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Comprehensive evaluation of urban public Non-Motorized Transportation Facility services in Dhaka

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Non-motorized transportation (NMT) services have vital role in urban public transportation for developing nations' megacities like Dhaka. Yet NMT services are not promoted and encouraged as fuel free public transportation mode. In order to depict the importance, and promoting NMT, this study developed a weighted index to reflect the situation of NMT services in Dhaka city combining factors such as accessibility, waiting time, parking facilities. In measuring the accessibility, service coverage score has been estimated, while for waiting time score field survey conducted at ten selected traffic intersections. In addition, parking facilities score, provision of designated parking near intersections investigated. Using these scores, following several standard, Non-motorized transportation facility index has been estimated. It has been found that; majority (around 75%) of the areas in Dhaka city has NMT access, and NMT are banned on some major arterial roads. Moreover, the average waiting time is around four minutes, to get a NMT vehicle. However, there are no designated parking facilities for NMTs in Dhaka. In brief, NMT has great access, and availability is satisfactory, though parking remains a major problem. Thus NTFI concluded that, NMT has massive potential to be an important public urban transportation mode for Dhaka city.
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Comprehensive evaluation of urban public Non-Motorized
Transportation Facility services in Dhaka
1S M Labib, 2Zahidur Rahaman, 3Md. Shahadath Hossain Patwary,
1School of Environment, Education and Development (SEED), University of Manchester
2Department of Urban and Regional Planning (DURP), BUET
3Department of Development Studies, Dhaka University
1Labib.l.m@gmail.com, 2abeer.urp@gmail.com, 3shahadath3.1416@gmail.com,
Abstract
Non-motorized transportation (NMT) services have vital role in urban public transportation
for developing nations’ megacities like Dhaka. Yet NMT services are not promoted and
encouraged as fuel free public transportation mode. In order to depict the importance, and
promoting NMT, this study developed a weighted index to reflect the situation of NMT
services in Dhaka city combining factors such as accessibility, waiting time, parking
facilities. In measuring the accessibility, service coverage score has been estimated, while for
waiting time score field survey conducted at ten selected traffic intersections. In addition,
parking facilities score, provision of designated parking near intersections investigated. Using
these scores, following several standard, Non-motorized transportation facility index has been
estimated. It has been found that; majority (around 75%) of the areas in Dhaka city has NMT
access, and NMT are banned on some major arterial roads. Moreover, the average waiting
time is around four minutes, to get a NMT vehicle. However, there are no designated parking
facilities for NMTs in Dhaka. In brief, NMT has great access, and availability is satisfactory,
though parking remains a major problem. Thus NTFI concluded that, NMT has massive
potential to be an important public urban transportation mode for Dhaka city.
Keywords: Urban transportation, Non-motorized transportation, Rickshaw,
Main Conference Topic: Education, Teaching and Learning; Economics, Management and
Marketing; Transport and Logistics; Tourism
Introduction
All through the twentieth century transportation planning and the implementation of
transportation facilities in the developing world was heavily weighted toward motorized
transportation (MT), despite the fact that non-motorized transportation (NMT) constitutes a
significant proportion of all trips. Non-motorized transports mean fuel free and energy
efficient transport modes (Rahul and Verma, 2013; Creutzig et al., 2012; Khisty, 2003).
Common forms of NMT include bicycles, rickshaw (a tri-cycle in Dhaka city), human porter
age; handcarts; animal drawn carts; and other human powered vehicles. In fact, the definition
of NMT includes any form of transportation that provides personal or goods mobility by
methods other than the combustion motor (Guitink, et al., 1994). In particular three wheeler
rickshaws still have a socio-economic, environmental and trip-making role in many
developing countries (Mateo-Babiano, 2016; Cervero, 2014). Benefit of the provision of the
non-motorized transport benefits can be summarized as air pollution reduction, zero carbon
emission, road way cost saving, parking cost saving, improved road safety, efficient urban
mobility etc (Rahul and Verma, 2013; Creutzig et al., 2012; Litman, 1994).
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Non-motorized Transports play multisectoral and dominant role for catering travel need
for Dhaka transport users (Rahman, 2009; Cervero, 2014). According to Strategic Transport
Plan (2005) for Dhaka city, rickshaws contributed 34 percent modal share (STP, 2005).
Rickshaw (a three wheel NMT) industry generates huge amount of non-skilled employment
and maintains income of some of the most vulnerable urban dwellers. Urban rickshaws that
work as public non-motorized transportation facilities in Dhaka city annually account for
over 30,000 passenger miles and nearly 100 tones miles of goods movement (Rafiq, 2013).
About 76% of trips are short trips, most of them of 3-4 km; rickshaw can be the fastest way
without the use of fuel, emission of pollutants and creation of noise (Bari and Efroymson,
2005).
Despite huge contribution in massive traffic system of Dhaka city, several roadways of
Dhaka city is banned for rickshaw movement. With direct encouragement from some
officials of the World Bank, the Dhaka Transport Coordination Board (DTCB) put forward a
plan to ban all fuel-free vehicles from a series of major roads, advocating that rickshaws or
NMTs has slow speed, that contribute overall reduction of speed for the motorized vehicles.
The resulting effects are; high growth of motorcycles and motorized three-wheelers
contributed to unbearable congestion and air pollution. Banning NMTs by no means
increases traffic speed. However, studies found immediate increase of speed for motorized
vehicles (by year 2004), but in the increased speed already nullified and the speed level
become as it before banning (Bari and Efroymson, 2005; Rafiq, 2013).
In this context, a new study aiming to evaluate the scenario of non-motorized
transportation in Dhaka city would help to understand the present state of NMT facilities,
their level of services and their problems. This study would investigate the efficiency of
NMT facilities (for rickshaw) in terms of service coverage, parking facilities, and
accessibility.
Study Area
In order to conduct the study on
rickshaw services at mesoscopic (more in-
depth) level, ten major intersections (nodes)
within the transportation network of Dhaka
city have been selected and a buffer of half
kilometer has been taken around the
intersections to determine the boundary of
the study sites. These sites are; Mirpur 10
no., Technical Morh, Shymoli, Framgate,
Mohakhali, Gulshan 1, Mog bazaar, Science
lab, Motijheel and Jatrabari (Figure 1). They
located within Dhaka city transportation
network. The selection process was mainly
focused on the major traffic intersections
and links; having high traffic volume, and
connectivity. Play major part in city public
transit network; have vast attraction and
productions of different trips.
Figure 1: Study sites within Dhaka city, Bangladesh
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Methods and Materials
Three components selected in this study to develop and estimate Non-motorized
Transportation facility index. Literature review and reconnaissance survey have conducted to
determine which components are best suited to the NMT transport facility condition of
selected areas of Dhaka city. To conclude, Non-motorized Transportation coverage scoring,
Non-motorized Transportation access time scoring and Non-motorized Transportation
parking facilities scoring are considered for estimating and combining Non-motorized
Transportation Facility Index.
Non-motorized Transportation coverage scoring
Non-motorized Transportation coverage is the component that relates total length of the
available road in a specific area and total length available for non-motorized transports. It
indicates a Non-motorized Transportation user’s performance and convenience regarding
traveling in selected areas by availing NMT. This Non- motorized transport coverage also
indicates connectivity and integration of overall transport facilities of certain areas. Using
ArcGIS measurement tool, the total length of roads within the buffer has been measured and
the estimation of service coverage done utilizing the following equation (Eq1).
𝑆𝐶 =(𝑛𝑙 ÷ 𝐿 )×100 ………….. (Eq1)
Where,
SC = Service Coverage
nl= Total road network that allow NMT
L = Total road network length within the study area
Based on the computed value for the service coverage, each area can be grouped in
several categories. The categories in Table 1 show the scoring value and corresponding
descriptor for the network coverage of NMT.
Table 1: Non-motorized Transportation coverage score valuation
Service coverage (%)
Score valuation
Descriptor
>=50
1
Network Coverage is very satisfactory
25-50
2
Network Coverage is good for movement in NMT
15-25
3
Network coverage cannot support the demand and in bad
condition
<15
4
Network coverage is worst
Source: Modified from (Ministry of Urban Development, 2010)
Table 1, has provided the basis of evaluating network coverage for NMT within the
buffer area of the selected nodes. These coverage percentages would allow marking the level
of accessibility NMT services have in these areas. Furthermore, this parameter also provides
a quick glance about the connectivity of NMT routes for each study area.
Non-motorized Transportation access time scoring
Access time is the minimum amount of time from when a passenger first request a
service to the time a pick up is guaranteed. For non-motorized transport, it would be the
duration of time to get a Non-motorized Transportation travelling from origin to destination.
Access time varies from zone to zone, area-to-area and pick off pick diurnal time. The
calculation to develop Non-motorized Transportation access time scoring are based on the
methodology established by Rahman, (2013); to score different selected study area for this
research. Table 2 shows the calculation of access time scores for non-motorized transport.
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Table 2: Non-motorized Transportation access time score calculation and valuation
Access time (in minutes)
Score valuation
=<2
1
2-4
2
4-6
3
>6
4
Source: Modified from (Rahman, 2013)
Table 2 gives different scores related to different access times to get NMT as a standard
including descriptions, which has been used for scoring access time for getting NMT for
different study area in this research. In this respect, from each study sites several samples
were drawn at 95% confidence level, and 5% level of significance, and the sample passengers
were surveyed about the average time they required to access the NMT facility (in this case
Rickshaw).
Non-motorized Transportation parking facilities scoring
A designated parking facility for non-motorized transports is an indicator for any
efficient transport system. Designated NMT parking facilities increase reliability of user on
NMT usages. It is beneficial both non-motorized public transport such as rickshaw and non-
motorized private vehicles such as bicycles. GIS measure tool is used for identify major
interchanges within the selected area and field survey is conducted to find out designated
parking space of NMT at identified interchanges. The estimation process conducted based on
the following equation (Eq 2). 𝑁𝑃 =(𝑛𝑖 ÷ 𝐼)×100……….. (Eq2)
Where;
NP = NMT Parking facilities at Interchanges (%)
ni = Total number of interchange having designated parking space for NMT
I = Total number of interchange
By using equation 2, different values have been computed and the score valuation
compared with Table 3. Table 3 illustrates categories of scoring value related to compute
value range with associated descriptions.
Table 3: Non-motorized Transportation parking facilities scoring valuation
NMT Parking facilities at
Interchanges (%)
Score
valuation
Descriptor
>=75
1
Parking facilities is very satisfactory
50-75
2
Interchanges is good for NMT parking
25-50
3
Interchanges cannot support the demand and in bad
condition
<25
4
Interchanges is worst in terms of NMT facilities
Source: Modified from (Ministry of Urban Development, 2010)
Non-motorized Transportation Facility Index (NTFI)
NTFI has been obtained by adding all these above three scores. This stretches an
overall view of the Non-motorized Transportation situations scores, which can be used to
evaluate Non-motorized Transportation scenario in terms of network coverage, access time,
and parking facilities in holistic way. It also provides the options to relate and compare
different selected study area in terms of quality of Non-motorized Transportation facilities.
The overall valuation of combined score is given in Table 4.
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Table 4: Standard for Non-motorized Transportation facility index (NTFI)
Index value
Calculated
Score
Comments
1
3-5
The area has adequate NMT facilities at overall road network.
2
6-8
The area has NMT facilities, which may need some improvements in terms
of access time, parking facilities at interchanges etc.
3
9-10
The area has NMT facilities, which may need considerable improvements,
as many parts of the area are not served by it.
4
11-12
The area lacks adequate NMT facilities
Results and discussion
Non-motorized Transportation coverage score in different areas
Non-motorized Transportation coverage is measured using equation one (Eq1) for the
ten selected study sites. Table 5 presents total length of road networks available in selected
areas and total length of road network for NMT as well as network coverage scoring.
Table 5: Non-motorized Transportation coverage score in different areas
Study Area
Total length of
road network
(Km)
Total length of
road network
for NMT (Km)
Total length of
roads without
NMT (Km)
Network
coverage
(%)
NMT
coverage
scoring
Mirpur-10
13.38
12.37
1.01
95.26
1
Technical Morh
3.18
2.65
0.53
83.36
1
Shyamoli
6.16
4.65
1.51
75.51
1
Mohakhali
6.24
4.38
1.86
70.19
1
Gulshan
3.32
1.3
2.02
39.15
2
Mogbazar
10.92
10.92
0
100
1
Science Laboratory
5.14
2.89
2.25
56.12
1
Farmgate
6.56
4.58
1.98
69.82
1
Motijheel
5.45
3.93
1.52
72.11
1
Jatrabari
9.84
9.84
0
100
1
Source: Field Survey, 2014
Table 5 shows that only Gulshan area is scored as two (2) and the other nine areas are
scored one (1). According to standard non-motorized network coverage at Gulshan is good
and other nine areas are highly satisfactory. In Gulshan area, network coverage value is less
than forty percent for NMT. This indicates that many roads are banned for the movement of
NMT. This increased dependability of the transport uses toward other public and private
vehicles. It also decreases the reliability toward the NMT in this area. In Mogbazar and
Jatrabari area, non-motorized network coverage value is one hundred. It means that every
primary and secondary roads of this area are allowed for non-motorized transport. This
indicates high connectivity and integrity between motorized and non-motorized road
networks.
Non-motorized Transportation access time score in different areas
Access time in this context is the duration of time that a traveler need to get a Non-
motorized Transportation that indicates NMT’s efficiency with overall transport system
quality. Lower access time specifies higher-level supply of NMT, efficient network of NMT,
more reliability with NMT and overall higher quality of Non-motorized Transportation and
vice versa. Table 6 shows average access time and Non-motorized Transportation access time
score in different areas.
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Table 6: Non-motorized Transportation access time score in different areas
Study Area
Average access time (min)
NMT access time Scoring
Mirpur 10
2.7
2
Technical Morh
6.2
4
Shymoli
2.4
2
Mohakhali
6.5
4
Gulshan 1
2.8
2
Mog bazar
2.9
2
Farmgate
2.8
2
Science lab
5.7
3
Motijheel
2.6
2
Jatrabari
5.6
3
Source: Field Survey, 2014
Maximum average access time is seen in Mohakhali area. This area is characterized by
different banning situation of rickshaws. As a result, non-motorized transports are bound to
move within a fixed circulation of roads. It is the least desirable and worse situation for Non-
motorized Transportation access. It indicates poor access and requires good planning to
improve the situation. Technical morh is another area where average access time is greater
than six minutes. Mirpur road is banned for rickshaw movement. NMT scores for access time
is four (4) which indicates poor access and demand improved traffic control system. Both
Jarta bari and Science lab has access score of three (3) that indicates tolerable access period
but still need improvement. However, access time for getting NMT is lowest for Shyamoli
area. This area is characterized by many secondary and access road. Rickshaws are found in
every secondary and access road in this area. Non-motorized Transportation access time for
Mirpur section 10, Gulshan 1, Farm-gate, Motijheel areas are less than three minutes which
indicates scores two (2) which indicates acceptable access period.
Non-motorized Transportation parking facilities score in different areas
Several interchanges are identified from different study areas and have examined for
existence of designated parking facilities for NMT. Unfortunately, there are no interchanges
in any area where designated interchanges are found. Transportation planning authority does
not consider this fact for their design, layout and other transportation related aspects. High
land price of the adjacent land of interchanges make it difficult to provide designated parking
facilities for NMT Table 7 shows Non-motorized Transportation parking facilities score in
different areas.
Table 7: Non-motorized Transportation parking facilities score in different areas
Area
NMT parking facilities Scoring
Mirpur-10
4
Technical Morh
4
Shyamoli
4
Mohakhali
4
Gulshan
4
Mogbazar
4
Science Laboratory
4
Farmgate
4
Motijheel
4
Jatrabari
4
Source: Field Survey, 2014
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Absence of designated parking space reduces reliability of NMT as a result people
more depend on private vehicles for their journey. Table 7 shows that score of every area is
four (4) which indicates worse situation of every area in terms of providing parking facilities.
Non-motorized Transportation facilities index values in different areas
All three parameters are expressed combined Non-motorized Transportation facilities
index in different areas to deliver a holistic view of Non-motorized Transportation scenario
of selected area to analyze present quality of Non-motorized Transportation systems of
Dhaka city. Table 8 shows Non-motorized Transportation facilities score in different areas.
Table 8: Non-motorized Transportation facilities score in different areas
Study
Area
coverage
scoring
parking
facilities
Scoring
Access
time
Scoring
Calculated
scoring
Overall
score
Descriptor
Mirpur-10
1
4
2
7
2
Medium
Technical
1
4
4
9
3
Bad
Shyamoli
1
4
2
7
2
Medium
Mohakhali
1
4
4
9
3
Bad
Gulshan
2
4
2
8
2
Medium
Mogbazar
1
4
2
7
2
Medium
Science lab
1
4
2
7
2
Medium
Farmgate
1
4
3
8
2
Medium
Motijheel
1
4
2
7
2
Medium
Jatrabari
1
4
3
8
2
Medium
Source: Field Survey, 2014
Table 8 shows that out of ten study areas only two areas score as three that indicates
bad situation in terms of NMT system of the study area. These two study areas are Technical
morh and Mohakhali. Additionally, NMT coverage of Technical morh and Mohakhali are
satisfactory yet in both cases, NMT parking facility and access time of getting NMT is worse
for these areas. If any improvements in future will be conceptualized for NMT, these two
areas should have priority. Overall, scores of other eight study areas is same and that is two
(2) which indicates medium level of existing quality of NMT systems.
Conclusion
Analysis of “Non-motorized transportation index (NTFI)”, has observed that; NMT
service coverage is adequate in Dhaka city. However, the service coverage is quite good in
the access roads or feeder roads and in many areas; and NMT access is banned on the major
roads (Bari and Efroymson, 2005). Another common phenomenon for NMT is that, they have
no designated parking or waiting place. Thus, they usually roaming randomly within the area
and mostly parked near the interchanges by blocking the road space for pedestrian and
motorized vehicles.
NMT services are yet playing vital role in Dhaka city’s public transportation. This
mode has a large potential in developing sustainable transportation in Dhaka city. Being an
energy efficient mode, this mode can work as complementary public travel mode for the city
(Rahman, 2009). Separate lanes for NMT (i.e. Rickshaw, Cycle) would encourage increase in
the usage of NMT in all areas of the city. Promoting campaign for cycle usage among the
young generation has already showing a considerable change in travel pattern in Dhaka,
many students are using cycle now. Investment in NMT infrastructure thus would reduces
pressure on motorized vehicle and ensures the connectivity of NMT network. Along with
this, if proper parking facilities were provided near the interchanges, the scenario of Dhaka
city transportation would take a dramatic change.
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Brief biographies of the authors
S M Labib
Mr S.M. Labib graduated from the Bangladesh University of Engineering and
technology (BUET) on Urban and regional planning in year 2014 and currently doing Master
degree in Geographical information Science at the University of Manchester. Labib worked
as GIS expert in Institute of Water modeling (IWM) in Bangladesh, and also worked as urban
planner in Department of Urban and regional planning, BUET. Labib is “Equity and Merit
Scholar” at the University of Manchester (UK).
Zahidur Rahaman
Mr Zahidur Rahaman graduated from the Bangladesh University of Engineering and
technology (BUET) on Urban and regional planning and currently working as “Urban
Planner” at Paraa, a UK based architectural studio, focusing on enhancing spaces for
communiAes in Bangladesh through multi-disciplinary practice.
Shahadath Hossain Patwary
Md. Shahadath Hossain Patwary graduated from the Bangladesh University of
Engineering and technology (BUET) on Urban and regional planning and currently working
as Assistant Urban Planner, Research & Compliance, Sheltech (Pvt.) Ltd. As well as
Shahadat is doing is Masters in Development studies, from Department of development
studies, in Dhaka University.
... There is a long-standing debate whether NMV should be allowed on the arterial roads of Dhaka. Labib et al. [1] promoted NMV as an environment friendly fuel free vehicle which meets up passengers' demand greatly in Dhaka city. NMV vehicle, such as, Rickshaw reduced motor cars speed significantly in the heterogeneous traffic stream [2]. ...
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... The major arterial roads of Dhaka do not provide access for fuel free transport modes such as bicycles or rickshaws (Mahmud et al., 2012). In this study, the nodes examined in the AOIs were connecting major arterial roads, It must be noted that FFTs do not emit CO 2 , and they are widely used in secondary or access roads in Dhaka city (Labib et al., 2016). However, while it might be speculated that the absence of FFTs on major roads might be a reason for greater CO 2 production in these nodes due to the increased use of motorized alternatives there is the issue highlighted by the present study that major arteries in Dhaka are near, at, or over their capacity limits. ...
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CO2 emissions from urban traffic are a major concern in an era of increasing ecological disequilibrium. Adding to the problem net CO2 emissions in urban settings are worsened due to the decline of bio-productive areas in many cities. This decline exacerbates the lack of capacity to sequestrate CO2 at the micro and meso-scales resulting in increased temperatures and decreased air quality within city boundaries. Various transportation and environmental strategies have been implemented to address traffic related CO2 emissions, however current literature identifies difficulties in pinpointing these critical areas of maximal net emissions in urban transport networks. This study attempts to close this gap in the literature by creating a new lay-person friendly index that combines CO2 emissions from vehicles and the bio-capacity of specific traffic zones to identify these areas at the meso-scale within four ranges of values with the lowest index values representing the highest net CO2 levels. The study used traffic volume, fuel types, and vehicular travel distance to estimate CO2 emissions at major links in Dhaka, Bangladesh's capital city's transportation network. Additionally, using remote-sensing tools, adjacent bio-productive areas were identified and their bio-capacity for CO2 sequestration estimated. The bio-productive areas were correlated with each traffic zone under study resulting in an Emission Bio-Capacity index (EBI) value estimate for each traffic node. Among the ten studied nodes in Dhaka City, nine had very low EBI values, correlating to very high CO2 emissions and low bio-capacity. As a result, the study considered these areas unsustainable as traffic nodes going forward. Key reasons for unsustainability included increasing use of motorized traffic, absence of optimized signal systems, inadequate public transit options, disincentives for fuel free transport (FFT), and a decline in bio-productive areas.
Conference Paper
The changing wave of national transportation policies, shifting its course from ensuring mobility towards accessibility, has been quite a new phenomenon in developing countries. The National Integrated Multimodal Transport Policy (NIMTP) 2013, not only focuses on providing accessibility through integrated sustainable transportation modes but also emphasizes on transit equity when a transportation investment decision is made. Down this line, the government of Bangladesh has undertaken the development of Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) to curb the city’s transportation issues, among so many, namely traffic congestion. The study intended to assess accessibility and equity across TAZs using a multimodal network dataset. The study mainly focused to evaluate how the proposed MRT would impact accessibility and transit equity to the prevailing context created by the public bus network. Working population across the TAZs were classified into low - income and high-income groups based on their association in low-skilled job industry and high-skilled job industry. The population of these groups were considered as demand, and the accessibility scores were compared against them to analyze how the introduction of MRT would influence equity. Accessibility estimates were made for 30 minutes, 45 minutes and 60 minutes interval. Development of Lorenz curve and Gini index revealed that the introduction of MRT is less likely to contribute to improve inequity between these groups even though accessibility is likely to increase significantly within groups. These result would contribute to help understand the gap between the formulated national level policy and the extent of execution from the context of a developing country.
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This paper offers an alternative conceptualization of informality within the transport sector. While it shows that informal transport is a far from trivial component of urban economies, it also highlights the sometimes problematic use of informality to homogeneously describe various public transport modes within the Southeast Asian transport landscape. It initially reviews a number of contested assumptions in the informality discourse within the context of public transportation in developing cities. It then proposes the concept of indigenous transport as a potential alternative, arguing that such perspective may better acknowledge and describe the mode's local and vernacular qualities as well as its complementary and supplementary functions. For the purposes of this paper, indigenous transport is described to pertain to those modes that respond to local demand, evolved based on local conditions and endemic to local mobility cultures. The indigenous transport framework aims to elucidate the five key characteristics of indigenous transport modes from a transport user's perspective. This is supported by an empirical study conducted in three Southeast Asian developing cities of varying geographical scales, namely Baguio (Philippines), Bandung (Indonesia) and Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam) to provide evidence that a transport user's prism will and can authentically present an alternative version of informality, and assist in painting an overall picture of the role of indigenous transport within the transport system of developing cities.
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Abstrak. Integrasi infrastruktur transportasi dan perkembangan kota harus ditingkatkan kepentingannya. Di banyak kota di belahan bumi bagian selatan, investasi pada Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) memberikan kesempatan untuk peningkatan tersebut. Akan tetapi, sampai saat ini, sistem BRT telah gagal dalam menciptakan pembangunan yang kompak dan multi-guna bukan saja karena kurangnya perencanaan strategis kawasan stasiun tetapi juga dampak dari penempatan jalur-jalur dan stasiun pada wilayah perkotaan yang stagnan dan pada median jalan yang sibuk. Sistem BRT selama ini dipertimbangkan dan dirancang sebagai suatu investasi pergerakan dan bukan pembentuk kota. Disebabkan mayoritas pertumbuhan kota di masa depan di seluruh dunia akan berada pada kota-kota menengah yang cocok untuk investasi BRT, kesempatan untuk membuat sistem BRT sebagai investasi pembentuk kota tidak boleh disia-siakan. Pembangunan yang berorientasi transit adalah salah satu dari sejumlah model yang paling menjanjikan untuk mendorong pola pergerakan dan urbanisasi yang lebih berkelanjutan di kota-kota di belahan bumi selatan.Kata kunci. Transportasi publik, bus rapid transit, tata guna lahan, keberlanjutan, pembangunan berorientasi transitAbstract. The integration of transport infrastructure and urban development must be elevated in importance. In many cities of the Global South, recent Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) investments provide an unprecedented opportunity to do just that. To date, however, BRT systems have failed to leverage compact, mixed-use development due not only to little strategic station-area planning but also factors like siting lines and stations in stagnant urban districts and busy roadway medians. BRT systems are being conceived and designed as mobility investments rather than city-shaping ones. Given that the majority of future urban growth worldwide will be in intermediate-size cities well-suited for BRT investments, the opportunities for making these not only mobility investments but city-shaping investments as well should not be squandered. Transit-oriented development is but one of a number of built forms that hold considerable promise toward placing cities of the Global South on more sustainable mobility and urbanization pathways.Keywords. Public Transport, bus rapid transit, land use, sustainability, transit oriented development
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Cities worldwide are increasingly becoming agents of climate change mitigation, while simultaneously aiming for other goals, such as improved accessibility and clean air. Based on stakeholder interviews and data analysis, we assess the current state of urban mobility in the four European cities of Barcelona, Malmö, Sofia and Freiburg. We then provide scenarios of increasingly ambitious policy packages, reducing greenhouse gas emissions from urban transport by up to 80% from 2010 to 2040. We find significant concurrent co-benefits in cleaner air, reduced noise ambience, fewer traffic-related injuries and deaths, more physical activity, less congestion and monetary fuel savings. Our scenarios suggest that non-motorized transport, especially bicycles, can occupy high modal shares, particularly in cities with less than 0.5 million inhabitants. We think that this kind of multi-criteria assessment of social costs and benefits is a useful complement to cost–benefit analysis of climate change mitigation measures.
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Lack of a clear understanding regarding the economic impacts of non-motorized modes is a major reason why they are excluded from the transportation development agenda of cities in India. Keeping this aspect in mind the present study has been divided in to two parts. The first part tries to understand the non-motorized traffic evolution in India. It focuses on the declination of non-motorized modes, necessity to revamp it, the favorable conditions to promote them in India and the relative problems associated with it. It is found here that there is a necessity for defining the role of non-motorized modes in India for the viable implementation of infrastructure and policies related with it.The second part consists of two case studies of Bangalore city where the economic benefits are worked out. The first case study provides a framework for monetizing the economic benefits of non-motorized modes. Here the economic benefits of congestion and air pollution reduction, accident and vehicle cost reduction are considered and total savings are worked out. A savings of Indian Rupees (Rs.) 250,000 was found for an assumed 1% shift of travelers to non-motorized mode in a single day. The second one enlists the expected economic benefits associated with pedestrianization of a major arterial called M.G road in Bangalore and estimates a savings of 1611.4 Rs./day due to air pollution and accident reduction. The economic benefits thus found could be used to convince the policy makers and also to form a framework within which decisions can be made regarding non-motorized modes.
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All through the twentieth century transportation planning and the implementation of transportation facilities in the developing world was heavily weighted toward motorized transportation (MT), despite the fact that non-motorized transportation (NMT) constitutes a significant proportion of all trips. However, in the last two decades many researchers and practitioners all across the world have recognized the importance and advantages of NMT, and their investigations and findings have contributed toward identifying, if not mitigating, some of the more glaring problems in these countries. Unfortunately, most of these investigations have been performed in a piece-meal and disjointed fashion. This paper explores the complex and sometimes poorly understood set of relationships between transportation and its links to a myriad of other factors, such as landuse, sustainability, safety, energy, ethical issues, value of time, telecommunication, environmental justice, and equity. The main objective of this paper is to provide a systemic overview of NMT by describing its multi-dimensional aspects and to assist developing countries in formulating an “Agenda for Action”.
Non-motorized Transport: confronting poverty through affordable mobility
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