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Tannins and Their Effects on Poultry Nutrition

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Abstract

One of the most important secondary metabolite found in cereals, legumes, vegetables and fruits is tannins. Tannins are polymeric phenolic compounds in the amorphous structure which are nitrogen-free, hydrolyzed and condensed forms. Tannins that can be hydrolyzed are found in smaller amounts in plants. Condensed tannins have flavanovid units resistant to hydrolysis. Tannins have antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial and antiparasitic functions. On the other hand, due to their anti-nutritional contents, they have some negative effects on poultry. According to ruminants, poultry are more sensitive to tannins. High amounts of tannins lead to performance losses in poultry, such as reduced appetite, reduced feed intake, and poor nutrient absorption. Tannins, also known as potent liver and kidney poisons, cause poultry to develop bone disorders and pathological changes at various levels in tissues, irritated in esophagus, necrosis in crop, gizzard, and duodenum. In this review, the characteristics of tannins, their classification, practices that reduce the amount of tannins, and the general effects of tannins on feeding of poultry have been examined.
Tannins and Their Effects on Poultry Nutrition
Süleyman ÇALIŞLAR
1 The University of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam, Faculty of Agriculture Engineering,
Department of Animal Science Engineering, Kahramanmaraş / Turkey
*Corresponding Author: scalislar@ksu.edu.tr
Abstract
One of the most important secondary metabolite found in cereals, legumes, vegetables and
fruits is tannins. Tannins are polymeric phenolic compounds in the amorphous structure
which are nitrogen-free, hydrolyzed and condensed forms. Tannins that can be hydrolyzed are
found in smaller amounts in plants. Condensed tannins have flavanovid units resistant to
hydrolysis. Tannins have antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial and antiparasitic
functions. On the other hand, due to their anti-nutritional contents, they have some negative
effects on poultry. According to ruminants, poultry are more sensitive to tannins. High
amounts of tannins lead to performance losses in poultry, such as reduced appetite, reduced
feed intake, and poor nutrient absorption. Tannins, also known as potent liver and kidney
poisons, cause poultry to develop bone disorders and pathological changes at various levels in
tissues, irritated in esophagus, necrosis in crop, gizzard, and duodenum. In this review, the
characteristics of tannins, their classification, practices that reduce the amount of tannins, and
the general effects of tannins on feeding of poultry have been examined.
Keywords: Tannin, Phenolic compound, Poultry nutrition, effect
... The negative effect of higher doses of tannin extracts can be explained by the significant reduction in feed intake, resulting in lower weight gain [6,7,11,40]. The negative effects of high concentrations of tannins on feed intake in broilers can be caused by irritation of the esophagus and necrosis in crop, gizzard, and duodenum [42]. Some authors [8,43] reported a reduction in growth performance and FCR even with an addition level of 10 g/kg of tannin extract. ...
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The objective of this study was to establish the effects of chestnut tannin extract or vitamin E added to linseed oil-enriched diets on growth performance, meat quality, and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 240 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were included in trial. 5% of cold-pressed linseed oil was included in finisher diets (21–40 days), and three feeding treatments with four replicates were formed: finisher without additives; finisher + 200 IU vitamin E/kg; finisher + 500 mg/kg of chestnut wood tannin extract. No significant influence of treatments was established on body weight or feed conversion ratio. A negative effect on feed intake (p < 0.05) was found in the vitamin E group. The addition of vitamin E increased the dressing percentage (p < 0.05) and increased the breast meat yield (p < 0.01) compared to the control group. No significant effects were found on the water holding capacity or pH of breast meat. The highest level of AST (p < 0.01) and ALT (p < 0.05) was recorded in vitamin E group. The addition of chestnut tannin extract in feed increased villus height, villus height: crypt depth ratio, and villus area compared to the other two groups (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that vitamin E supplementation improves carcass percentage and breast meat yield, while chestnut tannins improve the intestinal morphology of broiler chickens when added to oil-enriched diets.
... Reduced BW in broiler fed supplemental TA on D 21 would be primarily due to reduced feed intake on D 7 to 14 because no statistical differences were observed in ADG, ADFI and FCR on D 21 in the current study. High concentrations of TA can reduce feed intake in broilers by causing irritation in esophagus and necrosis in crop, gizzard, and duodenum (Suleyman, 2017). The BW of broilers on D 21 started to be decreased when greater than 972 mg/kg of supplemental TA was offered to the birds, which implies that TA at levels less than 972 mg/kg can be used in broilers without compromising growth rate in broilers. ...
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This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of tannic acid (TA) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, gut health, immune system, oxidative status, microbial composition, volatile fatty acids (VFA), bone mineral density, and fat digestion and accumulation in broilers and to find optimal dosages of TA for efficient growth and gut health in broilers. A total of 320 male Cobb500 broilers were randomly distributed to 4 treatments with 8 replicates including 1) tannic acid 0 (TA0): basal diet without TA; 2) tannic acid 0.5 (TA0.5): basal diet with 0.5 g/kg TA; 3) tannic acid 1.5 (TA1.5); and 4) tannic acid 2.5 (TA2.5). Supplemental TA at levels greater than 972 mg/kg tended to reduce BW on D 21 ( p = 0.05). The TA2.5 had significantly lower apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein compared to the TA0 group. The AID of ether extract tended to be reduced by TA at levels greater than 525 mg/kg ( p = 0.08). The jejunal lipase activities tended to be reduced by TA at levels less than 595.3 mg/kg ( p = 0.09). TA linearly decreased goblet cell density in the crypts of the jejunum ( p < 0.05) and reduced mRNA expression of mucin two at levels less than 784.9 mg/kg and zonula occludens two at levels less than 892.6 mg/kg ( p < 0.05). The TA0.5 group had higher activities of liver superoxide dismutase compared to the TA0 group ( p < 0.05). Bone mineral density and contents tended to be linearly decreased by TA ( p = 0.05), and the ratio of lean to fat was linearly decreased ( p < 0.01). Total cecal VFA production tended to be linearly reduced by TA at levels greater than 850.9 mg/kg ( p = 0.07). Supplemental TA tended to increase the relative abundance of the phylum Bacteroidetes ( p = 0.1) and decrease the relative abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria ( p = 0.1). The relative abundance of the family Rikenellaceae was the lowest at 500 mg/kg TA, and the relative abundance of the family Bacillaceae was the highest at 1,045 mg/kg TA. Collectively, these results indicate that the optimum level of supplemental TA would range between 500 and 900 mg/kg; this range of TA supplementation would improve gut health without negatively affecting growth performance in broilers under antibiotic-free conditions.
... The mineral concentration of Leucaena leaves will meet the nutrient requirement for the production for growing chickens. Tannins are being efficiently utilized and included in a components diet of poultry for enhancement of animal overall performance and also to control diseases (Suleyman 2017). Dietary tannins are said to reduce feed efficiency and growth rate in chicks (Dei et al. 2007) when fed in large quantities. ...
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The objective of the study was to determine the apparent digestibility and nutrient composition of Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal (LLM) inclusion in Black Australorp and Potchefstroom Koekoek diets. Tender and mature leaves were separately harvested from 10 individual trees and stored separately for chemical analyses. The leaves were air-dried in a well-ventilated laboratory to constant weight and milled to pass through a 1-mm sieve. A mixture of tender and mature leaves was also collected to produce a bulk leaf meal. The four iso-nitrogenous dietary treatments were 0 (control), 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% of LLM, respectively. The apparent digestibility of two chicken breeds was also evaluated. The dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), ether extract (EE), cellulose and hemicellulose of the samples did not differ between tender and mature leaves. Tender leaves had higher (P < 0.05) calcium, potassium, magnesium and sodium concentration than mature leaves. Crude protein and mimosine content were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in tender than in mature leaves. The inclusion levels of L. leucocephala leaf meal affect (P < 0.05) acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) digestibility. Crude protein digestibility decreases as the inclusion levels of L. leucocephala increase. Both tender and mature L. leucocephala leaves have a potential nutritional value that can be used in feedstuff and can be used as a protein supplement for Black Australorp and Potchefstroom Koekoek chicken breeds.
... It can be also related to the length of time because too long infusion can cause high tannin content and tannins at high levels can result in mortality. According to Calislar (2017), poultry develops bone problems and necrotic organs (crop, gizzard, and duodenum) resulting from liver and kidney poisoning due to excess tannin consumption. Smulikowska et al. (2001) also reported that inclusion of feed ingredients containing tannins resulted in undesirable physiological and biochemical effects including growth inhibition and negative nitrogen balances. ...
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