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An Invitation of Reflexive Sociology

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... Bourdieu explains that habitus informs the way individuals develop a sense of and taste for the games they play. Once individuals are drawn by the allure of a particular game, such as employment, they may fall under the spell of that game, which is called illusio (Bourdieu and Wacquant, 1992). We refer to toxic illusio when individuals lose their ability to have a healthy critical distance from the consequences of the games they play (Mergen and Ӧzbilgin, 2021). ...
... Illusio refers to the 'rules of the game' and their acceptation by the 'players' in a given field (Bourdieu and Wacquant, 1992). Illusio expresses the commitment of the players in any field to invest in its stakes; that is to say, in its objects of value. ...
... It is through illusio that players bring their habitus to the field and engage with the practices that constitute it. The stakes that inspire this engagement are the objects of value in the field and include values and beliefs (Bourdieu and Wacquant, 1992). However, depending on their social position in the field, players have both a different 'point of view' of the field and differing access to the resources in the field (Bourdieu, 1988), which has an impact on their ability to follow the rules of the game. ...
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Adopting a Bourdieusian perspective, this paper examines the social structures that influence the labour market participation of individuals with mental illness. We draw on 257 qualitative surveys completed by individuals with diagnosed mental health conditions in Europe, North America, Oceania, Africa, and Asia. We employed thematic analysis to analyse the data. The findings reveal that the interplay of capital endowments, symbolic violence, habitus and illusio shape the labour market participation of individuals with mental illness. Capital endowments of individuals with mental illness are afforded less value in the labour market and these individuals internalize, legitimize and normalize their disadvantaged position, blaming themselves rather than questioning the social structures leading to the challenges they encounter. We highlight that social structures condition the opinion these individuals have of themselves and how this affects how they navigate the labour market. In sum, we show that Bourdieu’s concepts provide a useful lens to study inequalities in the labour market, as they reveal the social structures that produce, sustain and reinforce the social order that disadvantages individuals with mental illness.
... We also draw extensively on Simon-Maeda's (2004) work on tracing EFL teachers' professional identity enactment in their life histories. Accordingly, we examine the transnational habitus -a key aspect of identity development (see the next section) -of a focal participant in order to better understand the dynamic relationship between Erasmus+ as a field (Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992) and the participant's professional habitus as a transnational TESOL practitioner. Our focal TESOL practitioner, Kemal (a pseudonym), had participated in three Erasmus+ sponsored mobility experiences that subsequently transformed his identity as an invested transnational practitioner. ...
... This observation was underscored by Bourdieu (1990), who argued that habitus and field are inextricably linked; the field structures habitus, and habitus is constitutive of the field. In this sense, as the habitus refers to the set of dispositions and schemata of actions (Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992), which is a construct in flux (Friedman, 2012), fields are the locus of this construction. However, even when individuals make sense of their doxa in fields of practice within its system of actions, their existing habitus continue to inform how they navigate the new fields (Soong et al., 2018). ...
... An individual's agency and growth in a particular field is motivated by his pursuit of capital (Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992;Darvin & Norton, 2015;Grenfell, 2011). This argument is supported by Kemal's pursuit of becoming a transnational TESOL practitioner, which was driven by his desire to enjoy and reap the rewards of certain profits that he associated with Erasmus+. ...
... For Bourdieu (1984) the struggle for power takes place in a field, which is the social space or 'arena' in which individuals operate within a set of defined rules (Bourdieu and Wacquant 1992). Through institutionally transmitted symbolic violence, the dominant group within the field seeks to control other groups. ...
... Threat, struggle, and acts of symbolic violence take place in a field; a social space or 'arena' with its own set of rules that individuals operate within and which have potential for change at any time (Bourdieu and Wacquant 1992). Bourdieu uses the metaphor of a football field or a battle field to demonstrate his concept of field as a bounded space, where groups of individuals struggle to gain and maintain dominance (Bourdieu 1990;Grenfell 2014). ...
... Symbolic violence then, is exercised upon the dominated groups to legitimise existing inequities that are driven by social structures that impose violence themselves. But unlike structural violence, symbolic violence includes the complicity of the dominated (Bourdieu and Passeron 1990;Bourdieu and Wacquant 1992). While symbolic violence could be considered a 'gentler' violence, it is just as destructive and nonetheless results in struggle (Grenfell 2014, 180). ...
Article
If centralising university services is regarded as operationally ineffective, why do managerialised universities continue to organise themselves this way? We investigate an occurrence of this paradox at a regional Australian university, where professional staff services were centralised for a period of 7 years. They were separated from academics and their role repurposed to focus on student needs rather than continuing to support academics. As a method of analysis, we use a Bourdieusian lens to illuminate the power dynamics between fields to reveal, what we argue appears to be a symbolically violent view of centralising services. We conclude that universities continue to centralise services to increase management power, yet this strategy undermines managerialism’s own efforts of increasing operational outcomes because it increases conflict between the staff it relies on to be a university.
... De acordo com Bourdieu, pensar em termos de campo é pensar em termos relacionais (Wacquant, 1989). Na verdade, ele define o campo como uma rede, ou uma configuração, de relações objetivas entre posições (Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992). O campo é uma estrutura de dominação na qual diferentes agentes (tanto individuais quanto coletivos) se envolvem em lutas. ...
... A nível nacional, as relações da UMAR com o "campo do poder" (Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992) Recorde-se que, tal como noutros contextos, também em Portugal as políticas da prostituição mudaram várias vezes ao longo do tempo. Desde 1982, a prostituição tem sido descriminalizada, mas não tem sido reconhecida pelo Estado como uma atividade profissional regulamentada e são criminalizadas atividades relacionadas, como a prática de lenocínio (Graça & Gonçalves, 2016;Oliveira, 2017). ...
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O artigo analisa o papel das organizações não governamentais (ONG) na construção do cam-po de combate ao tráfico de pessoas, isto é, na conceituação do tráfico e das suas vítimas e na elaboração de políticas e práticas para o combater. Mobilizando entrevistas, observação e investigação documen-tal e adotando uma perspetiva histórica, o artigo incide na análise da experiência portuguesa. O artigo argumenta que, em contextos caracterizados por um alto nível de institucionalização do campo de combate ao tráfico e por uma fragilidade estrutural da sociedade civil organizada, as ONG envolvidas no processo de terceirização dos serviços antitráfico não interpelam as políticas e as práticas do comba-te ao tráfico-incluindo a controversa abordagem securitária, focada na persecução dos traficantes, que caracteriza o combate ao tráfico. Tais práticas incluem o silenciamento de qualquer debate sobre a prostituição, pelo menos no aparelho de combate ao tráfico. Palavras-chave: tráfico de pessoas, ONG, estudos críticos do tráfico, Portugal.
... This more process-oriented view of human interaction is articulated clearly in the work of Pierre Bourdieu. His work provides a theoretical base as well as terminology which fits well with the orientation of this study (Bourdieu, 1991(Bourdieu, , 1998Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992). For Bourdieu, human behaviour can best be understood as an ongoing process of negotiating desired outcomes. ...
Thesis
p>Globalization has meant increased contact between cultural communities throughout the world. This contact is at times relatively shallow - involving, for example, tourism or short-term travel - and at others relatively deep, as during study-abroad programs, expatriate job assignments, or immigration. Whether shallow or deep, intercultural experiences create adaptive demands for the sojourner. This ‘cultural learning’ may involve explicit demands, such as figuring out a subway system, or relatively deeper challenges, such as learning a new language, adapting one’s communication style, or understanding a different cultural world view. This study examines the nature of these shallow and deep intercultural learning experiences. It seeks to answer the questions: 1) How can we describe the depths and intensity of different cultural learning experiences? and 2) How can we use this increased understanding to inform intercultural education? The methodology involves interviewing expatriates, some of whom have relatively isolated and shallow experiences abroad, and others who have involved themselves more deeply in their new environment. Analysis focuses on comparing the level of intercultural sensitivity of sojourners who have had varying depths of intercultural experiences. The depth of sojourners cultural learning is examined from the point of view of relationships with cultural hosts as well as foreign language ability. The level of intercultural sensitivity is examined using the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (M.J. Bennett, 1993). Results show that a sojourner’s reaction to hidden cultural difference is key to understanding intercultural learning, and that deeper intercultural contact can create greater intercultural empathy, but can also increase resistance to cultural difference. Results also show that while competing models of intercultural learning providing effective conceptual frameworks for understanding different elements of intercultural learning, no existing model incorporates the sojourners’ reactions to implicit and explicit cultural difference. A new model of intercultural learning is presented which incorporates these elements, and which is intended for use in designing intercultural education initiatives.</p
... According to Bourdieu and Wacquant (Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992), acknowledging that "capital can take a variety of forms is indispensable to explain the structure and dynamics of differentiated societies." In "The Forms of Capital" (1986) Bourdieu differentiates between four types of capital. ...
Article
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Self-reported health (SRH) is one of the most frequently used measures for examining socioeconomic inequalities in health. Studies find that when faced with ‘identical objective health’, individuals in lower socioeconomic groups consistently report worse SRH than those in higher socioeconomic groups. Such findings are often dismissed as being the result of reporting bias, and existing literature dominated by the biomedical conception of SRH has not investigated the underlying social mechanisms at work. To address this limitation, drawing on the work of Bourdieu we employ a relational thinking between health and social position. By way of multiple correspondence analysis, we construct social space of health determinants for three European countries from different welfare states and map the trajectories of educational groups experiencing similar levels of morbidity and their relation to SRH. Differences in SRH observed among social groups for the same level of morbidity are understood in relation to the position and the relative power of individuals in different educational groups to maintain or improve their social conditions, especially with increasing levels of health loss. Our analysis indicates that reporting differences in SRH among educational groups emerges from objectively healthy individuals and follows differences in accumulation of social advantages and disadvantages.
... It includes those like Sartre, who fetishized the egological starting point and discovered in the cogito's existential dread the ultimate evidence of being's self-alienation, self-creation, and the impossibility of real sociality. The egological method has been used by critics ranging from Adorno (1940) and Habermas (1992) to Bourdieu (1990;Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992) to reject phenomenology as serving little to no purpose in social analysis due to its "subjectivist" and "solipsistic" method (Pula, 2021). ...
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What are social objects and what makes them different from other realms of scientifically studied reality? How can sociology theoretically account for the relationship between objects of social reality such as norms and social structures, and their existence as objects of experience for living human actors? Contemporary sociology is characterized by a fundamental dissensus with regard to this question. Ironically, this is the very problem Alfred Schutz tackled in his phenomenological critique of Max Weber’s sociological theory. As Schutz demonstrated nearly a century ago, phenomenology’s egological method is indispensable to a non-reductionist theory of intersubjectivity, namely, one that does full justice to embodied conscious life while demonstrating the relative independence of the intersubjective (social) sphere. In the process, Schutz’s mundane phenomenology results not only in a thorough rejection of all kinds of philosophical solipsism but also warns of the dangers, one that Husserl himself succumbed to, of granting collective structures transcendental status. Through a critical reading of Schutz’s early theory in the Phenomenology of the Social World, alongside key texts by Husserl, this paper shows the continued relevance of Schutz’s phenomenological theory of intersubjectivity to serve both as ontological grounding of “the social” and a method for investigating and describing concrete social objects in their transformation into theoretico-analytical objects amenable to empirical observation.
... The definitions and territories associated with each of these terms is complex and this analysis will identify distinct features and relationships between these concepts. Reflexivity is interpreted in various ways by different writers influenced by their particular social, historical and epistemological spheres of interest (Gouldner 1971, Hammersley & Atkinson 1995, Bourdieu & Wacquant 1992, Beck et al 1994, Giddens 1984, Archer 2007). Gouldner 's contribution (1971) was to argue for a more reflexive sociology as a means of Chapter 2: Examining the literature addressing the "coming crisis" in sociology brought about by postmodern challenges to the dominant techno-rational paradigm and positivist methodologies which had failed to understand the importance of the subjective in knowledge production (Kane 2007). ...
Thesis
p>The contribution of online learning environments to learning in higher education is examined by investigating what pedagogib approaches work and under what conditions, through comparative analysis of students' and tutors' experiences in six online learning initiatives selected as case studies, using interviews with tutors (N=7), and focus groups, nominal group technique and a questionnaire with students (N=121), to illuminate congruence and disjuncture associated with agential, practical and structural factors. A synergy between two distinct theoretical fields, Dewey's (1933, 1938) classical pragmatist approach to education and Archer's (1982, 2000a,) more contemporary critical realist approach in social theory is combined, to propose a theory of learning as transformation of experience through praxis and reflexivity, addressing the wholeness of human beings operating with their senses, emotions and cognitions in real and challenging situations. b Findings highlight praxis differences between learning as discursive knowledge and transformational learning through experience, between ontological security and risk, reflection and reflexivity, time-space distanciation and time-space compression, and between learning as product or process (Bruner 1966, Giddens 1984, 1991, Harvey 1990, Lash 2002). The scope of online learning is challenged by the tension between learning as a "quick fix" information commodity (Lash 2002) and as a purposeful human process (Dewey 1933) with structural implications through the radicalisation of time and space. The study reveals the significance of Archer's work as a powerful methodological framework for understanding the complexities of e-learning but also contends it is a model for understanding the learning process and enhancing educational practice. Archer's approach provides the ontological foundation for learning theories situated in practical action and reflexivity, with practice placed at the centre of learning supported by reflexivity as a key component of learning. This stance acknowledges the influence of prior experiences, situating learning in its social context and suggesting benefits of a systems approach to understanding learning where significant natural, practical and social order factors interplay, giving equal precedence to individual and structural enablements and constraints influencing morphostasis and morphogenesis in pedagogical praxis.</p
... Social media facilitates connections with strong ties, such as close friends and relatives, but also with weak ties, such as acquaintances or people only met once [14,15]. Social capital, in turn, is considered "the sum of resources" possessed by an individual that can be located in the real or the virtual worlds shaping the form and function of interpersonal relationships [16]. Studies of relationships between physical communities and online communities show that computer-mediated interactions positively affect communication within the community, inclusion and social capital [17][18][19]. ...
Conference Paper
This study explores whether the use of social media determines a positive impact on the accumulation of social capital and on the generation and acquisition of information by the social organization. We further explore these issues by categorizing social media activities as used for maintaining current stakeholders and seeking new ones. Empirical analysis of the hypothetical models through structural equation modeling yields supportive results for the positive impacts of social media on the process of generating and acquiring information to the social organizations, either directly or indirectly, through the positive contribution of social capital, which also positively affects the amount of information collected.
... According to field theory, a field is a critical mediator between the practices of social participants and the surrounding socioeconomic conditions; i.e., the form and power of the field affect the decision making of participants in the field [41]. Internal control in the enterprise is a symptom of the level of its internal governance and a guarantee of the quality of its financial information, with the goal of increasing its operational efficiency. ...
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Research and development (R&D) is the main driver for the sustainable development of corporate innovation. Given the prevalence of information asymmetry in R&D, executives opportunistically manipulate R&D investment. While accounting conservatism as a corporate governance mechanism can effectively reduce information asymmetry, few studies have focused on the relationship between the two. Based on Chinese listed companies in 2008–2019, this paper investigates the impact of accounting conservatism on R&D manipulation, as well as the moderating effect of internal control quality and tax enforcement efforts on this relationship. The results indicate that not only are the results more significantly negative in subgroups of low-level internal control and tax collection, but the coefficients of their cross-sectional variables are also positive. Therefore, accounting conservatism can effectively deter R&D manipulation, and this effect is weakened by internal control and tax enforcement. Additionally, the impact of accounting conservatism on manipulation differs in direction and lifecycle. The negative conservatism–manipulation relationship is more significant for upward manipulation and growing enterprises. Further research also suggests that conservatism’s inhibitory effect on R&D manipulation is mediated by financial constraints, which enhances corporate innovation efficiency. The conclusions not only provide empirical evidence for the corporation to improve R&D efficiency but also provide the basis for the authorities to promote innovation supervision.
... It is also important to briefly mention Bourdieu's concept of the field, which he defined as "a network, or a configuration, of objective relations between positions" (Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992). Manifestations of cultural capital operate differently within different fields: what is valued in one field may be worthless in another. ...
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French Immersion is a popular program in New Brunswick; however, a growing body of research warns that it might contribute to inequities in public education. My experiences as an elementary French immersion teacher have prompted me to question the barriers to accessing and succeeding in the second language program. I begin by describing the history of FI in Canadian schools before identifying the systemic barriers that limit participation in the program. I will then explain how Bourdieu and Passeron's theory of social reproduction might help us to recognize the underlying social forces that predetermine one's likelihood of access and success in the popular program. Meaningful change requires a paradigm shift in thinking about what constitutes a good candidate for FI.
... The language reduces the process and tailors it with an ontological existence of its own. In the last century, this substantialist ontology was recognized and problematized by many sociologists and philosophers in favor of a relational framework (Dewey and Bentley 1949;Elias 1978;Bourdieu and Wacquant 1992;Emirbayer 1997). Just like nouns, substantialism cannot be done away with human communication and, therefore, AI. ...
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The article seeks to highlight the relation between ontology and communication while considering the role of AI in society and environment. Bioinformationalism is the technical term that foregrounds this relationality. The study reveals instructive consequences for philosophy of technology in general and AI in particular. The first section introduces the bioinformational approach to AI, focusing on three critical features of the current AI debate: ontology of information, property-based vs. relational AI, and ontology vs. constitution of AI. When applied to the themes of relationality and non-anthropocentric communications, bioinformational insights highlight an inclusive and meaningful groundwork for understanding AI by ‘relating’ it with society and the environment through an engagement with the ongoing critique of human supremacy. In the second section, we move from ‘relating’ AI to ‘rewilding’ AI by proposing taxonomical classification for certain technological entities. We situate our proposal in the broader personhood debate with the proposal of taxonomical ranking. In the last section, we show an instance of a relational approach steeped in substantialist ontology by introducing the fourth feature of the AI debate. A broad critique of Floridi’s philosophy of information introduces this fourth feature from the domain of philosophy and sociology to address various theoretical and ecological problems with current relational accounts. In doing so, we argue for ‘communication’ to be the replacement of ‘information’ as the moral unit. A bioinformational understanding of AI advocates taking ontological commitments seriously at all levels of informational and technological processes and products.
... The principle and practice of reflexivity is arguably where an inclusive, trauma-informed approach to supporting women with (and without) intellectual disability begins. Reflexivity involves the active interrogation or self-conscious critique of one's social position, field and habitual ways or modes of thinking, feeling and doing, including the pattern of cultural value or invisible logic these manifest, followed by action rooted in a deepened understanding of the culture one bears (Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992). One pernicious cultural practice is the disposition to infer from intellectual disability global deficiency, or to extrapolate the vulnerability a woman experiences in one area of their life to the entirety of their life (Scully, 2014). ...
Article
Women with intellectual disability experience intimate partner violence at higher rates and tend to remain in abusive relationships longer than non‐disabled women. The purpose of this inquiry was to generate a preliminary set of principles and delineate domains of support as a general guide for social service workers supporting women with intellectual disability through the difficult, often stop‐start process of ending an abusive relationship and creating a desired future. Taking a pragmatic inquiry approach, guiding principles and domains of support were generated through a triangulated engagement with relational theory, relevant published research, and original data gathered through interviews with five experienced social service workers. The results comprise a relational framework for inclusive, trauma‐informed services aimed at fostering the relational autonomy of women with intellectual disability. Enacting relational principles of reflexivity, recognition, solidarity and safety, social service workers can support women with intellectual disability with safety planning, securing basic life needs, strengthening social relationships, acquiring new skills and nurturing self‐affective attitudes of self‐respect, self‐efficacy and self‐esteem.
... (Ferguson, 2001(Ferguson, , 2003; ayrıca bkz. Bourdieu ve Wacquant 2004: 132-4 [2014; Garrett, 2006). ...
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ÖZET Makale, sosyal çalışmanın Pierre Bourdieu‟ye yönelik görünüşte yeni ilgisini memnuniyetle karşılıyor. Gelgelelim, Bourdieu‟nün devasa katkısına özgü sorunların farkına varmak elzemdir. Bulgular: Öncelikle Bourdieu sıklıkla temel argümanlarını kavramayı zorlaştıran güçlüklerle okurunun karşısına çıkabilir. Başlıca engeller arasında şunlar bulunur: Bourdieu‟nün düzyazı üslubu; “ürün”ünün hacimli olması ve ilgili sıkıntılar; birçok okurun (belki de özellikle Fransız entelektüel alanının ve buna yakın kültürel çevrenin dışında kalan okurun) Bourdieu‟nün eserinde ima etmekle yetindiği başlıca bağlamsal unsurları fark etme noktasında başarısız olabilmeleri; Bourdieu‟ye sıklıkla atfedilen yanıltıcı etiketler (mesela, “Marksist” veya “postmodern” gibi). Zorluğun ikinci tarafı Bourdieu‟nün katkısının kuramsal içeriğinin veçheleriyle alakalı. Çokkültürcülük, “ırk” ve etnisite eksenindeki konulara eksik angajmanı, hatta kusurlu katkılarının önemli olduğu ileri sürülür. Üstelik Bourdieu‟nün kavram cephaneliği toplumsal aktörlerin, özellikle de işçi sınıfı ve ezilenlerin yavanlaşmış edilgenliğine çok büyük bir vurguda bulunuyor olabilir. Son olarak, devletin işlevine dair fikirleri sorunlu görülebilir. Uygulamalar: Sosyal çalışma daha Bourdieucü bir teori ve pratik biçimi geliştirecekse, onun eserinin sağladığı kavrayışı göz önünde bulundurup sunduğu sorunlara değinmesi gerekir. Anahtar sözcükler: Habitus/sermaye/alan, Marksizm, çokkültürcülük, devlet, işçi sınıfı
... Therefore, people unaware of how to 'play the game' are at a disadvantage in educational processes. A mismatch between habitus and field may also create a sense of not 'fitting in' (in either their new or old social environments) and dilemmas regarding people's identities (Bourdieu, 1984;Bourdieu and Wacquant, 1992). ...
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This article examines how upward mobility affects both class and ethnic social positioning of Mapuche indigenous people in Chile. The article builds on cultural class analysis dominated by Bourdieusian approaches, suggesting the incorporation of an intersectional and postcolonial lens, considering the ways in which ethnicity complicates classed trajectories, focusing on class mobility and indigeneity. Drawing on 40 life history interviews of first-generation Mapuche professionals, the analysis reveals complex and varied responses to social mobility. The interviewees display three groups of responses: the ‘mobile-accommodators’, embracing deracinated middle-class identities; the ‘rooted’, asserting connections with working-class and Mapuche origins; and the ‘resignifiers’, embracing a more ambivalent class identity, but articulating a strong sense of Mapuche identity. The experience of upward social mobility represents a challenge to the respondents’ sense of class position, class and ethnic identities, as they have had to manage indigenous identity claims across their social origins and destinations.
... Reflexivity is considered vital to ensuring the quality and trustworthiness of research and involves a researcher exploring (and to a certain extent) stating their general social position and disciplinary background as well as their specific positionality with respect to the research topic under investigation (Wilkinson, 1988;Wacquant & Bourdieu, 1992;Horsburgh 2003). Given that this thesis is underpinned by critical realism, I have reflected upon how my own individual characteristics, experiences and perspectives, as well as the broader research context, have influenced my entire thesis, not just chapters using paradigms grounded in contextualistic epistemology. ...
Thesis
Some autistic individuals modify their innate autistic social behaviour in order to adapt to, cope within, and/or influence the predominately non-autistic social environment; a phenomenon often termed ‘camouflaging’ (Attwood, 2007; Dean et al., 2017; Hull et al., 2017; Lai et al., 2017; Schuck et al., 2019). Camouflaging is one social coping strategy used by autistic people attempting to overcome social challenges within cross-neurotype social interactions and secure employment, develop friendships and romantic relationships, and avoid stigmatisation (Cage & Troxell-Whitman, 2019; Hull et al., 2017). Yet the act of camouflaging is thought to be cognitively effortful and taxing; prone to breakdown under increased social demands and complexity and/or psychological distress; and associated with increased mental health difficulties, misdiagnosis, and identity confusion (e.g., Beck et al., 2020; Cage & Troxell-Whitman, 2019; Cassidy et al., 2018; Hull et al., 2021; Lai et al., 2017; Livingston, Colvert, et al., 2019). Camouflaging research is in infancy; conceptualisations, definitions and measures of camouflaging are still emerging, and much is unknown about relationships between camouflaging and various constructs such as mental health, wellbeing, and the achievement of important social and employment outcomes. This thesis presents a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to further current understanding of social coping in autistic people by furthering the current conceptualisation of camouflaging including camouflaging behaviours and processes; examining the relationships between camouflaging and social, employment, and mental health outcomes; and exploring social experiences that contrast with camouflaging. The first chapter provides a general introduction to, and overview of, the relevant background research and provides a rationale for the work presented in the thesis. Chapter 2 involves a discussion of methodological considerations involved in the design and analysis of research presented in the thesis. Chapter 3, a systematic review, provides a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the current quantitative camouflaging research base; identifying consistencies in the current evidence as well as issues that require further research. Chapters 4 and 5 describe an interpersonal recall study, using thematic analysis to detail the development, process, and consequences of camouflaging (Chapter 4) and content analysis to describe the behaviours exhibited, altered, or avoided by autistic adults when camouflaging (Chapter 5). Chapter 6, a quantitative cross-sectional study, details associations between camouflaging and social and employment outcomes and indicators of mental health difficulties/psychological distress. Chapter 7 involves a qualitative survey and uses thematic analysis to explore an alternative to camouflaging, specifically autistic adults’ experiences of socialising in ways that feel authentic to them. The final chapter (Chapter 8) provides an overarching discussion of the findings and implications of the thesis with consideration to strengths and limitations.
... Francesco believed that it was possible to start "in the middle" by identifying the main actors, their properties, and the different lines of opposition between them through the exploratory data collection. The boundaries of the field could thus be decided down the road, by looking at the logics of exclusion and inclusion which were enacted by the field itself (Bourdieu and Wacquant 1992). For Ruben and Ildikó however, our initial data collection based on web searches merely served to present our pre-existing notion of security vision, rather than to expand and challenge it. ...
... From a methodology perspective, the theory of social forms (Simmel 1971) has provided the theoretical background for the generative concepts in the agent-based systems in which agents interactions explain structural emergence and complexity (Cederman 2001). Evaluated from a methodology perspective, Bourdieu's theory of fields provides the conceptual background for explaining the formation and communication of meaning in the polity viewed as a relation-based political organization of actors, and (fields of) powers (Bourdieu 1991(Bourdieu , 1999(Bourdieu , 2012Bourdieu and Wacquant 1992). ...
Article
Notwithstanding the huge literature on state studies, both definition and method have always been subject of intense debate. This debate is still open and equally intense despite two millennia of philosophical and methodological attempts to define what the state is, to describe how the state works, and why does it work. As times, geopolitical contexts, and human action have shaped the historical and conceptual trajectory of polity studies, the theories as well as methodologies have increasingly emphasized focus on individuals, (political) cultures, power, and relationships both between individuals and between individuals and the state. With time, the study of these types of relationships have revealed the complexity of the state, and the dynamics of its change. Though economy and political economy theories of the twentieth century gradually diminished the central role of the state in economy in favor of the free market and individual and company small as well as big entrepreneurship, the increased focus on individuals and individual (inter)action(s) has paradoxically turned into a revival of the state, a reinforcement of its role, as latest neo-statism trends reveal. It was the COVID-19 global pandemics to highlight what people think and expect from the state in the volatile European and global political context of our time. Not only that isolation and social distance conditions have deepened and strengthened the perception of the state as the source of their security and receptor of their highest level of trust but have also revealed that the state studies are about to reach again a turning point in the philosophical thinking about society and polity.
... The study employed a theoretical lens that integrated concepts from Social Capital (Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992), Social Networks (Krackhardt, 1992), Value Network theory (Allee, 2008) and Value Conversion Model (Allee, 2008) to establish an in-depth understanding of the perceived business benefits and risks of using SNS. The study was guided by the question: What are the perceived business benefits and risks of using SNS? ...
Conference Paper
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Though the popularity of Social Networking Sites (SNS) is increasing, the value of using social networking in business is elusive. Mixed views exist regarding the value of using SNS in a business context. This study investigates the perceived business benefits and risks of using SNS. Data for the study was gathered from one of the leading financial organisations in South Africa. Three data collection techniques were used: documentary review, open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. This study employed a theoretical lens derived from Social Capital, Social Networks, Value Network theory and Value Conversion Model to provide an in-depth understanding of the study. The findings indicate that SNS have the potential to provide tangible and intangible business benefits. However, organisations need to be aware of the risks associated with the use of SNS and devise ways to control and monitor its usage. This study provides both practical and theoretical contributions. The study shows that the analytical framework developed can be used to analyse the transactions between different role deliverables and value realised.
... However, a large number of NGO have remained distant not only from policy-oriented activities that bring trafficking to the attention of the government, but also from advocating for policy improvements on behalf of trafficked persons. More generally, the NGO closest to the "field of power" (Bourdieu and Wacquant 1992) have never questioned the idea of trafficking and the counter-trafficking laws, policies and practices of interventions of the transnational and Portuguese countertrafficking field (Clemente 2019(Clemente , 2021. ...
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National and transnational collaborations and networks, within and across different sectors, are often described as critical elements of counter-trafficking efforts. This assumption has encouraged the proliferation in the Portuguese counter-trafficking field of national and local networks, bringing together governmental and non-governmental organizations to work on issues relating to “human trafficking”. Using autoethnography as a methodological and narrative tool, this article explores the type of collaboration and cooperation characterizing these cross-sectoral networks and the opportunities and limitations they bring, including the favouring of a substantial “victim-centered” approach to trafficking. The discussion argues that the differences in priorities, capital and power of network members help shape the opportunities and limitations of these networks, that are largely configured as an anti-politics instrument of the neoliberal counter-trafficking apparatus.
... Teoriile legate de influența tipului de cultură politică asupra comportamentului democratic sunt importante pentru înțelegerea dinamicilor participative. Vom folosi în această lucrare multe concepte aparent similare, dar diferite din multe puncte de vedere, plecând de la două zone teoretice foarte largi -pe de o parte, este vorba de teoriile privind cultura politică (introduse în lumea științifică de autori precum Almond și Verba (1963/1989) -și care ne ajută să identificăm căi de a evalua tipul de cultură politică din România, dar și să putem să o comparăm cu state din Occident), și pe de altă parte, de teoriile privind capitalul social (inițiate de autori precum Bourdieu, 1992;Putnam, 1993;Inglehart, 1997;sau Halpern, 2005). În ciuda nuanțelor speciale ale fiecărui concept, acestea sunt complementare -se referă la seturi de indicatori relevanți pentru influențarea nivelului de participare în diverse societăți. ...
Book
„În ultimii 30 de ani, în România, prezența la vot a fost comparabilă cu cea a majorității statelor occidentale. Înseamnă asta că România are un nivel ridicat de participare politică și civică? Pe baza datelor culese în ultimii 10 ani (2011-2021), acest volum răspunde următoarelor întrebări: Românii sunt activi civic sau nu? Care este tipul dominant de cultură politică în România? Cum se compară românii, din perspectiva valorilor civice și a participării, cu alți cetățeni occidentali? Cum putem măsura eficient participarea civică, politică sau electorală? Cum este influențată participarea de rețelele sociale, de Facebook sau Google? Creșterea predispoziției de protest este un fenomen de durată? Cum au evoluat aceste tipuri de participare în ultimul deceniu, în România? Cum arată cetățeanul participativ? Va crește participarea în viitor, după efectul noii pandemii covid-19? Este o carte care sper să fie de folos cercetătorilor, activiștilor civici, profesioniștilor în comunicare, dar și cititorilor pur și simplu interesați de detaliile subtilităților de participare din România, derivate din cercetări ample și foarte actuale”.
... Although according to Benson, economic capital is more powerful, with the help of cultural capital, wealth is transformed into "legitimate" wealth. Therefore, Bourdieu (Bourdieu P., Wacquant J. D., 1992) confirms that the social field is a place where formal actors struggle to valorize the capital they own. And information possesses the two powers of which Bourdieu writes. ...
Article
Communication is the invisible force that creates dynamics in every social field. Without communication, there is no dynamics; without dynamics, there is no social field. Social forces – social institutions, social networks, and cognitive frames – shape the social field. Actors can utilize these social forces in their communication strategies with the purpose to shape the public frame. The process of communication and the level of awareness of the communicators about the influence of social forces on the communication process is the subject of this article. That is how social forces influence communication and how communicating agents use them to shape the public? The article offers a theoretical model of communication, based on the SOFIA approach to the analysis of social fields. The model defines several categories in each social force that affect the communication process. It is a complex process in which the social forces influence each other, and at the same time, they exert a joint influence on the public. Formal actors (groups) are categorized into eight different segments, and each of them has its agent-communicator (person). In all positions in the text, the term "agent" refers to "agent-communicator" and by this term, we mean a representative of a group who communicates with the public on behalf of a particular group. Always the term agent - communicator, in our paper is associated with a group, with a formal actor, a formal agent.
... There may also be feedback effects between describing a social phenomenon and the social phenomenon itself. These latter feedback effects arise from the inseparability of the subject and object of study 11,52 . ...
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The importance of research teams' diversity for the progress of science is highlighted extensively. Despite the seemingly hegemonic role of hypothesis testing in modern quantitative research, little attention has been devoted to the diversity of quantitative methods, epitomized by the linear model framework of analysis. Using bibliometric data from the Web of Science, we conduct a large-scale and cross-disciplinary assessment of the prevalence of linear-model-based research from 1990 to 2022. In absolute terms, linear models are widely used across all fields of science. In relative terms, three patterns suggest linear models are hegemonic among Social Sciences. First, there is a high and growing prevalence of linear-model-based research. Second, global patterns of linear-model-based research prevalence align with global inequalities in knowledge production. Third, there was a citation premium to linear-model-based research until 2012 for articles' number of citations and for the entire period in terms of having at least one citation. Previous research suggests that the confluence of these patterns may be detrimental to the Social Sciences as it potentially marginalizes theories incompatible with the linear models' framework, lowers the diversity of narratives about social phenomena, and prevents innovative and path-breaking research, limiting the breadth of research.
... Culture is cultural knowledge, taking the form of 'police stories': they form the plans and instructions police officers use as a basis for seeking information, organising it into categories, taking action and legitimising this action. Chan also defines culture in terms of cultural knowledge, based on the work of Bourdieu (1990Bourdieu ( , 1992. Her theory acknowledges the interpretative and active role police officers play in relating their skills to the social and political context of policing. ...
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After release in early 2009 of an initial set of two volumes in the GofS Research Paper Series, the editorial board is proud to issue a set of two more volumes, comprising papers (again all reviewed by international peers, the list of which is set out in the appendix) clustered around two well-profiled research axes. Volume 4 focuses on topical issues in EU and International Crime Control. Its table of contents is provided below the brief description of the papers comprised in the current book, which constitutes Volume 3, providing new empirical data, theories and analyses on Safety, Societal Problems and Citizens’ Perceptions. Some articles in Volume 3 focus especially on issues of conceptualisation and measurement of key constructs in the study of security in its broadest meaning (from fear of crime to corruption) some articles present tests of theoretical models derived from theoretical criminology, and finally some articles focus on different institutional reactions towards crime and drug-related problems (e.g. policing, the conflict of interests between private companies and authorities and restorative justice).
... For å sikre helheten er det derfor viktig at data fra hver enkelt enhet eller situasjon knyttes til den sammenhengen dataene er del av (Thagaard, 2018 (Hastrup, 2013). Den analytiske prosessen omfatter i dette perspektivet overgangen mellom disse to -et sosialt brudd (Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992;Hastrup & Hervik, 2003;Longva, 2001). Et refleksivt epistemologisk perspektiv stiller dermed spørsmål om forskernes posisjon. ...
Thesis
Målet med denne studien var å få innsikt i pedagogiske lederes forståelser og konstruksjoner av kulturelt mangfold, deres rolleutøvelse som pedagogiske ledere, og hvordan minoritetsforeldre erfarer samarbeidet og møtet med norsk barnehage. Avhandlingen søker svar på følgende hovedproblemstilling: Hvordan ledes, forstås og ivaretas kulturelt mangfold av pedagogiske ledere i barnehagen, og hvordan erfarer flyktningforeldre møtet med barnehagen? For å besvare hovedspørsmålet er det utarbeidet tre delspørsmål som belyses i hver sine artikler: 1 Hvordan forstår og konstruerer pedagogiske ledere kulturelt mangfold? Hvordan kommer kulturelt mangfold til uttrykk som forestillinger, manifestasjoner og pedagogiske praksiser i barnehagen? 2 Hva kjennetegner pedagogiske lederes lederhandlinger i barnehagen? Hvordan forstår og konstruerer pedagogiske ledere ledelse? (What characterizes middle management leadership of pedagogical leaders in ECEC? How do pedagogical leaders understand and construct leadership?) 3 Hvordan erfarer flyktningeforeldre samarbeidet og møtet med barnehagen? Hvilke faktorer i foreldresamarbeidet bidrar til tilhørighet og anerkjennelse? Sentrale teoretiske innganger i studien er Bourdieus begrepsapparat, kulturell kapital, illusio, habitus, symbolsk vold, og felt (Bourdieu, 1996b; Bourdieu et al., 2006; Bourdieu & Prieur, 1996), perspektiv på ledelse som distribuert (Heikka et al., 2019; Spillane, 2012) og akkulturasjon i analysen av flyktningforeldrene sine erfaringer (Berry, 1997, 2005). Avhandlingens forskningsspørsmål utforskes innenfor et sosiokonstruktivistisk og kritisk vitenskapsteoretisk paradigme, og peker på hvordan maktrelasjoner mellom minoritet og majoritet, institusjonaliserte samfunnsstrukturer og kulturelle forestillinger innenfor barnehagen kan bidra til å posisjonere, produsere og reprodusere sosiale ulikheter innenfor barnehagen. Metodisk forankring Studien har en casemetodisk innramming og et induktivt design. For å få tilgang til empirisk kunnskap om barnehagens hverdagsliv, lederhandlinger og deres praksiser, og hvordan flyktningforeldrene ble møtt i barnehagen, benyttes etnografiske og kvalitative forskningsmetoder som feltarbeid og deltakende observasjon, og semistrukturerte intervju. For å belyse foreldreperspektivet i avhandlingen, er 12 foreldre med flyktningbakgrunn intervjuet. I kodingen og analyse av datamaterialet er det brukt empirinær koding og tematisk analyse (Braun & Clarke, 2006; Tjora, 2017). Hovedfunn i studien Funn fra studien viser at pedagogiske lederes mangfoldskonstruksjoner kan kategoriseres som tre ulike forståelser: ulikhet, likhet og anerkjennelse. I tillegg danner mangfoldskonstruksjonene grunnlag for tre typer av barnehagefelleskap: ulikhetsfellesskap, likhetsfellesskap og mangfoldsfelleskap (artikkel I). Pedagogiske lederes lederhandlinger kan deles i to typer, distribuerte og posisjonerte. Analysen viser at ledelse i barnhagene framstår som tre ledertypologier: administrator, likhetsleder og relfleksjonleder. Deres lederpraksiser kan videre knyttes til måter å forstå og konstruere kulturelt mangfold på (artikkel II). Flyktningforeldrene sine erfaringer viser at de i stor grad er fornøyde med forldresamarbeidet, men at kommunikasjon og spårkbarrierer kan være en utfordring i samarbeidet med barnehagen. Dessuten viser funn at majoritetens kulturelle kapital (norsk) knyttet til foreldreskap, preger både flyktningforeldrenes fortellinger og pedagogiske praksiser i barnehagen (artikkel III). Syntesen av funn fra de tre delstudiene som utgjør avhandlingens hovedfunn, peker på eksisterende maktstrukturer i barnehagen, minoritets-majoritetsrelasjoner, institusjonaliserte barnehagepraksiser og aspekter i pedagogiske lederes profesjonsutøvelse som både kan hemme og fremme ivaretakelse av kulturelt mangfold og minoritetsforeldres tilhørighet og anerkjennelse i barnehagen. Diskusjon og konklusjon Sosial posisjonering kan komme til utrykk som både barrierer for likeverdig deltakelse og tilhørighet, og som fleksible lederstrategier og mangfoldsforståelser om legger til rette for anerkjennelse og tilhørighet. Avhandlingens resultat viser variasjon i pedagogisk ledelse og konstruksjoner knyttet til kulturelt mangfold. Flyktningforeldrene sine erfaringer tyder imidlertid på at normative mekanismer og strukturer dominerer i deres møter med barnehagen. Resultat fra studien synliggjør hvordan pedagogiske lederes profesjonsutøvelse og forståelser av kulturelt mangfold har betydning for ivaretakelse og anerkjennelse av kulturelt mangfold. Flyktningforeldrene sine opplevelser av tilhørighet og anerkjennelse av foreldreskap i barnehagefelleskapet, ser ut til å være knyttet til «norskhet» og oppfatninger om «riktig foreldreskap». Samtidig viser materialet en variasjon i både måter og forstå kulturelt mangfold på, og hvordan ledelse kommer til utrykk i de pedagogiske lederne sin profesjonsutøvelse. Empirisk kunnskap frambrakt i denne studien, kan bidra til å bevisstgjøre profesjonsutøvere i barnehagen spesielt, og i utdanningsinstitusjoner generelt, om hvordan deres profesjonelle handlinger og oppfatninger virker inn på integrasjons- og tilhørighetsprosesser. Denne kunnskapen kan ha overføringsverdi til andre kontekster innenfor utdanning og arbeid med kulturelt mangfold. For å utøve en mer inkluderende praksis, argumenteres det i avhandlingen at barnehagepersonalet og barnehagens institusjonaliserte praksiser bør åpne opp for å gi større rom for kulturelle ulikheter knyttet til omsorg, foreldreskap og barndom. En kultursensitiv metode og praksis, og flytende integrering som perspektiv, kan bidra til å sette individer i sentrum for analysen, og i større grad åpne opp for å fange kompleksitet og variasjoner i møter mellom mennesker med ulike kulturelle og sosiale bakgrunner (Qureshi, 2009; Rugkåsa et al., 2017; Skrobanek & Jobst, 2019). Studien viser imidlertid at det er behov for mer empirisk forskning om hvordan flyktningforeldre forstår og erfarer møtet med norsk barnehage, og på hvilken måte pedagogiske ledere kan være viktige i arbeidet med inkludering i barnehagen.
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Noting the small number of works within the field of design that pay attention to the development of technology-based entrepreneurial processes and overcoming a reductionist view oriented towards economic positions, this work set out to develop a study whose descriptive and correlational scope would allow us to question the presence of entrepreneurial conditions in the trajectories of agents who, in their professional practice, seek to insert themselves stably in the Chilean labor market. Its purpose has been to develop an analysis of technology-based entrepreneurial training in Product Design Engineering (IDP) at the Federico Santa María Technical University, stressing the existing link between those particular structures of the nascent professional field that emerged in a society that embraced economic neoliberalism, with those micro-strategies transformed into professional paths by graduates in their eagerness to join the professional field. This makes evident the need to advance from the observation of macro structures that account for power games in the nascent professional field and the subsequent study of labor insertion trajectories that allow questioning the presence of capitals and greatness in graduates. To finally approach the particularity of project operations that, translated into technological products, are reflected as evidence of a relational act. Thus, the general hypothesis that sustains this research establishes that "the entrepreneurial and stable professional development of the graduates articulates the attitude of entrepreneurship as a relational process between actors, resources, social processes and conditions of possibility, technological and economic". It seeks to take charge of a systemic perspective around the technology-based entrepreneurial process, putting in tension aspects housed in historical and institutional conjunctures, which modeled training processes of which the 123 IDP graduates from 2006-2015 constitute their heirs and their trajectories. professionals, its measurable dimension.
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This research reveals the relationship between social actors’ cultural capital, ecological predispositions, and food consumption practices. To achieve this, a qualitative analysis was carried out on the Antalya Food Community. Alternative food communities, which are part of ecological movements, address collective demands and social problems related to the production, distribution, and consumption of food. Participation in these communities requires certain kinds of cultural capital. Food consumption strategies are closely related to ecological habitus. Ecological habitus is a concept that points to the practice of how to live better in a particular place; the concept was developed under the influence of Bourdieu (1998). Alternative food communities are said to attract middle-class individuals who have a common ecological habitus. Information from in-depth interviews and participant observations are used to explain the main motivations of the members, the ecological habitus that makes the community possible, the relation networks they produce, and the various strategies and practices developed by these members. The fact that individuals develop ecological interests besides food after joining the community shows that these communities can be seen as “learning places” (Haluza-Delay, 2008). Thus, alternative food communities go beyond being a place for food exchange due to their ecological activities.
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In this qualitative study, we deal with the expressions of transnational acts of solidarity as reflected on social media, with an emphasis put on Twitter shared communication and statements via tweets, and we show how they contribute to the construction of discursive formation surrounding the Boğaziçi protest movement. The scope of the study is relationally focused on Turkey and the temporal focus is aimed at the events that have been happening between January and May 2021. Although the text is centred on the present, we show the links to previous historical events as represented by well-known and widespread hashtags.
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Due to the increased mobility and linguistic and cultural diversity internationally, there has been a renewed interest in the linguistic practices of immigrant families. Earlier scholarship focused on the difference between parenting in monolingual contexts and bilingual parenting conceptualised as management of more than one language in a family. To better understand the complexity of language practices in immigrant families, this article develops a new concept of plurilingual parenting. This analysis is based on empirical data from Canada and uses plurilingualism as a theoretical framework. I found that immigrant parents adopt plurilingual parenting, which is characterised by the following features: (1) parental beliefs in the dynamic and fluid nature of language practices; (2) family language policies that are flexible and allow for partial proficiency in languages in familial linguistic repertoires; and (3) interconnectedness of language and culture. Implications include the possibility to use the concept of plurilingual parenting in the scholarship related to family language policy and identity negotiation in immigrant families. Educators working with immigrant students will benefit from the familiarity with the concept of plurilingual parenting by aligning their expectations with parental practices and appreciating students’ funds of knowledge.
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This book brings together the key scholars in the international practice debate to demonstrate its strengths as an innovative research perspective. The contributions show the benefit of practice theories in the study of phenomena in international security, international political economy and international organisation, by directing attention to concrete and observable everyday practices that shape international outcomes. The chapters exemplify the cross-overs and relations to other theoretical approaches, and thereby establish practice theories as a distinct IR perspective. Each chapter investigates a key concept that plays an important role in international relations theory, such as power, norms, knowledge, change or cognition. Taken together, the authors make a strong case that practice theories allow to ask new questions, direct attention to uncommon empirical material, and reach different conclusions about international relations phenomena. The book is a must read for anyone interested in recent international relations theory and the actual practices of doing global politics.
Thesis
Being an artist rarely leads to financial gain. In many Western countries, artists can therefore request state subsidies. While subsidies are meant to ensure artists’ autonomy by protecting them from the laws of the market, the logic of the state itself does not leave the art world unaffected, either. The relationship between the state and the arts is understudied in empirical sociological research. Combining pragmatist and critical art sociology, in this dissertation, I examine to what extent the neoliberalization and professionalization of Flemish cultural policy over the period 1965 to 2015 reflected in 1) the ways visual artists legitimized their applications and 2) the judgments of the evaluating committee. To this end, I analyze 494 grant proposals of Flemish visual artists and 12,254 decisions of the evaluating committee. Using qualitative and quantitative methods, I find, among other things, that over time artists became less inclined to present themselves as romantic, suffering artists and more as entrepreneurs, academics, and questioners of social inequality. Further, the committee, which before 1990 frequently supported both debutant and oft-subsidized applicants, was after the 1990s sharply less inclined to subsidize first-time applicants. Artists’ justifications and the committee’s evaluations did thus indeed change with cultural policy. Still, this cannot be plainly read as a loss of autonomy for the visual arts. Alongside social, academic, and entrepreneurial discourses, artists still used justifications rooted in an artistic vocation and esthetics. Moreover, besides changing demands from the state, the tendency of the art world itself to continually innovate has been a motivator for artists to engage with other fields, such as politics and science. In turn, the committee’s changing selection pattern is no direct evidence of a conscious preference for reputationally established artists. Awarding grants primarily to artists who have previously received grants may reflect consistency in the committee’s esthetic judgment, allowing it to show that it “knows what it is doing,” which is vital for organizations that often receive social critique. Yet the entry of entrepreneurial language into artists’ discourse shows a certain acceptance of the “established order,” and the recent choices of the committee, because of which newcomers have less chance to obtain a grant, affect artists’ careers.
Thesis
p>Putnam’s version of social capital, and the main problems with it, are outlined in Chapter One of this thesis. In Chapters Two and Three alternative conceptual approaches are examined to see whether they might resolve any of the difficulties in Putnam’s work. The six problems arising from Putnam’s work identified in Chapter One are: 1) the lack of a developed conceptual framework; 2) whether macro-level analysis is appropriate; 3) how the concept fits with considerations of structure and agency; 4) whether the negative aspects of social capital are fully taken into account; 5) what the relative merits of “bonding” and “bridging” social capital are; and; 6) whether social capital is only ever a by-product of other activities or can also be consciously created. In Chapter Two, Coleman and Ostrom’s separate work in social capital is analysed. They use the concept as part of an attempt to add broader social considerations to theories of rational and collective action. In Chapter Three, the main authors examined are Bourdieu and Lin. Bourdieu uses social capital to complement his concept of cultural capital in looking at the reproduction of inequality. Lin develops a theory of social capital that focuses on individuals’ action in pursuing resources in networks. It emerges that the other authors can contribute various elements that help to address some of the problems in Putnam’s work. Yet the most appropriate level of analysis and the full implications of bridging social capital remain points of contention. In Chapter four the future of Putnam’s use of social capital is debated and it is concluded that he will have to abandon his macro-level analysis if the full conceptual intricacies of social capital are to be realised.</p
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This qualitative study examined the perspectives of Black and Latino high school and undergraduate students involved in an aspirational peer mentoring program for college access. Our findings identified five central themes that contributed to the development of social capital for participants: program expectations and experiences, sustaining relationships, near-peer network support, connecting through symbiotic roles, and keeping the legacy going. Findings contribute to an understanding of the relationship among factors that facilitate social network development.
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In educational research, there has been much stricture of neoliberalism as a scourge. In the higher education sector, the neoliberal turn has been observed as eroding academic freedom and deprofessionalising academics. Early career academics are often described as victims of neoliberalism. In this paper, we take a positive perspective through a deep dive into resilience that enables self-transformation and, potentially, system change. Our paper is situated in the Chinese higher education context where the “up-or-out” system has been put in place, mirroring the neoliberal university at a global range. We — a mid-career researcher and an early career academic — analyse our collective narratives generated through WeChat text and voice message. Drawing insight from Bourdieu’s reflexive sociology, our narratives lead to four themes: capital accumulation and self-transformation, shaping the publication habitus, emancipation from symbolic violence, and resilience to symbolic domination. We conclude the paper with a call for sociology of resilience and recommendations for deneoliberalising higher education.
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Bu çalışma ile bireyin sahip olduğu sosyal sermayesinin, onun kariyer başarısı üzerine olan katkısı ilgili literatür bağlamında incelenip değerlendirilmiştir. Bu bağlamda çalışmada, ilk olarak sosyal sermaye ve kariyer başarısı kavramlarına açıklık getirilmiş, akabinde ilgili literatürde konuyla ilgili yapılan çalışmaların neticesinde elde edilen bulgular üzerinden söz konusu bu ilişkinin varlığı ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Yapılan incelemeler neticesinde, bireyin kariyer başarısında, sahip olduğu sosyal sermayenin fazlaca etkili olduğu ve sosyal sermayenin bireye iş konusunda fazlaca avantaj ve katkılar sağlayabileceği tespit edilmiştir. Sosyal ağlar ve ilişkiler üzerine kurulu bir yapı olan sosyal sermayenin, bireye iş bulma kolaylığı sağlama, kaynakların değişimini kolaylaştırma ve ilişkileri güçlendirme gibi yönleriyle katkılar sunarak, bireyin kariyer başarısına da bir köprü oluşturduğu açıktır. Bireyin ilişkilerine yaptığı yatırımlar sonucunda elde ettiği kazançlar sayesinde, daha fazla kişiyle veya grupla temasta bulunarak, farklı bilgilere ve yeniliklere erişme noktasında kendisine olanaklar yaratabilmektedir. Bu sayede sosyal sermayenin, bireylerin kariyerlerine birçok perspektiften katkı sağlayacağı açıktır. Çalışmanın ilgili literatüre kuramsal açıdan katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir.
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Predatory publishing has recently emerged as a menace in academia. University professors and researchers often exploit this practice for their economic gains and institutional prestige. The present study investigates such existing predatory publishing practices in Pakistani public sector universities using Bourdieu's (1991) concept of symbolic violence. For this purpose, we analyzed 495 articles published by 50 university professors in the social sciences and humanities over the period 2017-2021. We also conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 postgraduate students to gather their perspectives on publishing practices. The study shows that 69% of the sample papers were published in predatory journals, as identified in Pakistan's Higher Education Commission's (HEC) online journal recognition system (HJRS). Postgraduate students' insights inform the study that the students misrecognize these malpractices in academia as a problem what Bourdieu (1991) calls 'symbolic violence'. Consequently, they engage in the process to increase their publications. Such publications enable both the university professors and the students to achieve the desired benefit, such as promotions, tenure, and academic degrees. We recommend that this practice must be altered at the policy level since it not only violates the HEC's standards for quality research but also damages the researchers' credibility and country's scientific reputation.
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The purpose of computationally intensive theory construction is to produce theoretical insights from patterns identified using computational techniques, including—but not limited to—those that reveal categories, category memberships, associations, networks, sequences, and complex system dynamics by providing simulated data, pattern visualizations, or quantifications (Berente et al., 2019). Despite increasing understanding of the application of computational methods to theory construction, this genre poses unique challenges. Such work involves creative yet disciplined inquiry with rigorous yet reasonable thoroughness. Striking this balance involves judgment calls rooted in community norms, standards, and conventions. In this editorial, we offer guidance for conducting and assessing computationally intensive theory construction, without any ambition to prematurely forestall community debates surrounding this genre. We hope to reduce uncertainty for researchers and review teams by distilling the foundations of a framework from our collective experiences as authors, reviewers, and editors of work in this genre. This framework is offered as a scaffold and should not be applied dogmatically, since doing so would infringe on the creativity imperative to this genre. As computational tools and methods continue to evolve, so too will community norms, standards, and conventions, and we champion mindful departures from this and prior frameworks.
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Conventional understandings of protracted displacement are limited by a number of shortcomings. They imply the stasis of protracted situations; the passivity and disconnection of vulnerable groups who need external support; and immobility of people ‘stuck’ in places. Moreover, solutions to protracted displacement are based on the priorities of states and defined by the perspectives of humanitarian organisations. In contrast, this special issue seeks to advance scholarly and policy debates in order to advocate for more nuanced understandings and genuinely supportive practices of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs). This is realised through the framework of social figurations of displacement, documenting how these evolve over time, and highlighting the structural forces that perpetuate conditions of displacement. Articles in this special issue demonstrate the agency, resilience and transformative power that lies in displaced persons’ everyday practices. They foreground the role of multiple mobilities in displacement situations, unsettling the politicised concept of protracted displacement as an example of governance techniques that are geared towards locking the lives of forcibly displaced people in space and in time, rendering the displaced populations controllable. Recognising their mobility and connectivity can become a basis to continuously circumventing and challenging these. OPEN ACCESS
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