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Conceptualizing the Value Co-Destruction Process for Service Systems: Literature Review and Synthesis



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Conceptualizing the Value Co-Destruction Process for Service Systems:
Literature Review and Synthesis
Juuli Lintula
University of Jyväskylä
Tuure Tuunanen
University of Jyväskylä
Markus Salo
University of Jyväskylä
This study conceptualizes the notion of value co-
destruction by reviewing and synthesizing the scattered
and scarce value co-destruction literature in interdis-
ciplinary fields. Building on our synthesis, we outline a
conceptual framework for the value co-destruction
process consisting of three interrelated categories of
key concepts. Our framework helps in identifying,
analyzing and rectifying unwanted outcomes of a ser-
vice process and highlighting the dynamic nature of
value co-destruction in service systems.
1. Introduction
An essential goal when studying products, services
and their design is to understand how value is formed.
Vargo and Lusch [1, 2] argue that the traditional
goods-centered view, in which value is produced non-
interactively without customer involvement, is expen-
sive, perishable and nonresponsive to changing cus-
tomer needs. They present a service-dominant (S-D)
logic, in which the customer, possessing different re-
sources in a specific context, becomes essentially in-
volved with the value creation process [1, 2] as an
active, well-informed and networked individual, aim-
ing to have an influence on the company’s functions by
no longer merely accepting value propositions [3].
Customers interplaying with producers in the design
and development of services, enables producers to gain
a profound insight into what creates value for custom-
ers [4]. The interplay ends with the customer defining
the final value in use in a service system [1], which
refers to a configuration of people, technologies and
other co-creation entities [5].
There has recently been debate about value co-
creation in a subversive way, and the notion of value
co-destruction has been introduced to the S-D logic
literature [6-8] as an interplay of service systems re-
sulting in a decline of well-being of at least one of the
parties involved [8]. Understanding value co-
destruction is important as it may increase costs, cus-
tomer loss, dissatisfaction and negative word of mouth
[35]. However, little research has addressed it [6-8],
and the notion remains unclear [8], which motivates
the purpose of this study: describing value co-
destruction behavior. This literature gap is addressed
by our research question (RQ1): How can value co-
destruction be conceptualized? We further elaborate
this with RQ2: What are the most centric and recur-
ring foci and concepts in the value co-destruction lit-
erature? The main goal of this study is to synthesize
the scattered research field of value co-destruction and
to develop a conceptual framework for the value co-
destruction process. The usefulness of such synthesis
and framework arises from guiding researchers to-
wards understanding the concept and dimensions of
value co-destruction. Furthermore, practitioners using
the framework can prevent unwanted outcomes of a
service process by steering and rectifying components
prone to value co-destruction.
We start in the following section by introducing the
concepts of value, value co-creation and value co-
destruction. In the next section, we introduce the re-
search method applied in our study. Section four pre-
sents our findings, upon which a conceptual framework
of value co-destruction is formed. We then conclude by
discussing theoretical and practical implications of our
study, followed by limitations and future research
2. Background of S-D logic
2.1. Value
Often, value has been described as an outcome of a
trade-off, where benefits are pursued by sacrificing
resources [9], and a division has been made between
extrinsic and intrinsic value [10]. Use of information
systems (IS) has been categorized into two types: utili-
ty (extrinsic value), which stands for productivity-
oriented, such as monetary benefit-driven, use, and
hedonic (intrinsic value), which comprises pleasure-
oriented, e.g., enjoyment-driven, use [11]. Utilitarian
value represents functional and practical means to an
end, whereas hedonic values are the aspired toward end
themselves with characteristics of fun, novelty, aesthet-
ics and unexpectedness [12].
In the IS field it is argued that all IS need to provide
users with some level of both hedonic and utilitarian
value [13]. Here, the type of IS acts as a moderator: in
utility-centric IS, the needed level of proposed utilitari-
an value is fairly high compared to hybrid IS, in which
it is roughly even, or hedonic IS, which possess the
lowest need for utilitarian value. After the needed level
of utilitarian value is exceeded, the hedonic value be-
comes dominant and the driver of any type of IS [13].
In goods-dominant (G-D) logic, value consists of
two phases: first, value is created by the producer, and
second, value is consumed by the consumer [14, 15].
By contrast, Prahalad and Ramaswamy [16, 17] sug-
gest interactive customer-producer involvement leads
to cooperatively created value unique to the individual
customer. Thus, consumers should be regarded as co-
creators of experience or value [16] and consumer-
provider interaction the key to value co-creation [17].
2.2. Co-creation of value
Vargo and Lusch [1] introduced S-D logic to mar-
keting, positioning service as the foundation for the
exchange instead of value. Service refers to the action
of an entity benefiting itself or another entity [1, 15] by
co-creating value-in-use, which is explained as an
improvement in a systems well-being measured by the
systems ability to fit in to its environment [18]. Con-
sequently, the value of a service or a good only exists
through customersperceived contextual experiences
enabled by the service or the good [19].
Thus, S-D logic comprises companies delivering
customers value propositions, which they use to co-
create actual perceived value-in-use, which is always
subjective and contextual [20]. Value co-creation, as an
interactive process of parties co-creating value-in-use
by integrating their own and utilizing others’ resources
[22-24], is the key function of S-D logic. It is a service-
for-service exchange occurring between involved par-
ties, referred to as service systems, which are connect-
ed to each other by value propositions [18]. The goal of
this service process is for the involved entities to bene-
fit themselves and/or other entities involved by apply-
ing resources through particular interactive functions
[18]. The used resources are divided into a) operant
resources, which are tangible and substantial resources
being acted upon by b) operand resources, such as
knowledge and skills [21]. Value co-production, a sub-
notion of value co-creation, occurs when consumers
integrate resources in the production of the core offer-
ing of the service, e.g., design or development [20].
While value co-production may be an essential part of
co-creation of value, the co-creation process consists of
companies delivering consumers value propositions,
which customers use to co-create actual perceived
value-in-use on a broader time frame and thus which
cannot conceptually be limited solely to the co-
production of value [20].
Tuunanen et al. [22] have presented a conceptual
framework for the design of consumer information
systems explaining value co-creation as interaction
between particular system value propositions and cus-
tomer value drivers. The framework suggests that in
successful co-creation of value, the offerings of the
system are complemented by the value drivers of the
user, and that value co-creation in the context of IS use
occurs as an interplay between these two entities [22].
2.3. Absence of value co-destruction in S-D
logic literature
In S-D logic literature, “servicefundamentally has
an optimistic tone to it, and value is referred to in an
intrinsically positive manner [8, 25]. Engaging in inter-
active value creation processes is also mainly ex-
plained in an unproblematic way [7]. The literature,
however, overlooks potential negative consequences of
a failed or errored co-creation process [26], and the
notion of value co-destruction has not been thoroughly
discussed, leaving it unclear and undefined [7, 8]. Plé
and Chumpitaz Cáceres [8] state that since value can
be co-created, it is logical that the interaction process
between parties may also result in value co-destruction,
and thus, they introduce and coin the concept of value
co-destruction within the S-D logic framework.
Echeverri and Skålén [7], consistent with Plé and
Chumpitaz Cáceres [8], argue value co-creation in S-D
logic is an unrealistic conception. For instance, value
co-destruction can occur in a service encounter where a
bus driver informs customers regarding issues related
to service but one or both parties fail to understand or
pass on the message or keep relevant information to
themselves [7]. Some earlier studies have also implied
a negative side of value co-creation, or in other words,
value being co-destroyed [7, 8]. For example, Prahalad
and Ramaswamy [27] make a notion of the negative
side of value co-creation, remarking that not all inter-
actions between firms and customers are enjoyed or
end up being perceived positively by the customer.
Furthermore, there are implications of value co-
creation not always being the optimal function for both
parties involved, and some depictions are made of
circumstances under which no interaction is recom-
mended [28]. Also, value imbalance between the cus-
tomer and the provider and a devaluation process po-
tentially resulting in value diminishment have been
noted in the literature [19]. Etgar [29], in turn, has
described value co-production as a process costing all
involved parties something, highlighting the risk of the
customer aiming to minimize its own costs of interac-
tion and thus making the trade less worthwhile for the
firm. He implies value diminishes due to the aspect of
cost imbalance [29]. Consistent with the argument of
Plé and Chumpitaz Cáceres [8], Echeverri and Skålén
[7] further argue that interactive value formation not
only occurs as value co-creation but also as value co-
Later on, authors from various fields have, with
empirical studies, also supported the notion of value
co-destruction and it being as feasible an outcome of
an interaction process as value co-creation [30-37, 47,
51, 55, 57, 70, 71]. In the IS literature, early signs of
both value creation and destruction are depicted
through appearances of irrational behavior in IS devel-
opment [38] and destructive behavior referred to as
“the dark side,” such as theft, sabotage and deception,
in IS projects [39, 40]. Vartiainen and Tuunanen [6]
state there is a lack of previous research discussing the
negative consequences of design and possible negative
occurrences during the value co-creation process, plac-
ing particular interest in studying it in the context of IS
While researchers have recognized the notion of
value co-destruction, the research still remains at an
infant and scattered stage, calling to be synthetized and
conceptualized in a framework as proposed in this
3. Research method
To synthesize value co-destruction literature and
develop a conceptual framework, we conducted a liter-
ature review selecting relevant literature through seven
steps (Table 1) and keyword searches in interdiscipli-
nary databases: ProQuest, EBSCOhost, Emerald In-
sight and Google Scholar. Relevant articles were found
in service science, marketing, management, IS, tourism
and sports management fields. In the first search in
ProQuest (step 1), 151 articles were found with the
keyword co-destruction,” some addressing nonrele-
vant topics, such as chemistry or astronomy, where-
upon the keywords value and servicewere added
to the search to specify the context of the results.
The performed searches in four different databases
(steps 2-5) with the keywords “co-destruction,ser-
vice and valuereturned 68 + 47 + 197 + 474 arti-
cles. All retrieved articles were assessed according to
the following inclusion criteria: 1) The article focuses
on studying value co-destruction (primary articles) or
2) The article presents occurrences of value co-
destruction (secondary articles). Of the retrieved arti-
cles, 15 met the criterion 1 and 14 the criterion 2.
After steps 2-5, references and citation indexes of
articles included by criterion 1 were assessed to find
relevant articles going backward and forward with the
same criteria (1 and 2). Two articles were added to the
selection in this phase, both by criterion 1. Finally, a
total of 31 articles were included in the review (17
articles by criterion 1 and 14 by criterion 2) (Table 1).
When analyzing the selected articles, our analysis
was based on the primary articles that met criterion 1:
we took extensive notes for each article in spreadsheet
format and discussed them among the authors. We
assessed the articles by their contexts, theories, meth-
ods, findings and the key concepts arising from pre-
sented explanations, predictions and outcomes of value
co-destruction. These notes and assessments were
backed up with the secondary articles that met criterion
2. Based on our extensive notes, handwritten memos
and discussions, we arranged the key concepts into
three overlapping dimensions (orientation, resources
and perceptions) and their components. Finally, by
arranging the components in the dimensions temporal-
ly according to their appearance in a service encounter,
we formed a conceptual framework.
Table 1. Literature review process.
Step 1: Broad search in ProQuest covering all
ProQuest p ublications. Keyword search: “co-
destruction” in “All text.” Results: 151. Variation
from nat ural to social sciences.
1) *
2) *
Step 2: Refining the keyword search of ProQuest
publications for the context of service-dominant
logic. Keyword search: “co-destruction,” “value”
and “service” in “All text.” Articles found: 68.
Selecting most relevant articles by criteria 1 and 2.
Step 3: Search in EBSCOhost covering all databases.
Keyword search : “co -destruction,” “value” and
“service” in “Anywhere.” Articles found: 47. Select-
ing most relevant articles by criteria 1 and 2.
Step 4: Search in Emerald Insight covering all
Emerald Insight c ontent . Key word search: “co -
destruction,” “value” and “service” in “Anywhere.
Article s foun d: 197. Select ing mo st relevant articles
by criteria 1 and 2.
Step 5: Search in Google Scho lar. Keyword search:
“co-destruction” + “value” + “service” in “Any-
where.” Articl es fou nd: 474. Selecting most relevant
articles by criteria 1 and 2.
Step 6: Backward and forward reviewing of cita-
tions. Reviewing of the citations in articles selected
in previous steps and searching in Google Scholar
for articles citing articles selected by criterion 1 in
previous steps. Selecting relevant articles by criteria
1 and 2.
Step 7: Combining overlapping articles from steps
articles and
4. Findings: framework for value co-
destruction process for service systems
Recurring value co-destruction components, such
as concepts, phrases, foci, similarities and differences,
are acknowledged in this review. The key components
of value co-destruction are tabulated in a concept-
centric [41] manner and categorized into three interre-
lated dimensions. These results are presented in Figure
1. The three overlapping dimensions of the framework,
Orientation, Resources and Perceptions, all have com-
ponents, which appear at different temporal points:
before, during and/or after the service process.
Orientation in our categorization includes inten-
tions and goals, which evolve throughout and after the
service process. In the Resources dimension, value co-
destruction may originate from lack of resources, po-
tentially leading to misuse and/or loss of resources
during the service process, which then may lead to
attempts to restore lost resources after the interaction
process. The Perceptions dimension sets prior expecta-
tions in a triggering role for value co-destruction. For
instance, perceived incongruence of applied practices
during service use may originate from inconsistencies
in expectations of the interacting parties. Unrealistic
prior expectations may also lead to insufficient per-
ceived value and value contradictions during service
use and after. The components are interrelated and may
occur linearly as well as inter-dimensionally and in
retroactive loops. For instance, lack of resources, such
as knowledge or access to information, may compound
unrealistic expectations, and the attempt to restore
resources may trigger a new retroactive value co-
destruction loop. The proposed framework (Figure 2)
categorizes value co-destruction dimensions and com-
ponents, hence, explaining the phenomenon of value
co-destruction. Contents of each dimension
orientation, resources and perceptionsare next re-
viewed one by one.
4.1. Orientation
4.1.1. Goals and intentions. Plé and Chumpitaz Cáce-
res [8] state value co-destruction may result from an
accidental or intentional misuse of resources in an
interaction process between service systems; thus,
value co-destruction may be intended or unintended.
Unintentional value co-destruction occurs when in-
tended value co-creation accidentally results in dimin-
ishment of a system’s well-being. Intentional value co-
destruction, in turn, refers to a service system inten-
tionally misusing resources in order to gain more bene-
fitdescribed as well-beingand capacity for adap-
tiveness for itself, to the detriment of those of another
system [8]. Intentions to co-destroy or not to co-create
value [8, 23, 36, 49, 50, 63], opportunism or deviancy
[37, 47-49, 51-54, 56], and changes in intentions [31,
35, 48, 55-57] are implied to herald value co-
destruction in the literature.
Kashif and Zarkada [47] state intentional misuse is
the existence of deliberate value imbalances. Fur-
thermore, Vartiainen and Tuunanen [6] state value is
co-destroyed both knowingly and unknowingly in the
context of technology-assisted geocaching, in which
some participants are aware, while others are unaware,
of the negative value effect of their actions while pur-
suing positive value. For instance, a geocacher may
experience nature at its purest while consuming it at
the same time [6].
Ertimur and Venkatesh [48] argue deliberate oppor-
tunistic behavior in co-production of value is mainly
driven by incongruence of goals under the conditions
of information asymmetry or social disagreement. For
instance, if an automobile producer engages consumers
Figure 1. Results of the literature review.
Figure 2. Framework for value co-
destruction process for service systems.
to co-production of commercial online video material
aiming to develop a particular brand image, the in-
volved consumers may have incongruent goals in en-
gaging and actually use the opportunity to promote
their own agenda, such as environmental activism [48].
There is information asymmetry as the provider cannot
know if a consumers agenda is conflicted with their
own goals, which could lead to value co-destructive
outcomes in form of i.e. brand image weakening.
The evolution of the service process is often unpre-
dictable as well as conflicted [57] and opportunism is
found to occur in interactions when it is or becomes
profitable and feasible [48]. Echeverri and Skålén [7]
depict four subject positions, orientating roles that
actors step into in the course of the service interaction.
Subject positions portray orientations of parties and
may change from creative to destructive or vice versa
causing mixed service processes [7]. Along with a
destructive change of the subject position, a coherent
value co-creation praxis changes into reductive value
co-formation, where the ultimate outcome is co-
destructive [7]. Reductive value co-formation occurred,
for instance, when a public transportation driver first
aimed to co-create value welcoming a customer on
board, followed a value co-destructing reply from the
customer complaining loudly about the bus not being
on schedule. This also made the bus driver talk back to
the customer in an unprofessional and co-destructive
manner [7]. Von Becker et al. [57] conclude that the
relationship between co-creative and co-destructive
behaviors is dynamic, and based on evidence of a stud-
ied consulting situation, individual actors involved in
the service interaction lack control over the collectively
formed value regardless of individual intentions [57].
4.2. Resources
4.2.1. Lack of resources. Value co-creation is a re-
source integration process, which requires resource
inputs from both parties involved. In case one or both
service systems lack resources, such as time or skills to
engage in value co-creation, the process may fail, re-
sulting in diminishment of well-being for one or both
parties [8, 63]. Also, lack of provided information,
such as poor quality of communication between par-
ties, may appear as lack of resources in a value co-
formation process [34, 51]. Consistent with this, Kashif
and Zarkada [47] state that involving consumers in the
production process increasingly leads to accidental
value co-destruction because consumers lack sufficient
knowledge to successfully take part in the process. For
instance, Robertson et al. [34] studied value co-
destruction in the context of online self-diagnosis and
discovered value is co-destructed by both the provider
and the user due to initial lack of resources. Consumers
using self-diagnosis websites often couldn’t compre-
hend the provided information due to lack of resources,
such as sufficient medical knowledge, and secondly,
providers often lacked resources to provide users with
complete and understandable information [34]. Due to
initial lack of such resources, false and incomprehensi-
ble self-diagnoses occurred with a negative impact on
customers’ well-being, and thus, value was co-
destructed in the interactions [34].
4.2.2. Misuse and non-integration of resources.
Plé and Chumpitaz Cáceres [8] argue value co-
destruction occurs due to the misuse of available re-
sources in the interaction process between service
systems, and such misuse of resources as a manifesta-
tion of value co-destruction has also been supported by
other studies [25, 33-35, 37, 48-51, 53, 56, 58]. Plé and
Chumpitaz Cáceres [8] place the concept of value
destruction-through-misuse in the S-D logic frame-
work opposite to value-in-use, as an outcome of a
service system misusing its own or another service
systems resources or different service systems both
misusing their own and/or each others resources. The
misuse results in value co-destruction for at least one
service system and is explained as at least one of them
failing to integrate or apply the available operant and
operand resources in an appropriate or expected way
from the perspective of the other service system [8].
For example, a web store company co-destructed value
by promising and failing to home deliver a purchased
laptop on a specific date and time. The company co-
destructed value by misusing their own technology
resources (delivery system) costing the customer re-
sources such as temporal, material and financial [35].
Consequently, misuse referring to resource integration,
Plé [23] adopts the term misintegration for the action.
An intentional choice not to collaborate may also
lead to non-integration of resources [23]: for example,
the online diagnosis service user experiencing lack of
essential knowledge on how to search for medical
information with correct terminology, could decide to
stop using the service (non-integrate), which would
result in value co-destruction for the customer in form
of not gaining expected information of the service use.
4.2.3. Loss of resources. As engaging in a value co-
creation process may require an investment of a high
amount of resources, customersvalue perceptions may
be impacted in a negative way [59]. Drawing on COR
theory [44, 45] Smith [35] suggests gain and loss of
individual resources, such as material, condition, self
and energies, link to well-being and can also help in
acquiring other resources, such as social status, self-
esteem or transportation. Expectations are in a key role
when it comes to the perceived loss of resources [35,
44, 60] and thus, value co-destruction [35]. For in-
stance, a customer engaging in co-production of a
service design process is expecting to be investing
resources, such as time and knowledge, to the project
and on the other hand, receiving other resources, such
as networking or access to use of the designed product.
If expected resources are not gained or the expected
loss of resources is exceeded, value co-destruction
occurs [35]. From the customer point of view, loss of
resources (value co-destruction) would occur in four
scenarios: 1) the provider is unexpectedly not able to
fulfill the expected resource offer, 2) expected re-
sources are not gained, 3) customer loses more re-
sources than expected or 4) A combination of the
4.2.3. Attempt to restore resources. The outcome of a
value co-destructive service process can be seen as
primary loss of resources experienced by at least one of
the service systems [35]. After perceiving unexpected
loss of resources, a service system may deliberately
take on negative intentions and engage in co-
destructive actions as an attempt to restore lost re-
sources, which may then lead to secondary loss of
resources for one or multiply service systems involved
[35]. For instance, a customer using an online food
ordering service and not receiving her order on time
due to a system failure, experiences loss of resources
such as monetary, time and self-efficacy. This may
lead to taking on coping mechanisms [35, 47], such as
complaining directly and badmouthing the company to
other consumers in angry Twitter messages, in order to
regain resources, such as monetary and other compen-
sation and peer support. This action may result in sec-
ondary resource loss [35] for the company (loss of
reputation) and the customer (loss of time), yet, the
customer may also be able to regain resources, such as
self-efficacy, monetary and peer support [35]. Plé
suggests the process is dynamic and consists of retro-
active process loops, value co-destruction and co-
creation being steps on the way toward the final out-
come, which may be co-creative or co-destructive [23].
4.3. Perceptions
4.3.1. Expectations. Service encounters are co-
creation entities, where in order to co-create value,
parties must meet or exceed each others expectations
[62]. Hence, if both partiesneeds are not fulfilled, the
attempt of co-creation fails in a deficit, and value co-
destruction occurs [36]. One of the service systems not
receiving the expected value of the service encounter
(the other party failing to play the expected role) may
lead to intentional misbehavior and value co-
destruction [47]. Hence, the adequate level of co-
created value in a service encounter is defined through
expectations [35], and whether the expected outcome is
reached or not may define if value is co-created or co-
destroyed [8]. Multiple studies imply a party in a ser-
vice encounter has expectations of the nature or the
level of the other party’s actions or the service outcome
[7, 23, 25, 30, 49-51, 53]. From one service systems
point of view, an inappropriate or unexpected way of
another system integrating and applying available
resources can result in the concept of value destruc-
tion-through-misuse for the service system [7, 8].
Smith [35] suggests that value co-destruction occurs
even when the pursued enhancement of well-being has
not been quite fully met, as the expected increase of
well-being, such as expected pleasure of service use,
remains unachieved, but invested resources, such as
time spent on using the service, are lost.
4.3.2. Insufficient perceived value. Perceived value is
linked to prior experiences and expectations based on
them, and consequently, individual actors engaging in
a service interaction, expect a certain value dimension
to be met based on their experience [36]. The expected
level of service not being met [36], and non-preferred
value being co-created [30, 65] during service use
could lead to value co-destruction. Such value co-
destruction could occur for instance, when a bank
customer hoping to open a new bank account was
asked to wait for more than two hours in order to get
the absent manager to sign a form and thereby submit
the application [47]. Such situation could end in the
customer having the account opened, but not in the
expected time frame, which would lead to insufficient
co-created value and ultimately, value co-destruction.
4.3.3. Incongruence of practices. Echeverri and
Skålén [7] draw on practice theory stating interactive
value formation either value co-creation or co-
destruction proceeds from the actions of service
systems drawing upon congruent or incongruent ele-
ments of practices. Drawing on Schau et al. [64], they
depict three such elements of practices: 1) Procedures,
2) Understandings, and 3) Engagements, which are
drawn upon according to prior conceptions, and when
such conceptions of practitioners are incongruent,
value is co-destroyed [7]. For example, a bus driver
greeting a customer in an overly cheerful manner may
have a co-destructive effect as the greeting may not
have been adapted to the sensitive personal situation of
the customer. This occurrence would translate to value
co-destruction through drawing on incongruent en-
gagements [7]. Inversely, a process of practitioners
drawing on congruent procedures, understandings and
engagements leads to value co-creative outcomes [7,
4.3.4. Contradictions of value. According to Plé
and Chumpitaz Cáceres [8], the process of value co-
destruction may lead to differential results for separate
service systems, and the level of co-destructed value
resulting from the interactional process may not be the
same for all systems involved. Value is measured by
the system’s ability to adapt to the environment [19];
thus, value being co-destructed may lead to different
service systems fitting differentially into their envi-
ronments, and for one service system, the interaction
may co-create value-in-use, while for the other, it may
cause value destruction-through-misuse [8]. For exam-
ple, this was what happened with audience dissipation
in relation to the America’s Next Top Model show [32],
where the self-branding efforts of the participants of
the television show resulted in contradictions in per-
ceived value by the television viewers. Contradictions
in value co-creation outcomes can be interpreted from
findings and discussions of some reviewed articles [51,
65, 66] and a duality in value co-formation has been
recognized [8, 32, 66]. For instance, football hooligan-
ism could be converted into commercial opportunities,
achieving value co-creative outcomes from value co-
destructive process attempts [66].
Echeverri and Skålén [7] argue that a value co-
formation process can consist of both value co-creation
and co-destruction. They depict four types of praxis
through which value either forms or diminishes in an
interactive service process: 1) Reinforcing value co-
creation, 2) Recovery value co-creation, 3) Reductive
value co-formation and 4) Reinforcing value co-
destruction [7]. Reinforcing value co-creation and
Reinforcing value co-destruction are coherent in their
value formation processes, as Recovery value co-
creation and Reductive value-co-creation offer a mixed
process view. A mixed process begins with practition-
ers either drawing on congruent or incongruent ele-
ments of practices, followed by an alteration to contra-
dictory drawings, and thus leading an initially co-
creative process to co-destructive outcomes or vice
versa. However, according to Echeverri and Skålén [7],
regardless of the nature of the process, the outcome
cannot be contradictory, as it always results either in
value co-creation or co-destruction [7].
Vartiainen and Tuunanen [6] introduce the topic of
value co-destruction to IS literature and, inconsistent
with Echeverri and Skålén [7], discover simultaneous
value co-creation and value co-destruction, identifying
two poles in the results of the studied IS artifact of
geocaching. They apply the concept of contradictions
identifying four contradictive results, finding that both
the value creation pole and the value destruction pole
exist in an interactive value formation process, and that
value can be co-destroyed while positive value is pur-
sued [6]. For instance, geocachers’ values of socializ-
ing and strong sense of community can contradict with
the game’s premise of being competitive. Contradicto-
ry outcomes of value co-formation are explained by the
link between the IS artifacts sub-systems enabling
simultaneous co-creating and co-destructing of value.
It is discovered that an IS artifact may be inherently
contradictory, and through differentiation and integra-
tion, both poles reinforce each other, and through de-
velopment of links, it is possible to create solutions for
practical conflicts and eruptions[6].
5. Implications and concluding remarks
This study contributes by addressing the scarce and
scattered value co-destruction literature by conducting
a review of 31 articles and developing a conceptual
framework for the value co-destruction process for
service systems (see Table 1 and Fig. 1). As an answer
to our research questions, we synthesized the literature,
revealing value co-destruction as an important yet
recently discovered phenomenon lacking versatile
empirical research and consensus as well as distin-
guishing recurring concepts and foci of the phenome-
non and its dimensions.
We divided the key concepts and foci into three in-
terrelated dimensions: orientation (goals and inten-
tions), resources (lack, misuse, non-integration and loss
of resources and attempt to restore resources) and per-
ceptions (expectations, incongruence of applied prac-
tices, insufficient perceived value and contradictions of
value), and examined their properties in relation to
time. As a result, we were able to present a preliminary
and conceptual framework of the value co-destruction
process for service systems (see Fig. 2). Our synthesis
and conceptual framework are particularly useful in
this early phase of value co-destruction research be-
cause they relate the first, relatively fragmented studies
to each other.
As for theoretical implications, our study extends
the prior knowledge by presenting a literature review
and a conceptualization of value co-destruction for S-D
logic. To our knowledge, this is an original contribu-
tion, as value co-destruction has not been conceptual-
ized this way in prior literature. With our study, we
aim to provide researchers a toolthe framework (Fig.
2)—to understand the dimensions and central compo-
nents of value co-destruction. Furthermore, our frame-
work particularly highlights the dynamic nature of
value co-destruction: there are crucial differences in
how value co-destruction is shaped regarding the dif-
ferent temporal dimensions of the interaction process
(before, in use, after). This can be applied, for exam-
ple, within the different temporal phases of a service
process to investigate differences in what kind of atten-
tion is needed to support co-creation of value.
In addition to the theoretical contribution of con-
ceptualizing value co-destruction, this study also aims
to give firms and service designers important insights
on the value co-destructive side of the interactive ser-
vice process in order for them to identify and avoid the
worst pitfalls. Understanding the potential of value co-
destruction is important in order to identify, analyze
and rectify unwanted outcomes of a service process [8]
in a similar way that it is fundamental to competitive-
ness to gain profound insights on creating value for and
co-creating value with customers [4]. We see that our
conceptual framework can help practitioners who de-
sign and implement services in channeling attention to
specific components such as user expectations [8] and
value perceptions [35], that are especially vulnerable to
value co-destruction. By taking notice of the varied
risks of co-creation practices before, after and during
the course of a service encounter, a number of pitfalls
could be avoided. For example, ensuring users receive
sufficient prior information of the offering, time frame
and requirements of the service and providing access to
sufficient information during use may increase congru-
ence of practices and reduce negative outcomes of the
service process. Such actions may prevent service
providers from losing their customers and suffering
from negative word of mouth.
There are certain limitations related to this study.
First, the article acquisition completed by a keyword
search limits this study because some potentially rele-
vant articles may recognize the studied phenomenon
but use different terminology than that of S-D logic
and value co-destruction. Second, articles studying the
problems and challenges of value co-creation may
offer additional contributions to the literature of value
co-destruction but were excluded from this review as a
result of the outlining of the data acquisition to the
keywords co-destruction, value and service.
Third, some critical viewpoints to value co-creation
(e.g., the ethics of consumer exploitation) have been
taken in marketing literature, such as [67-69]. Finally,
the method of selecting and categorizing key compo-
nents to develop a conceptual framework is by nature
subjective and interpretative and thus limits this study.
While literature discussing co-destruction of value
is scattered and lacking versatile empirical studies, we
recognize that some noteworthy viewpoints remain
unaddressed. This sets an arena for future studies.
Some questions remain with respect to our framework,
for instance, how interrelated the categories and com-
ponents are when it comes to the process of value co-
destruction. For instance, the perceptions and resources
categories were highly related, as prior expectations
defined the acceptable loss of resources during a ser-
vice encounter [35]. More research is therefore needed
to strengthen our framework by studying whether some
of the components are more dominant than others,
cross-affecting each other, or if some of the compo-
nents can be more easily rectified than the others. Fu-
ture studies could also take a one-component-centric
approach, studying thoroughly the relations of a specif-
ic component, such as lack of resources, to all other
Our conceptual framework can benefit future re-
search and practitioners in piecing together factors
causing co-destruction in service encounters and de-
termining significant temporal points for rectifying
actions. Analyzing value co-formation processes using
our framework may help in breaking down dimensions
of value co-destruction. For instance, value co-
destruction in IS use could be observed through a spe-
cific category (orientation, resources or perceptions),
and relations between categories could be studied in
order to find which category and components are most
likely to drive negative outcomes in different contexts,
user groups or types of IS. Through empirical studies,
categories could also be ranked by their effects on
value co-formation (from most to least likely to in-
crease co-destructive outcomes). Consequently, an
amplified and interrelated framework of value co-
destruction could be built in order to provide system
designers correcting guidelines for avoiding co-
destruction of value among users of varied groups,
contexts or system types.
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... VCD is an "interactional process between service systems that results in a decline in at least one of the systems' well-being" (Plé and Chumpitaz Cáceres, 2010, p. 431). It can originate from a failed interaction process, failed resource integration (Echeverri and Skålén, 2011), misuse of resources, negative experiences (Plé and Chumpitaz Cáceres, 2010), provider-customer value imbalance, resource loss (Echeverri and Skålén, 2011;Lintula et al., 2017), and insufficient perceived value (Lintula et al., 2017). Given that online collaborative technologies may add to the complexity of maintaining and managing interactions (Zhang et al., 2020), it is important to have further research into the conditions where VCD occurs in OCNs (Hamidi and Machold, 2020). ...
... VCD is an "interactional process between service systems that results in a decline in at least one of the systems' well-being" (Plé and Chumpitaz Cáceres, 2010, p. 431). It can originate from a failed interaction process, failed resource integration (Echeverri and Skålén, 2011), misuse of resources, negative experiences (Plé and Chumpitaz Cáceres, 2010), provider-customer value imbalance, resource loss (Echeverri and Skålén, 2011;Lintula et al., 2017), and insufficient perceived value (Lintula et al., 2017). Given that online collaborative technologies may add to the complexity of maintaining and managing interactions (Zhang et al., 2020), it is important to have further research into the conditions where VCD occurs in OCNs (Hamidi and Machold, 2020). ...
... Beyond the identified themes, our novel contribution is our framework and the relationships between pre-existing collaboration process themes and post-process themes. Our findings indicate that collaboration process themes of communication and effective moderation can be influenced by pre-existing themes, such as limitations of the specific setting, including conventions, available resources, or lack of certain platform features (Lintula et al., 2017;Vafeas et al., 2016). These findings also indicate that post-process themes, including poor quality and low engagement, can be influenced by collaboration process themes, such as destructive feedback and conflicting expectations, and pre-existing themes such as limitations and pre-existing perceptions. ...
This paper explores the underlying reasons for and develops a richer understanding of how value may be co-destructed within online collaborative networks (OCNs). Drawing on 36 semistructured interviews with members of two OCNs, Stack Overflow and GitHub, we outline 11 themes, categorized into three sets—pre-existing themes, themes that occur during the collaboration process, and postprocess themes—which lead to value co-destruction (VCD). Our research contributes to the co-destruction literature and illustrates co-destruction perspectives on OCNs. Our findings provide practical implications through raising awareness of the negative facets of actors' collaboration and help to increase value formation by addressing sources of co-destruction.
... This shift triggered service research to change the perspectives and to consider service systems [15]. According to service logic, the joint resource integration and utilization in configurations of people, technologies, and other entities create value [16][17][18]. Here, different configurations may be apparent [19,20]. ...
... The accessibility of resources, the matching or mismatching of resources, and whether a resource can be turned into benefits through operations contribute to VCC or VCD. Thus, VCD can be caused in the interaction process of cocreating actors, resulting in at least one actor with a decline of value [5,6,18,29,30]. In VCD, one actor integrates and/ or applies the resources (of the other actor) in a way that is not expected or appropriate from the view of the other actor [18]. Such actions can be intended or unintended [6]. ...
... Thus, VCD can be caused in the interaction process of cocreating actors, resulting in at least one actor with a decline of value [5,6,18,29,30]. In VCD, one actor integrates and/ or applies the resources (of the other actor) in a way that is not expected or appropriate from the view of the other actor [18]. Such actions can be intended or unintended [6]. ...
... On the other hand, the existing research on value is mostly focused on the creation of positive value while overlooking the destruction of value (Leo & Zainuddin, 2017). Lintula, Tuunanen and Salo (2017) explain that value destruction is a negative outcome and it leads to the cessation of positive behaviours. In this process a target audience's value judgements about a product or service become more negative than positive (Lintula, Tuunanen, & Salo, 2017). ...
... Lintula, Tuunanen and Salo (2017) explain that value destruction is a negative outcome and it leads to the cessation of positive behaviours. In this process a target audience's value judgements about a product or service become more negative than positive (Lintula, Tuunanen, & Salo, 2017). This in turn ends in a negative effect on value perceptions. ...
Full-text available
The objective of this paper is to review the idea of social marketing in light of latest development. This paper will contribute towards the debate of upstream social marketing and why it is vital for success of social marketing. The people working for a social marketing campaign can hail from many different fields such as public health, politics, environmental issues, social justice and other social sciences, including marketing. This paper uses literature review a research method for analyzing and synthesizing pervious researches to build an argument. The study uses both integrative and narrative reviews to discuss the pertinent issues in social marketing. The paper further presents an argument for why we need to rethink the concept of social marketing and upstream social marketing. This study concludes that for effectiveness of social marketing campaigns we need shift our focus from individual level to the context that influences behaviours.
... Besides having been widely conceptualized within the field of marketing, where it first originates (e.g., Grönroos, 2006Grönroos, , 2008Grönroos, , 2011 [service logic perspective]; Vargo & Lusch, 2004, 2008, S-D logic has been adopted in various other disciplines as well. It is considered foundational to service science (Maglio & Spohrer, 2007;, and in IS research, it has been applied, for example, to explain value co-creation in IT-enabled service innovation (Lusch & Nambisan, 2015) and development (Tuunanen et al., 2010) and to conceptualize the value co-destruction process for service systems (Lintula et al., 2017). ...
... As a part of the laddering interview technique, at the beginning of each interview, the interviewer presented the participants with a list of stimuli that were further explained by short written scenarios (Peffers et al., 2003). The preliminary survey and a conceptual framework for the value co-destruction process for service systems (Lintula et al., 2017) were utilized to design the stimuli collection. Since the objective of the study was to determine the basis for the experienced value codestruction, the stimuli collection included nine scenarios with potential value co-destruction occurrences. ...
Full-text available
Background: Understanding how users evaluate their experiences has been recognized as being fundamental to designing services that meet the users’ needs and support the emergence of positive rather than negative value outcomes in service use. Still, the current literature does not explicitly describe how the users’ value determination unfolds or how the levels of experienced value could be measured to support service design. We address this gap in the context of augmented reality (AR) mobile games by scrutinizing users’ personal values as a potential basis for achieving such an understanding. Method: Through a qualitative content analysis of 43 in-depth laddering interviews with active Pokémon Go gamers in Finland, we uncover the focal personal values associated with the game. Furthermore, we determine the connection of these values to the users’ co-creative and co-destructive gaming experiences. Results: Our study defines eight personal values highlighted in Pokémon Go. The focal co-created values include pleasure, a sense of belonging, ambition, activity, and a healthy life. The most co-destroyed values in the game include social recognition and responsibility. Interestingly, the value of sociality is highlighted in both the co-creative and the co-destructive gaming experiences. While the findings may not be generalizable beyond the studied AR mobile game context, this study explains how users’ personal values may serve as a basis for understanding the value structures of other digital service users to support service design. Conclusion: Our study contributes to the literature by introducing personal values as a potential basis for understanding users’ value-based drivers and service experiences to support the design of digital services. We theoretically conceptualize the users’ dynamic value creation process based on personal values and, using empirical findings, offer novel insights into the value co-creation and co-destruction phenomena in AR mobile games.
... Simultaneously, servitization has emerged as a focal area of interest in the information systems (IS) discipline (e.g., Rai & Sambamurthy, 2006), and the research domain of service science has been established to tackle challenges of complex sociotechnical service systems, wherein value is co-created in the interplay of people, technology, information, and value propositions connecting these (Maglio et al., 2009;Vargo et al., 2015Vargo et al., , 2020. While it has been established that value can be co-created for the actors involved in service exchange, also negative value may emerge (e.g., Castillo et al., 2020;Lintula et al., 2017;Plé & Chumpitaz Cáceres, 2010). Further, particular risks relate to co-creation with services enabled by new emerging technologies (Ostrom et al., 2021), and thus, the dynamics of value co-creation and codestruction have emerged as subjects of interest for IS researchers and practitioners (e.g., Tuunanen et al., 2019). ...
... Evolving toward a metatheoretical lens of value co-creation, SDL views the given role of actors in service exchange by nature as generic, while the derived value is characterized as subjective, contextual, and phenomenological . Critical approaches have suggested that the SDL view of value co-creation as a process leading to positive outcomes is overly optimistic, and value co-destruction has been proposed as an equally feasible outcome of service exchange (Echeverri & Skålén, 2011;Lintula et al., 2017;Plé & Chumpitaz Cáceres, 2010). Thus, a balanced understanding of how value emerges ought to consider the emergence of both positive and negative value outcomes for the focal actor(s) involved (Lintula et al., 2018). ...
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Digitalization and emerging technologies have given rise to cybernized services and a debate questioning the traditional Service-dominant logic (SDL) view of technology as a resource in service exchange. To date, little is known about the role of technology as a value co-creating (or co-destroying) actor in the context of services empowered by emerging technologies. Attaining an in-depth understanding of technology as an actor in cybernized service ecosystems is integral for practitioners and researchers alike to foster and investigate value co-creation in the sociotechnical interactions from the perspective of the involved human actors. To address this need, we unmask the technology actor by conducting a qualitative content analysis on in-depth laddering interviews with users of the Augmented Reality (AR) mobile game application Pokémon Go. Employing the Actor-Network Theory (ANT), we depict three emerging technology actor roles in service exchange and discuss their value co-creative/destructive implications to research and practice.
... In a broad sense, digital services can be defined as systems that enable value co-creation and limit value co-destruction through the development and implementation of ICT enabled processes that integrate system value propositions with customer value drivers [5][6][7]. Such services meld the worlds of bits and atoms and promise to transform the transportation, energy, and other sectors like the media industries before them. ...
... The design of such services may, however, require an emphasis on the sociopsychological aspects, such as the value-in-use and user/consumer/co-creator experiences. Digital services create novel ways of engaging customers and other actors in service ecosystems, raising the question of effective patterns of such digital actor engagement [5][6][7][8]. Moreover, digital services facilitate data-driven and analytics-based service design and development, particularly if the service is linked to the physical world through sensors and/or people's interactions. ...
... Many value co-creation initiatives tend to fail as these do focus on limited aspects of the firm's offerings, neither catering the need for greater involvement of the internal actors nor building capacity of external stakeholders including customers (Polese et al., 2017;Waseem, Biggemann, & Garry, 2018;Zhang, Lu, Torres, & Chen, 2018). Many firms, during cocreation initiatives, are unable to modify routines, norms and associated value in order to build a service climate for value co-creation (Lintula, Tuunanen, & Salo, 2017). Although a refreshed perspective of re-examining modern firms is advocated but many firms find it hard to prepare their actors for this continuous habit of creating value for themselves alongside creating value for others (Corsaro, 2019;Hein et al., 2019). ...
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Service Dominant (S-D) logic is now considered as a trans-disciplinary theoretical contribution that warrants investigation of research interventions in the fields of management and OB. Taking into account the importance of active participation of multiple actors in the value co-creation ventures, this paper attempts to contribute towards mid-range theoretical development in the field of service science and management from a multidisciplinary frame. Adopting the service system’s view, the term “expedience” is proposed that accounts or the actor’s readiness as an essential ingredient or value co-creation in learning service systems. Role of social and institutional influences for value co-creation in the actor’s expedience phase is also examined; in particular, with the help of a generic process-based framework that comprises of key elements related to actor’s development and influence of service climate on value co-creation processes. Multiple qualitative case studies were used to explore rich experiences of actors during instances of service interactions in higher education institutions and empirical findings are generated rom 37 in-depth interviews, observations and web page analysis. Results confirmed that sustainable value co-creation requires interplay of social and technological dimensions; where, educational institutions need to develop a service climate or speeding up the actor’s expedience. Implications or service firms offering digital solutions are discussed at later stages of the paper to examine potential of advancing avenues for service OB.
... Furthermore, as we will see in this study, all parties can eventually lose value. Given the intricately connected nature of value co-creation and value destruction, the primary motivation for this study is to examine how an intended value co-creation process degenerates to value destruction over time and to shed light on the underlying mechanisms by which value destruction and occasionally value co-destruction 3 may occur (Lintula et al. 2017). ...
Value destruction is intertwined with value co-creation in the technology alliances and ecosystems; this is a key reason that most partnerships fail in the real world. Managers and policymakers will be enabled to identify destructive behavioral signals right from the onset drawing on our findings that opportunism, unjust appropriation of rents, shirking, exploitation of asymmetric power, and undue dependence can initiate the value destruction process. For the partners in an ecosystem, our findings underscore that opportunistic and exploitative behaviors do not pay off in the long run as these result in collateral and unintended losses for all. Dominant partner’s opportunism and exploitation of power asymmetry could give rise to a proverbial “pack of wolves,” a collective of resentful partners, for “challenging/killing the lion”—replacing the hub firm itself. In this vicious cycle, original intent of value co-creation gets lost with multidimensional losses on multiple fronts to the extent that opportunities open up even for the competitors with the help of hub’s former resentful complementors. Equipped with this knowledge, leaders can proactively manage ecosystem relationships keeping them on the path of originally intended value co-creation by remaining alert toward catching the signals of value destruction and reverting it deftly toward value co-creation.
... 2.2 Value co-destruction VCD is the more recent construct and should receive attention. Strikingly, Lusch's (2017, 2004) prescient grand theory of the market makes no mention of VCD and subsequent literature broadly represents SDL as intrinsically positive for value creation (Lintula et al., 2017). In fact, there is an explicit assumption that all actors "have the common purpose of value (co-) creation" (Vargo and Lusch, 2017, p. 48; see also Chandler and Vargo, 2011), which somehow exonerates customers and producers from being perceived as value "destroyers". ...
Purpose The research examines the simultaneous processes of value co-creation and value co-destruction in the implementation of a mobile banking application in rural Colombia. Rural communities experience digital and financial deficits and often become the object of technology-based initiatives. In the town, vulnerable female heads of household received a government subsidy through a mobile app, becoming an experimental group for this government–private bank collaboration. In an effort to create the first cashless society in Colombia, the bank engaged the entire town and local government to create a service ecosystem, constituted by operant resources. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a qualitative, ethnographic approach to investigate the experiences of stakeholders in engaging with a mobile banking app. The empirical data is drawn from 34 interviews, representing different layers of this service ecosystem. The study identified and analysed actor engagement behaviours that occurred in the micro-, meso-, macro- and meta-layers of this ecosystem that shaped the perception and usage of mobile payments and digital money for rural consumers. Findings The study found that simultaneous manifestations of the co-creation and co-destruction of value present in different layers ultimately diminished the value proposition for this digital money system. We shed light on how actor engagement transitions across different layers of the ecosystem and that negative interactions in the meta-layer of the ecosystem can affect perceptions of value in the micro-layer. Originality/value This study has contributed to the service literature by integrating epistemological cultural theory into value co-creation and co-destruction construct. In doing so, we provide a broader context for understanding how actor engagement can negatively impact on the value creation process and offer a meaningful contribution to the development of midrange theory of the value creation process.
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The course of the digital transformation of economy, work and society as well as increasing pressure from hyper individualized demand on the one hand and on the other hand issues that ask for global action, like pandemics or climate change, paves the way for new smart service-oriented forms of value creation, thus, solutions enhanced by new technological possibilities that transcendent corporate or individual routines and restrictions of human coping with complexity. Future Service Business thrives with seamless interaction in the conscious providing and coupling of resources, i. e. products and services, physical and digital elements, manpower and competencies, massively supported by and dependent on data and analytics in business-ecosystems. In order to create this “seamlessness” a new quality of conjoint value creation on strategic as well as operative level is necessary, that helps balancing value co-creation and value co-destruction in coopetitive multi-actor-ecosystems. Research on modelling processes for sustainable and resilient “governance as a smart service” is presented that deep dives on possible ways to combine the relative strenghs of digital evaluation and human decision. The research question if governance design for resource integration in new service business ecosystems can be provided “…as a smart service” itself is approached with two focal assumptions on resource integration in service-oriented ecosystems: firstly, the creation of a common, overarching value proposition for the customer (promise making externally) has to be complemented by value propositions for each contributing actor involved on the provider side (promis making internally). This will enable the governance function to know about and adress the costs of collaboration. Secondly, the design of common operational processes for key activities that meets internal expectations is crucial (promise keeping of the ecosystem). This will enable the governance function as well as mulit facetted actor practices to meet expectations and rely on fullfillment of collaborative quality by each actor in the value creation system. For the formulation of innovative value propositions we refer to the concept of value proposition design (Osterwalder et al 2015, Chesbrough, 2007). We aim to find out, to what extent the elements of the concept in the customer sphere: jobs to be done, pains, gains, can be transferred to the internal perspective of ecosystem partners and what adjustments are necessary in formulating value propositions in internal perspective. In the solution sphere of the Value Proposition Design concept with the elements: products & services, pain relievers, gain creators, we explore to which extent these are suitable to map the perspectives of the actors involved in order to derive reference processes of resource integration regarding the commonly shaped value propositions, internally and externally alike. The view formulated by Grönross (2011, 290), that in service-oriented value creation processes of different actors run simultaneously and a number of dialogic processes lead to an integrated process of coordinated action is modified. Our starting point is the need for a structured and digital augmented multilog and the goal is the design of a number of suitable common processes and standards with a resource-integrating bridging function between the original business models of each contributing partner in the system and the collaborative business model of the ecosystem as system of systems. This includes looking at virtual instances in the (re-) design of governance processes that support collaboration in a balance between independence and dependency (Malone, 2018, Freund / Spohrer, 2013).
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This research explores the dark side of value co-creation (VCC) in B2B service networks. Whilst VCC is attracting a great deal of academic attention and a number of studies have highlighted the benefits of VCC, researchers often fail to consider the potentially negative consequences of VCC, especially in the context of business networks. This study explores the negative aspects associated with VCC in advertising service networks and identifies role conflicts and ambiguity, opportunism and power plays on the dark side of VCC. Tensions created by role conflicts during VCC interactions are highlighted. Also sharing of responsibilities during VCC can result in managers having a lack of clarity about what is expected of them, leading to role ambiguity and misunderstandings between firms. Managers engaging in VCC display weak-form opportunistic behaviors. These softer forms of opportunism are found to be tolerated and almost expected within long-term relationships. This research suggests that the exertion of power often shapes VCC activities within the advertising service network. Power plays are used as a means to mobilize appropriate resources and to influence network actors to adhere to value co-creation objectives. The presence of role conflicts, role ambiguity, opportunistic behaviors and power plays indicate that there is indeed a dark side to VCC that is currently omitted from existing VCC frameworks. A further contribution of our study is to highlight that a bright-dark dichotomy does not fully describe the complexity of VCC in B2B service networks and we show how the dark side may lead to positive outcomes.
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Co-production is associated with the expanding role that citizens and other third-party actors assume in the development and delivery of public services. While there are benefits to co-production, there are also challenges. This study draws from the marketing literature on value co-destruction to describe the processes in co-production of public services that can negatively affect public values from regular producers and users. We refer to this public value failure as co-contamination. Two case studies are used to explore some of the ‘dark sides’ of co-production. Our analyses reveal the co-contaminating aspects of this process and offer implications for public managers.
The ability to co-create value in high technology, capital-intensive, markets requires close cooperation and goal congruence between allied firms. The aerospace industry is such a market, so it provides an appropriate context to explore supply chain relationships and how they contribute (or otherwise) to sustainable value co-creation. Whilst the concept of value co-creation has received research attention in the last decade (see Vargo and Lusch, 2008), there is little research on the co-destruction of value and the contexts and mechanisms that lead to it. This research explores a fraught inter-organizational relationship between an aircraft manufacturer and one of its key suppliers. The two organizations are highly interdependent, possess advanced technical capabilities, and have signed a risk sharing partnership. Top management across the two companies regard the relationship as vital for the success of both businesses. Despite these integrative factors, the relationship is described by managers in the dyad as “short-term-istic”, “transactional”, a “struggle”, and “deteriorating”. In order to highlight the behaviors that lead to the co-destruction of value, we research the expectations and perceptions of key individuals in the relationship using semi-structured interviews within the case dyad. We found that, in spite of the existence of formal mechanisms to govern the relationship, key individuals engaged in processes of self-legitimization, biased interpretation of the contract, and justification of positions that severely contaminated the relationship. Our study suggests that this leads to what we label ‘relational strabismus’, incongruence between stated goals and demonstrated practices, whereby partners are focused on protecting immediate interests as opposed to on building a longer-term relationship. This led to value co-destruction, potentially compromising the long-term sustainability of the partnership.
Purpose – Noting that resource integration is a pivotal dimension of value co-creation in Service-Dominant logic, this paper aims to explore how service employees engaged in co-creation processes with customers integrate the latter’s resources. Design/methodology/approach – To address the limitations of previous research on customer resources and their integration by service employees, this study turns to the concept of customer participation to identify the nature of customers’ resources. A conceptual framework of their integration by service employees underpins nine key propositions. This foundation leads to the development of theoretical contributions, managerial implications and avenues for research. Findings – Customers can use 12 types of resources in value co-creation. Contrasting with earlier findings, the conceptual framework reveals that service employees may not only integrate these customers’ resources but also either misintegrate or not integrate them. Non-integration and misintegration may be intentional or accidental. Accordingly, value co-creation or co-destruction may result from interactions. Research limitations/implications – This conceptual and exploratory text requires complementary theoretical and empirical investigations. It also does not adopt an ecosystems view of co-creation. Practical implications – Knowing the different steps of resource integration and what influences them should increase the chances of value co-creation and limit the risks of value co-destruction. Originality/value – Scant research has examined the nature of customer resources and how service employees integrate them. This paper also is the first to distinguish among resource integration, misintegration and non-integration.
Co-creation is described as a resource integration process involving actors that are linked within a service ecosystem. This process occurs when value propositions attract actors to share their resources during collaborative activities and interactions, termed co-creation practices. The purpose of this paper is three-fold: (1) to develop a typology of co-creation practices that shape a dynamic health care service ecosystem, identifying those practices that have positive effects, those that have negative effects, and those that can have either positive or negative effects on the service ecosystem; (2) to provide indicative measures of co-creation practices; and (3) to offer a compelling research agenda. Actors assess their resources and seek to address resource gaps, engaging in co-creation practices that offer access to valued resources. As such, we argue that co-creation practices play a central role in shaping the service ecosystem, influencing which resources are available, when they are employed, and how they are integrated. We develop a typology consisting of eight co-creation practices, illustrating these in the context of a health care ecosystem. We provide a set of indicative measures, identifying how co-creation practices can impact the well-being of the ecosystem, and develop a research agenda calling for further studies in this important area.
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This paper investigates the balance of hedonic and utilitarian values in information systems (IS). More specifically, we are interested in the continuum of such values in IS use. The paper reviews a set of literature to investigate the differences of hedonic and utilitarian IS and the role of hedonism in them. Furthermore, we define hedonic and utilitarian values in this context. We propose that the balance between hedonic and utilitarian values varies depending on the nature of the IS, and we present a conceptual model of hedonic and utilitarian values in IS use. The article provides an argument that the nature of the IS influences the balance of hedonic and utilitarian values that the IS provides. Finally, we propose that the nature of the IS is not central in explaining IS use but instead should be considered as a mediator.