ArticlePDF Available

Constructive fire protection of steel corrugated beams of buildings and other structures

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The research introduces a methodology of establishing indicators of fire safety of a building in relation to a guaranteed duration of steel fire-proof corrugated beams resistance in conditions of standard fire tests. Indicators of fire safety are also established in the assessment of design limits of steel fire-proof corrugated beams during design process, construction or maintenance of the building as well as in reducing economic costs when testing steel structures for fire resisting property. The suggested methodology introduces the system of actions aimed to design constructive fire protection of steel corrugated beams of buildings. Technological effect is achieved by conducting firing tests of steel construction by non-destructive methods; the evaluation of fire resistance of fire-proof elements of corrugated beams (corrugated web, upper and lower shelves) is identified by the least fire-proof element of a welded I-beam. In this methodology fire resistance duration of the constituent elements of a welded I-beam with account of its fire protection ability is described with an analytic function taken as variables. These variables are intensity strength of stresses and the degree of fire protection of a compound element.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Constructive fire protection of steel corrugated
beams of buildings and other structures
Nikolay Ilyin1, Denis Panfilov1,*
,and Aleksey Lukin1
1Samara State Technical University, Institute of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 194,
Molodogvardeyskaya St., 443001, Samara, Russia
Abstract. The research introduces a methodology of establishing
indicators of fire safety of a building in relation to a guaranteed duration of
steel fire-proof corrugated beams resistance in conditions of standard fire
tests. Indicators of fire safety are also established in the assessment of
design limits of steel fire-proof corrugated beams during design process,
construction or maintenance of the building as well as in reducing
economic costs when testing steel structures for fire resisting property. The
suggested methodology introduces the system of actions aimed to design
constructive fire protection of steel corrugated beams of buildings.
Technological effect is achieved by conducting firing tests of steel
construction by non-destructive methods; the evaluation of fire resistance
of fire-proof elements of corrugated beams (corrugated web, upper and
lower shelves) is identified by the least fire-proof element of a welded I-
beam. In this methodology fire resistance duration of the constituent
elements of a welded I-beam with account of its fire protection ability is
described with an analytic function taken as variables. These variables are
intensity strength of stresses and the degree of fire protection of a
compound element.
1 Introduction
A steel beam with a flexible wall, in which a corrugated web works beyond the range of
stability, is referred to new types of structures due to its efficient constructive form. A steel
beam with corrugated web is characterized by augmented stability, and significant
reduction of the wall thickness leads to considerable saving of steel used to make a beam.
However, the problem of resource saving for constructive fire resistance of these beams
has not yet been solved [1, 4, 5].
The researchers studied different methods of fire protection and fire resistance
evaluation (GOST R 53309-2009) of effective steel beam structures in ASI SGTU, carried
out thematic patent search, set the level of technological development, the scope and
novelty of the research object, defined analogies (GOST 30247.1-94) and the prototype [1]
of a new technical solution [2].
The need for assessment of fire resistance of steel fire-resistant corrugated beams
occurs during reconstruction of buildings or structures (hereinafter referred to as
* Corresponding author: panda-w800i@yandex.ru
DOI: 10.1051/
,02014 (2017) 71060
MATEC Web of Conferences matecconf/201
106
SPbWOSCE-2016
2014
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
‘buildings’), strengthening their parts, bringing the actual fire-resistant steel beams in
accordance with modern requirements of the Federal Law (Federal Law № 123-08):
"Technical regulations of fire safety requirements (with 2012 amend.) during the
examination and/or repair of steel constructions of the building after the fire".
2 Materials and Methods
The researchers conducted a test and found an analogue (prototype) action method of the
evaluation of fire resistance of steel fire-proof corrugated beams of a building. The chosen
method includes technical inspection, tool measurement of geometric characteristics of
steel beams in bending; identifying conditions of bearing and mounting of beams, heating
schemes for a cross-section; setting the type of fire-retardant material and a mark of steel
beams, metal characteristics of resistance to bending and stretching; determining test load
on the steel beam and a scheme for its application and intensity of strength stress in the
metal at the dangerous section of a steel beam. The evaluation of fire resistance of steel
fire-proof corrugated beam of a building is done according to Programme [3]. However,
using a nomograph for evaluating fire resistance of a steel fire-proof corrugated beam of a
building produces calculation results of low accuracy, and in some cases it is required to
make an additional nomographic chart. In addition, indicators of reliability of steel beams
according to the level of safety is not taken into account. Developing computer software for
calculating the design limit of fire resistance of a corrugated beam is also rather
challenging.
The suggested methodology makes possible to delete field fire tests of steel
constructions in a building or in its part; reduce complexity of determining fire resistance of
steel structures; expand technological capabilities of design evaluation of fire resistance of
variously stressed steel corrugated beams of different sizes and the ability to compare the
results with similar tests of other steel building structures; reduce economic costs of testing;
simplify the conditions and shorten test-time of steel structures for fire resisting property;
improve accuracy and test speed, if necessary; use the design parameters for evaluating fire
resistance of steel thermo-protected corrugated beams and simplify a mathematical
description of the resistance process of loaded steel structures; take into account real
resource of fire-proof corrugated beam for fire resisting property by using a complex of
single indicators of their qualities; increase accuracy calculating fire protection thickness
and steel heating conditions of a corrugated beam in case of fire; clarify individual quality
parameters of structures affecting their fire resistance [2].
3 Results
Evaluation of fire resistance of steel fire-proof corrugated beam of a building suggested in
the author's methodology should be conducted without exposure to high temperatures of
non-destructive testing but by using a complex of single indicators of the quality of steel
structures. The peculiarity of the method lies in the fact that initially geometrical
characteristics of the constituent elements of welded I-beams are revealed. These
constituent elements include corrugated webs, the lower and upper shelves, as well as steel
amplifier elements. The perimeter of a heating section of each constituent element of
welded I-beams is calculated; intensity of strength stress in the cross section of the
corrugated web and in the lower and upper shelves of a welded I-beam is found; the
duration of fire resistance effects for every part of a welded I-beam without fire protection
is determined; the depth of coverage according to the direction of checkpoint shift for
finding the average temperature of the unevenly heated section of the shelf of a welded I-
DOI: 10.1051/
,02014 (2017) 71060
MATEC Web of Conferences matecconf/201
106
SPbWOSCE-2016
2014
2
beam is calculated; indicators of conditions for checkpoints in the shelves and in corrugated
webs of a welded I-beam with protective coating in conditions of a standard fire test are
calculated; the degree of fire protection of compound elements of a welded I-beam is
determined. Then, compound elements of a welded I-beam are considered to be parts of a
truss frame with parallel flanges. After that, the duration of fire resistance of a corrugated
web, bottom and top shelves of a welded I-beam (considering their fire protection) is
calculated; the least stable element (according to its statical and heat-resistant
characteristics) of a welded I-beam at the minimum duration of fire resistance effects of
corrugated webs and bottom or top shelves of a welded I-beams with account of fire
protection is pointed out,
The design limit of fire resistance Fur,min, of a steel fire-proof corrugated beam
according to its loss of bearing ability is determined by the duration of fire resistance
effects of compound elements of a welded I-beam according to its statical and heat-resistant
characteristics rus, min, min; that is
Fur = rus,min. (1)
In the cross-section of a welded h-beam shelf, intensity of strength stresses from test
load in conditions of fire tests Jσs is calculated by the equation
Jσs = Мρ / (Wn Rун), (2)
where Mρ is the bending moment in a dangerous section of test load for fire resistance, kN
m;Wn is the resistance moment of cross-section shelf of a welded I-beam for its horizontal
axis, cm3;Run - normative tensile strength and compression resistance for the point of steel
yielding , Mpa [5; 6].
In the cross-section of a welded I-beam shelf, the intensity of strength stress is
calculated while using the condition
Jσs = 1 / nо , (3)
where no is an integral factor of bearing capacity by fire resistance of a steel thermo-
protected beam of a building.
In the cross-section of a corrugated web of a welded I-beam, the intensity of strength
stresses is equal to
Jσs,3 = 0,07 + 0,03.(4)
Fire resistance duration of compound elements of a welded I-beam without its thermal
protection capacity rus, i, min is determined by the analytical equation
rus,i = 6  {(Аs,i /Ро,i) + 18,33  [(1 Jσs,i)1/2 0,5]},(5)
where As,i is the cross-sectional area of a composite steel element of a welded I-beam, cm2;
Po,i is the perimeter of heating of the compund element cross-section, sm;Jσs,i is the
intensity of strength stress in the cross section of a compound element (0.1 - 1.0).
The indicator of heating conditions of the checkpoint of a welded I-beam shelf with
fire-proof coating in conditions of fire testing (when ax≤ay) is calculate by exponential
function
mо= 0,5 · (ау/ ах)0,5, (6)
where ay is thickness of fire-proof coating of a welded I-beam shelf along its Y-axis, mm;
axis he depth of coverage according to the direction of checkpoint shift for finding the
average temperature of the unevenly heated section of the shelf of a welded I-beam, which
is calculated by using the power function
DOI: 10.1051/
,02014 (2017) 71060
MATEC Web of Conferences matecconf/201
106
SPbWOSCE-2016
2014
3
ах= δх+ (δх b / 2)n, (7)
where δx is thickness of fire-proof coating of a welded I-beam shelf along its horizontal
axis, mm;n is the exponent calculated by using the power function
n = 0,5 · (b / Н)0,25, (8)
where b and H are the flange width of an I-beam and the height of a cross-section of a
welded steel fire-protected corrugated beam, mm [7, 8].
Degree of fire protection of a compound element of a welded I-beam C,cm, is found out
by using the analytical expressions
С = 1,45 · mоi · δо,min / D
0,8, (9)
where moiis an indicator of heating conditions of the checkpoint of a welded I-beam (0.5 ÷
1.0); δo, min is the minimum thickness of the protective coating along one of the coordinate
axes, mm;Dbm is an idicator of thermal diffusion of the coating material , mm2/min [14, 15].
Fire resistance duration effects fur, i,min of the corrugated web, as well as lower and
upper shelves of a welded I-beam with account of fire protection, is calculated by an
analytical equation
fur,i = 48  (1 Jσs,i)3еС+ rus,i, (10)
where Jσs,i is the intensity of the power voltage in the metal compound of the welded I-
beam (0.1 -1.0); Cis the degree of fire protection of a compound element of the welded I-
beam, cm; rus,i is duration of resistance of a compound element of the welded I-beam
without taking into account its fire protection,min ;e= 2.718 is a natural number.
The design limit of fire resistance Fur,min of a steel fire-proof corrugated beam of a
building according to the loss of its bearing ability, can be identified by using the condition
Fur =f
ur,min, (11)
where fur,min is fire resistance duration of compound elements of a welded I-beam, the
least stable element (according to its statical and heat-resistant characteristics), min.
The scheme of sections of steel corrugated fire-proof beams protection in conditions of
fire are determined, depending on the actual location of the parts of the building [9, 10, 11].
The scheme of a steel corrugated beam is shown on Figure 1. section А – А – a
longitudinal section; section B B a cross section; section C C a corrugated beam
scheme. 1 lower shelf; 2 upper shelf; 3 corrugated web; h and b the height and width
of a welded I-beam, mm; d and δs are the thickness of the corrugated web and thickness of
shelves, mm.
The main single indicators of quality that provide fire resistance of steel fire-proof
corrugated beams include: thermal diffusion rate and density of the fire-proof material,
indicator of heating conditions of a compound element of a welded I-beam, thickness of
protective coating, steel grade, the limit of its strength, critical temperature, thickness of a
metal part of a compound element of a welded I-beam, the intensity of the stress in the
cross section of a compound element of a welded I-beam; time resistance of a compound
element of a welded I-beam without fire protection. [12-14].
A section of a welded I-beam of a steelcorrugated beam, fitted with frame elements of
thermo-protective zones of the shelves with quadrihedral heating of beams sections in
conditions of fire, is shown on Figure 2.
DOI: 10.1051/
,02014 (2017) 71060
MATEC Web of Conferences matecconf/201
106
SPbWOSCE-2016
2014
4
Fig. 1. The scheme of a steel corrugated beam
Figure 3 shows the section of a corrugated beam with thermo-protection zones filled
with quadrihedral heating of the section in conditions of fire. 1 lower shelf; 2 upper
shelf; 3 corrugated web; 4 U-section welded to the lower shelf; 5 U-section welded to
the upper shelf; 6 weld; 7 anti-corrosive coating; 8 thermo-protective slab; 9
gypsum board; 10 covering material (along the grid); 11 checkpoint of shelves; 12
checkpoint of the corrugated web; tcm,oC high temperature direction. A section of a
welded I-beam, fitted with frame elements of fire-protective zones with triangle heating of
beams sections in conditions of fire, is shown on Figure 4.
Figure 5 shows the section of a corrugated beam with fire-protection zones filled with
triangular heating of the section in conditions of fire.
Action sequence in evaluating fire resistance of a steel fire-proof corrugated beam of a
building is as follows. First, a suite of simple metrics of the quality of each element
(corrugated web, the lower and upper shelves), influencing fire resistance, should be
appointed. Then, conditions of ends fastening and dangerous cross-section elements of a
welded I-beam should be identified. At last, single indicators of steel fire-proof corrugated
beam quality and their integral parameters are estimated and, finally, the design limit of fire
resistance of a tested corrugated beam is determined.
Under visual inspection we understand checking of the condition of the steel fire-proof
corrugated beam, including identification of fixing conditions, heating of compound
elements of a welded I-beam conditions, identification material for constructive protection
of steel corrugated beams from heating in conditions a fire (concrete, plasterboard, gypsum
blocks, vermiculite plates, mineral wool, plaster, etc.), the shape of the cross-section of the
compound element of a welded I-beam, their geometric dimensions, steel grade, test load.
DOI: 10.1051/
,02014 (2017) 71060
MATEC Web of Conferences matecconf/201
106
SPbWOSCE-2016
2014
5
Fig. 2.
A section of a welded I-beam of a steel
corrugated beam, fitted with frame elements of
thermo
-protective zones of the shelves with
quadrihedral heating of beams sections
Fig. 3. The section of a corrugated beam with
thermo-protection zones filled with quadrihedral
heating of the section
Fig. 4.
A section of a welded I-beam, fitted with
frame elements of fire
-
protective zones with
triangle heating of beams sections
Fig. 5.
The section of a corrugated beam with
fire
-
protection zones filled with triangular
heating of the section
To verified geometrical parameters, we refer: thickness of protective coating, the width
and height of cross-section of compound element of a welded I-beam of a steel corrugated
DOI: 10.1051/
,02014 (2017) 71060
MATEC Web of Conferences matecconf/201
106
SPbWOSCE-2016
2014
6
beam. Dangerous sections of a steel corrugated beam elements are assigned in places of the
greatest moments and shear forces from the test load. Dimensions of steel structure
elements are checked with an accuracy of ± 1 mm. [10; 11].
The proposed method has been applied when evaluating fire resistance of fire-proof
steel corrugated beams by LLC “Firma Meta-Com” (Samara).
Conclusions
The designed technological solution on fireproofing steel structures is referred to the sphere
of fire safety of buildings and structures, and can be used for classification of corrugated
beams according to indicators of their resistance to high temperature exposure of a standard
fire.
A new resource-saving system of actions aimed to provide constructive fire protection
of steel corrugated beams of buildings with elevated technical and economic indicators and
the required fire resistance was obtained.
The technological effect is achieved by conducting firing tests of steel construction by
non-destructive methods; evaluation of fire resistance of fire-protected elements of a
corrugated beam (corrugated web, upper and lower shelves), by identifying the least stable
element (according to its static and heat-resistant characteristics) of a welded I-beam at the
minimum duration of fire resistance effects of corrugated webs; the design limit of fire
resistance of steel corrugated beam is identified according to the duration of resistance to
high temperature exposure of the least weak element of a welded I-beam [15, 16].
In the suggested methodology fire resistance duration of the constituent elements of a
welded I-beam with account of its fire protection ability is described with an analytic
function taken as variables. These variables are intensity strength of stresses and the degree
of fire protection of a compound element (10).
References
1. N.A. Ilyin, S.S. Vedernikov. Patent №. 2320982 RU, MPK G 01 N 25/50
2. N.A. Ilyin, D.A. Panfilov, E.V. Ildiyarov, A.O. Lukin, A way of assessing fire
resistance of steel thermo-protected, SIN beam of building structures. (to be published)
3. P.Wang et al., Thin-Walled Structures 98, 29-38 (2016)
4. V.K.R. Kodur et al. Journal of Constructional Steel Research 97, 48-58 (2014)
5. N.A. Ilyin, A.P. Shepelev, P.N. Slavkin, R.R. Ibatulin. Patent No. 2 522 110 (2006.1)
MPK E 04 in 1/94,
6. N.A. Ilyin. Fire protection design of buildings and structures (Textbook, Moscow,
2013)
7. P.Wang et al. Journal of Constructional Steel Research 126, 92-106 (2016)
8. N.A. Ilyin, A.S. Kowalewski, E.Yu. Pakhomov, A.V. Cherepanov. Patent No. 2 282
847. statements.
9. A.P. Pilyugin, Ensuring explosion stability of buildings by using safety structures
(2003)
10. I.L. Masalkov, G.F. Plusina, A.Yu. Frolov, Fire resistance of building structures
(2001)
11. P. et al. Thin-Walled Structures 98, 58-74 (2016)
12. N.A. Ilyin, S.S. Vedernikov. Patent No. 2 320 982.
DOI: 10.1051/
,02014 (2017) 71060
MATEC Web of Conferences matecconf/201
106
SPbWOSCE-2016
2014
7
13. N.A. Ilyin, S.S. Vedernikov. A method of parameter estimation of fire in a building
(Patent No. 2 381 491. req. SGASU 20.10.2008; pub. 10.02.2010, Bul. № 4.)
14. N.A. Ilyin, V.V. Frygin, A.P. Shepelev. A method of making a sample for testing of
fire-proof coatings (Patent No. 2 451 925. req. SGASU 30.06.2010; pub. 27.05.2012,
Bul. № 1.)
15. N.A. Ilyin, D.A. Panfilov, D.V. Litvinov, P.N. Slavkin, Urban Construction and
Architecture 1, 82-89 (2015). DOI: 10.17673/Vestnik.2015.01.13
16. N.A. Ilyin, D.A. Panfilov, D.V. Litvinov, N.V. Tretyakov, Urban Construction and
Architecture 3, 112-119 (2015). DOI: 10.17673/Vestnik.2015.03.15
DOI: 10.1051/
,02014 (2017) 71060
MATEC Web of Conferences matecconf/201
106
SPbWOSCE-2016
2014
8
... В чинних нормативних документах описано основні положення проектного розрахунку таких балок, проте не міститься рекомендацій щодо розрахункової оцінки їх вогнестійкості. Поряд із тим існують роботи [7], присвячені дослідженням балок з гофрованою стінкою на вогнестійкість з конструктивним вогнезахистом у вигляді вогнезахисного облицювання за ДБН В.1.1-7 : 2016 «Захист від пожежі. ...
Article
Full-text available
In SGASU a new engineering solution for buildings fire protection is developped. Its especially efficient for classification of reinforced concrete structures according to their resistance to high-temperature impact in case of fire or technological emergency that gives an opportunity to use a structure with actual fire resistance grading in buildings of different structural fire hazard. Evaluation of actual fi re resistance grading by engineering analysis (as opposed to inplace tests of reinforced concrete structures) makes possible resource and energy saving.
Article
Full-text available
Fire resistance of flexural members is derived based on flexural limiting criterion with no consideration to shear failure. However, under certain conditions, shear capacity can degrade at a higher rate than moment capacity in steel beams exposed to fire and this can lead to early failure of beams. This paper discusses the effect of shear on fire resistance of steel beams. For studying this phenomenon, a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model capable of predicting fire response of steel beams is developed using the finite element package ANSYS. This model is capable of predicting fire response of steel beams under different conditions such as loading pattern, web slenderness and fire insulation. The finite element model is applied to evaluate fire response of beams with different geometrical configurations. It is shown that shear capacity can degrade at a higher rate than flexural capacity in certain scenarios and hence, shear limiting state can be a dominant failure mode in such flexural members.
Article
Large deflection behaviors of restrained corrugated web steel beams (CWSBs) with both non-uniform temperature distribution (NUTD) and uniform temperature distribution (UTD) across the section in a fire were investigated using finite element model (FEM). The corrugated web adopted a commonly used trapezoidal shape. The applicability of FEM was validated against available test results on restrained flat web steel beams (FWSB) in a fire. Studied parameters included load ratio, axial restraint stiffness ratio, span–depth ratio, thickness of the flange and web and the incline angle of trapezoidal shape. Evolution curves of the vertical deflection, the axial force, the catenary action moment and the axial force provided by the corrugated web of restraint CWSB were presented. Due to the reduced axial stiffness of a CWSB, the axial compressive force in a restrained CWSB was much smaller than that in a FWSB. The vertical deflection of a CWSB with NUTD was larger than that with UTD at first for the bowing caused by temperature gradient across section. And it was smaller in catenary action stage, for the top flange of CWSB with NUTD having much greater yield strength and Young's modulus. At the catenary action stage, the axial tension in the top flange of the restrained CWSB with NUTD was higher than that in the bottom flange, which could cause a negative internal bending moment. Catenary temperature of a restrained CWSB with NUTD was a little higher than that with UTD. But failure temperature of a restrained CWSB with NUTD was much lower than that with UTD. For the negligible axial stiffness in corrugated web, variations of web corrugation parameters have little influence on large deflection behaviors of restrained CWSBs with NUTD and UTD. Through including the catenary action of a restrained CWSB in a fire, the critical temperature was increased from the catenary temperature to the failure temperature. And the increase of critical temperature was at least 200 °C, which could greatly reduce the fire protection cost a CWSB.
Article
The large deflection behaviours of axially restrained corrugated web steel beam (CWSB) at elevated temperatures were investigated using a finite element method. The web of studied CWSB adopted commonly used trapezoidal shape. The applicability of finite element model presented was validated against test results on the restrained flat web steel beam (FWSB) in a fire. Studied parameters of CWSB included the load ratio, the axial restraint stiffness ratio, the span-depth ratio, the corrugation shape of the web, the web thickness and the flange thickness. The evolutions of the vertical deflection, the axial force and the bending moment at mid-span of the CWSB with the elevated temperatures were presented. For the axial stiffness of a CWSB was smaller than that of a FWSB with the same dimension, the compressive force due to the restrained thermal elongation in a CWSB at elevated temperatures was lower than that in a FWSB. In addition, the CWSB went into the catenary action phase at a lower temperature compared with the FWSB with the same load and axial restraint stiffness ratio. The corrugation shape and the thickness of the web had very little influences on the catenary action behaviour of the restrained CWSB at elevated temperatures. Parameters that greatly affected behaviours of CWSB at elevated temperatures were the load ratio, the axial restraint stiffness ratio, and the span-depth ratio. With the increase in load ratio, the temperature at which the restrained CWSB went into catenary action phase decreased. The axial restraint stiffness and the span-depth ratio did not affect the temperature at which the restrained CWSB went into catenary action phase. However, with the increase in the axial restraint stiffness, the maximum axial force that the CWSB experienced increased and the temperature at which the maximum axial force was reached decreased. With the increase in the span-depth ratio, the maximum axial force the CWSB experienced and the temperature at which the maximum axial force was reached decreased.
Article
Web-post buckling behaviors of fully and partially protected cellular steel beams at elevated temperatures in a fire were investigated through verified finite element models. The partially protected cellular steel beam represented a protected cellular steel beam with the hole edge left unprotected. The temperature distribution in the web-post was non-uniform, even for the unprotected CSB and the fully protected CSB. The fire resistance time of a CSB increased linearly with the increase in fire coating thickness. However, for the partially protected cellular steel beam, the temperature gradient in the web-post becomes greater with the increase in the fire protection thickness. And with the increase in the fire protection thickness, the increment in the fire resistance time decreased. Additional thermal stress occurred due to the non-uniform thermal strain in the web-post. When web-post buckled, the principle compression stress in the web-post decreased suddenly. The stress at the center of the web-post could change from compression to tension due to the membrane action caused by the large buckling deformation.
A way of assessing fire resistance of steel thermo-protected, SIN beam of building structures
  • N A Ilyin
  • D A Panfilov
  • E V Ildiyarov
  • A O Lukin
N.A. Ilyin, D.A. Panfilov, E.V. Ildiyarov, A.O. Lukin, A way of assessing fire resistance of steel thermo-protected, SIN beam of building structures. (to be published)
  • P Wang
P.Wang et al., Thin-Walled Structures 98, 29-38 (2016)
  • V K R Kodur
V.K.R. Kodur et al. Journal of Constructional Steel Research 97, 48-58 (2014)
  • N A Ilyin
  • A P Shepelev
  • P N Slavkin
N.A. Ilyin, A.P. Shepelev, P.N. Slavkin, R.R. Ibatulin. Patent No. 2 522 110 (2006.1) MPK E 04 in 1/94,
Fire protection design of buildings and structures
  • N A Ilyin
N.A. Ilyin. Fire protection design of buildings and structures (Textbook, Moscow, 2013)