ChapterPDF Available

Overview of Selenium Deficiency and Toxicity Worldwide: Affected Areas, Selenium-Related Health Issues, and Case Studies

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human and animal healthy due to its capabilities to support antioxidant defence systems. However, problems related to the deficiency of Se are emerging issue for human health worldwide and plant species differ considerably in their susceptibility to high concentrations of Se, and certain plant species can be able to accumulate Se to astonishingly high concentrations. Many factors can affect the content of Se in different foods, including different uptake rate by plants, which can be related to plant type, soil, pH, microbial activity, rainfall and a number of other biogeochemical parameters. Humans Se intake and Se status in the population depends firstly on Se concentrations in soils, and hence the Se concentrations in the harvested edible plants in these soils. Thus, this chapter aims to compile some information about research work on essentiality of Se for humans and other mammals, and the need for a sufficient daily Se intake.
Content may be subject to copyright.
209© Springer International Publishing AG 2017
E.A.H. Pilon-Smits et al. (eds.), Selenium in plants, Plant Ecophysiology 11,
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-56249-0_13
Chapter 13
Overview ofSelenium Deciency andToxicity
Worldwide: Affected Areas, Selenium-Related
Health Issues, andCase Studies
AndréRodrigues dosReis, HassanEl-Ramady, ElcioFerreiraSantos,
PriscilaLupinoGratão, andLutzSchomburg
Abstract Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human and animal healthy
due to its capabilities to support antioxidant defence systems. However, problems
related to the deciency of Se are emerging issue for human health worldwide and
plant species differ considerably in their susceptibility to high concentrations of Se,
and certain plant species can be able to accumulate Se to astonishingly high concen-
trations. Many factors can affect the content of Se in different foods, including dif-
ferent uptake rate by plants, which can be related to plant type, soil, pH, microbial
activity, rainfall and a number of other biogeochemical parameters. Humans Se
intake and Se status in the population depends rstly on Se concentrations in soils,
and hence the Se concentrations in the harvested edible plants in these soils. Thus,
this chapter aims to compile some information about research work on essentiality
of Se for humans and other mammals, and the need for a sufcient daily Se intake.
Keywords Agronomic bio-fortication • Human health • Oxidative stress •
Selenium toxicity • Keshan disease
A.R. dos Reis (*)
UNESP– São Paulo State University, Tupã, SP 17602-496, Brazil
e-mail: andrereis@tupa.unesp.br
H. El-Ramady
Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr el-Sheikh 33516, Egypt
e-mail: ramady2000@gmail.com
E.F. Santos
Center of Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP 13416-000, Brazil
e-mail: elciokw@yahoo.com.br
P.L. Gratão
UNESP– São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil
e-mail: plgratao@fcav.unesp.br
L. Schomburg
Institute for Experimental Endocrinology, Charité– University Medical School,
Suedring 10, CVK, D-13353 Berlin, Germany
e-mail: lutz.schomburg@charite.de
210
13.1 Introduction
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human and animal health due to its
capabilities to support antioxidant defence systems, but is harmful in excess
(Fordyce 2013; Mora etal. 2015; Wrobel etal. 2016). Compared to other micronu-
trients, Se has one of the narrowest ranges between its toxic dose (> 400 μg/day)
and dietary deciency (< 40 μg/day), as reviewed by Kabata-Pendias and Mukherjee
(2007) and Fordyce (2013). Therefore, both deciency and toxicity of Se are global
emerging problems. Several studies have investigated Se deciency and toxicity in
humans (Sah etal. 2013; Sun etal. 2014; Yang and Jia 2014; Zhu etal. 2015; Nagy
et al. 2015; Oropeza-Moe et al. 2015; Krohn et al. 2016; Wrobel et al. 2016;
Manzanares and Hardy 2016), algae (Gojkovic etal. 2015), yeast (Kieliszek etal.
2016), bacteria (Nancharaiah and Lens 2015; Ye etal. 2016; Lampis etal. 2016) and
higher plants (Saidi etal. 2014a, b; Yusuf etal. 2016). Recently, two comprehensive
books were published that reviewed the diversity of Se functions in health and dis-
ease (Brigelius-Flohé and Sies 2016) and global advances in Se research, from
theory to application (Bañuelos etal. 2016).
While it is clear that Se is required for several essential biological functions for
human health, many questions still need to be answered. The most important Se
research ndings are summarized below, along with some attempts to answer
remaining urging questions: (1) Selenium is required by humans and other mam-
mals. It is well established that Se is an essential nutrient for human health (Rayman
2000; Combs 2001; Surai 2006), and an insufcient supply causes or predisposes to
disease; (2) No clear denition is currently given as to how much Se is required by
humans. The amount minimally needed likely depends on a number of anthropo-
metric characteristics: body weight, age, sex, health status. The recommendations
given cover a wide range of reference intakes spanning a daily uptake of 25–125 μg/
day (Hurst etal. 2013; Combs 2016); (3) The dietary intake level associated with Se
deciency for humans is reported to be <50 μg/day (Fairweather-Tait etal. 2011;
Combs 2016). However, as mentioned above, this recommendation depends on a
number of personal characteristics; (4) Research indicates that Se can reduce cancer
risk when the concentration of plasma Se ranges from 70 to 106 ng/ml (Combs
2016). Lower Se concentrations seem to increase the risk of several types of cancer,
while no positive chemopreventive effects have been observed above this level,
which likely corresponds to the amount of Se needed for full expression of the
human selenoproteins.
Concerning the importance of Se for human and animal health, many studies
have investigated this relationship, such as El-Ramady etal. (2015b), Niedzielski
etal. (2016), Han etal. (2016), Hauser-Davis etal. (2016), Krohn etal. (2016),
Hoffmann (2016), Bissardon etal. (2016), Schomburg (2011), Wang etal. (2016a,
b), Menezes etal. (2016) and Zanetti etal. (2016). On the other hand, the toxicity of
Se to higher plants also has been documented in many studies including Molnárová
and Fargasová (2009), Akbulut and Çakır (2010), Aggarwal etal. (2011), Madaan
and Mudgal (2011), Srivastava etal. (2012), Hladu etal. (2013), Talukdar (2013),
A.R. dos Reis et al.
211
Zhao etal. (2013), Chen etal. (2014), Sharma etal. (2014b), Mechora etal. (2015),
El-Ramady etal. (2015a, b), Lehotai etal. (2015), Nawaz etal. (2015), Handa etal.
(2016), Pilon etal. (2016), Pilon-Smits etal. (2016), and White (2016).
In general, the effects of Se deciency on humans include muscle weakness and
inammation, fragile red blood cells, abnormal skin coloration, heart muscle dys-
function, susceptibility to cancer, Keshan and Kashin-Beck diseases, whereas Se
toxicity includes liver and kidney damage, blood clotting, necrosis of heart and
liver, hair and nail loss and nausea and vomiting (Kabata-Pendias and Mukherjee
2007). Selenium in not essential for plants, but has benecial effects on plant growth
and stress tolerance. Many studies have indicated that already small Se doses are
sufcient for improving plant health (e.g. Kong etal. 2005; Eiche etal. 2015). High
Se levels tend to induce different toxic effects in plants, including reduced photo-
synthetic efciency and growth, chlorosis and nally plant death (Van Hoewyk
2013; Eiche etal. 2015). However, plant species differ considerably in their suscep-
tibility to high dosages of Se, and certain plant species even show stimulation of
growth on soils with high Se and are able to accumulate Se to astonishingly high
concentrations (Pilon-Smits etal. 2016).
Problems related to the deciency of Se are an emerging issue for human health
worldwide. A solution for this problem can be achieved through Se biofortication
of different crops, as reviewed by several authors using rice (Boldrin etal. 2013;
Wang etal. 2014; Reis etal. 2014; Sharma etal. 2014b, c;Pandey and Gupta 2015;
Li etal. 2016), maize (Chilimba etal. 2012; Longchamp and Castrec-Rouelle 2014;
Longchamp et al. 2013, 2015), wheat (Acuña et al. 2013; Galinha et al. 2013;
Fenech etal. 2013; Gong etal. 2014; Zhu etal. 2014; Li etal. 2014; Poblaciones
etal. 2014; Yasin etal. 2014; Galinha etal. 2015; Lazo-Vélez etal. 2015) and cru-
ciferous vegetables (Harris etal. 2014; Avila etal. 2014; Yasin etal. 2015b; Bañuelos
etal. 2015; Bachiega etal. 2016). Different forms of Se-biofortication have been
tested, including supplementation of fertilizers, foliar spraying directly on the plants
or using Se-accumulating plant leftovers for soil fortication, as recently reported
by Bañuelos etal. (2015), El-Ramady etal. (2015c), Malagoli etal. (2015), Galinha
etal. (2015), Yasin etal. (2015a, b), Bañuelos etal. (2016), Faria etal. (2016), Mao
etal. (2016), Ortiz-Monasterio etal. (2016), Reis etal. (2016), dos Reis (2016),
El-Ramady etal. (2016a), Li etal. (2016), Domingues et al. (2016), and Sharma
etal. (2016).
13.2 Global Areas Related toSe Deciency andToxicity
Selenium can be found in all agroecosystem components including soil, plants,
rocks or water. In animal feed, the critical Se concentrations for Se adequacy and
toxicity are 0.05–0.10 mg/kg and 4–5 mg/kg, respectively (Zanetti etal. 2016).
Several global locations have been monitored where livestock may experience Se
toxicity, including areas in the western U.S.A. such as the San Joaquin Valley in
California (Frankenberger and Benson 1994), Colorado and Wyoming (El Mehdawi
13 Overview ofSelenium Deciency andToxicity Worldwide: Affected Areas,…
212
and Pilon-Smits 2012), Enshi, Hubei Province, China (Wang and Gao 2001), and
Australia (Thomson 2004) and Punjab Nawanshahr–Hoshiarpur region India
(Dhillon and Dhillon 2014). Due to the importance of Se (Table13.1), several stud-
ies have been conducted to quantify the Se levels in soil, water and crops from dif-
ferent areas, including those published by Bañuelos and Lin (2007), Dhillon etal.
(2008), Dhillon and Dhillon (2009a, b), (2014), (2016b), Sharma et al. (2009),
(2014a), Yuan etal. (2012), Wang etal. (2012), Eiche etal. (2015), Schilling etal.
(2015), Yasin etal. (2015c), (2016), Chawla etal. (2016), and Prakash (2016).
On the other hand, Se deciency predisposes to certain endemic diseases, as has
been well described for Se-poor areas in China, where Se deciency predisposes
people to Keshan disease, which is associated with childhood cardiomyopathy (Xia
etal. 2005). There are more than 40 countries described as having areas with very
low soil Se content, associated with human Se intakes of 10 μg/day or even less,
such as in areas of China (Moreno-Reyes etal. 1998; Tan etal. 2002; Li etal. 2007;
Han etal. 2016). In fact, in China Se decient areas are reported to represent 72%
of the country’s total area; these areas are often not intensively populated. Besides
these Se-decient areas, there are also Chinese areas with very high Se levels in soil
and in the agricultural products, thereby causing a high daily Se intake (Gao etal.
2011; Han etal. 2016).
Table 13.1 Soil, crop and water Se concentrations in different seleniferous areas worldwide
Country (region)
Total Se in
soil (mg/kg)
Total Se in cultivated
plants (mg/kg)
Total Se in
water (μg/L) References
China (Enshi,
Yutangba)
0.10–42.3
(4.75)
Maize (seeds): Stream water:
58.4
Zhu etal.
(2008)
0.17–4.82 (1.48)
India (Punjab) 2.7–6.55
(3.63)
Wheat, rice, maize and
mustard 13–670
Ground water:
479 (170)
Sharma etal.
(2009)
China (Enshi,
Yutangba)
3.76–79.08
(27.81)
Adenocaulon himalaicum
(leaf) 299–2278 (760)
Stream water:
15.13–192.7
(52.66)
Yuan etal.
(2012)
China (Enshi,
Jianshi)
2.89–87.3
(9.36)
Maize: Surface water: Qin etal.
(2013)
0.39–37.2 (3.76) 2.0–519 (46)
USA (Pine
Ridge Fort
Collins, CO)
8.2 Brassica juncea (leaf):
711
Yasin etal.
(2015c)
India (Punjab) 0.024–3.06
(0.449)
Cultivated and naturally
growing weed plants:
Ground water: Dhillon and
Dhillon (2016a)
0.01–6.60 (0.2795) 0.01–35.6
(0.972)
A.R. dos Reis et al.
213
13.3 Selenium Deciency andToxicity inSoils andPlants
inMiddle East andEurope
It has been documented that Se occurs in different mammalian tissues ranging from
0.7in heart tissue to 2.5 mg/kg in muscles, with an estimated average Se content in
human soft tissues of 0.11 mg/kg (Kabata-Pendias and Mukherjee 2007). Concerning
the Se intake and its status in Middle East and Europe, a suboptimal Se status was
found throughout these regions with only few exceptions (Table13.2). In general, it
can be noticed that the intake status of Se across Europe is low. This means that the
Se level in European soils is inadequate, particularly in Eastern Europe. There is no
complete systematic review of the soil Se quality and Se status in subjects living in
the Middle East (Stoffaneller and Morse 2015; Sharma etal. 2009).
13.4 Selenium Status inBrazilian Soils andCrops
Selenium is one of various compounds and chemical elements important to ensure
the quality of food, together with proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, iron (Fe),
iodine (I), and zinc (Zn) (Rayman etal. 2012). Genetic breeding programs can con-
tribute positively to the development of improved crop varieties. So far, crop breed-
ing has focused almost exclusively on higher productivity, i.e. crop quantity rather
than quality. However, problems of nutritional deciencies are experienced by
almost half the world’s population, especially Fe, I, Se, vitamin A and Zn in devel-
oping countries (Rayman etal. 2012). These deciencies happen basically due to
two reasons: 1) low concentration of micronutrients in the soils, which are affected
by texture class, mineral composition and soil pH; 2) a dilution effect of the essen-
tial micronutrients and vitamins for human health in the most productive varieties
or cultivars. While Se concentrations in agricultural products (food) depend primar-
ily on their concentrations in the soil, genotypic variation can also inuence the
absorption capacity of Se by plants.
The two major inorganic forms of Se in soils are selenate and selenite. In com-
parison to selenate, selenite forms usually are more strongly retained in the soil
colloids, a process which depends on environment characteristics such as pH, ionic
strength, ion concentration and other effects. Considering that the range between
essential and toxic levels of Se in plants and animals is very narrow (Lyons etal.
2003), the study of Se levels in agricultural soils and their sorption behavior under
different conditions of pH, ionic strength and concentration of competing ions
becomes highly relevant for a better understanding of the dynamics of Se in soils.
In many areas of Brazil, agricultural products have low levels of Se, and thus it
is important to understand the behavior of Se in soils and to assess the mechanisms
of its transfer to edible parts of plants, which are primary sources of food for the
population and animals. Table13.3 summarizes what is known so far regarding the
Se and sulfur concentrations in soils collected from different regions of Brazil.
13 Overview ofSelenium Deciency andToxicity Worldwide: Affected Areas,…
214
Table 13.2 Survey for investigating human Se status in some Arabian and European countries (as
a reference: a desirable plasma Se level is 70–106 μg/L)
Country
Subject details and
number
Mean Se status in human
(μg L1) References
Arabian countries
Egypt 67 patient children and
60 healthy children
Serum: 40.1in patient
children and 83.3in control
Saad etal. (2014)
Egypt 80 obese children and
80 healthy children
Serum: 63.6in the obese
compared to 78.3in
controls
Azab etal. (2014)
Egypt 108 patients children
and 60 healthy children
Serum: 31.5in patients and
65.9in control
Sherief etal. (2014)
Jordan Subjects: 73 total; 56
smokers; 17
non-smokers
Blood: 332in smokers and
187in case of non-smokers
Massadeh etal.
(2010)
KSA 42 Saudi in 45–60 years
and 34 Saudi in 20–30
years
Serum: 91.24 and 86.63,
resp.
Stoffaneller and
Morse (2015)
KSA 170 diabetics with an
equal number of control
Urinary: 31.1 for diabetics
and 39.1 for control
El-Yazigi and
Legayada (1996)
KSA 513 children Serum: < 56 from 53.4%
of total
Al-Saleh etal.
(2006)
Kuwait 66 obese female
patients and 44 female
control
Serum: 86.08in obese
group and 101.14in the
control group
Alasfar etal. (2011)
Lebanon 159 healthy men and
284 women; age 18–65
years
Plasma: 151.2 for men and
135.0 for women
Obeid etal. (2008)
Yemen 75 patient children and
74 healthy control
Serum: 78.96in cases and
94.75in controls
Elemraid etal.
(2011)
European countries
Austria Patients with
autoimmune thyroiditis
and control
Serum: 98.0in the patients
and 103.2in control
Wimmer etal.
(2014)
Denmark 97 patients and 830
control
Serum: 89.9 for patients
and 98.8in controls
Bülow Pedersen
etal. (2013)
Denmark 3333 males (53–74
years)
Low serum: 31.58–78.96
and high serum
102.65–236.88
Suadicani etal.
(2012)
Estonia 404 subjects (19.5–52
years)
Serum: 26–116 (mean: 75) Rauhamaa etal.
(2008)
Germany 60 patients (aged 65
year)
From 89.05 to 70.84 Stoppe etal. (2011)
Germany 104 cardiac surgical
patients
Blood: 89.05 and 70.84
pre- and post-surgery,
respectively
Stoppe etal. (2013)
Germany 44 trauma patients Plasma: 62.38 Blass etal. (2013)
(continued)
A.R. dos Reis et al.
215
There still is a lack of comprehensive information about the distribution of Se in
Brazilian soils; this is an aim of current research. Better knowledge of the of the
levels and dynamics of Se in soils throughout Brazil are expected to greatly contrib-
ute to future research aiming to provide optimal levels of Se to crops, applied
through fertilizer (agronomic bio-fortication) to increase the natural intake of Se
by the Brazilian population.
Ferreira etal. (2002) observed that food consumed in Brazil has signicantly low
concentrations of Se. This observation likely is due to low Se concentrations in
Brazilian soils. Similar results were reported by Faria (2009), showing very low Se
Table 13.2 (continued)
Country
Subject details and
number
Mean Se status in human
(μg L1) References
Greece 47 singleton pregnant
women in age 30 + 5
years
Urine: 91, 82 and 69 for the
1st trimester, 2nd and 3rd
trimester, res.
Koukkou etal.
(2014)
Finland 60 adults Plasma: 70.27in the 1970s
to 110.54 after
Se-fertilizers in 1984
Alfthan etal. (2015)
France 1389 subjects aged
59–71 years followed
for 9 years
Plasma: 16.58in men and
15.79in women
Akbaraly etal.
(2010)
Hungary 197 consecutive
patients
Blood: in non-survivors
102.2 compared with
survivors 111.1
Koszta etal. (2012)
Italy 54 melanoma patients
and 56 control
Plasma: 99in the cases and
89in the control
Vinceti etal. (2012)
Poland 95 lung cancer cases,
113 laryngeal cancer
cases
Serum: 63.2 compared to
74.6 control
Jaworska etal.
(2013)
Poland 80 children (age 6–17;
40 boys, 40 girls)
Serum: 102.3 and 111.1in
control girls and boys,
respectively
Błażewicz etal.
(2015)
Portugal 136 women (20–44
years)
Serum: 81 Lopes etal. (2004)
Slovenia 15 recruits Plasma: 71.75–82 (mean
76.87)
Pograjc etal. (2012)
Spain 84 healthy adults (31
males and 53 females
Plasma: 87.3in males and
67.3in females
Millán Adame etal.
(2012)
Spain 340 subjects 86.5% had plasma Se
below 125
Sánchez etal.
(2010)
The
Netherlands
1197 pregnant women
from 12 weeks
gestation
Serum: at 12 weeks and
after 75.80 and 80.54,
respectively
Rayman etal.
(2011)
UK 501 elderly volunteers Plasma: 90.71 at baseline Rayman etal.
(2012)
UK 1042 subjects (19–64
years)
Plasma: 86.86 Stranges etal.
(2010)
13 Overview ofSelenium Deciency andToxicity Worldwide: Affected Areas,…
216
Table 13.3 Concentrations of Selenium and Sulfur in Brazilian soils
City State
Se (μg/
kg)
S (g/
kg)
Geographic
coordinates References
Sena
Madureira- Acre
Acre 184 5 9° 25 54 S
68° 35 42 W
Silva Junior
(2016)
Itacoatiara-
Amazonas
Amazonas 530 17 3° 6 31 S
58° 26 33 W
Silva Junior
(2016)
Silvânia Goiás 49 16° 39 32 S
48° 36 29 W
Carvalho (2011)
Itaúba Mato Grosso 174 7 11° 06 00 S
55° 02 06 W
Silva Junior
(2016)
Pirapora Minas Gerais 44 17° 20 42 S
44° 56 06 W
Carvalho (2011)
Capinópolis Minas Gerais 50 18° 40 55 S
49° 34 11 W
Carvalho (2011)
Caracaraí-
Roraima
Roraima 182 10 1° 28 10 S
60° 44 16 W
Silva Junior
(2016)
Alvinlândia São Paulo 10 22° 26 00 S
49° 45 00 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Analândia São Paulo 70 22° 07 00 S
47° 39 00 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Araras São Paulo 60 22° 19 00 S
47° 10 00 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Bonm Paulista São Paulo 200 21° 05 00 S
47° 08 00 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Capivari São Paulo 50 22° 59 01 S
47° 30 00 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Capivari São Paulo 110 22° 59 10 S
47° 30 10 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Conchal São Paulo 50 22° 19 00 S
47° 00 10 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Cosmópolis São Paulo 110 22° 38 00 S
47° 11 00 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Gália São Paulo 10 22° 17 00 S
49° 33 00 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Garça São Paulo 10 22° 12 00 S
49° 56 00 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Garça São Paulo 10 22° 12 00 S
49° 39 10 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Ibaté São Paulo 70 21° 57 00 S
47° 59 00 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Ibituruna São Paulo 300 21° 8 36 S
44° 44 24 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Itirapina São Paulo 70 22° 15 10 S
47° 00 49 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Itirapina São Paulo 70 22° 15 00 S
47° 49 00 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Itirapina São Paulo 80 6 22° 15 54 S
47° 52 44 W
Faria (2009)
(continued)
A.R. dos Reis et al.
217
Table 13.3 (continued)
City State
Se (μg/
kg)
S (g/
kg)
Geographic
coordinates References
Marília São Paulo 10 22° 13 15 S
49° 56 55 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Matão São Paulo 98 5 21° 35 27 S
48° 26 54 W
Faria (2009)
Miguelópolis São Paulo 30 20° 10 00 S
48° 02 00 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Mogi Mirim São Paulo 70 22° 22 00 S
46° 56 00 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Mogi-Guaçu São Paulo 100 22° 22 00 S
46° 56 00 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Pariquera Açu São Paulo 670 24° 43 00 S
47° 52 00W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Pariquera Açu São Paulo 650 24° 43 10 S
47° 52 10 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Piracicaba São Paulo 60 22° 43 10 S
47° 38 10 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Piracicaba São Paulo 560 22° 43 15 S
47° 38 16 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Piracicaba São Paulo 30 22° 43 10 S
47° 38 20 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Piracicaba São Paulo 320 22° 43 18 S
47° 38 23 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Piracicaba São Paulo 68 6 22° 38 36 S
47° 49 52 W
Faria (2009)
Piracicaba São Paulo 220 12 22° 42 40 S
47° 37 43 W
Faria (2009)
Piracicaba São Paulo 108 17 22° 38 40 S
47° 49 24 W
Faria (2009)
Pirassununga São Paulo 160 8 22° 04 60 S
47° 34 36 W
Faria (2009)
Pirassununga São Paulo 78 8 21° 56 30 S
47° 28 50 W
Faria (2009)
Pirassununga São Paulo 197 9 21° 57 60 S
47° 26 60 W
Faria (2009)
Ribeirão Preto São Paulo 40 21° 10 00 S
47° 48 00 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Ribeirão Preto São Paulo 110 21° 10 00 S
47° 48 00 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
São Carlos São Paulo 60 22° 01 00 S
47° 53 00 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
São Pedro São Paulo 10 22° 32 15 S
47° 54 00 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
São Pedro São Paulo 10 22° 32 23 S
47° 54 16 W
Nogueira etal.
(2013)
Deciency Se
range
100–600 Lyons etal.
(2003)
13 Overview ofSelenium Deciency andToxicity Worldwide: Affected Areas,…
218
concentrations in pasture grass (Brachiaria sp. and Stylosanthes sp.) ranging from
40 to 66 μg/kg. On the other hand, Brazilian nuts growing in the North-West of
Brazil are considered the richest food source for Se, but its concentrations range
dramatically from 0.03 to 512 mg/kg, likely reecting soil Se. There is evidence of
Se deciency in the Brazilian human population; however, no extensive research
data on the subject are available.
13.5 Selenium Status inSoils inRelation toPlant
andHuman Health
The relationship between Se content in soils and plants as well as human health can
be followed through many recent studies (Hateld etal. 2012; Yuan et al. 2012;
Fordyce 2013; Hurst etal. 2013; El-Ramady etal. 2015b,c; Alfthan etal. 2015;
Mora etal. 2015; Winkel etal. 2015; El-Ramady etal. 2016b; Wang etal. 2016a;
White 2016). It should be noted that human Se intake and Se status in the population
depends rstly on Se concentration in soils, and hence the Se concentrations in the
harvested edible plants in these soils. In other words, human Se intake and Se status
start from the Se concentration in soils. Many factors can affect the content of Se in
different foods, including different uptake rate by plants, which is related to plant
type, soil pH, microbial activity, rainfall and a number of other biogeochemical
parameters (Stoffaneller and Morse 2015). Therefore, human Se intake and Se sta-
tus can be largely controlled by manipulating Se concentrations in plants, which are
a function of soil Se concentration, speciation and bioavailability, as well as the
activity of soil microorganisms (Winkel etal. 2015).
The interrelation of soil, crop and human Se status has been impressively shown
in a recent Chinese study analyzing the importance of Se for the risk of thyroid dis-
eases. Wu and colleagues studied the neighboring Se-rich and Se-poor regions of
Ziyang and Ningshan counties, where average soil Se concentrations were 4–33 mg/
kg and 0.17 mg/kg, respectively. This difference directly translated into the average
blood Se concentrations of the farmers living in these areas, with the subjects from
Ziyang displaying 103.6 μg/L (IQR 79.7, 135.9) versus the farmers from the Se-poor
area of Ningshan, who had an average of only 57.4 μg/L (IQR: 39.4, 82.1). A lower
Se status is known to increase thyroid disease risks (Schomburg 2011), and conse-
quently, the farmers in Ningshan showed an almost twice as high prevalence of hypo-
thyroidism and autoimmune thyroid diseases than those from Ziyang (Wu etal.
2015). Extrapolating this concept, it would be highly fascinating and interesting try-
ing to calculate the number of Se-dependent diseases worldwide that could be pre-
vented by a better Se supply. Of course, due to the different life styles, differences in
genotype, environment, nutrition and activity patterns and the complex and multi-
factorial reasons for human diseases, this is very complicated to do.
One way to test the importance of Se for human health is via a retrospective
observational study. This is a longitudinal human study where serum or plasma
A.R. dos Reis et al.
219
samples are collected, analyzed and stored over long periods of time. Then, e.g. 20
years later, when some of the participants have developed a certain disease, their
blood samples are analyzed together with samples from comparable control sub-
jects from within the same study. One instructive example has just been published
analyzing the importance of the Se status for preventing colorectal cancer (Hughes
etal. 2015), which clearly provided evidence that within the same population, the
subjects with relatively low Se status had a signicantly increased risk for this dev-
astating disease.
A second very powerful way of testing the importance of Se for human health is
by conducting randomized controlled supplementation studies. Here, subjects are
recruited and asked to take a daily supplement containing Se, while a control group
takes a placebo. The participants do not know into which group they have been
recruited, an assay design called “blind”. In the high quality trials also the medical
doctors are unaware of the verum or placebo status of a given patient, in which case
the study is denoted as a “double blind” study. These studies run over several years
and are relatively expensive.
With respect to cancer, two most important double-blind randomized con-
trolled trials (RCT) have been conducted in the US.The nutritional prevention of
cancer trials (NPC trial) yielded an impressive reduction of cancer cases by Se
supplementation over a study period of around 5 years (Clark etal. 1996). The
more recent SELECT (Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial) failed to
replicate these impressive chemopreventive effects of Se (Klein etal. 2011). The
most likely reason for this discrepancy lies in the baseline Se status of the partici-
pants, which were already very high at the start of SELECT.The comparison of
these two RCT is supporting the notion that health benets of Se supplements are
restricted to those human subjects who have an insufcient intake and a sub-
maximal expression of the biologically active selenoproteins. Similar results have
been obtained in a number of respective animal experiments. Together, these stud-
ies highlight the essentiality of Se for humans and other mammals, and the need
for a sufcient daily Se intake.
In conclusion, a dramatic number of humans worldwide likely fall into the Se
decient category. Lyons etal. (2003) estimated that around a billion people are
Se decient, and it might even be more. The fraction of sub-optimally Se supplied
humans currently may include a large part of the European population (with the
exception of Finland, where a nation-wide Se supplementation effort is in place),
large parts of Africa and Asia (including China), and also Australia, New Zealand
and large parts of South America. This “hidden hunger” may translate to higher
incidence of infections (e.g. in Africa), osteopathy problems (in China), and can-
cer and thyroid problems (in Europe). Selenium toxicity is a problem of smaller
magnitude, but has its own set of devastating effects in different areas across the
world. A solution to both of these problems is to focus on development of
Se-enriched dietary plant material.
13 Overview ofSelenium Deciency andToxicity Worldwide: Affected Areas,…
220
13.6 Roles ofPlants inAlleviating Se Deciency andToxicity
It is well documented that Se has a vital role in alleviating toxic effects in plants of
heavy metals and other oxidative stresses, and can promote plant growth when sup-
plied at low concentration. However, a phytotoxic effect and inhibition of plant
growth has also been reported for many plant species when grown under high Se
concentration (Feng etal. 2013). All plants readily take up Se, a property that may
be used for cleanup of excess environmental Se (phytoremediation) or for bioforti-
cation of crops with Se. Phytoremediation of Se-enriched soil or water can be
considered an emerging eld. Some studies have been published concerning the
role of plants in alleviating environmental Se toxicity, such as Gupta and Gupta
(2015) and Hawrylak-Nowak etal. (2015). Concerning the use of plants to solve the
problem of Se deciency, several plant species have been successfully biofortied
with Se to alleviate this deciency, including rice (Pandey and Gupta 2015), maize
(Longchamp etal. 2013, 2015), wheat (Galinha etal. 2015; Lazo-Vélez etal. 2015),
cucumber (Hawrylak-Nowak etal. 2015), lentil (Ekanayake etal. 2015), lettuce
(Hawrylak-Nowak 2013) and cruciferous vegetables (Bañuelos etal. 2015; Bachiega
etal. 2016). Selenium may be applied to soil as fertilizer or as foliar spray, in the
forms of selenate or selenite.
Collectively, it is becoming more and more obvious that Se plays an important
role in human health, and dietary Se intake worldwide largely depends on crop Se
content. Plant Se accumulation depends on a given soil, as well as on plant species,
as some plants are able to accumulate and tolerate high Se concentrations while
other plant species do not take up much Se and are sensitive to it. Furthermore, Se
bioavailability in soil has a direct impact on the Se concentrations of the plants that
are locally produced and consumed, and thereby on the daily Se intake of humans.
The results from an increasing number of clinical studies highlight the health risks
associated with too low a daily Se intake, a problem that may affect a billion or more
people. In order to improve this situation in the future, research needs to be intensi-
ed on the improvement of soil Se bioavailability, ways for controlling and optimiz-
ing Se uptake and accumulation in plants, and the many health effects that are
related to Se status in humans. It is hoped that an increased awareness for this topic
will in the long run improve human health in general and especially in the low-
income countries where infectious and childhood diseases are a constant and deadly
health threat to large parts of the population, and also to the general human com-
munity. Biofortication of crops with Se can be a relatively cost-effective and safe
way to bring about important signicant health benets to the world population.
This trace element can be analytically monitored fairly easily, and its levels con-
trolled on its path from atmosphere to soil, to plant and nally to animal and human
organisms.
A.R. dos Reis et al.
221
References
Acuña JJ, Jorquera MA, Barr PJ, Crowley DE, de la Mora M (2013) Selenobacteria selected from
the rhizosphere as a potential tool for Se biofortication of wheat crops. Biol Fertil Soils
49:175–185
Aggarwal M, Sharma S, Kaur N, Pathania D, Bhandhari K, Kaushal N, Kaur R, Singh K, Srivastava
A, Nayyar H (2011) Exogenous proline application reduces phytotoxic effects of selenium by
minimising oxidative stress and improves growth in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings.
Biol Trace Elem Res 140(3):354–367
Akbaraly TN, Arnaud J, Rayman MP, Hininger-Favier I, Roussel AM, Berr C, Fontbonne A (2010)
Plasma selenium and risk of dysglycemia in an elderly French population: results from the
prospective epidemiology of vascular ageing study. Nutr Metab 7:1–7
Akbulut M, Çakır S (2010) The effects of Se phytotoxicity on the antioxidant systems of leaf tis-
sues in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings. Plant Physiol Biochem 48(2–3):160–166
Alasfar F, Ben-Nakhi M, Khoursheed M, Kehinde EO, Alsaleh M (2011) Selenium is signicantly
depleted among morbidly obese female patients seeking bariatric surgery. Obes Surg
21:1710–1713
Alfthan G, Eurola M, Ekholm P, Venäläinen ER, Root T, Korkalainen K, Hartikainen H, Salminen
P, Hietaniemi V, Aspila P, Aro A (2015) Effects of nationwide addition of selenium to fertilizers
on foods, and animal and human health in Finland: from deciency to optimal selenium status
of the population. JTrace Elem Med Biol 31:142–147
Al-Saleh I, Billedo G, El-Doush I, El-Din M, Yosef G (2006) Selenium and vitamins status in
Saudi children. Clin Chim Acta 368:99–109
Avila FW, Yang Y, Faquin V, Ramos SJ, Guilherme LRG, Thannhauser TW, Li L (2014) Impact of
selenium supply on Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolate accumulation in selenium-
biofortied brassica sprouts. Food Chem 165:578–586
Azab SF, Saleh SH, Elsaeed WF, Elshae MA, Sherief M, Esh AM (2014) Serum trace elements
in obese Egyptian children: a case-control study. Ital JPediatr 10:1–7
Bachiega P, Salgado JM, de Carvalho JE, Ruiz ALTG, Schwarz K, Tezotto T, Morzelle MC (2016)
Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in different maturation stages of broccoli (Brassica
oleracea Italica) biofortied with selenium. Food Chem 190:771–776
Bañuelos GS, Lin ZQ (2007) Acceleration of selenium volatilization in seleniferous agricultural
drainage sediments amended with methionine and casein. Environ Pollut 150:306–312
Bañuelos GS, Arroyo I, Pickering IJ, Yang SI, Freeman JL (2015) Selenium biofortication of
broccoli and carrots grown in soil amended with Se-enriched hyperaccumulator Stanleya pin-
nata. Food Chem 166:603–608
Bañuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, de Moraes MF, Guilherme LRG, Reis AR (2016) Global advances in sele-
nium research from theory to application. CRC/Taylor & Francis Group, London
Bissardon C, Charlet L, Bohic S, Khan I (2016) Role of the selenium in articular cartilage metabo-
lism, growth, and maturation. In: Bañuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, de Moraes MF, Guilherme LRG, Reis
AR (eds) Global advances in selenium research from theory to application. CRC/Taylor &
Francis Group, London, pp77–78
Blass SC, Goost H, Burger C, Tolba RH, Stoffel-Wagner B, Stehle P, Ellinger S (2013) Extracellular
micronutrient levels and pro/antioxidant status in trauma patients with wound healing disor-
ders: results of a cross-sectional study. Nutr J12:1–7
Błażewicz A, Klatka M, Astel A, Korona-Glowniak I, Dolliver W, Szwerc W, Kocjan R (2015)
Serum and urinary selenium levels in obese children: a cross-sectional study. JTrace Elem Med
Biol 29:116–122
Boldrin PF, Faquin V, Ramos SJ, Boldrin KVF, Avila FW, Guilherme LRG (2013) Soil and foliar
application of selenium in rice biofortication. JFood Compos Anal 31:238–244
Brigelius-Flohé R, Sies H (2016) Diversity of selenium functions in health and disease. Oxidative
stress and disease series, vol 38. CRC/Press Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton
13 Overview ofSelenium Deciency andToxicity Worldwide: Affected Areas,…
222
Bülow Pedersen I, Knudsen N, Carlé A, Schomburg L, Köhrle J, Jørgensen T, Rasmussen L (2013)
Serum selenium is low in newly diagnosed graves’ disease: a population-based study. Clin
Endocrinol 79:584–590
Carvalho GS (2011) Selenium and mercury in cerrados soils of Brazil. PhD thesis in Soil Science.
Federal University of Lavras, Brazil
Chawla R, Loomba R, Chaudhary RJ, Singh S, Dhillon KS (2016) Impact of high selenium expo-
sure on organ function & biochemical prole of the rural population living in seleniferous soils
in Punjab, India. In: Bañuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, de Moraes MF, Guilherme LRG, Reis AR (eds)
Global advances in selenium research from theory to application. CRC/Taylor & Francis
Group, London, pp93–94
Chen Y, Mo HZ, Hu LB, Li YQ, Chen J, Yang LF (2014) The endogenous nitric oxide mediates
selenium-induced phytotoxicity by promoting ROS generation in Brassica rapa. PLoS One
9(10):e110901
Chilimba ADC, Young SD, Black CR, Meacham MC, Lammel J, Broadley MR (2012) Agronomic
biofortication of maize with selenium (Se) in Malawi. Field Crop Res 125:118–128
Clark RF, Strukle E, Williams SR, Manoguerra AS (1996) Selenium poisoning from a nutritional
supplement. JAMA 275(14):1087–1088
Combs GF (2001) Selenium in global food systems. Brit J Nutr 85:517–547
Combs GF Jr (2016) Who can benet from selenium? In: Brigelius-Flohé R, Sies H (eds) Diversity
of selenium functions in health and disease, Oxidative stress and disease series, vol 38. CRC
Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, pp3–15
Dhillon KS, Dhillon SK (2009a) Accumulation and distribution of selenium in some vegetable
crops grown in selenate-Se treated clay loam soil. Front Agric China 3(4):366–373
Dhillon KS, Dhillon SK (2009b) Selenium concentrations of common weeds and agricultural
crops grown in the seleniferous soils of northwestern India. Sci Total Environ 407:6150–6156
Dhillon KS, Dhillon SK (2014) Development and mapping of seleniferous soils in northwestern
India. Chemosphere 99:56–63
Dhillon KS, Dhillon SK (2016a) Selenium in groundwater and its contribution towards daily
dietary Se intake under different hydrogeological zones of Punjab. JHydrol 533:615–626
Dhillon KS, Dhillon SK (2016b) Phytoremediation of selenium contaminated soils: strategies and
limitations. In: Bañuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, de Moraes MF, Guilherme LRG, Reis AR (eds) Global
advances in selenium research from theory to application. CRC/Taylor & Francis Group,
London, pp201–202
Dhillon SK, Dhillon KS, Kohli A, Khera KL (2008) Evaluation of leaching and runoff losses of
selenium from seleniferous soils through simulated rainfall. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci
171:187–192
Domingues CRS, Pascoalino JAL, Moraes MF, Santos CLR, Reis AR, Franco FA, Evangelista A,
Scheeren PL (2016) Wheat biofortication: genotypic variation and selenium fertilization in
Brazil. In: Bañuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, de Moraes MF, Guilherme LRG, Reis AR (eds) Global
advances in selenium research from theory to application. CRC/Taylor & Francis Group,
London, pp183–184
dos Reis AR (2016) Selenium status in Brazilian soils and crops: agronomic biofortication as a
strategy to improve food quality. In: Bañuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, de Moraes MF, Guilherme LRG,
Reis AR (eds) Global advances in selenium research from theory to application. CRC/Taylor &
Francis Group, London, pp179–180
Eiche E, Bardelli F, Nothstein AK, Charlet L, Göttlicher J, Steininger R, Dhillon KS, Sadana US
(2015) Selenium distribution and speciation in plant parts of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and
Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) from a seleniferous area of Punjab. Sci Total Environ
505:952–961
Ekanayake LJ, Thavarajah D, Vial E, Schatz B, McGee R, Thavarajah P (2015) Selenium fertiliza-
tion on lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) grain yield, seed selenium concentration, and antioxi-
dant activity. Field Crop Res 177:9–14
A.R. dos Reis et al.
223
El Mehdawi AF, Pilon-Smits EA (2012) Ecological aspects of plant selenium hyperaccumulation.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) 14(1):1–10
Elemraid MA, Mackenzie IJ, Fraser WD, Harper G, Faragher B, Atef Z, Al-Aghbari N, Brabin BJ
(2011) A case-control study of nutritional factors associated with chronic suppurative otitis
media in Yemeni children. Eur JClin Nutr 65:895–902
El-Ramady H, Abdalla N, Alshaal T, El-Henawy A, Faizy S.E-D A, Shams M S, Shalaby T,
Bayoumi Y, Elhawat N, Shehata S, Sztrik A, Prokisch J, Fári M, Pilon-Smits E A, Domokos-
Szabolcsy É (2015a). Selenium and its role in higher plants. In: Lichtfouse E, Schwarzbauer J,
Robertet D (eds.), Environ Chem Sustainable World 7:235–296.
El-Ramady H, Domokos-Szabolcsy É, Shalaby T A, Prokisch J, Fári M (2015b). Selenium in
agriculture: water, air, soil, plants, food, animals and nanoselenium. In: Lichtfouse E (ed.),
Environ Chem Sustainable World 5:153–232.
El-Ramady H, Abdalla N, Alshaal T, Domokos-Szabolcsy É, Elhawat N, Prokisch J, Sztrik A, Fári
M, El-Marsafawy S, Shams MS (2015c) Selenium in soils under climate change, implication
for human health. Environ Chem Lett 13(1):1–19
El-Ramady H, Alshaal T, Abdalla N, Prokisch J, Sztrik A, Fári M, Domokos-Szabolcsy É (2016a)
Selenium and nano-selenium biofortied sprouts using micro-farm systems. In: Bañuelos GS,
Lin Z-Q, de Moraes MF, Guilherme LRG, Reis AR (eds) Global advances in selenium research
from theory to application. CRC/Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp189–190
El-Ramady H, Abdalla N, Taha HS, Alshaal T, El-Henawy A, Faizy SE-DA, Shams MS, Youssef
MS, Shalaby T, Bayoumi Y, Elhawat N, Shehata S, Sztrik A, Prokisch J, Fári M, Domokos-
Szabolcsy É, Pilon-Smits EA, Selmar D, Haneklaus S, Schnug E (2016b) Selenium and nano-
selenium in plant nutrition. Environ Chem Lett 14(1):123–147
El-Yazigi A, Legayada E (1996) Urinary selenium in healthy and diabetic Saudi Arabians. Biol
Trace Elem Res 52:55–63
Fairweather-Tait SJ, Bao YP, Broadley MR, Collings R, Ford D, Hesketh JE, Hurst R (2011)
Selenium in human health and disease. Antioxid Redox Signal 14:1337–1383
Faria LAF (2009) Overview Selenium Quantity in Soils and Plants of State São Paulo, and
Selenium Application on Different Forages. PhD thesis in Animal Science, The University São
Paulo, Brazil. 57p.
Faria L A, Machado M C, Abdalla A L, Righeto P P, Campos L L, Karp F H S, Kamogawa M Y
(2016). Agronomic biofortication of Brachiaria with selenium along with urea. In: Bañuelos
G S, Lin Z-Q, de Moraes MF, Guilherme L R G, and Reis A R (Eds.), Global advances in sele-
nium research from theory to application, CRC/Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp:
159–160.
Fenech M, Wu J, Graham R, Lyons G (2013). Selenium biofortied wheat. In: Preedy V R,
Srirajaskanthan R, Patel V B.Handbook of food fortication and health: from concepts to
public health applications volume 1. Nutrition and health. Springer Science + Business Media
NewYork, pp.349–356.
Feng R, Wei C, Tu D (2013). The roles of selenium in protecting plants against abiotic stress.
Environ Exp Bot 87:58–68.
Ferreira KS, Gomes JC, Bellato CR, Jordão CP (2002) Selenium content in Brazilian foods. Pan
Am JPublic Health 11(3):171–177
Fordyce FM (2013) Selenium deciency and toxicity in the environment. In: Selinus O (ed.),
Essentials of Medical Geology: Rev Edn, British Geological Survey, pp375–419
Frankenberger WT Jr, Benson S (1994) Selenium in the environment. Marcel Dekkar, NewYork,
456p
Galinha C, Freitas MC, Pacheco AMG, Coutinho J, Macas B, Almeida AS (2013) Selenium sup-
plementation of Portuguese wheat cultivars through foliar treatment in actual eld conditions.
JRadioanal Nucl Chem 297:227–231
Galinha C, Sánchez-Martínez M, Pacheco AMG, do Carmo Freitas M, Coutinho J, Maçãs B, Soa
Almeida A, Teresa Pérez-Corona M, Madrid Y, Wolterbeek HT (2015) Characterization of
selenium-enriched wheat by agronomic biofortication. JFood Sci Technol 52(7):4236–4245
13 Overview ofSelenium Deciency andToxicity Worldwide: Affected Areas,…
224
Gao J, Liu Y, Huang Y, Lin Z, Bañuelos GS, Lam MH-W, Yin X (2011) Daily selenium intake in a
moderate selenium deciency area of Suzhou. Food Chem 126(3):1088–1093
Gojkovic Ž, Garbayo I, Luis GJ, Ariza I, Márová C, Vílchez (2015) Selenium bioaccumulation and
toxicity in cultures of green microalgae. Algal Res 7:106–116
Gong P, Li T, Wang A, Sun F, Gu S, Yin X, Guan W (2014) Screening wheat genotypes for sele-
nium biofortication in Brazil. In: Baňuelos GS, Lin Z–Q, Yin XB (eds) Selenium in the envi-
ronment and human health. Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp142–143
Gupta S, Gupta M (2015) Alleviation of selenium toxicity in Brassica juncea L.: salicylic acid-
mediated modulation in toxicity indicators, stress modulators, and sulfur-related gene tran-
scripts. Protoplasma 253(6):1–14
Han J, Liang H, Yi J, Tan W, He S, Wu X, Shi X, Ma J, Guo X (2016) Selenium deciency induced
damages and altered expressions of metalloproteinases and their inhibitors (MMP1/3,
TIMP1/3) in the kidneys of growing rats. JTrace Elem Med Biol 34:1–9
Handa N, Bhardwaj R, Poonam HK, Kapoor D, Rattan A, Kaur S, Thukral AK, Kaur S, Arora S,
Kapoor N (2016) Selenium: an antioxidant protectant in plants under stress. In: Ahmed P (ed)
Plant metal interaction. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp179–208
Harris J, Schneberg KA, Pilon-Smits EAH (2014) Sulfur–selenium–molybdenum interactions dis-
tinguish selenium hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata from non-hyperaccumulator Brassica
juncea (Brassicaceae). Planta 239:479–491
Hateld DL, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN (2012) Selenium: its molecular biology and role in human
health. Springer, NewYork
Hauser-Davis RA, Silva JAN, Rocha RCC, Saint’Pierre T, Ziolli RL, Arruda MAZ (2016) Acute
selenium selenite exposure effects on oxidative stress biomarkers and essential metals and
trace-elements in the model organism zebrash (Danio rerio). J Trace Elem Med Biol
33:68–72
Hawrylak-Nowak B (2013) Comparative effects of selenite and selenate on growth and selenium
accumulation in lettuce plants under hydroponic conditions. Plant Growth Regul
70(2):149–157
Hawrylak-Nowak B, Matraszek R, Pogorzelec M (2015) The dual effects of two inorganic sele-
nium forms on the growth, selected physiological parameters and macronutrients accumulation
in cucumber plants. Acta Physiol Plant 37:41
Hladu KR, Parker DR, Tran KD, Trumble JT (2013) Effects of selenium accumulation on phyto-
toxicity, herbivory, and pollination ecology in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Environ Pollut
172:70–75
Hoffmann PR (2016) Selenium as a regulator of immune and inammatory responses. In: Bañuelos
GS, Lin Z-Q, de Moraes MF, Guilherme LRG, Reis AR (eds) Global advances in selenium
research from theory to application. CRC/Taylor & Francis Group, London
Hughes DJ, Fedirko V, Jenab M, Schomburg L, Méplan C, Freisling H, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB,
Hybsier S, Becker NP, Czuban M, Tjønneland A, Outzen M, Boutron-Ruault MC, Racine A,
Bastide N, Kühn T, Kaaks R, Trichopoulos D, Trichopoulou A, Lagiou P, Panico S, Peeters PH,
Weiderpass E, Skeie G, Dagrun E, Chirlaque MD, Sánchez MJ, Ardanaz E, Ljuslinder I,
Wennberg M, Bradbury KE, Vineis P, Naccarati A, Palli D, Boeing H, Overvad K, Dorronsoro
M, Jakszyn P, Cross AJ, Quirós JR, Stepien M, Kong SY, Duarte-Salles T, Riboli E, Hesketh JE
(2015) Selenium status is associated with colorectal cancer risk in the European prospective
investigation of cancer and nutrition cohort. Int JCancer 136(5):1149–1161
Hurst R, Collings R, Harvey L, King M, Hooper L, Bouwman J, Gurinovic M, Fairweather-Tait SJ
(2013) EURRECA– estimating selenium requirements four deriving dietary reference values.
Crit Rev Food Sci 53:1077–1096
Jaworska K, Gupta S, Durda K, Muszyńska M, Sukiennicki G, Jaworowska E, Grodzki T,
Sulikowski M, Waloszczyk P, Wójcik J(2013) A low selenium level is associated with lung and
laryngeal cancers. PLoS One 8:e59051
Kabata-Pendias A, Mukherjee AB (2007) Trace elements from soil to human. Springer, Berlin/
Heidelberg/New York
A.R. dos Reis et al.
225
Kieliszek M, Błażejak S, Płaczek M (2016) Spectrophotometric evaluation of selenium binding by
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 yeast. J Trace
Elem Med Biol 35:90–96
Klein EA, Thompson IM, Tangen CM, Crowley JJ, Lucia MS, Goodman FJ, Minasian LM, Ford
LG, Parnes HL, Gaziano JM, Karp DD, Lieber MM, Walther PJ, Klotz L, Parsons JK, Chin JL,
Darke AK, Lippman SM, Goodman GE, Meyskens FL, Baker LH (2011) Vitamin E and the
risk of prostate cancer the selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial (SELECT). JAMA
306(14):1549–1556
Kong L, Wang M, Bi D (2005) Selenium modulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes, osmotic
homeostasis, and promotes the growth of sorrel seedlings under salt stress. Plant Growth Regul
45:155–163
Koszta G, Kacska Z, Szatmári K, Szeran T, Fülesdi B (2012) Lower whole blood selenium level
is associated with higher operative risk and mortality following cardiac surgery. J Anesth
26:812–821
Koukkou E, Ilias I, Alexiou M, Mamali I, Nicopoulou S, Alevizaki M, Markou K (2014) Urine
selenium changes during pregnancy do not correlate with thyroid autoantibodies in a mildly
iodine decient population. Biol Trace Elem Res 157:9–13
Krohn RM, Lemaire M, Silva LFN, Lemarié C, Bolt A, Mann KK, Smits JE (2016) High-selenium
lentil diet protects against arsenic-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. JNutr Biochem
27:9–15
Lampis S, Zonaro E, Bertolini C, Cecconi D, Monti F, Micaroni M, Turner RJ, Butler CS, Vallini
G (2016) Selenite biotransformation and detoxication by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
SeITE02: novel clues on the route to bacterial biogenesis of selenium nanoparticles. JHazard
Mater S0304-3894(16):30162–30165
Lazo-Vélez MA, Chávez-Santoscoy A, Serna-Saldivar SO (2015) Selenium-enriched breads and
their benets in human nutrition and health as affected by agronomic, milling, and baking fac-
tors. Cereal Chem 92(2):134–144
Lehotai N, Lyubenova L, Schröder P, Feigl G, Ördög A, Szilágyi K, Erdei L, Kolbert Z (2015)
Nitro-oxidative stress contributes to selenite toxicity in pea (Pisum sativum L). Plant Soil
400:107–122
Li N, Gao ZD, Luo DG, Tang X, Chen D, Hu Y (2007) Selenium level in the environment and the
population of Zhoukoudian area. Sci Total Environ 381(1):105–111
Li T, Wang A, Gong P, Gu S, Yuan L, Li F, Yin X, Guan W (2014) Microbial-enhanced selenium
biofortication of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) In: Baňuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, Yin X (eds)
Selenium in the environment and human health. Taylor & Francis Group, London,
pp138–139
Li M Q, Hasan M K, Li C X, Ahammed G J, Xia X J, Shi K, Zhou Y H, Reiter R J, Yu JQ, Xu M
X, Zhou J. (2016). Melatonin mediates selenium-induced tolerance to cadmium stress to
tomato plants. JPineal Res June 6.
Longchamp M, Castrec-Rouelle M (2014) Uptake of selenate versus selenite in Zea mays: biofor-
tication of crops and forage. In: Banuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, Yin X (eds) Selenium in the environ-
ment and human health. Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp118–119
Longchamp M, Angeli N, Castrec-Rouelle M (2013) Selenium uptake in Zea mays supplied with
selenate or selenite under hydroponic conditions. Plant Soil 362:107–117
Longchamp M, Castrec-Rouelle M, Biron P, Bariac T (2015) Variations in the accumulation, local-
ization and rate of metabolization of selenium in mature Zea mays plants supplied with selenite
or selenate. Food Chem 182:128–135
Lopes PA, Santos MC, Vicente L, Rodrigues MO, Pavão ML, Nève J, Viegas-Crespo AM (2004)
Trace element status (Se, Cu, Zn) in healthy Portuguese subjects of Lisbon population: a refer-
ence study. Biol Trace Elem Res 101:1–17
Lyons G, Stangoulis L, Graham R (2003) High-selenium wheat: biofortication for better health.
Nutr Res Rev 16:45–60
13 Overview ofSelenium Deciency andToxicity Worldwide: Affected Areas,…
226
Madaan N, Mudgal V (2011) Phytotoxic effect of selenium on the accessions of wheat and saf-
ower. Res JEnviron Sci 5:82–87
Malagoli M, Schiavon M, dall’ Acqua S, Pilon-Smits EAH (2015) Effects of selenium biofortica-
tion on crop nutritional quality. Front Plant Sci 6:280
Manzanares W, Hardy G (2016) Can dietary selenium intake increase the risk of toxicity in healthy
children? Nutrition 32(1):149–150
Mao H, Lyons GH, Wang ZH (2016) Using agronomic biofortication to reduce micronutrient
deciency in food crops on loess soil in China. In: Bañuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, de Moraes MF,
Guilherme LRG, Reis AR (eds) Global advances in selenium research from theory to applica-
tion. CRC/Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp163–164
Massadeh A, Gharibeh A, Omari K, Al-Momani I, Alomary A, Tumah H, Hayajneh W (2010)
Simultaneous determination of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Se in human blood of Jordanian smokers
by ICP-OES.Biol Trace Elem Res 133:1–11
Mechora S, Stibilj V, Germ M (2015) Response of duckweed to various concentrations of selenite.
Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:2416–2422
Menezes C, Marins A, Murussi C, Pretto A, Leitemperger J, Loro VL (2016) Effects of diphenyl
diselenide on growth, oxidative damage, and antioxidant response in silver catsh. Sci Total
Environ 542:231–237
Millán EA, Florea D, Sáez Pérez L, Molina JL, López-González B, Cruz PA, Planells del Pozo E
(2012) Decient selenium status of a healthy adult Spanish population. Nutr Hosp
27:524–528
Molnárová M, Fargasová A (2009) Se (IV) phytotoxicity for monocotyledonae cereals (Hordeum
vulgare L., Triticum aestivum L.) and dicotyledonae crops (Sinapis alba L., Brassica napus L.)
JHazard Mater 172(2–3):854–861
Mora ML, Durán P, Acuña AJ, Cartes P, Demanet R, Gianfreda L (2015) Improving selenium
status in plant nutrition and quality. JSoil Sci Plant Nutr 15(2):486–503
Moreno-Reyes R, Suetens C, Mathieu F, Begaux F, Zhu D, Boelaert MM, Nève J, Perlmutter N,
Vanderpas J(1998) Kashin-Beck osteoarthropathy in rural Tibet in relation to selenium and
iodine status. N Engl JMed 339:1112–1120
Nagy G, Benko I, Kiraly G, Voros O, Tanczos B, Sztrik A, Takács T, Pocsi I, Prokisch J, Banfalvi
G (2015) Cellular and nephrotoxicity of selenium species. J Trace Elem Med Biol
30:160–170
Nancharaiah YV, Lens PNL (2015) Selenium biomineralization for biotechnological applications.
Trends Biotechnol 33(6):323–330
Nawaz F, Ahmad R, Ashraf MY, Waraich EA, Khan SZ (2015) Effect of selenium foliar spray on
physiological and biochemical processes and chemical constituents of wheat under drought
stress. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 113:191–200
Niedzielski P, Rudnicka M, Wachelka M, Kozak L, Rzany M, Wozniak M, Kaskow Z (2016)
Selenium species in selenium fortied dietary supplements. Food Chem 190:454–459
Nogueira TAR, Alleoni LRF, He Z, Villanueva FCA, Poggere GC, Abreu Junior CH (2013) Teores
naturais e valor de referência de qualidade para selênio em solos do estado de São Paulo. In:
XXXIV CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE CIÊNCIA DO SOLO, 2013. Anais. Florianópolis.
CD-ROM.
Obeid O, Elfakhani M, Hlais S, Iskandar M, Batal M, Mouneimne Y, Adra N, Hwalla N (2008)
Plasma copper, zinc, and selenium levels and correlates with metabolic syndrome components
of Lebanese adults. Biol Trace Elem Res 123:58–65
Oropeza-Moe M, Wisløff H, Bernhoft A (2015) Selenium deciency associated porcine and human
cardiomyopathies. JTrace Elem Med Biol 31:148–156
Ortiz-Monasterio I, Cárdenas ME, Lyons GH (2016) Biofortication of irrigated wheat with Se
fertilizer: timing, rate, method and type of wheat. In: Bañuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, de Moraes MF,
Guilherme LRG, Reis AR (eds) Global advances in selenium research from theory to applica-
tion. CRC/Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp167–168
A.R. dos Reis et al.
227
Pandey C, Gupta M (2015) Selenium and auxin mitigates arsenic stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by
combining the role of stress indicators, modulators and genotoxicity assay. JHazard Mater
287:384–391
Pilon M, El Mehdawi AF, Cappa JJ, Wang J, Pilon-Smits EAH (2016) Molecular mechanisms of
selenium hyperaccumulation in Stanleya pinnata: potential key genes SpSultr1;2 and SpAPS2.
In: Bañuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, de Moraes MF, Guilherme LRG, Reis AR (eds) Global advances in
selenium research from theory to application. CRC/Taylor & Francis Group, London,
pp115–116
Pilon-Smits EAH, El-Mehdawi AF, Cappa JJ, Wang J, Cochran AT, Reynolds RJ, Sura de Jong M
(2016) New insights into the multifaceted ecological and evolutionary aspects of plant sele-
nium hyperaccumulation. In: Bañuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, de Moraes MF, Guilherme LRG, Reis AR
(eds) Global advances in selenium research from theory to application. CRC/Taylor & Francis
Group, London, pp125–126
Poblaciones MJ, Rodrigo S, Santamaria O, Chen Y, McGrath SP (2014) Selenium accumulation
and speciation in biofortied chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under Mediterranean conditions.
JSci Food Agric 94(6):1101–1106
Pograjc L, Stibilj V, Falnoga I (2012) Impact of intensive physical activity on selenium status. Biol
Trace Elem Res 145:291–299
Prakash NT (2016) Quantication, speciation and bioaccessibility of selenium from Se-rich cere-
als cultivated in seleniferous soils of India. In: Bañuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, de Moraes MF,
Guilherme LRG, Reis AR (eds) Global advances in selenium research from theory to applica-
tion. CRC/Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp119–120
Qin H-B, Zhu J-M, Liang L, Wang M-S, Su H (2013) The bioavailability of selenium and risk
assessment for human selenium poisoning in high-Se areas. Environ Int 52:66–74
Rauhamaa P, Kantola M, Viitak A, Kaasik T, Mussalo-Rauhamaa H (2008) Selenium levels of
Estonians. Eur JClin Nutr 62:1075–1078
Rayman MP (2000) The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet 356:233–241
Rayman MP, Wijnen H, Vader H, Kooistra L, Pop V (2011) Maternal selenium status during early
gestation and risk for preterm birth. CMAJ 183:49–555
Rayman MP, Blundell-Pound G, Pastor-Barriuso R, Guallar E, Steinbrenner H, Stranges S (2012)
A randomized trial of selenium supplementation and risk of type-2 diabetes, as assessed by
plasma adiponectin. PLoS One 7:e45269
Reis AR, Guilherme LRG, Moraes MF, Ramos SJ (2014) High-selenium upland rice: agronomic
biofortication strategies to improve human nutrition. In: Baňuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, Yin X (eds)
Selenium in the environment and human health. Taylor & Francis Group, London,
pp113–114
Reis HPG, Barcelos JPQ, Reis AR, Moraes MF (2016) Genotypic variation and agronomic biofor-
tication of upland rice with selenium. In: Bañuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, de Moraes MF, Guilherme
LRG, Reis AR (eds) Global advances in selenium research from theory to application. CRC/
Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp175–176
Saad K, Farghaly HS, Badry R, Othman HA (2014) Selenium and antioxidant levels decreased in
blood of children with breath-holding spells. JChild Neurol 29:1339–1343
Sah S, Vandenberg A, Smits J(2013) Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil
diets. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 272(1):256–262
Saidi I, Nawel N, Djebali W (2014a) Role of selenium in preventing manganese toxicity in sun-
ower (Helianthus annuus) seedling. S Afr JBot 94:88–94
Saidi I, Chtourou Y, Djebali W (2014b) Selenium alleviates cadmium toxicity by preventing oxida-
tive stress in sunower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings. JPlant Physiol 171(5):85–91
Sánchez C, López-Jurado M, Aranda P, Llopis J(2010) Plasma levels of copper, manganese and
selenium in an adult population in southern Spain: inuence of age, obesity and lifestyle fac-
tors. Sci Total Environ 408:1014–1020
13 Overview ofSelenium Deciency andToxicity Worldwide: Affected Areas,…
228
Schilling K, Johnson TM, Dhillon KS, Mason PRD (2015) Fate of selenium in soils at a selenifer-
ous site recorded by high precision Se isotope measurements. Environ Sci Technol
49:9690–9698
Schomburg L (2011) Selenium, selenoproteins and the thyroid gland: interactions in health and
disease. Nature 8:160–171
Sharma VK (2009) Aggregation and toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in aquatic environ-
ment—a review. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous
Substances and Environmental Engineering 44(14):1485–1495
Sharma N, Prakash R, Srivastava A, Sadana US, Acharya R, Prakash NT, Reddy AVR (2009)
Prole of selenium in soil and crops in seleniferous area of Punjab, India by neutron activation
analysis. JRadioanal Nucl Chem 281:59–62
Sharma G, Sharma A R, Bhavesh R, Park J, Ganbold B, Nam J-S, Lee S-S. (2014a). Biomolecule-
mediated synthesis of selenium nanoparticles using dried Vitis vinifera (Raisin) extract.
Molecules, 19: 2761–2770.
Sharma S, Kaur N, Kaur S, Nayyar H (2014b) Ascorbic acid reduces the phytotoxic effects of
selenium on rice (Oryza sativa L.) by up-regulation of antioxidative and metal-tolerance mech-
anisms. JPlant Physiol Pathol 2(3)
Sharma S, Goyal R, Sandana US (2014c) Selenium accumulation and antioxidant status of rice
plants grown on seleniferous soil from northwestern India. Rice Sci 21(6):327–334
Sharma P, Aggarwal P, Kaur A (2016) Biofortication: a new approach to eradicate hidden hunger.
Food Rev Int 33(1):1–21
Sherief LM, Abd El-Salam SM, Kamal NM, El Safy O, Almalky MA, Azab SF, Morsy HM,
Gharieb AF (2014) Nutritional biomarkers in children and adolescents with Betathalassemia-
major: an Egyptian center experience. Biomed Res Int 2014:1–7
Silva Junior ED (2016) Selenium in Brazilian nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) and soils from Amazon
region. PhD thesis in Soil Science. Federal University of Lavras, Brazil. 75p.
Srivastava A, Pathania D, Swain KK, Ajith N, Acharya R, Reddy AVR, Nayyar H (2012)
Application of INAA for phyto-accumulation study of selenium by chickpea plant. JRadioanal
Nucl Chem 294(2):315–318
Stoffaneller R, Morse NL (2015) A review of dietary selenium intake and selenium status in
Europe and the Middle East. Forum Nutr 7(3):1494–1537
Stoppe C, Schälte G, Rossaint R, Coburn M, Graf B, Spillner J, Marx G, Rex S (2011) The intra-
operative decrease of selenium is associated with the postoperative development of multiorgan
dysfunction in cardiac surgical patients. Crit Care Med 39:1879–1885
Stoppe C, Spillner J, Rossaint R, Coburn M, Schälte G, Wildenhues A, Marx G, Rex S (2013)
Selenium blood concentrations in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery and receiving
perioperative sodium selenite. Nutrition 29:158–165
Stranges S, Laclaustra M, Ji C, Cappuccio FP, Navas-Acien A, Ordovas JM, Rayman M, Guallar
E (2010) Higher selenium status is associated with adverse blood lipid prole in British adults.
JNutr 140:81–87
Suadicani P, Hein HO, Gyntelberg F (2012) Serum selenium level and risk of lung cancer mortal-
ity: a 16-year follow-up of the Copenhagen male study. Eur Respir J39:1443–1448
Sun H, Rathinasabapathi JB, Wu B, Luo J, Pu L-P, Ma LQ (2014) Arsenic and selenium toxicity
and their interactive effects in humans. Environ Int 69:148–158
Surai P (2006) Selenium in food and feed: selenomethionine and beyond. In: Selenium in nutrition
and health. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, pp151–212
Talukdar D (2013) Selenium priming selectively ameliorates weed– induced phytotoxicity by
modulating antioxidant defense components in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and grass pea
(Lathyrus sativus L.) Ann Rev Res in Biol 3(3):195–212
Tan JA, Zhu WY, Wang WY, Li RB, Wang DC, Yang LS (2002) Selenium in soil and endemic
diseases in China. Sci Total Environ 284:227–235
Thomson CD (2004) Selenium and iodine intakes and status in New Zealand and Australia. Br
JNutr 91(5):661–672
A.R. dos Reis et al.
229
Van Hoewyk D (2013) A tale of two toxicities: malformed selenoproteins and oxidative stress both
contribute to selenium stress in plants. Ann Bot 112(6):965–972
Vinceti M, Crespi CM, Malagoli C, Bottecchi I, Ferrari A, Sieri S, Krogh V, Alber D, Bergomi M,
Seidenari S, Pellacani G (2012) A case-control study of the risk of cutaneous melanoma associ-
ated with three selenium exposure indicators. Tumori 98:287–295
Wang Z, Gao Y (2001) Biogeochemical cycling of selenium in Chinese environments. Appl
Geochem 16:1345–1351
Wang J, Xiao Y P, Liang X Q, Shao X H, Zhang K (2012). Determination of arsenic, mercury and
selenium in Gynostemma pentaphyllum and rhizospheric soil samples collected from different
regions by hydride generation atomic uorescence spectrometry. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu
Fen Xi 32(3):813–816 (in Chinese)
Wang X, Tam NF, Fu S, Ametkhan A, Ouyang Y, Ye Z (2014) Selenium addition alters mercury
uptake, bioavailability in the rhizosphere and root anatomy of rice (Oryza sativa). Ann Bot
114(2):271–278
Wang Q, Zhang J, Zhao B, Xin X, Deng X, Zhang H (2016a) Inuence of long-term fertilization
on selenium accumulation in soil and uptake by crops. Pedosphere 26(1):120–129
Wang D, Liu Y, Liu D (2016b) Keshan disease and Kaschin-Beck disease in China: is there still
selenium deciency? In: Bañuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, de Moraes MF, Guilherme LRG, Reis AR
(eds) Global advances in selenium research from theory to application. CRC/Taylor & Francis
Group, London, pp95–96
White PJ (2016) The genetics of selenium accumulation by plants. In: Bañuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, de
Moraes MF, Guilherme LRG, Reis AR (eds) Global advances in selenium research from theory
to application. CRC/Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp111–112
Wimmer I, Hartmann T, Brustbauer R, Minear G, Dam K (2014) Selenium levels in patients with
autoimmune thyroiditis and controls in lower Austria. Horm Metab Res 46:707–709
Winkel LHE, Vriens B, Jones GD, Schneider LS, Pilon-Smits EAH, Bañuelos G (2015) Selenium
cycling across soil-plant-atmosphere interfaces: a critical review. Forum Nutr 7(6):4199–4239
Wrobel JK, Power R, Toborek M (2016) Biological activity of selenium: revisited. IUBMB Life
68(2):97–105
Wu Q, Rayman M, Lu H, Schomburg L, Cui B, Gao C, Chen P, Zhuang G, Zhang Z, Peng X, Li
H, Zhao Y, He X, Zeng G, Qin F, Hou P, Shi B (2015) Low population selenium status is associ-
ated with increased prevalence of thyroid disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab
100(11):4037–4047
Xia Y, Hill KE, Byrne DW, Xu J, Burk RF (2005) Effectiveness of selenium supplements in a low-
selenium area of China. Am JClin Nutr 81:829–834
Yang H, Jia X (2014) Safety evaluation of Se-methylselenocysteine as nutritional selenium supple-
ment: acute toxicity, genotoxicity and subchronictoxicity. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol
70(3):720–727
Yasin M, Faisal M, Pilon-Smits EAH (2014) Selenium biofortication and its effects on our paste
viscosity properties in wheat. In: Baňuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, Yin X (eds) Selenium in the environ-
ment and human health. Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp140–141
Yasin M, El-Mehdawi AF, Pilon-Smits EA, Faisal M (2015a) Selenium-fortied wheat: potential
of microbes for biofortication of selenium and other essential nutrients. Int JTheor Phys
17(8):777–786
Yasin M, El-Mehdawi AF, Anwar A, Pilon-Smits EA, Faisal M (2015b) Microbial-enhanced sele-
nium and iron biofortication of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): applications in phytoremedia-
tion and biofortication. Int JTheor Phys 17(1–6):341–347
Yasin M, El Mehdawi AF, Jahn CE, Anwar A, Turner MFS, Faisal M, Pilon-Smits EAH (2015c)
Seleniferous soils as a source for production of selenium-enriched foods and potential of bac-
teria to enhance plant selenium uptake. Plant Soil 386:385–394
Yasin M, Faisal M, El Mehdawi AF, Pilon-Smits EAH (2016) Microbe-assisted selenium phytore-
mediation and phytomanagement of natural seleniferous areas. In: Bañuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, de
13 Overview ofSelenium Deciency andToxicity Worldwide: Affected Areas,…
230
Moraes MF, Guilherme LRG, Reis AR (eds) Global advances in selenium research from theory
to application. CRC, Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp199–200
Ye S, Zhang J, Liu Z, Zhang Y, Li J, Li YO (2016) Biosynthesis of selenium rich exopolysaccharide
(Se-EPS) by Pseudomonas PT-8 and characterization of its antioxidant activities. Carbohydr
Polym 142:230–239
Yuan L, Yin X, Zhu Y, Li F, Huang Y, Liu Y, Lin Z (2012) Selenium in plants and soils, and seleno-
sis in Enshi, China: implications for selenium biofortication. In: Yin X, Yuan L (eds)
Phytoremediation and biofortication. Springer, Dordrecht, pp7–31
Yusuf M, Khan TA, Fariduddin Q (2016) Interaction of epibrassinolide and selenium ameliorates
the excess copper in Brassica juncea through altered proline metabolism and antioxidants.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 129:25–34
Zanetti MA, Correa LB, Saran Netto A, Cunha JA, Santana RSS, Cozzolino SMF (2016) Inuence
of canola oil, vitamin E and selenium on cattle meat quality and its effects on nutrition and
health of humans. In: Bañuelos GS, Lin Z-Q, de Moraes MF, Guilherme LRG, Reis AR (eds)
Global advances in selenium research from theory to application. CRC/Taylor & Francis
Group, London, pp97–98
Zhao J, Gao Y, Li Y-F, Hu Y, Peng X, Dong Y, Li B, Chen C, Chai Z (2013) Selenium inhibits the
phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum). Environ Res 125:75–81
Zhu J, Wang N, Li S, Li L, Su H, Liu C (2008) Distribution and transport of selenium in Yutangba,
China: impact of human activities. Sci Total Environ 392(2–3):252–261
Zhu Y, Yin X, Liu S, Yuan S (2014) The selenium speciation in the seeds of the common wheat
genotypes tending to accumulate high concentrations of selenium. In: Baňuelos GS, Lin Z-Q,
Yin X (eds) Selenium in the environment and human health. Taylor & Francis Group, London,
pp136–137
Zhu X, Jiang M, Song E, Jiang X, Song Y (2015) Selenium deciency sensitizes the skin for UVB-
induced oxidative damage and inammation which involved the activation of p38 MAPK sig-
naling. Food Chem Toxicol 75:139–145
A.R. dos Reis et al.
... The daily intake of Se by a population is based on diet because food is the main source of this micronutrient (Reis et al., 2018). Over 1 billion people are estimated to have moderate or severe Se deficiency ), due to the low Se concentrations in agricultural products produced in highly weathered soils and with low availability of Se for plant roots (Reis et al., 2017;Lima et al., 2018). ...
... Selenium participates in important physiological processes in humans and other animals. Adequate consumption of this micronutrient can reduce the risk of diseases, cardiovascular problems, male infertility, and cognitive and immune impairment (Reis et al., 2017;Schiavon and Pilon-Smits, 2017). Enrichment of the diet with Se can therefore contribute substantially to prevent Se deficiency, especially in the most vulnerable countries with restricted access to healthy food, being proposed the agronomic biofortification as a good strategy to improve the nutritional quality of food (Bouis and Saltzman, 2017;Gouveia et al., 2020;. ...
... Agronomic biofortification with Se is an agricultural practice strategic for human nutrition because allows improve food solutions to prevent Se deficiency in growing populations (Reis et al., 2017). In our study, the cabbage grown in the hydroponic system with nutrient solution recirculation could be efficiently biofortified with Se using inorganic fertilizers containing Se (Fig. 5). ...
Article
Full-text available
Selenium (Se) is essential for humans and animals. Problems associated with Se deficiency in the population diets is spread throughout the world and its related to low Se concentration in the foods. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of different sources and Se concentration on agronomic biofortification of cabbage and its effects on nutritional and photosynthetic parameters. Two cabbage cultivars were treated with five Se concentrations (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 μM) and two sources (selenate and selenite). The concentration of Se in the cabbage heads increased continuously up to 60 μM, but with no effect on the N, P and S concentrations. At low Se concentration (5 μM), there was an increase in the net photosynthesis, stomata conductance, intern carbon concentration and transpiration, besides increases in photosynthetic pigment levels, which led to an increase of over 100% in head dry mass and yield. The cultivars responded differently to the treatments, but both were highlighting the efficiency of Se fertilization in the heads. Both chemical forms of Se can be used at low concentrations (5 and 15 μM) for the agronomic biofortification of cabbage, however, selenite demonstrated to be most efficient.
... Since the discovery of Se essentiality for humans (1974) the interest to this trace element has been increasing constantly. The main features of the modern Se studies are investigations of Se in nutritional food chain (soil, plants, insects, animals, human beings) [1][2][3], biogeochemical cycling [4,5], Se toxicity and deficiency [6,7], Se status mapping of the world territory [8], biofortification of agricultural crops [9], protection against heavy metals and other abiotic stresses [10,11], and production of functional food products and supplements rich with selenium [12]. Indeed, during 2020 at least seven Se reviews were published [13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. ...
... Agronomic biofortification is a proven strategy to combat hidden hunger. The approach consists of enriching edible parts of crops with nutrients, such as Se, aiming to increase these nutrients in the human diet (White andBroadley 2009;Reis et al. 2017). Studies of agronomic biofortification to increase Se concentration in plants have already been performed using a wide range of crops, including: cowpea, groundnut, soybean, wheat, rice, pear, strawberry, and others (White and Broadley 2009;White 2018;. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aims Selenium (Se) as selenate shares similarities with sulfate in transport and assimilation by plants. Uptake and assimilation of Se might be affected by S and vice-versa, which could affect Se and S concentration in plant tissues, and metabolic pathways such as biosynthesis of sugars, amino acids, and storage proteins. This study aimed to evaluate Se and S combination on cowpea plants under field conditions. Methods The experimental design was a 4 × 4 interaction between four rates of Se (0, 10, 25, and 50 g ha− 1) and four rates of S (0, 15, 30, and 60 kg ha− 1) in two consecutive years of cowpea cultivation. Concentrations of Se, S, total sugars, sucrose, total free amino acids, and storage proteins in plant tissue were measured. Results The Se x S interaction did not affect cowpea yield or growth. Antagonistic effects of S on Se concentrations in leaves and seeds were observed mainly for the second crop season. Selenium did not decrease S concentrations in leaves and seeds of cowpea plants. The combination of 25 g Se ha− 1 and 30 kg S ha− 1 provided the greater concentrations of total sugars. Interaction between Se and S was associated with greater sucrose, amino acids, and storage proteins concentrations in cowpea seeds. Conclusions The Se and S interaction did not impair plant growth but application of S decreased Se content in cowpea. Further studies are needed to better understand the physiological roles of Se and S combination in producing primary metabolic compounds.
... Selenium content in plants is correlated with the bioavailability of the micronutrient in the soil [4]. According to [5], soils in humid climates and temperate zones hold low Se availability, which directly interferes with the Se content in food production. Nowadays, it is known that organic and inorganic forms of Se present in food are crucial for human nutrition [6]. ...
... Mostofa et al. [40], Reis et al. [41] and Silva et al. [42], show that concentrations of up to 100 mg.L -1 of Se in nutrient solution caused a drastic reduction of chlorophyll, carotenoids and dry biomass in rice seedlings and a 90% reduction in the concentration of chlorophyll and carotenoids in beans caupi, a fact that may be related to the incorporation of Se into proteins and amino acids, resulting in selenoproteins in higher concentration than sulfur proteins and amino acids [43]; [44]. In this work, the Translocation, Tolerance, Nutrients Use Efficiency, as well as the multivariate indicators showed that the optimal range of biofortification for jambu ranges from 2.77 mg.L -1 to 3.36 mg.L -1 , with maximum value of Se supplementation in the order of 2.98 mg.L -1 in nutrient solution. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nutritional biofortification of foods is a promising alternative to reduce Selenium deficiency in the diet of populations. This study evaluated the biofortification capacity of jambu with Se. The experiment was completely randomized with six treatments and five repetitions, in hydroponics. Five doses of Se in the form of sodium selenate (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg.L-1) and the control dose were used. Biometric, macro and micronutrient analyzes were performed, as well as the Se content in the plant parts. The indices of translocation (TrI), tolerance (tI) and Nutrient Use Efficiency (Nue) were estimated. The results were submitted to ANOVA and principal components analysis for the construction of multivariate indicators, in order to specify the regression models. The plant obtained higher agronomic performance when submitted to a dose of 3mg.L-1, with Se translocation above 70%. The tI and Nue indices indicated that jambu reached optimal growth with the dose of 3 mg.L-1 of Se. The results obtained from the regression equation of the multivariate indicators of growth, mass and nutrition indicated that the ideal concentrations of Se varied between 2.77 and 3.36 mg.L-1. The general indicator that captured the entire plant behavior showed that the optimal concentration for biofortification is 2.98 mg.L-1 of Se. The daily consumption of 100 g of biofortified jambu at the indicated dose provides a daily content of 50.13µg of Se for the population, a sufficient amount of Se for a balanced diet.
... Despite yawning evidence of the effect of selenium on human health [17]- [19] there is little or no knowledge of soil selenium content and spatial variations in its concentration in the study area. Consequently, an understanding of the extent and spatial variability of soil selenium concentration is crucial to the planning and implementation of nutritional health interventions in the study context. ...
Article
Full-text available
Selenium is a necessary trace element naturally found in rocks, soil, water, and some food crops that contributes to human development. Due to its role in maintaining normal functions of the human body and the health problems associated with its deficiency and toxicity, it is referred to as the 'double-edged sword element'. A total of 43 stream sediment samples were collected using a Global Positioning System receiver to navigate predetermined locations. Selenium concentration in the samples was assessed using inductively coupled plasma/optical mass spectrometry technique and pH measured with a pH meter. The pollution status of Selenium was determined by calculating the degree of contamination, pollution load and geo-accumulation indices. Stream sediments were underlain by sedimentary rocks with lithologies such as sandstone, mudstone, shale and phyllite. Out of the 43 samples analyzed, 35 (81%) were deficient in selenium. Selenium levels ranged from < 0.2 mg/kg to 0.4 mg/kg with a geometric mean of 0.11 mg/kg reflecting the global background value in sedimentary rocks. The study found almost the entire area to be deficient in selenium. The low selenium geo-availability may adversely affect its bioavailability in food crops with profound public health implications for inhabitants of the study area who derive dietary selenium through the consumption of these crops. Consequently, our findings call for further research into the link between Se content of food crops grown in the study context, human blood selenium levels and health outcomes in the population to facilitate the potential implementation of remedial public health interventions.
Article
Water contamination with heavy metals has become a major concern in the present time, which necessitates the need for effective and flexible techniques for water remediation. During the last few years, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) based adsorbents and their composites have gathered significant attention in their adsorption potential towards the heavy metal ions in an aqueous medium. In the present systematic review and meta-analysis, the adsorption performance of nano adsorbents based on SPIONs for heavy metals (lead, mercury, chromium, copper, arsenic, nickel, and cadmium) has been compiled from the year 2011 to 2020. A total of 232 articles were assessed to be suitable for the review section after a thorough screening and analysis. In addition, 180 published studies were entitled to meet the quantifiable criteria for the meta-analysis. Computer programming languages were employed to do the correlation analysis, heterogeneity analysis and to construct the Forest plot. Further subgroup analysis was done for each heavy metal ion to know the cause of variance in the data. According to the collective data, the adsorption capacity ranged from0.23 and1476.4 mg/g. The systematic review of the studies revealed that the metal ion removal efficiency of the SPIONs varied between 50 and 100 %, while the pH range of 4 to 7 was the most widely investigated range in the elimination of heavy metal ions. From the analysis of the studies, the adsorption experiments were carried out in the period between 1 and 2500 minutes. The present article aims to highlight the need to achieve maximum metal ions removal efficiency in the water treatment process and study the relationship of adsorption dosage on removal efficiency. A panel of published data (k= 258) exhibited that the I² in terms of pooled removal efficiency data was 79%.The statistical findings concluded that no publication bias existed.
Article
Full-text available
The early stages of quinoa germination are sensitive to drought stress. For this purpose, a study entitled the effect of selenium in different concentrations on germination characteristics and some antioxidant enzymes of quinoa under drought stress conditions with polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) was investigated. The first experimental factor was seed priming with selenium (from two sources: sodium selenate and selenium nanoparticles: SeNPs ≈ 33.4 nm) at 0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6 mg·L −1 concentrations, besides, no priming treatment was used as control. The second factor was drought stress with PEG 6000 in concentrations 0,-0.4,-0.8, and-1.2 MPa. Drought stress with accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) had a negative effect on most of the measured traits. In seeds that were primed with appropriate selenium concentrations, germination parameters and antioxidant enzyme activity as well as proline and protein content increased compared to the control treatment. Under conditions of severe stress (-1.2 MPa), the highest activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) enzymes was observed in prime with selenium nanoparticles at concentrations of 4.5, 6.0 and 4.5 mg·L −1 , respectively. Concentrations higher than 3 mg·L −1 of selenium nanoparticles and concentrations of 3 mg·L − 1 sodium selenate had the highest accumulation of photosynthetic pigments under control (stress-free) conditions. The present study shows that selenium priming can reduce the harmful effects of drought stress on quinoa by altering germination properties and biochemical properties. How to cite: Gholami, S., Dehaghi, M. A., Rezazadeh, A. and Naji, A. M. (2022). Seed germination and physiological responses of quinoa to selenium priming under drought stress. Bragantia, 81, e0722. https://doi.
Article
Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have recently attracted attention because they combine the benefits of Se and lower toxicity compared to other chemical forms of this element. In this study, SeNPs were synthesized by a green method using ascorbic acid as the reducing agent and polyvinyl alcohol as stabilizer. The nanoparticles were widely characterized. To determine the total concentration of Se by ICP-MS, several isotopes and the use of He as collision gas were evaluated, which was effective in minimizing interferences. A method for sizing SeNPs by single particle ICP-MS (SP-ICP-MS) was developed. For this purpose, He and H 2 were evaluated as collision/reaction gases, and the second one showed promising results, providing an average diameter of 48 nm for the SeNPs. These results agree with those obtained by TEM (50.1 nm). Therefore, the SP-ICP-MS can be implemented for characterizing SeNPs in terms of size and size distribution, being an important analytical tool for Se and other widely studied nanoparticles (e.g. Ag, Au, Ce, Cu, Fe, Zn). Finally, the antibacterial activity of SeNPs was assessed. The SeNPs showed bacteriostatic activity against three strains of Gram-positive bacteria and were particularly efficient in inhibiting the growth E. faecalis even at very low concentrations (MIC < 1.4 mg L ⁻¹ ). In addition, a bactericidal activity of SeNPs against S. aureus was observed. These nanoparticles may have potential application in pharmaceutical industry, biomedicine and agriculture.
Article
The Amazon rainforest is a heterogeneous ecosystem and its soils exhibit geographically variable concentrations of trace elements. In this region, anthropic activities - e.g., agriculture and mining - are numerous and varied, and even natural areas are at risk of contamination by trace elements, either of geogenic or anthropogenic origin. A reliable dataset of benchmark values for selenium (Se), barium (Ba), and iodine (I) concentrations in soils is needed for use as a reference in research and public policies in the region. In this study, 9 selected sites in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest within areas represented by Oxisols and Ultisols were assessed for relevant soil physicochemical characteristics, along with the concentrations of total Se (SeTot), total Ba (BaTot), and sequentially-extracted soluble Se (SeSol) and adsorbed Se (SeAd) in 3 different soil layers (0–20, 20–40, and 40–60 cm). In addition, organically bound-Se (SeOrg) and total I (ITot) concentrations in the surface layer (0–20 cm) were measured. Soil Se concentrations (SeTot) were considered safe and are likely a result of contributions of sedimentary deposits from the Andes. Available Se (SeSol + SeAd) accounted for 4.5% of SeTot, on average, while SeOrg in the topsoil accounted for more than 50% of SeTot. Barium in the western Amazon (state of Acre) and central Amazon (Anori, state of Amazonas) exceeded national prevention levels (PVs). Furthermore, the average ITot in the studied topsoils (5.4 mg kg⁻¹) surpassed the worldwide mean. Notwithstanding, the close relationship found between the total content of the elements (Se, Ba, and I) and soil texture (clay, silt, and sand) suggests their geogenic source. Finally, our data regarding SeTot, BaTot, and ITot can be used to derive regional quality reference values for Amazon soils and also for updating prevention (PV) and investigation (IV) values established for selected elements by the Brazilian legislation.
Article
Aims and background A direct association between exposure to the metalloid selenium and risk of cutaneous melanoma has been suggested by some observational and experimental cohort studies, whereas other studies have yielded inconsistent results. Since some of the inconsistencies may be due to exposure misclassification arising from the use of exposure indicators that do not adequately reflect body tissue selenium content or the levels of the biologically relevant species of this metalloid, we examined this issue using multiple indicators of exposure. Methods We analyzed the relation of selenium exposure with risk of cutaneous melanoma using two different biomarkers, plasma and toenail selenium concentration, and estimated dietary selenium intake in a population-based case-control series (54 cases, 56 controls) from an Italian community. Results In unmatched and matched logistic regression models as well as nonparametric generalized additive models, higher plasma selenium levels were strongly associated with excess disease risk. In contrast, toenail and dietary selenium exhibited little relation with melanoma risk. The pattern of correlation among indicators of exposure differed by disease status, with dietary intake associated with plasma selenium levels in patients but not in controls. Conclusions Our data showed that different selenium exposure indicators can yield different inferences about melanoma risk. Although the series was small, our results are consistent with a positive association between circulating levels of selenium and melanoma risk. Further investigation of the exposure classification performance of various selenium biomarkers and of metabolic patterns of the metalloid and of its speciation are needed to help elucidate the relation between selenium exposure and human health.
Book
The selenium field has grown dramatically in the years since the first edition of Selenium: Its Molecular Biology and Role in Human Health was published in 2001. All aspects of selenium biology have advanced with many new approaches and insights into the biochemical, molecular, genetic, and health areas of this intriguing element. The third edition of Selenium: Its Molecular Biology and Role in Human Health brings readers up to date and informs them of the present knowledge of the molecular biology of selenium, its incorporation into proteins as selenocysteine, and the role that this element and selenium-containing proteins (selenoproteins) play in health and development. The current edition will be an important resource for scientists and investigators in the selenium field, students, and physicians who wish to learn more about this fascinating micronutrient.
Book
Handbook of Food Fortification and Health: From Concepts to Public Health Applications Volume 1 represents a multidisciplinary approach to food fortification. This book aims to disseminate important material pertaining to the fortification of foods from strategic initiatives to public health applications. Optimal nutritional intake is an essential component of health and wellbeing. Unfortunately situations arise on a local or national scale when nutrient supply or intake is deemed to be suboptimal. As a consequence, ill health occurs affecting individual organs or causing premature death. In terms of public health, malnutrition due to micronutrient deficiency can be quite profound imposing economic and social burdens on individuals and whole communities. This comprehensive text examines the broad spectrum of food fortification in all its manifestations. Coverage includes sections on definitions of fortifications, fortified foods, beverages and nutrients, fortifications with micronutrients, biofortification, impact on individuals, public health concepts and issues, and selective methods and food chemistry. Handbook of Food Fortification and Health: From Concepts to Public Health Applications Volume 1 is an indispensable text designed for nutritionists, dietitians, clinicians and health related professionals. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Genetics is broadly defined as the study of how genes control the characteristics of organisms. In this chapter, emphasis has been placed on differences in metabolic pathways, and their associated genes, that could account for variation in the ability of angiosperm species to tolerate large tissue selenium (Se) concentrations. The current view of the molecular biology of Se uptake and assimilation by plants is presented and differences between plant species likely to affect their ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations are identified. In particular, it is noted that plants that hyperaccumulate Se generally exhibit constitutive expression of genes encoding Se-transporters and enzymes involved in primary Se assimilation, biosynthesis of non-toxic Se metabolites and Se volatilisation. A plausible scheme for the evolution of differences in Se accumulation between angiosperm species is described. Since Se is an essential mineral element for animals, and the diets of many humans lack sufficient Se, the possibility of breeding crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues is discussed. It is observed that, although Se concentrations in plants are largely determined by the phytoavailability of Se in the environment, there is significant intraspecific genetic variation in the Se concentrations of most edible crops that might be utilised to improve human diets. However, although molecular markers might be developed to known chromosomal quantitative trait loci (QTL) impacting Se concentration in edible tissues to assist breeding programmes, the actual genes underpinning this variation are largely unknown.
Chapter
Selenium hyperaccumulator plants can accumulate Se to at least 0.1% of dry weight while growing on naturally seleniferous soil. Selenium hyperaccumulation has been reported for 45 taxa from six dicot families; they are perennials native to seleniferous areas, predominantly in western North America. Compared to other plants, hyperaccumulators are characterized by 10–100× higher Se levels and higher Se to sulfur (S) ratios, suggestive of a transporter with a preference for Se over S. Furthermore, hyperaccumulators have higher organic/inorganic Se ratios (i.e. enhanced selenate assimilation). Hyperaccumulators also have higher shoot/root Se ratios (i.e. higher xylem translocation), higher source/sink Se ratios (i.e. higher phloem translocation), and their patterns of spatial and temporal Se sequestration are different from non-accumulators, and different from S patterns. Transcriptomic and biochemical investigations into the mechanisms of Se hyperaccumulation indicate that hyperaccumulators have constitutive high expression of several sulfate/selenate transporters that likely mediate Se uptake and translocation. They also have enhanced transcript levels of several enzymes in the sulfate/selenate assimilation pathway. Hyperaccumulators also have elevated selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) levels, whose product is the main form accumulated, methyl-selenocysteine. This form is sequestered in hyperaccumulators mainly in epidermis and reproductive tissues. Transcriptomic and biochemical analyses indicate constitutively elevated levels of the hormones jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and ethylene, which may explain the constitutive upregulation of sulfate uptake and assimilation. Hyperaccumulators also have higher transcript levels of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance and defense against biotic stress, which may contribute to Se tolerance and are upregulated by the same stress/defense hormones.
Article
Background: Undernutrition and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in children are common in low resource settings but there are few studies of their interactions.