In high-prevalence consanguineous societies, there is a need for well-established prenatal diagnostic services. These include preconception genetic screening, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), and prenatal genetic and genomic testing. These tests may have implications related to the choice of a spouse, having children whether by spontaneous or assisted conception, and the continuity of a ... [Show full abstract] pregnancy depending on the cultural and religious values of the society. The advancement in technology, specifically assisted reproductive technology and PGD, will prove to be essential in couples with a known history of genetic diseases, especially if the termination of pregnancy is not an option. With PGD, disease-free embryos can be identified and transferred into the uterus reducing the risk of transmitting inherited disorders. Unfortunately, the availability of these services is limited in developing countries. The limitations may be due to a shortage of resources or training, or limited availability of experts in this field. Additionally, health care systems may not rank these services as a priority even though they can prove to be cost effective in term of health care resources in the long run.