves of plants from Malva-
ceae, Urticaceae, and Asteraceae.
Known from theNew World
(the Americas) and equatorial Africa. ere are
many species from Central and South America
which have already been dissected, identied
but still undescribed (Stonisetal., in prep).
Ety mology. ename combines Tischeria
(a name of thetype genus of thefamily) and
Greek prex para (at or to one side of, side by
side, beyond).
e ferruginea species group
Designated here for therst time for thePa-
ratischeria species feeding on Urticaceae and
possessing a dorsal sclerite (pseudotranstilla)
in themale genitalia.
Diagnostics: forewing dark brown to brown
(not sparsely speckled as is usual in other Pa-
ratischeria or Astrotischeria), with spot(s)
(Figs. 5, 26), fascia (Fig.5), or without spots
or fascia, uniform. In male genitalia, phallus
deeply divided in distal half (Figs.7, 8, 32–34,
Urticaceae-feeders from the family Tischeriidae: descriptions of two new species and new genus...
Fig. 1. Currently known records of Tischeriidae trophically associated with thegenera of Urticaceae: 1–Pa-
ratischeria urticicolella (Ghesquière, 1940) on Fleurya podocarpa Wedd. from Congo (see Puplesis, Diškus,
2005); 2–P. ferruginea Diškus&Stonis, sp. nov. on Phenax hirtus (Sw.) Wedd. from Pichincha Province,
Ecuador; 3–P.fasciata Diškus&Stonis, sp. nov. on unidentied Urticaceae plant, Coroico, Bolivia;
*–earlier, by Ghesquière, 1940, thehost plant was reported as Laportea podocarpa Wedd., however, thegenus
Laportea has been split and thehost plant is attributed now to Fleurya. Fleurya podocarpa Wedd. is placed as
asynonym of ovalifolia, however, such combination of ovalifolia with Fleurya has not been published.
45); valva moderately slender (but wider than
in many other Paratischeria species) or strongly
widened in basal half (Fig. 36); basal process
of valva long (Figs.6, 39, 44); uncus with two
long (Fig.38) to very long lobes (Fig.46); an-
ellus with a dorsal sclerite (pseudotranstilla)
(Figs. 42–44); vinculum large but smaller
than in most of other Paratischeria, triangular
(Fig.35) or distally broadly rounded (Figs.6,
Currently thegroup comprises three equa-
torial or subequatorial species (two from
theAndes of Ecuador and Bolivia), one from
Africa (Congo); all species are trophically as-
sociated with plants from Urticaceae (Phenax
and Fleurya).
Paratischeria fasciata Diškus&Stonis, sp. nov.
Type material. Holotype: , BOLIVIA:
Nor Yungas Province, Coroico, 16°11’39’’S,
67°43’21’’W, elevation 1880 m, mining larva on
unidentied Urticaceae plant 25.iv.2014, ex pupa
v.2014, A. Diškus, genitalia slide no.AD868
(ZMUC). Paratype: 1, same label data as holo-
type (ZMUC).
Diagnosis. Externally, thenew species dif-
fers from all other known tischeriids by adis-
tinctive fascia of theforewing. In male genitalia,
aspecic shape of phallus and dorsally devel-
oped anellus distinguish Paratischeria fascia-
tasp. nov. from all other Tischeriidae species;
the Urticaceae host plant, shared with three
other related species, also makes this taxon dis-
Male (Figs. 4, 5). Forewing length 3.0–
3.2mm; wingspan 6.5–6.8mm. Head: face
smoothly scaled, palpi and face grey-brown or
olive brown, very glossy and with some golden
shine and purple iridescence; frontal tu grey-
brown to olive brown, smooth, not erected
6Jonas R. Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Brigita Paulavičiūtė, Alex K. Monro
Fig. 2. Urticaceae clades engaged by leaf-mining Tischeriidae (simplied phylogeny aer Wuetal., 2013.
Note: this is not an ultrametric tree)
*–for detailed relationships of theclades, see Wuetal., 2013
**–originally, thehost plant was reported as belonging to thegenus Laportea (see Ghesquière, 1940), how-
ever, thegenus Laportea has been split and thehost plant is attributed now to genus Fleurya.
but overlapping over face; antenna slightly
longer than half thelength of forewing, grey-
brown, golden glossy, with long hair-like
sensillae trichodea sticking out. orax and
tegula black-brown with strong golden gloss
and some purple iridescence. Forewing black-
brown with some golden gloss and purple and
blue iridescence; median fascia and basal spot
yellow orange, very distinctive; fringe dark
brown with some golden gloss; underside of
forewing brown-black, without spots except
small irregular scaleless patch at the base.
Hindwing dark brown on upper side, brown-
black on underside, without androconia or
spots except small irregular scaleless patch
at the base on underside; its fringe blackish
brown. Legs grey, glossy. Abdomen black-
brown on upper side, dark grey, glossy on un-
derside; genital segments dark grey-brown to
grey, distally white; anal tus short, blackish
Female. Unknown.
Male genitalia (Figs.6–10). Capsule about
455μm long. Uncus with two long lateral lobes.
Valva about 350μm long, not divided, without
processes (except thebasal one); transtilla ab-
sent. Anellus thickened laterally and with setae
(Figs.6, 51), dorsally with aspecic plate-like
sclerite (pseudotranstilla) (Figs.6, 43). Vin-
culum rather short, rounded distally. Phallus
(Figs.7, 8) 455μm long, with three pairs of
large carinae.
Urticaceae-feeders from the family Tischeriidae: descriptions of two new species and new genus...
Fig. 3. Current records of Urticaceae-feeding Tischeriidae from South America
Bionomics. Host plant belongs to Ur-
ticaceae (species and genus unidentied;
host-plant sample neither preserved nor
documented). Larvae mine in leaves in
April. A leaf-mine similar to those illus-
trated in Figs.11–19). Exit slit on theupper
side of the leaf. According to the “Formula
of Determining of Abundance and Occur-
rence of Leaf-Miners” (see Diškus, Stonis 2012:
52–54), Paratischeria fasciata is arare species:
sparse mining of thenew species was observed
in asingle locality of theBolivian Andes.
Distribution (Figs.1, 3). is species occurs
on theeastern slopes of theBolivian Andes in
tropical montane forests at altitudes ca. 1880m.
Ety mology. e species name is derived
from the Latin fascia/fasciata (a band, fascia/
with fascia) in reference to thedistinctive fascia
on theforewing, so unusual among theTisch-
8Jonas R. Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Brigita Paulavičiūtė, Alex K. Monro
Figs. 4–10. Paratischeria fasciata Diškus&Stonis, sp. nov.: 4, 5–male adult, holotype; 6, genita-
lia slide no. AD868, capsule with phallus removed; 7, 8–same, phallus; 9–same, uncus and socii;
10–same, basal part of valvae (ZMUC)
Paratischeria ferruginea Diškus&Stonis,
Type material. Holotype: , ECUA-
DOR: Pichincha Province, 11km NW Alóag,
0°26’45’’S, 78°37’34’’W, elevation 3090 m,
mining larvae on Phenax hirtus (Urticaceae)
20.xi.2007, eld card no.4936, A.Diškus, gen-
italia slide no.AD775 (ZMUC). Paratypes:
4 (including agenitalia and head slide of
one adult in thepupal skin, with no pinned
Urticaceae-feeders from the family Tischeriidae: descriptions of two new species and new genus...
Figs. 11–19. Leaf-mines of Paratischeria ferruginea Diškus&Stonis, sp. nov. on Phenax hirtus, Ecuador,
Pichincha Province, 11km NW Alóag, 0°26’45’’S, 78°37’34’’W, elevation 3090m
10 Jonas R. Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Brigita Paulavičiūtė, Alex K. Monro
specimen preserved), 5 , same label data
as holotype, slide nos. AD839 (genitalia),
AD866 (genitalia), AD865 (head), AD863
(forewing venation), AD867 (genitalia and
head; both from adult in thepupal skin with
no pinned specimen preserved), AD840
(genitalia) (ZMUC); 1, 1, same locality
as holotype, mining larvae on Phenax hirtus
Figs. 20–28. Paratischeria ferruginea Diškus&Stonis, sp. nov.: 20, 22–pupae; 21, 23–25–pupal exuviae;
26–adult male, holotype; 27–adult female, paratype AD840; 28–adult male, paratype AD841 (ZMUC)
Urticaceae-feeders from the family Tischeriidae: descriptions of two new species and new genus...
24.ii.2007, eld card no.4894, Diškus and
Stonis, slide no. AD841 (dissected genita-
lia) (ZMUC); 1, 1, Loja Province, 5km
SW Saraguro, Washapamba Forest Reserve,
3°39’43’’S, 79°16’9’’W, elevation 2940m, min-
ing larvae on Phenaxsp. (probably Ph.hirtus
or closely related species) 25.i.2017, eld card
no.5233, A.Diškus (ZMUC).
Figs. 29–31. Female genitalia of Paratischeria ferruginea Diškus& Stonis, sp. nov., paratype,
genitalia slide no. AD840: 29–apophyses and ovipositor; 30–vestibulum; 31–general view of
genitalia (ZMUC)
12 Jonas R. Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Brigita Paulavičiūtė, Alex K. Monro
Figs. 32–39. Male genitalia of Paratischeria ferruginea Diškus&Stonis, sp. nov.: 32, phallus, holotype,
genitalia slide AD775; 33–same, paratype, genitalia slide no.AD867; 34–same, paratype, genitalia slide
no. AD841; 35–general view, AD866; 36–37–capsule, holotype, AD775; 38–uncus and tegumen, para-
type, AD839; 39–dorsal sclerite of anellus (pseudotranstilla), paratype, AD839 (ZMUC)
Urticaceae-feeders from the family Tischeriidae: descriptions of two new species and new genus...
Figs. 40–47. Male genitalia of theferruginea group: 40, 41 – capsule of Paratischeria ferruginea
Diškus&Stonis, sp. nov., paratype, genitalia slide no. AD867; 42, same, genitalia slide no.AD841;
43 – dorsal sclerite of P. fasciata Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., holotype, genitalia slide no.AD868
(ZMUC); 44–ventral view of capsule of P. urticicolella (Ghesquière, 1940) (comb. nov.), holotype,
genitalia slide no.AD091 (MRAC); 45–same, phallus; 46–same, lateral view of capsule, slide no.
AD091 (MRAC); 47–lateral view of capsule of P. ferruginea Diškus&Stonis, sp. nov., paratype,
genitalia slide no.AD841 (ZMUC)
14 Jonas R. Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Brigita Paulavičiūtė, Alex K. Monro
Figs. 48–53. Anellus of Paratischeria Diškus&Stonis, gen. nov.: 48, 49–P. sp., genitalia slide AD844;
50 – P. neotropicana (Diškus & Stonis, 2015), comb. nov., genitalia slide AD861; 51, 52 – P. fasciata
Diškus&Stonis, sp. nov., genitalia slide AD868; 53–P. ferruginea Diškus&Stonis, sp. nov., genitalia slide
AD867 (ZMUC)
Diagnosis. Externally, thenew species dif-
fers from all other known tischeriids by aunique
pattern of forewing with one distinctive ochre-
beige spot. In male genitalia, aspecic shape of
bilobed valva and dorsally developed anellus dis-
tinguish Paratischeria ferrugineasp. nov. from all
other Tischeriidae species; thehost plant Phenax
hirtus also makes this species distinctive.
Male (Figs. 26, 28). Forewing length 4.3–
5.0mm; wingspan 9.1–10.7mm. Head: face
dark grey-brown with golden gloss and purple
iridescence; palpi and proboscis ochre; frontal
tu grey-brown with golden gloss and little or
strong purple iridescence; collar grey-brown
with golden gloss and sometimes with strong
purple iridescence; antenna signicantly long-
er than half thelength of forewing, grey-brown
with some golden gloss on upper side, paler
on underside, with rather indistinctive hair-
like sensillae trichodea. orax and tegula
Urticaceae-feeders from the family Tischeriidae: descriptions of two new species and new genus...
Figs. 54–60. Descaled head of Paratischeria Diškus&Stonis, gen. nov.: 54, 55–P. sp., slide no. AD876
[5116]; 56 – P. sp., slide no. AD874; 57 – P. neotropicana (Diškus & Stonis, 2015), comb. nov., slide
no.AD861; 58–P. ferruginea Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., paratype, slide no. AD865; 59, 60, same, paratype,
dissected from adult in pupal skin, slide no.AD867 (ZMUC)
16 Jonas R. Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Brigita Paulavičiūtė, Alex K. Monro
Figs. 61–67. Descaled head of Paratischeria Diškus&Stonis, gen. nov.: 61 – P. sp., slide no. AD874
[5109]; 62–P. sp., slide no. AD876 [5116]; 63–P.neotropicana (Diškus&Stonis, 2015), comb. nov., slide
no.AD861; 64, 65–P. ferruginea Diškus&Stonis, sp. nov., paratype, slide no.AD865; 66, same, paratype,
slide no.AD867; 67–same, paratype, slide no.AD865 (ZMUC)
Urticaceae-feeders from the family Tischeriidae: descriptions of two new species and new genus...
dark grey-brown to black-brown, with golden
gloss and strong purple iridescence. Forewing
dark grey-brown with some purple and blue
iridescence; median spot along costal margin,
ochre beige (ferruginous), usually large and
very distinctive, occasionally small and indis-
tinctive; fringe grey-brown with some golden
gloss (particularly prominent at costa), dis-
tinctly ochre at thevery apex of forewing; un-
derside of forewing dark grey-brown, without
spots except small, irregular scaleless patch
at thebase. Hindwing glossy, grey-brown to
olive grey on theupper side, grey-brown on
underside, without androconia or spots except
very small irregular scaleless patch at thebase
on underside; fringe grey-brown. Legs glossy,
grey-brown, except femur of middlegs which
distinctly ochre beige (ferruginous); tibia of
hindlegs with alarge tu of ochre yellow pili-
form scales. Abdomen dark brown with some
golden gloss on theupper side, bright yellow
ochre to orange yellow and glossy on under-
side; genital segments dark grey-brown; anal
tus indistinctive.
Female (Fig. 27). Forewing length 4.0–
4.5mm; wingspan 8.7–9.7mm. Antenna
shorter, sensillae trichodea indistinctive, 8–12
distal segments greyish white. Legs dark grey
on theupper side, mostly ochre beige on un-
derside. Abdomen dark brown on the upper
side, bright yellow ochre yellow and glossy on
underside. Otherwise as in male.
Male genitalia (Figs.32–42, 47, 53). Capsule
about 420–470μm long, 305μm wide. Uncus
with two long lateral lobes. Valva about 320–
375μm long, slender in distal half, with wide
lobe basally; transtilla absent. Anellus slightly
thickened and with setae laterally (Fig. 40),
dorsally with aspecic plate-like sclerite (pseu-
dotranstilla) (Figs.41, 42, 47). Vinculum trian-
gular. Phallus (Figs.32–34) 500–570 μm long,
distally 140–150 μm wide, distinctly bilobed;
each lobe with atiny spine.
Female genitalia (Figs.29–31). Ovipositor
clothed in short, stout and darker, modied se-
tae which we refer to as ‘peg setae’ (Fig.29). Sec-
ond pair of lobes, lateral and anterior to theovi-
positor lobes, are three times smaller, bearing
Figs. 68–72. Forewing venation and abdominal pelt: 68, forewing venation, Paratischeria ferruginea
Diškus&Stonis, sp. nov., slide no. AD863; 69–same, P. neotropicana (Diškus&Stonis, 2015), comb. nov.,
slide no.AD862; 70–same, slide no. AD861; 71–same, Astrotischeriasp., slide no.AD864; 72–fragment
of abdominal pelt, lateral view, P. ferruginea Diškus &Stonis, sp. nov., slide AD841 (ZMUC)
18 Jonas R. Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Brigita Paulavičiūtė, Alex K. Monro
Figs. 73, 74. Molecular phylogeny of Tischeriidae: 73–neighbour-joining tree for specimens of Tischerii-
dae with Elachista alpinella (GU248257.1) as outgroup; bootstrap values are shown above; 74–same, other
Urticaceae-feeders from the family Tischeriidae: descriptions of two new species and new genus...
long slender setae. Anterior and posterior apo-
physes very long and slender (Fig.29). Addi-
tionally there are three rod-like and plate-like
projections (of possibly modied 8th and 9th
sternites) collectively referred to as theprela de-
scribed by Braun (1972) (Figs.30, 31). Ductus
bursae considerably narrower than corpus bur-
sae, without spines but with a hardened plate
(Fig. 30). Corpus bursae membranous, rela-
tively very small (500μm long, 200μm wide)
(Fig. 31), without spines or signum. Ductus
spermathaecae with many large coils (Fig.31).
Bionomics (Figs.11–25). Host plant: Phenax
hirtus (Sw.) Wedd. (Urticaceae) (Fig.11). Larvae
mine in late January–February and October–
November. Leaf-mine as a blotch (at the early
stage triangular or distally widely rounded, later
very irregular), without frass. Larva pale green-
ish grey, with pale grey-brown intestine. Pupa-
tion inside of the leaf-mine without cocoon;
pupa brown (Figs.20–25). Exit slit on theupper
side of the leaf. Adults known from February,
March, and December. According to the“For-
mula of Determining of Abundance and Occur-
rence of Leaf-miners” (see Diškus&Stonis 2012:
52–54), P. ferruginea is not arare species: limited
in distribution, but abundant mining in thelo-
cality where it has been recorded.
Distribution (Figs.1, 3). is species oc-
curs in theEcuadorian Andes in tropical mon-
tane and cloud forests at altitudes about 2940–
Ety mology. especies name is derived
from the Latin ferruginea (brown, yellowish
brown) in reference to the distinctive yellow
beige spot of the forewing and same ferrugi-
nous abdomen on underside.
Within thefamily Tischeriidae, analysis of mor-
phological characters indicates at least four main
lineages of ageneric rank (Stonisetal., in prep.).
During our molecular studies, partial frag-
ment of the COI gene were amplied in 21
specimens of Tischeriidae resulting in a577-bp
fragment. e sequences have 147 polymor-
phic nucleotides. 145 nucleotides were found to
be parsimony-informative characters. All four
lineages indicated by morphological studies
were well supported by our molecular data; see
thecladogram (NJ tree) in Figs.73, 74. eNJ
tree of Tischeriidae (Fig.74) has two big clus-
ters: I and II. ecluster I includes species from
thegenus Tischeria: European T.dodonaea and
T.ekebladella. Among these two species, 24 pol-
ymorphic nucleotides were detected.
Cluster II is formed of two groups: therst
group (A) is represented by Coptotriche (Eu-
ropean Coptotriche marginea) and thesecond
group (B) by thespecies of South American As-
trotischeria and Paratischeria. eCOI gene se-
quences of investigated specimens from cluster
B indicated 52 polymorphic and 525 conserva-
tive nucleotides.
ere is adierence between thecladogram
published by Diškus, Puplesis (2003b) and our
NJ tree (Fig.74). Previously two clades, Tisch-
eria and Astrotischeria, were shown as sibling
(Diškus, Puplesis, 2003); in our NJ tree, thesib-
ling group is Coptotriche and Astrotischeria
+ Paratischeria; other major cluster presents
thegenus Tischeria.
Our study has identied several distinct
groups which are supported by the COI gene
region (it also has shown that this particu-
lar gene is suitable for the reconstruction of
the Tischeriidae phylogeny). However, more
molecular data and further studies are neces-
sary to conrm thedetected cladas in our pre-
liminary cladogram.
e conducted specic molecular research
provides atheoretical and practical framework
for afurther use of DNA molecular markers in
taxonomy and phylogenetic studies of Tisch-
For helpful and frequent discussions on various
host plants (not only those which are listed in
thecurrent paper) we thank Nixon Cumbicus
Torres (Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja,
Loja, Ecuador), Arvind Singh (Banaras Hindu
University, Varanasi, India); Narayanan Nair
Mohanan (Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic
20 Jonas R. Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Brigita Paulavičiūtė, Alex K. Monro
Garden and Research Institute, India), José Luis
Fernández-Alonso (Universidad de Salamanca,
Spain), eodor C.H.Cole (Universität Heidel-
berg, Germany), Maximilian Weigend (Univer-
sity of Bonn, Germany), and Franz Starlinger
(Federal Research and Training Centre for For-
ests, Natural Hazards and Landscape, Vienna,
Further we would like to thank Andrius Re-
meikis (Nature Research Centre, Lithuania) for
providing us with photographs of genitalia and
adults of Tischeriidae.
Received 3 January 2017
Accepted 30 March 2017
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JonasRimantasStonis, ArūnasDiškus,
BrigitaPaulavičiūtė, AlexK.Monro
Šiame straipsnyje pirmą kartą publikuojami duo-
menys apie Urticaceae šeimos augalus minuo-
jančius Tischeriidae Pietų Amerikoje. Aprašoma
nauja Paratischeria gentis ir dvi naujos mokslui
rūšys: Paratischeria fasciata (aptikta Bolivijoje) ir
P. ferruginea (aptikta Ekvadore). Šios dvi rūšys kar-
tu su pusiaujo Afrikoje paplitusia P. urticicolella
(Ghesquière) (comb. nov.) pirmą kartą išskiriamos
į atskirą Paratischeria genties rūšių grupę, kuriai
būdingas pakitęs patino anellus ir dilgėlinių augalų
(Phenax, Fleurya) minavimas.
Raktažodžiai: Andai, nauja gentis, nauja rū-
šis, Paratischeria, Pietų Amerika, Phenax Wedd.,
Tischeriidae, Urticaceae
... The adults of trumpet moths possess numerous specialised morphological characters, including long antennal sensillae trichodea on the male antenna, a modified phallus in the male genitalia, or ovipositor lobes covered with thickened peg-like setae along with unique, rod-like or plate-like projections known as prela in the female genitalia. The unique characters of Tischeriidae were overviewed in the monographs by Braun (1972) and Puplesis, Diškus (2003), as well as discussed and variously illustrated in recent papers, including those by Xu et al. (2017Xu et al. ( , 2018, Stonis et al. (2017Stonis et al. ( , 2018aStonis et al. ( , 2019aStonis et al. ( , 2020aStonis et al. ( , 2020bStonis et al. ( , 2020cStonis et al. ( , 2021aStonis et al. ( , 2021b, and Stonis, Solis (2020). ...
... The robustness of the inferred tree was evaluated by bootstrapping with 10,000 replicates; distantly related Pseudopostega bogotensis Vargas (Opostegidae) was used as an outgroup. Molecular methods used in this paper for a fragment of the NJ tree ( Fig. 1) Puplesis, Diškus, 2003) in the undivided, usually narrow valva (divided in Astrotischeria), long undivided uncus (usually short and divided in Astrotischeria), and the strongly, though variously, developed anellus (Stonis et al., 2017). ...
... Bionomics (Figs 8-17). Host plants ( Figs 8,9,13,14) are Asteraceae plants: Liabum spp. (Figs 8, 9, 13, 14 (Fig. 15). ...
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We describe a new genus, Neotischeria Diškus & Stonis, gen. nov., and four new species of trumpet moths. Three of them are trophically associated with Asteraceae plants: Neotischeria ochripennata Diškus & Remeikis, sp. nov. and N. longa Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., discovered from the western part of the equatorial Andes, N. conexa Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., discovered from the eastern part of the central Andes, and N. poseidonia Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., discovered from Guatemala (the host plant is unknown; it is presumed to be a Malvaceae plant). We briefly discuss the diagnostics of Neotischeria gen. nov. by differentiating it from the most similar Paratischeria Diškus & Stonis and Astrotischeria Puplesis & Diškus. We also newly combine seven formerly Paratischeria species, including P. neotropicana Diškus & Stonis, with Neotischeria and designate the latter species as the type species of a new genus. The new species are illustrated with photographs of the male and, if available, the female genitalia and the leaf mines. We also provide the first documentation of the hitherto little-known Peruvian Neotischeria capnota (Meyrick) deposited at NHMUK (London).
... nov. belongs to the P. ferruginea group designated and described by Stonis et al. (2017a). Externally, this new species differs from South American and African members of the group in the yellow-ochre colour of the forewing speckled with dark brown scales; from the most similar South East Asian P. grossa sp. ...
... nov. belongs to the P. ferruginea group (for a description of this group see Stonis et al. 2017a). Externally, this new species differs from South American and African members of the group in the ochre colour of the forewing speckled with black-brown scales; from the most similar South East Asian P. boehmerica sp. ...
... Chew (Ghesquière 1940;Puplesis & Diškus 2005). Recently, Urticaceae-feeding Tischeriidae were discovered in the Andes of Ecuador and Bolivia and extensively documented by Stonis et al. (2017a). A similar survey of Urticaceae feeders was recently published by Stonis et al. (2017b), which highlighted that Nepticulidae records from Urticaceae host plants have come exclusively from tropical and subtropical zones around the Pacific. ...
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This is the first record of Urticaceae-feeding trumpet moths (Tischeriidae) from Asia. We describe Paratischeria boehmerica Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. and P. grossa Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., two distinctive new species of Tischeriidae recently discovered from Laos, South East Asia, feeding on plants of the nettle family. Urticaceae is a rare host-plant family for leaf-mining Tischeriidae worldwide. The new species are illustrated with photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and the leaf mines.
... Species of Paratischeria. 70-72, fragments of the male genitalia of the South East Asian P. hestias (after Xu et al. 2017), P. boehmerica, and P. grossa (after Stonis et al. 2021a); 73, the Neighbor-Joining tree of the 608 bp long mtDNA CO1-5' of Paratischeria sequences; divergence was calculated using the Kimura 2-parameter model; the families of host plants are shown to the right of the tree; 74, 75, capsule of the South American P. ferruginea; 76, lateral view of capsule of the Central African P. urticicolella (after Stonis et al. 2017) FIGURES 77, 78. The Maximum Likelihood trees of Tischeriidae based on the 608 bp long mtDNA CO1-5' sequences. ...
... Leaf mines of Paratischeria are irregular blotch-like, sometimes elongated and with short, but relatively wide, lateral galleries; frass absent or very little sparsely deposited; a nidus is usually not rounded but elongated or indistinctive, invisible (larvae usually hiding under larger veins in the leaf mine). Stonis et al. 2017) Species diversity and geographical distribution. The genus occurs in the tropical biome of South America (from Ecuador to Bolivia), equatorial Africa, and South and South East Asia (India, Laos and Vietnam). ...
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For the first time, genera of leaf mining Tischeriidae of the global fauna are reviewed and four new genera are described: Coptotrichoides Diškus & Stonis, gen. nov., trophically associated with Sapindaceae from Central and South America; Rytietia Diškus, Xu & Dai, gen. nov., trophically associated with Annonaceae from East and South East Asia; Pafazaria Diškus & Stonis, gen. nov., trophically associated with Fabaceae and Malvaceae from East and South East Asia; and Gnathitischeria Diškus, gen. nov., trophically associated with Malvaceae and Asteraceae from Central America. In addition to the descriptions of new genera, all previously described genera (Coptotriche Walsingham, 1890; Dishkeya Stonis, 2020; Tischeria Zeller, 1839; Manitischeria Diškus & Stonis, 2021; Neotischeria Diškus & Stonis, 2021; Paratischeria Diškus & Stonis, 2017; and Astrotischeria Puplesis & Diškus, 2003) are characterized and a pictorial identification key for all 11 genera is provided. Morphological and biological characteristics of all genera are supplemented with some molecular data. We described 12 new species: South East Asian Coptotriche sapaensis Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; Central American Coptotrichoides sapindoidum Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. and Tischeria neokristenseni Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; South East Asian Rytietia uncinata Diškus, Xu & Dai, sp. nov., East Asian R. chongyiensis Xu & Dai, sp. nov.; South East Asian Pafazaria capitata Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. and P. faboidica Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; Central American Neotischeria antigua Diškus & Remeikis, sp. nov. and N. subantigua Diškus & Remeikis, sp. nov.; South American Astrotischeria incae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; and Central American Gnathitischeria atitlani Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. and G. arcana Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. The taxonomic rank of the East Asian subspecies Tischeria decidua siorkionla Kozlov, 1986 is elevated to species rank: T. siorkionla Kozlov (stat. nov.). The male genitalia of holotypes, paratypes, lectotypes or paralectotypes, or non-type specimens of some little-known species are examined for the first time. We provide the first morphological documentation for the following: Tischeria ceanothi lectotype and paralectotype; T. immaculata (stat. restored) paratype; Coptotrichoides deliquescens (Meyrick) lectotype and paralectotype; lectotypes of Coptotriche aenea (Frey & Boll), Astrotischeria plagifera (Meyrick), A. helianthi (Frey & Boll), and A. ephaptis (Meyrick); Coptotriche berberella (De Prins) paratype; and the first photographic documentation of Tischeria lvoskyi Kozlov holotype. Some non-type specimens deposited at NHMUK, including a few previously neglected species, are also examined and documented, including the American Astrotischeria solidagonifoliella (Clemens) and A. omissa (Braun). Nine new combinations are provided: Coptotrichoides deliquescens (Meyrick, 1915), comb. nov.; C. singularis (Stonis & Diškus) comb. nov.; C. suprafasciata (Diškus & Stonis) comb. nov., C. serjaniphaga (Remeikis & Stonis) comb. nov.; C. braziliensis (Diškus & Stonis) comb. nov.; Pafazaria jingdongensis (Xu & Dai), comb. nov.; Neotischeria explosa (Braun) comb. nov.; N. pallidipennella (Braun) comb. nov.; and Astrotischeria heteroterae (Frey & Boll) comb. nov. The synonymization of Tischeria longeciliata Frey & Boll, 1878 with Astrotischeria helianthi (Frey & Boll, 1878) is confirmed. One new species group, the Tischeria ceanothi group, is established. We also report a new distribution record of T. dodonaea Stainton from the Caucasus, Armenia. Three tables and 569 figures of adult external morphology, male and female genitalia, leaf mines, and cladograms based on molecular characters are provided.
... Later on, Meyrick (1906Meyrick ( , 1907Meyrick ( , 1909Meyrick ( , 1910Meyrick ( , 1911Meyrick ( , 1915Meyrick ( , 1916aMeyrick ( , b, 1921Meyrick ( , 1922Meyrick ( , 1926Meyrick ( , 1928Meyrick ( , 1934 contributed a lot to the nonditrysian moths of India. Other lepidopterists who worked on the primitive moths of India are Tindale (1941Tindale ( , 1942Tindale ( , 1958 on Hepialidae, Kozlov (1995) on Adelidae, Puplesis & Robinson (1999), Stonis et al. (2013b) on Opostegidae, Lees et al. (2010) on Micropterigidae, Stonis et al. (2017Stonis et al. ( , 2021 on Tischeriidae, Puplesis & Diškus (2003) and Stonis et al. (2013a) on Nepticulidae and Grehan et al. (2021Grehan et al. ( , 2022 on Hepialidae. ...
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The present catalogue comprises 88 species in 24 genera and 10 families of nonditrysian Lepidoptera from India. Information on type localities, records from India including their diversity in different biogeographic zones of India and from outside India is included. Among all, Hepialidae is the dominant family, consisting 25 species in four genera whereas, the least dominant families are Palaeosetidae and Incurvariidae with one species each. Biogeographically, NorthEast is home to maximum species (37 in eight families) of primitive Lepidoptera, followed by Himalaya (31 species in five families), Western Ghats (24 species in seven families) with Hepialidae as a dominating family in all the three zones. No nonditrysian is reported from Desert and Islands. Among the states of India, Meghalaya is the most diverse with 27 species in seven families.
... The leaf-mining larvae of Tischeriidae are very selective of their host plants, i.e. stenophagous: monophagous or oligophagous . Prior to our studies, Tischeriidae were known to be trophically associated with plants of 10 orders of flowering plants (rosids and asterids I core eudicot angiosperms): Malpighiales (Euphorbiaceae and Hypericaceae); Fabales (Fabaceae); Rosales (Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae, Ulmaceae, and Urticaceae); Fagales (Betulaceae and Fagaceae); Myrtales (Combretaceae); Sapindales (Anacardiaceae and Sapindaceae); Malvales (Malvaceae, including the former Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae); Ericales (Ericaceae, Theaceae, and Symplocaceae); Gentianales (Apocynaceae); and Asterales (Asteraceae) (Xu et al. 2018;Stonis et al. 2017Stonis et al. , 2020aStonis et al. , 2021. It was expected ) that this list of host plants will continue to grow. ...
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The article describes three new species of Coptotriche Walsingham, 1890 from China and adjacent northern Vietnam: C. camptotheca Xu & Dai, sp. nov. feeding on Camptotheca acuminata Decne. (Nyssaceae); C. turpinia Xu & Dai, sp. nov. feeding on Turpinia arguta (Lindl.) Seem. (Staphyleaceae); and C. asiana Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. The latter appeared to be a narrow oligophagous species feeding on various Symplocos Jacq.: S. sumuntia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don, S. poilanei Guill., and Symplocos glauca (Thunb.) Koidz. (Symplocaceae). Nyssaceae and Staphyleaceae are novel host-plant families of Tischeriidae. The new species are illustrated with photographs of adults, male and female genitalia, and leaf mines. The article also briefly discusses about the proportion of monophagous and oligophagous species of Tischeriidae.
... They also represent distinct moth families with uniquely modified morphological characters. The specialized characters of Tischeriidae were extensively reviewed by Braun (1972) and Puplesis & Diškus (2003), as well as analysed and illustrated in many recent publications, notably by Diškus & Stonis (2012, Xu et al. (2017Xu et al. ( , 2018, Stonis et al. (2017Stonis et al. ( , 2018Stonis et al. ( , 2019aStonis et al. ( , 2020aStonis et al. ( , 2020bStonis et al. ( , 2020cStonis et al. ( , 2021, and Stonis & Solis (2020). ...
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Four new species of trumpet leaf-miner moths (Tischeriidae) are described from the Neotropics: Coptotriche serjaniphaga Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., feeding on Serjania Mill. (Sapindaceae), Astrotischeria mystica Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., feeding on Verbesina L. (Asteraceae), A. yungasi Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., feeding on Oyedaea DC. (Asteraceae), and A. parapallens Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., feeding on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Records on Sapindaceae-feeding Tischeriidae are very rare and Serjania is a novel host-plant genus for Tischeriidae. It is hypothesized that Serjania, a diverse genus in the tropical and subtropical Americas, may be a host for many undiscovered species of specialized stenophagous Tischeriidae. The new species are illustrated with photographs of the adults, male and, if available, female genitalia, and the leaf mines. We briefly discuss the importance of new species descriptions as a part of biodiversity assessment.
... Larvae of Tischeriidae (trumpet moths) are specialized miners of the green tissues of plants, producing mostly irregular, blotch-like, sometimes slender and sinuous or other leaf mines. The morphological and ecological characteristics of these primitive, monotrysian microlepidopterans are summarised by Braun (1972), Puplesis & Diškus (2003), Xu et al. (2017Xu et al. ( , 2018 and Stonis et al. (2017Stonis et al. ( , 2018aStonis et al. ( , 2019aStonis et al. ( , 2019b. Species of Tischeriidae are represented in a wide variety of terrestrial ecosystems from the tropics to the temperate regions but, as a rule, the family is more abundant in subtropical and tropical regions, except for cooler habitats of the tropics at elevations above 3500-4000 m (Stonis et al. 2018a). ...
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We report on fourteen species and four genera of Tischeriidae recorded from Las Cuevas, a single tropical forest locality in Belize, Central America. This is the highest number of species of Tischeriidae recorded from a single locality worldwide, exceeding the species and generic diversity of the entire Tischeriidae fauna of Europe and accounting for about 9% of the documented global fauna for this family. We describe and name six new species: Astrotischeria papilloma
A new Symplocos trumpet leafminer, Coptotriche yanbarensis Kim & Yagi sp. nov., feeding on S. stellaris and S. okinawensis (Symplocaceae) is described from Okinawa Island, Japan. The new species is distinguishable from the Japanese Symplocos feeding described species, C. symplocosella Kobayashi & Hirowatari, 2016 by the forewing coloration, the shape of genitalia, and also DNA barcodes.
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We describe a new genus, Manitischeria Diškus & Stonis, gen. nov., and five new species: Manitischeria selindica Stonis & Diškus, sp. nov., M. namibiensis Stonis & Diškus, sp. nov. from Africa, and M. brachiata Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., M. symbolica Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., and M. baryshnikovae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. from South East Asia. We discuss the diagnostics of Manitischeria gen. nov. composed of these new species and others transferred from Tischeria Zeller. Species are mostly trophically associated with Malvaceae, but also Rhamnaceae and Betulaceae. We list 18 currently known species of Manitischeria gen. nov., including M. ptarmica (Meyrick), the type species, and provide 13 new combinations and the first documentation of genitalia of some, previously little-known species. New species are illustrated with photographs or drawings of the adults, genitalia, and the leaf mines when available. We briefly discuss the use of herbarium specimens to discover lepidopteran leaf mines, host plant, and distribution data.
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We describe a new genus, Dishkeya Stonis, gen. nov., and a new species, Dishkeya gothica Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., discovered feeding on Gouania lupuloides (L.) Urb., Rhamnaceae. We discuss the diagnostics of Tischeria Zeller and Dishkeya gen. nov.; the latter is characterized by the absence of a juxta, the presence of a pseudognathos, and well-developed carinae of the phallus in the male genitalia. We newly combine Tischeria bifurcata Braun and Tischeria gouaniae Stonis & Diškus with Dishkeya and designate the latter species as the type species of the new genus. All species treated in the paper are illustrated with drawings or photographs of the male genitalia.
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We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, MEGA has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing bigger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in MEGA. The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit MEGA is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OSX. The command line MEGA is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OSX. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from free of charge.
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The paper presents the first documentation of Urticaceae-feeding Nepticulidae species in South America and describes four new species: two species feeding on Phenax Wedd. (Stigmella singularia Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. and S. lata Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.), one species on Boehmeria Jacq. (S. boehmeriphaga Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.), and one species on Pilea Lindl. (S. auripurpurata Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.); all from the equatorial Andes. In addition, leaf-mines of an unknown Stigmella taxa feeding on Phenax are documented. The newly discovered Urticaceae-feeding Nepticulidae exhibit some morphological and taxonomical diversity: two species groups, Stigmella singularia and S. marmorea, are revealed (the latter is designated in the current paper).
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Although much biological research depends upon species diagnoses, taxonomic expertise is collapsing. We are convinced that the sole prospect for a sustainable identification capability lies in the construction of systems that employ DNA sequences as taxon 'barcodes'. We establish that the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) can serve as the core of a global bioidentification system for animals. First, we demonstrate that COI profiles, derived from the low-density sampling of higher taxonomic categories, ordinarily assign newly analysed taxa to the appropriate phylum or order. Second, we demonstrate that species-level assignments can be obtained by creating comprehensive COI profiles. A model COI profile, based upon the analysis of a single individual from each of 200 closely allied species of lepidopterans, was 100% successful in correctly identifying subsequent specimens. When fully developed, a COI identification system will provide a reliable, cost-effective and accessible solution to the current problem of species identification. Its assembly will also generate important new insights into the diversification of life and the rules of molecular evolution.
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The paper provides data on two new and two little known Coptotriche Walsingham and Tischeria Zeller species from Primorskiy Kray, Far Eastern Russia: Coptotriche minuta Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., Tischeria unca Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. are described, T. decidua siorkionla Kozlov and T. sichotensis Ermolaev are redescribed. Currently, together with the described new species, the fauna of Tischeridae of Far Eastern Russia comprises three Coptotriche species and seven Tischeria species. A neotype, replacing the missing type series of T. sichotensis, is designated here. For the first time all four treated species from Far Eastern Russia are illustrated with photographs of the adults and genitalia (T. sichotensis also with photographs of the leaf-mines).
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The family Tischeriidae is recorded from Madagascar for the first time. Coptotriche alavelona Lees and Stonis, sp. n., is described from high elevation tropical moist forest of Madagascar, and its proposed generic placement discussed. DNA of this species has been extracted and conserved for future phylogenetic or barcoding studies. The external features and male genitalia are figured and described. An updated checklist and a distribution map for all 13 Tischeriidae species cur-rently recorded from the Afrotropics are provided.
Despite taxonomic and conservation interest in the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae: subfamily Asteroideae, tribe Heliantheae), no Podanthus-feeding Nepticulidae or Tischeriidae have ever been recorded. Here, on the basis of material reared from Podanthus from central Mediterranean Chile, we present the description of Stigmella podanthae sp. nov. (Nepticulidae) and a re-description of Astrotischeria chilei Puplesis & Diškus, 2003. Females and host-plant of the latter species were previously unknown. Both treated species are illustrated with numerous photographs of the leafmines, adults of both sexes, and male and female genitalia.
A new method called the neighbor-joining method is proposed for reconstructing phylogenetic trees from evolutionary distance data. The principle of this method is to find pairs of operational taxonomic units (OTUs [= neighbors]) that minimize the total branch length at each stage of clustering of OTUs starting with a starlike tree. The branch lengths as well as the topology of a parsimonious tree can quickly be obtained by using this method. Using computer simulation, we studied the efficiency of this method in obtaining the correct unrooted tree in comparison with that of five other tree-making methods: the unweighted pair group method of analysis, Farris's method, Sattath and Tversky's method, Li's method, and Tateno et al.'s modified Farris method. The new, neighbor-joining method and Sattath and Tversky's method are shown to be generally better than the other methods.
The family Tischeriidae is reported from the Galapagos Islands for the first time. The two species found on the archipelago (Astrotischeria scalesiaella B. Landry, sp. n. and A. alcedoensis B. Landry, sp. n.) are described and illustrated. Both species are presumed to be endemic and their larvae are leaf miners on Scalesia species, a group of endemic Asteraceae.
This paper describes Astrotischeria neotropicana Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Tischeriidae), a new leaf-miner on Sida (Malvaceae) with a broad distribution range in tropical Central & South America. The new species is currently recorded from the Amazon Basin in Peru and Ecuador to tropical lowlands in Guatemala and Belize (including the Caribbean Archipelago). The new species is illustrated with photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and the leaf-mines; distribution map is also provided.