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Abundance of active ingredients in sea-buckthorn oil

  • Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań

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Vegetable oils are obtained by mechanical extraction or cold pressing of various parts of plants, most often: seeds, fruits, and drupels. Chemically, these oils are compounds of the ester-linked glycerol and higher fatty acids with long aliphatic chain hydrocarbons (min. C14:0). Vegetable oils have a variety of properties, depending on their percentage of saturation. This article describes sea-buckthorn oil, which is extracted from the well characterized fruit and seeds of sea buckthorn. The plant has a large number of active ingredients the properties of which are successfully used in the cosmetic industry and in medicine. Valuable substances contained in sea-buckthorn oil play an important role in the proper functioning of the human body and give skin a beautiful and healthy appearance. A balanced composition of fatty acids give the number of vitamins or their range in this oil and explains its frequent use in cosmetic products for the care of dry, flaky or rapidly aging skin. Moreover, its unique unsaturated fatty acids, such as palmitooleic acid (omega-7) and gamma-linolenic acid (omega-6), give sea-buckthorn oil skin regeneration and repair properties. Sea-buckthorn oil also improves blood circulation, facilitates oxygenation of the skin, removes excess toxins from the body and easily penetrates through the epidermis. Because inside the skin the gamma-linolenic acid is converted to prostaglandins, sea-buckthorn oil protects against infections, prevents allergies, eliminates inflammation and inhibits the aging process. With close to 200 properties, sea-buckthorn oil is a valuable addition to health and beauty products.
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R E V I E W Open Access
Abundance of active ingredients in sea-
buckthorn oil
Aleksandra Zielińska and Izabela Nowak
Vegetable oils are obtained by mechanical extraction or cold pressing of various parts of plants, most often: seeds, fruits,
and drupels. Chemically, these oils are compounds of the ester-linked glycerol and higher fatty acids with long aliphatic
chain hydrocarbons (min. C14:0). Vegetable oils have a variety of properties, depending on their percentage of saturation.
This article describes sea-buckthorn oil, which is extracted from the well characterized fruit and seeds of sea buckthorn.
The plant has a large number of active ingredients the properties of which are successfully used in the cosmetic industry
and in medicine. Valuable substances contained in sea-buckthorn oil play an important role in the proper functioning of
the human body and give skin a beautiful and healthy appearance. A balanced composition of fatty acids give the
number of vitamins or their range in this oil and explains its frequent use in cosmetic products for the care of dry, flaky or
rapidly aging skin. Moreover, its unique unsaturated fatty acids, such as palmitooleic acid (omega-7) and gamma-linolenic
acid (omega-6), give sea-buckthorn oil skin regeneration and repair properties. Sea-buckthorn oil also improves blood
circulation, facilitates oxygenation of theskin,removesexcesstoxinsfromthebodyandeasilypenetratesthroughthe
epidermis.Becauseinsidetheskinthegamma-linolenicacidis converted to prostaglandins, sea-buckthorn oil protects
against infections, prevents allergies, eliminates inflammation and inhibits the aging process. With close to 200 properties,
sea-buckthorn oil is a valuable addition to health and beauty products.
Keywords: Vegetable oils, Fatty acids, Sea buckthorn oil, Gamma-linolenic acid, Human health, Aging process
Vegetable oils, as a rich source of fatty acids, have
gained a common recognition and found applications in
the market of medical and cosmetic products [16].
Fatty acids contained in these oils create an occlusive
film on the skin which reduces transepidermal water loss
(TEWL), thus contributing to maintaining the correct
hydration of epidermis [3, 7]. Moreover, fatty acids pro-
tect, regenerate and soften stratum corneum, relieve in-
flammation and ensure an appropriate structure of the
skin intercellular cement [3, 6]. Depending on the per-
centage content of individual ingredients, particularly
fatty acids, the effect of oils on skin and human health
may vary [14]. For example, the deficiency of oil results
in skin being deprived of the sufficient protective layer
and causes flaking [6]. Vegetable oils, while playing the
part of a base in cosmetic products, protect against ex-
cessive water loss through skin mainly by forming an
occlusive film which covers the epidermis [3, 4, 6]. In in-
flammations, oils lower turgor of skin and reduce the per-
ception of pain [3, 6]. Triglycerides of long-chain fatty
acids play a significant part in appropriate functioning of
the human body [1, 2, 4, 7]. Vegetable oils play a significant
part in biological synthesis of cell membrane components
or icosanoids (eicosanoids: prostaglandins, prostacyclins,
thromboxanes, leucotrienes) [3]. Oils take part in transport
and oxidation of cholesterol [7]. Fatty acid deficiency
weakens blood vessels, lowers immunity, disturbs the
process of blood clotting and favours the development of
atherosclerosis [79]. One of the natural glycerides is sea-
buckthorn oil which has a rich chemical composition and
unique properties [914]. This oil is obtained as a result of
mechanical cold pressing or extraction from fruit or seeds
of the plant [12]. The latest scientific studies confirm the
presence of many active ingredients in the extract of com-
mon sea-buckthorn (Hippophaes rhamnoides)obtainedby
cold extraction from the fruit of the plant [10, 11, 14], in-
cluding antioxidants, vitamin C, flavonoids, polyphenols
and polysaccharides. Nowadays, both the fruit of sea-
* Correspondence:
Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska
89b, 61-614, Poznań, Poland
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Zielińska and Nowak Lipids in Health and Disease (2017) 16:95
DOI 10.1186/s12944-017-0469-7
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
buckthorn (Fructus Hippophae) and its seeds (Semen Hip-
pophae) are not only raw materials for food industry, a me-
dicinal product, but also commonly used ingredient of
cosmetic products, the properties of which are beneficial
for the skin [12]. After taxonomic, chemical and sensory
tests of common sea-buckthorn fruit carried out at a uni-
versity in Finland, where sea-buckthorn is considered to be
a plant with special pro health properties, it was proved
that the fruit of Hippophaes rhamnoides significantly in-
creases the level of beneficial high-density lipoprotein
(HDL) cholesterol fraction [11]. These results may help to
prevent cardiovascular diseases in healthy people [9]. Inter-
estingly, sea-buckthorn fruit was known and valued already
in the ancient times, in particular, in traditional Asian
medicine. It should be noted that the generic name of the
plant, Hippophae, originated in ancient Greece, where sea-
buckthorn was fed to horses to make their coats nicer and
more shiny (Greek hippos horse; phaos shiny) [14, 15].
Botanical description of the product
Common sea-buckthorn (Hippophaes rhamnoides), also
called a Siberian pineapple, is a thorny, dioecious shrub
(or tree) in the oleaster family (Elaeagnaceae) growing
up to 7 m high [12, 16, 17]. It has a smooth or some-
times cracked bark. The name sea-buckthorn may be hy-
phenated to avoid confusion with the buckthorns in
Rhamnaceae family. Sea-buckthorn is also known as
sandthorn, sallowthorn or seaberry [18]. The plant grows
in Europe, Caucasus, Asia Minor and Central Asia,
Siberia, China and Tibet [16, 19, 20]. Sea-buckthorn is
the most common species in the Hippophae family: H.
goniocarpa, H. gyantsensis, H. litangensis, H. neurocarpa,
H. rhamnoides L., H. salicifolia, H. tibetana, H. sinensis,
which grow from the Atlantic coast of Europe to north-
western Mongolia and northwestern China [20, 21]. In
western Europe sea-buckthorn is confined to sandy sea
cliffs, dunes and mountain slopes. In central Asia it is
found in dry and sandy areas, often as a subalpine shrub.
In Poland it is found usually on the Baltic coast, where it
tolerates salty soils and forms dense thickets [1620].
The shrub is tolerant of both drought and frost as well
as air pollution [12]. Common sea-buckthorn flowers in
late April and early May. The plant has long lanceolate
leaves covered in silvery hairs underneath. The shrub
produces a large number of small, green and brown
flowers which grow together in racemes. After the flow-
ering period, they turn into tasty and nutritious round
berries, usually yellow or orange, which ripen in Septem-
ber. Inside the fruit there is a smooth, small stone which
has a long groove and covers an oily seed [12, 1722].
Sea-buckthorn fruits are bitter and sour in taste and
have a delicate aroma, resembling that of a pineapple
[12, 14, 15]. The berries are a rich source of vitamins C,
E and P as well as malic acid and citric acid. Harvesting
sea-buckthorn fruit is very difficult due to dense thorn
arrangement among the berries. Therefore, sometimes the
only way to get valuable fruit is to remove the entire branch
of the shrub, which reduces future crops [16, 17, 20]. For
this reason berries can only be harvested once every two
years [17, 23]. Sea-buckthorn berries have an impressive
vitamin content [12, 24, 25]. They contain mainly vitamin
C[1114, 20] (approximately 900 mg%, depending on the
variety), but also vitamin A, that is alpha- and beta-
carotene (up to 60 mg%) and a mixture of other caroten-
oids (up to 180 mg% in total). Moreover, the berries contain
tocopherols, that is vitamin E (110 to 160 mg%), folic acid
(up to 0.79 mg%) and vitamin B complex group, i.e. B
(0.035 mg%), B
[14, 15, 2428].
The fruits contain flavonoids (with an effect of vitamin P),
catechins and procyanidins, cyclitols, phospholipids, tan-
nins, sugars: galactose, fructose, xylose, approx. 3.9% or-
ganic acids (maleic acid, oxalic acid, malic acid, tartaric
acid) [1114, 20], phenolic acids, e.g. ferulic acid as well as
fatty oil (the content of oil in common sea-buckthorn berry
pulp is up to 8 wt.% and in seeds up to 12.5 wt.%) [2429].
The content of vitamin C depends on the variety of the
plant and its geographical location. For example, sea-
buckthorn growing in Europe in coastal dunes contains
120315 mg% of vitamin C in fresh fruit, and the species
growing in the Alps contains much more vitamin 405-
1100 mg%. Chinese sea-buckthorn fruits (Hippophae sinen-
sis) are richest in vitamin C, with ascorbic acid content of
up to 2500 mg% [1418, 21, 2729]. Moreover, the content
of carotenoids with an effect of vitamin A is also high. The
content of beta-carotene is 40100 mg% and other caroten-
oids such as lycopene, cryptoxanthin, physalien, zeaxanthin
account for 180250 mg% [14, 15, 3032]. When the ber-
ries are pressed, the resulting juice separates into three
layers. The upper layer is a thick orange cream, the middle
layer contains a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty
acids, and the lower layer is a juice which is a source of fat
used for cosmetic purposes [3235]. Two upper layers can
be processed and used in making of skin care creams, and
the bottom layer is usually used in food industry as syrup.
Currently, the highly nutritious ingredients of common
sea-buckthorn berries are tested for their application in
medicine, i.e. in treatment of inflammations, cancers and as
adjunctive treatment after chemotherapy [3339]. Bark and
leaves of sea-buckthorn used to be applied to treat diarrhea
and dermatological conditions, whereas berry oil applied
topically or taken orally softened the skin [40]. In Indian,
Chinese and Tibetan medicines sea-buckthorn fruits were
added to medicines, as their ingredients were thought to
have a beneficial effect on the function of the alimentary,
respiratory and circulatory systems. Nowadays, many stud-
ies confirm the practices of Asian doctors from hundreds
of years ago [4144]. Physical and chemical properties of
sea-buckthorn seed oil are contained in Table 1.
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Obtaining the sea-buckthorn seed oil
Common sea-buckthorn oil can be obtained from two
parts of the plant [45, 46]. Figure 1 presents one of the
exemplary and patented method processing of fresh sea
buckthorn berries for seed oil, pulp oil and juice [47].
Firstly, sea-buckthorn oil may be extracted in the
process of mechanical cold pressing of seeds which
contain up to 12.5 wt.% of oil [1215, 4852]. Secondly,
the oil is obtained by extraction or in cold pressing of
fruit pulp which contains 812 wt.% oil. The obtained
fractions are filtered [1215, 46, 48, 53, 54]. The two
types of oils differ significantly in terms of appearance
and properties. For example, of all vegetable oils sea-
buckthorn fruit oil has the highest content of palmitoo-
leic acid (omega-7) of 30 to 35 wt.%, which is not as
high in sea-buckthorn seed oil [5355]. The oil ob-
tained from juicy berries is a thick dark orange or red-
orange liquid with a characteristic smell and taste
(sourish, if pressed from fruit pulp) [53, 55, 56]. Sea-
buckthorn seed oil and fruit oil differ significantly in
terms of their content of active ingredients [4555].
However, both oils contain a wide range of essential
unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), in particular unique
palmitooleic acid (C16:1) which is highly valued in
cosmetology. Both oils abound in tocopherols, tocotrie-
nols and plant sterols [5052, 55, 56]. Unlike seed oil, pulp
sea-buckthorn oil has a high content of carotenoids [56].
In Mongolia, Russia and China pulp oil is used topically in
treatment of skin burns [5860]. The oil has been
introduced to the local markets by cosmetic companies in
anti-aging cosmetics and oral care preparations.
Composition of chemical compounds
Sea-buckthorn fruit oil is characterised by a unique content
of fatty acids compared to other vegetable oils [6163]. In
particular, it should be noted that this oil contains rare pal-
mitooleic acid (omega-7) which is a component of skin
lipids and stimulates regenerative processes in the epider-
mis and wound healing. Thanks to it, sea-buckthorn oil
activates physiological skin functions and reduces scars
[6466]. Used orally it supports treatment of gastric, duo-
denal and intestine ulcers, while applied topically its soothes
and reduces skin burns (caused by sun exposure or radio-
therapy), chafed skin, bedsores and trophic skin changes
[6466]. Additionally, sea-buckthorn oil contains saturated
fatty acids in the form of palmitic acid C16:0 (3033 wt.%)
and stearic acid C18:0 (<1 wt.%), and it has a wide range of
essential unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), in particular so
called PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) [12, 6163]. They
include alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3) C18:3 (30 wt.%),
gamma-linolenic acid (omega-6) C18:3 (35.5 wt.%), linolic
acid (omega-6) C18:2 (57 wt.%), oleic acid (omega-9)
C18:1 (1418 wt.%) and eicosanoic acid (omega-9) C20:1
(2 wt.%) [3, 12, 14, 15, 6163] (Table 2). Such a high con-
tent of unique gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) has a significant
effect on the transport of nutrients. GLA is also a very im-
portant ingredient for skin, because as a building material
for components of intercellular cement it binds epidermis
cells. It is also a component of phospholipids which build
cell membranes [14, 15]. Gamma-linolenic acid improves
blood circulation which positively affects the supply of
nourishment and oxygen to skin, and it removes excess
toxins which as a result improves skin structure, appear-
ance and tone. GLA contained in sea-buckthorn oil easily
penetrates to deeper skin layers where it is converted to
prostaglandins. Therefore, GLA effectively protects skin
against infections, counteracts allergies, relieves inflamma-
tions and slows down the ageing process [67, 68]. Moreover,
skin deprived of this rare omega-6 acid becomes drier, less
elastic and susceptible to any lesions [68]. The presence of
linolic acid (omega-6), which is a component of intercellu-
lar cement, results in stimulation of cellular regeneration
and regulates the functions of skin sebaceous glands [69].
The composition of fatty acids with various properties en-
sures multidirectional effects of sea-buckthorn oil in differ-
ent layers of epidermis. On the other hand, a high content
of saturated fatty acids (above 30 wt.%) causes the oil to
soften the epidermis and protect and secure it against trans-
epidermal water loss [61, 63, 6769].
Saturated fatty acids
The most common saturated fatty acids in vegetable
oils include palmitic, stearic, myristic and arachidic
Table 1 Physical and chemical properties of sea-buckthorn seed
oil [61]
The parameter Value
color, absorptivity (L/g·cm)
232 nm 2.89 ± 0.03
270 nm 0.64 ± 0.02
303 nm 0.41 ± 0.02
410 nm 0.06 ± 0.02
diene value 3.16 ± 0.01
triene value 0.070 ± 0.002
p-anisidine value 34.19 ± 0.06
peroxide value (mequiv/kg) 20.68 ± 0.06
saponification number 190.00 ± 1.63
viscosity (mpas·s) 44.0 ± 0.5
carotenoid content (mg/100 g) 41.1 ± 13.4
tocopherol content (mg/100 g)
α155.0 ± 7.0
β16.4 ± 1.7
γ134.9 ± 2.8
δ11.3 ± 1.4
vitamin E equiv. (mg/100 g) 175.0 ± 8.0
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sistance to oxidation [3]. Sea-buckthorn oil contains
palmitic and stearic acids [3, 12]. These acids form a
protective occlusion on the skin which strengthens
priate turgor and firmness of skin, and have smooth-
ing and softening properties [3, 12, 14, 15, 61, 63].
Unsaturated fatty acids
This group of acids includes fatty acids in the form of
colourless liquids, with double bonds. For most of them
all double bonds are in a cis configuration [3]. Now-
adays, two main classes of unsaturated fatty acids are
distinguished. They are monounsaturated FA (omega-9;
ω-9; n-9 acids) and polyunsaturated FA (omega-6; ω-6;
Fig. 1 A schematic diagram shows of the patented method for processing of sea buckthorn berries for seed oil, pulp oil and juice
Table 2 Composition of fatty acids in sea-buckthorn oil [3, 12, 14, 15, 61, 63]
Common name Systematic name Content in wt.% General formula Numerical symbol Omega family
Saturated fatty acids
Palmitic acid Hexadecanoic acid 3033 CH
COOH C16:0 -
Stearic acid Octadecanoic acid <1 CH
COOH C18:0 -
Unsaturated fatty acids
Palmitoleic acid (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid 3035 C
16:1 7
Oleic acid (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid 1418 C
18:1 9
Linoleic acid (LA) (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid 57C
18:2 6
α-Linolenic acid (ALA) (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15- octadecatrienoic acid 30 C
18:3 3
γ-linolenic acid (GLA) (Z,Z,Z)-6,9,12- octadecatrienoic acid 35 C
18:3 6
Gondoic acid (Z)-11-eicosenoic acid 2 C
20:1 9
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n-6 acids). Polyunsaturated FA have at least two
double bonds and 18 carbon atoms in an alkyl chain
[3]. Sea-buckthorn oil contains linolic acid (LA) and
alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) from this group which
cannot be produced by a human body due to a lack
of certain enzymes. Other polyunsaturated acids
found in the oil, i.e. gamma-linolenic acid, oleic acid
and palmitoleic acids, can be produced by the body
providing there is no enzymatic defect in the course
of metabolic changes [3, 12]. Linolic acid is consid-
ered to be the most important of all omega-6 acids
as other acids in this group, i.e. ALA or GLA can be
obtained from it [3, 7, 7072].
Complex lipids
Sea-buckthorn oil also contains the complex lipids
which include:
phospholipids and glycolipids that exhibit skin
moisturizing and soften the epidermis, improve
elasticity of the skin, reduce inflammation of the
skin, accelerate skin regeneration and cell renewal.
For example lecithin (also known as
phosphatidylcholine), belonging to the group of
phospholipids, has skin renewing and moisturizing
properties, as well as it slows the aging process and
furthermore, it removes excessive oil (sebum) from
the hair. According to the Shugam et al., the total
phospholipids content in sea-buckthorn oil was
1 wt.%. The lecithin content in this oil was detected
by thin layer chromatography [73]. Other scientific
research [74] also have confirmed that the oil from
sea buckthorn pericarp contains from 0.20.5 to
1 wt.% of phospholipids. Among them, 5.8 wt.% has
been estimated to lecithin.
sterols, which strengthens the lipid barrier of the skin,
protects from harmful substances of external origin
and reduces the excessive water loss through the
epidermis, thereby improving the skin elasticity and
firmness. The petroleum-ether technique was used to
extract the highest amount of β-sitosterol (576.9 mg/
100 g oil), being the major sterol compound
throughout the berry and constitutes 5783 wt.% of
total sterols [75]. In turn, β-sitosterol including with
campesterol and stigmasterol were present in the pulp
oil with the latter having together the highest
contribution (97 wt.%). Using the petroleum-ether
technique, the quantity of cholesterol (4.5 mg/100 g
oil) was also extracted [76]. In the sea-buckthorn oil
has proven the minor amount (less than 1 wt.%) of
liposomes, allowing the introduction of active
substances into the skin or ceramides that provide the
proper hydration and smooth the skin, as well as they
provide skin firming and regeneration [77].
Other bioactive compounds and their significance for a
human health
In addition, sea-buckthorn oil contains many active sub-
stances, through which this oil has many different proper-
ties (Table 3). In particular vitamins A, C, E, F, P and B
complex are present in the oil [12, 14, 15, 34, 45]. Vitamin
A, found in the form of carotenoids (approx. 200 mg/100
g), provides regenerative and anti-wrinkle properties of the
oil [3134, 57]. Vitamin C, the content of which is 15 times
higher than in orange fruit (approx. 695 mg/100 g), has an
antioxidative effect [5860] and protects against harmful
UVA and UVB radiation [12, 14, 15, 38, 56, 78]. It also
evens out the skin tone. The presence of vitamin E in the
form of tocopherols (approx. 200600 mg/100 g) and min-
erals and flavonoids strengthens the walls of capillary blood
vessels. Sea-buckthorn oil also contains sterols, fruit acids
(malic acid, citric acid), phenolic compounds, tannins,
phospholipids, anthocyanins, sugars, pectins and mineral
salts including sulfur, selenium, copper and zinc [12, 14, 15,
5052]. The importance for human health of sea-
buckthorn oil have been proved by in vivo tests and have
Significance of fatty acids found in sea-buckthorn
oil for skin
Linolic acid found in sea-buckthorn oil plays a significant
role in skin. It strengthens the lipid barrier of the epider-
mis in dry skin and protects against transepidermal water
loss. Additionally, LA regulates skin metabolism [3, 14, 15,
6870]. Linolic acid is also a natural component of sebum.
In patients with acne prone skin a decrease in the content
of linolic acid in sebum was noted. As a result blackheads
and spots form. Linolic acid used in the care of oily and
problematic skin can stimulate the function of sebaceous
glands, unblock pores and limit the number of blackheads.
LA is also used for the production of intercellular cement
[3, 69, 72]. Gamma-linolenic acid, which is also found in
sea-buckthorn oil, is formed as a result of action of delta-
6-desaturase enzyme in a process of metabolic changes of
linolic acid. Together with alpha-linolenic acid, GLA is a
component of cell membranes or mitochondrial mem-
branes of human cells [3, 7, 68, 72]. GLA and ALA are
also responsible for normal intra- and intercellular trans-
port (including the transfer of stimuli in the neuronal net-
work forming the brain) [3, 7, 70, 79]. It is assumed that
unsaturated fatty acids, in particular in omega-3 group
(mainly EPA and DHA), inhibit the development of neo-
plastic tumours as well as growth of neoplastic tissue and
its later metastasis [80]. It was also proved that these acids
can reduce post-inflammatory substances, induced by a
harmful UV radiation. These compounds reduce the ef-
fects of sunburns, accelerate regenerative processes of the
damaged lipid barrier of the epidermis and soothe irrita-
tion [6466, 68, 78]. Omega fatty acids: omega-9 (oleic
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Table 3 Composition of other bioactive ingredients contained in sea-buckthorn oil and their significance for a human health
Name of ingredient Quantity Significance
polyphenols 120550 mg% antioxidant properties
phenolic acids:
- salicylic
- p-coumaric
- m-coumaric
- p-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid
- gallic acid
71 wt.% of polyphenols participation in the creation of dyes and protection against
the development of undesirable microflora [83]
flavonoids inhibition of thrombosis and hypertension [8486], and
promotion of wound healing [87]
- flavan-3-ols
- (catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin,
- kaempferol
- quercetin
- isorhamnetin
- myricetin
- rutin
- proanthocyanidins
antioxidants, stabilization of ascorbic acid [88]
sterols 1 wt.% reduction of blood cholesterol level, importance in the treatment
of burns, huge contribution in the synthesis of steroid hormones
and other biologically active compounds [89,90]
sitosterol 4853 wt.% of
tocopherols (vitamin E) 110 mg% antioxidants, according to the study, the degree of fruit ripeness
effects on the content of tocopherols [91,92]
α-tocopherol 6268 wt.% of
δ-tokoferol 3237 wt.% of
macronutrients they are energy-providing chemical substances consumed by
organisms in large quantities [93]
potassium 168219 mg% affects muscle spasms
magnesium 8.39.5 mg% with calcium is responsible for the proper functioning of the
nervous system
calcium 57.2 mg% for the proper functioning of the muscular system
micronutrients they are required by organisms throughout life in small quantities
to orchestrate a range of physiological functions [93]
iron 1.24 mg% component of hemoglobin, myoglobin and coenzymes many
enzymes involved, among others, in the formation of ATP
zinc 0.25 mg% participates in various stages of protein biosynthesis, ingredient of
insulin (also plays an important role in the storage of the pancreas),
regulates the concentration of vitamin A is used in the formation of
bone, stimulates growth and tissue repair (wound healing)
manganese necessary for proper development of tissue (especially bone) and for
the functioning of the central nervous system
copper 0.006 mg% cofactor of many enzymes
nickel 0.015 mg% component of urease - an enzyme decomposing urea into ammonia
and carbon dioxide
vitamins they have diverse biochemical functions [93]
vitamin C 900 mg% antioxidant, participates in the synthesis of collagen fibers, removes
free radicals and strengthens immunity.
vitamin A 60 mg% antioxidant
vitamin E (tocopherols) up to 160 mg% antioxidant
vitamin B1 0.0160.035 mg% function as enzyme cofactors (coenzymes) or the precursors for
vitamin B2 0.030.05 mg%
vitamin B6 (Folic acid) up to 0.079 mg%
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acid), omega-6 (linolic acid), and omega-3 (alpha-lino-
lenic acids) lower transepidermal water loss and im-
prove the skin hydration level [69, 71, 72].
Unsaturated FA play a part of receptors which stimu-
late the synthesis of barrier lipids of skin and proteins
precursors of a natural hydrating factor [7072].
Sea-buckthorn oil in cosmetic products
Sea-buckthorn oil is used in cosmetic industry as an ingre-
dient of preparations for mature skin [12, 70]. It is most
commonly found in anti-ageing and anti-wrinkle products,
as it is a great antioxidant [1315, 24, 36, 39, 58, 70]; it also
firms and tones sagging skin smoothing out wrinkles [70].
Sea-buckthorn oil is also appropriate in care of dry, irri-
tated (e.g. after sunbathing), rough, flaking and itchy skin
[38, 68]. It is used as auxiliary product in treatment of
frostbites and skin damage [54, 66] resulting from
exposure to UV radiation, x-rays and chemical compounds
[4, 38, 78]. Sea-buckthorn oil stimulates wound healing
(including necrotic wounds), stimulating regeneration and
processes of forming new healthy epidermis, and moreover
collagen synthesis [81]. This oil reduces bedsores, treats
eczema and reduces spots, acne, allergic and inflammatory
lesions of the skin [40, 58, 66]. The oil is used as a sooth-
ing agent after cosmetic procedures e.g. peelings, baths,
masks, hair removal. Its presence in shampoos, hair condi-
tioners or preparations used after dying or permanent
wave treatment guarantees recovery, supports regeneration
of damaged hair, restores its elasticity and ensures
smoothness. Due to a high content of unsaturated fatty
acids [61, 68] and related fast rancidity process of sea-
buckthorn oil is recommended that it is used in the form
of capsules for cosmetic products [62, 81]. It is also signifi-
cant that sea-buckthorn oil, thanks to its intensive colour,
improves skin tone after direct application on skin, giving
it a fresh and healthy appearance [31, 34, 57].
Sea-buckthorn oil for human health
Sea-buckthorn oil as well as extracts from its fruit are
used as an adjunctive therapy in treatment of many dis-
eases [1, 2, 4, 812, 27, 37, 42, 43]. Sea-buckthorn oil has
a soothing effect in inflammation of the alimentary sys-
tem, duodenum or in diarrhea [37, 38]. It is successfully
used in treatment of chronic gastric ulcer disease and also
in inflammations of vagina and cervix and in cervical ero-
sion [1, 2, 37]. This oil relieves symptoms of rheumatoid
disease, lowers cholesterol level, stops small bleeding and
lowers the risk of thrombophlebitis [8, 9, 11, 37]. Sea-
Table 3 Composition of other bioactive ingredients contained in sea-buckthorn oil and their significance for a human health
vitamin K1 0.915 mg% normalizes blood clotting, and is essential for preventing
osteoporosis and normal renal function
vitamin D prevents rickets and osteomalacia
carotenoids 7.9428.16 mg% antioxidants and plant pigments, anticancer properties [91,9498]
δ-carotene 1425 wt.% of
γ-carotene 30 wt.% of carotenoids
lycopene 30 wt.% of carotenoids
zeaxanthin and other carotenoids 15 wt.% of carotenoids
Table 4 Sea-buckthorn oil and its importance for human health
proved by in vivo tests literature review
Function of oil Reference
has antiatherogenic properties
protects the heart
has antiaggregative properties
can be used in the treatment of
peptic ulcer disease
has antioxidative properties
protects cardiovascular disease
has commercial applications due
to the high level of ω-7
in the treatment of burns, chilblains,
bedsores, difficult healing of wounds
it is proved its application in the
treatment of peptic ulcer disease.
exhibits an anti-atherosclerotic effect. [101]
protects cardiovascular disease and
inhibits the risk factors.
has antioxidant, anti-ulcerogenic and
hepato-protective actions, and its berry
oil is reported to suppress platelet
has the antihypertensive effect due to
the flavones extracted from seed residues
of Hippophae rhamnoides L.
has dermal wound healing activity [105]
reduces the increase of the osmotic
concentration in tear film during the cold
season and positively affects the dry eye
has significant hepatoprotective effects
can be used as a food supplement
against liver diseases
Zielińska and Nowak Lipids in Health and Disease (2017) 16:95 Page 7 of 11
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
buckthorn oil is also recommended in febrile diseases, in
particular caused by viruses and bacteria [37]. It is safe to
use by pregnant and breastfeeding women [14, 15, 78]. The
oil is effective in treatment of dermatoses and any skin dis-
eases and it supports the process of granulation of wounds
that are difficult to heal [6466]. Sea-buckthorn oil
strengthens the structure of hair therefore it is used as an
effective remedy against hair loss or even balding. As
a natural source of well absorbed vitamin C, this oil
is used as an adjunctive treatment in a number of
conditions which require an increased amount of as-
corbic acid and as an agent supporting the function
of the immune system [14, 15, 67, 82]. Thanks to a
high content of carotenoids and tocopherols [12, 82]
sea-buckthorn oil can be used in treatment of burns,
frostbites, bedsores and skin damage, e.g. resulting
from the exposure to sun or x-rays [4, 38, 78].
Sea-buckthorn oil contains approximately 190 bio-
active substances including: saturated fatty acids- pal-
mitic acid C16:0, stearic acid C18:0, unsaturated fatty
acids- eicosanoic acid ω-9 C20:1, oleic acid ω-9 C18:1,
palmitoleic ω-7 C16:1, linolic acid ω-6 C18:2, alpha-
linolenic acid ω-3 C18:3, gamma-linolenic acid ω-6
C18:3, sterols, approx. 14 vitamins: A, C, D, E, F, K, P,
and B complex vitamins (B1, B2, B6), provitamin A, that
is alpha- and beta-carotene, mixture of other carotenoids
(up to 180 mg%), strong antioxidants (tocopherols, toco-
trienols), flavonoids (approx. 36 types), fruit acids: malic
acid and citric acids, phenolic compounds, approx. 11
mineral salts, including zinc, iron, calcium, selenium,
copper, tannins, phospholipids, anthocyanins, steroids,
sugars, pectins, approx. 18 amino acids.
Sea-buckthorn oil has a beneficial effect on skin be-
cause: it is a strong antioxidant this oil fights free rad-
icals, rebuilds cells and delays cell ageing, supports
wound healing, reduces scars and discolourations, treats
dermatoses, eczemas, ulceration, psoriasis, atopic
dermatitis, acne, improves skin elasticity and structure,
provides appropriate hydration of epidermis, limits ex-
cessive water loss, protects against harmful radiation
(solar or x-rays), has a regenerative and anti-ageing
Sea-buckthorn oil is significant for human health
because: it supports the function of the immune system,
helps to fight infections and microorganisms, improves
circulation and heart function, prevents atherosclerosis,
lowers the level of cholesterol in blood, supports the
function of the digestive system and metabolism, relieves
the symptoms of chronic gastric ulcer disease and other
diseases of the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, liver and
intestines, prevents inflammations, improves the func-
tion of brain and the nervous system, lowers the risk of
malignant cancers, supports regeneration of the body
after chemotherapy and serious diseases, reenergizes and
revitalizes, positively affects mood and has an anti-
depressant effect.
Sea-buckthorn oil contains an abundance of active
substances which is unique in known vegetable oils. Sci-
entific reports confirm the content of almost 200 ingre-
dients which ensure that the oil has a multidirectional
effect [3, 7, 8, 12, 14, 15, 67, 82]. Therefore, sea-
buckthorn and its oil may be considered to be one of
the most valuable natural products in the world. The
beneficial effect of various active ingredients contained
in sea-buckthorn oil has been recognised in food industry
as well as in medicine, pharmacology and cosmetic industry
[9, 11, 12, 26, 29, 32, 37, 65] where this oil is used more and
treatment in various diseases [1, 2, 4, 812, 27, 37, 42, 43].
Modern cosmetic and pharmaceutical companies search for
natural substances which display unique properties such as
sea-buckthorn oil, which added to a product even in a small
quantity will undoubtedly ensure its uniqueness.
(Z): niem. Zusammen, ang. Together; ALA: alpha-linolenic acid;
DHA: docosahexaenoic acid; EPA: eicosapentaenoic acid; FA: fatty acids;
GLA: gamma-linolenic acid; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; LA: linoleic acid;
PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acids; TEWL: transepidermal water loss;
UFA: unsaturated fatty acids; UV: ultraviolet; UVA: ultraviolet A;
UVB: ultraviolet B
This paper is financed in the framework of grant entitled: Cultivated plants
and natural products as a source of biologically active substances assign to
the production of cosmetic and pharmaceutical products as well as diet
supplements(no. BIOSTRATEG2/298205/9/NCBR/2016) attributed by the
National Center for Research and Development.
Availability of data and material
Please contact authors for data requests.
AZ, collected, elaborated the literature and drafted the manuscript. IN,
collected the literature, coordinated and helped to draft the manuscript. All
authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Not applicable.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Not applicable.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in
published maps and institutional affiliations.
Zielińska and Nowak Lipids in Health and Disease (2017) 16:95 Page 8 of 11
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
Received: 13 April 2016 Accepted: 12 April 2017
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... As shown in Table 1, most products found are O-compounds, yet some alkenes were detected too, like 1-tridecene, 9-tricosene, (Z)-pentacosane, tetracontane, nonacosane or squalene. All are in accordance with some of the 100-200 ingredients that exist in hippophae fruit, as stated in the literature [15]. ...
... Palmitoleic acid (Ω-7) is a rare fatty acid, a component of skin lipids, that stimulates regenerative processes in the epidermis and promotes wound healing [3]. Apart from their beneficial properties in human nutrition, all these are components of frequent use in the cosmetics industry due to the moisturizing, antioxidant [35], antiaging [12,36], antimicrobial [37], anticancer [38] and anti-inflammatory properties [15] they offer. ...
Full-text available
An industry listed as one of the largest globally is the cosmetic industry. In recent years, this industry has shown growing interest in the application of natural ingredients providing advanced properties to cosmetic creams such as moisturizing, antioxidant, sun-protecting and antimicrobial effects. In this context, the present study concerns the production of cosmetic emulsions containing hippophae oil obtained via the methods of extraction, hydro-distillation and maceration using sunflower oil as the carrier oil. Firstly, an IR-ATR analysis was performed showing that the oils prepared were close to those commercially obtained. Then, the stability of the emulsions was tested over a time period of four months through measuring their pH and viscosity values with positive outcomes, and their antioxidant ability was also measured using the DPPH method. The latter one showed that hippophae oil greatly improves the antioxidant capacity. Moreover, based on the fact that sea buckthorn contains carotenoids, the SPF value of the emulsions was determined. The results showed that the addition of hippophae oil to the emulsions gave higher absorption in UV-Vis, thus higher SPF values. Py-GC/MS analysis was used to identify decomposition compounds in the produced oils. Among those, valuable compounds such as Ω-6, Ω-7 and Ω-9 fatty acids and many aldehydes were found by the decomposition of the oils.
... For example, the sea buckthorn grown in Europe in coastal dunes showed a vitamin C content of 120-315 mg/100 g, while those grown in the Alps had a higher vitamin C content (405-1100 mg/100 g). The fruits of Chinese buckthorn (Rhamnus utilis) are considered to have the highest vitamin C content, reaching levels up to 2500 mg/100 g [49]. According to Pop et al. (2013) [50], ascorbic acid can be found in many other fruits such as Fragaria x ananassa varying between 13.79 mg/100 g and 44.05 mg/100 g. ...
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The current study was carried out to monitor the dynamics of phenolic compounds and vitamin C variations in Hippophae rhamnoides L. (sea buckthorn) under the influence of different color filters, as follows: yellow (590 nm), blue (450 nm), and violet (400 nm). The fruits were harvested at maturity from different parts of the canopy (i.e., base, middle, and top), immediately stored at −18 °C, and afterward lyophilized to reduce the loss of compounds for preparing the chemical assays that were carried out. HPLC-DAD-ESI+ was used to determine the phenolic compounds and vitamin C content of the fruits. EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) measurements were also carried out to confirm the antioxidant character of the berries. This is the first study to examine the effect of different color filters on the accumulation of phenolic compounds and vitamin C content in the fruits of sea buckthorn. Among the three color filters used, the violet filter proved to be the most beneficial for the accumulation of total phenolic compounds (3.326 mg/g) and vitamin C (1.550 mg/g) in the berries. To reach high contents of phenolic compounds and vitamin C, the best setup included using very-high-energy emission LEDs as close as possible to blue and violet (400–450 nm). Therefore, the different light color intensities and temperatures on each level of a canopy play key roles in enhancing the phenolic compound content, antioxidant activity, and vitamin C content of sea buckthorn fruits. This knowledge will help provide insights into the accumulation of secondary metabolites and improve future production strategies in sea buckthorn.
... The sea buckthorn of the Elaegenidae genus is known worldwide for its nutritional, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and liver-protecting properties 19,20 . Sea buckthorn berries are rich in nutrients and compounds, such as vitamins, carotene, flavonoids, essential oils, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, and minerals 21,22 . ...
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In this study, we investigated the effect of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (HRP) on the activity of CYP2D6 via the CAMP/PKA/NF-κB pathway in rats with Bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG)-induced immunological liver injury. BCG (125 mg/kg) was injected to establish the rat model of liver injury. HRP was administered intragastrically for one week as the intervention drug. Proteomics techniques were used to analyze protein expression levels, obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the liver injury process. ELISA or western blotting was used to detect specific protein levels. Dextromethorphan was detected using high-performance liquid chromatography to reflect the metabolic activity of CYP2D6. BCG downregulated the expression of CYP2D6, cAMP, PKA, IκB, and P-CREB and upregulated that of NF-κB, IL-1β, TNF-α, and CREB in the liver; HRP administration reversed these effects. Therefore, HRP may restore the metabolic function of the liver by reversing the downregulation of CYP2D6 through inhibition of NF-κB signal transduction and regulation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB/CYP2D6 pathway. These findings highlight the role of HRP as an alternative clinical drug for treating hepatitis B and other immune-related liver diseases.
... It is of great national and international marketing potential in Europe and China. The fruits contain vitamin C (200-1500 mg 100 g − 1 : 15 times higher than orange fruit [46]), oil (mainly sterols, 1.5-3.5% in fruit pulp and 9.9-19.5% in seed [119]), vitamin D, E, K and P [120], anthocyanin (0.5-25 mg l − 1 ), and 24 minerals including calcium (70-98 ppm), Fe (40-150 ppm), magnesium (150-240 ppm), phosphorus (110-133 ppm), potassium (140-360 ppm) [47], Zn (32 ppm) [48], and 190 bioactive compounds [121]. A study has also revealed its potential for fortification of vitamin D in food products [120]. ...
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The relationship between malnutrition and climate change is still poorly understood but a comprehensive knowledge of their interactions is needed to address the global public health agenda. Limited studies have been conducted to propose robust and economic-friendly strategies to augment the food basket with underutilized species and biofortify the staples for nutritional security. Sea-buckthorn is a known “superfood” rich in vitamin C and iron content. It is found naturally in northern hemispherical temperate Eurasia and can be utilized as a model species for genetic biofortification in cash crops like wheat. This review focuses on the impacts of climate change on inorganic (iron, zinc) and organic (vitamin C) micronutrient malnutrition employing wheat as highly domesticated crop and processed food commodity. As iron and zinc are particularly stored in the outer aleurone and endosperm layers, they are prone to processing losses. Moreover, only 5% Fe and 25% Zn are bioavailable once consumed calling to enhance the bioavailability of these micronutrients. Vitamin C converts non-available iron (Fe³⁺) to available form (Fe²⁺) and helps in the synthesis of ferritin while protecting it from degradation at the same time. Similarly, reduced phytic acid content also enhances its bioavailability. This relation urges scientists to look for a common mechanism and genes underlying biosynthesis of vitamin C and uptake of Fe/Zn to biofortify these micronutrients concurrently. The study proposes to scale up the biofortification breeding strategies by focusing on all dimensions i.e., increasing micronutrient content and boosters (vitamin C) and simultaneously reducing anti-nutritional compounds (phytic acid). Mutually, this review identified that genes from the Aldo-keto reductase family are involved both in Fe/Zn uptake and vitamin C biosynthesis and can potentially be targeted for genetic biofortification in crop plants.
... Sea buckthorn (SBT, Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a deciduous shrub that belongs to the Eleagnaceae family (Rosales) [1], naturally distributed in Asia and Europe; the total area of sea buckthorn in China accounts for 90% of the total area in the world [2][3][4]. Its nutritional value is high and rich in 428 bioactive compounds, such as vitamin C, flavonoids, and total phenols [5][6][7]. Moreover, it is also known as a precious medicinal and edible plant resource and is proven to have the pharmacological functions of lowering blood pressure, blood lipid, and blood sugar, as well as anti-oxidation benefits [8,9]. ...
Full-text available
Solid beverages of effervescent tablets have good taste and portable features and are favored by consumers, but product quality and nutrition cannot meet the need of increasing nutritional requirements. Sea buckthorn fruit has a special flavor and nutrient-rich characteristics, but the related products of effervescent tablets have not been developed. In this paper, different additive contents (sea buckthorn fruit powder, erythritol, disintegrant, maltodextrin, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)) were optimized using the random centroid method; the obtained effervescent effect sensory evaluation characteristics (appearance, beverage, appearance, taste, solubility) were used to establish a fuzzy mathematic model for sensory evaluation method of process optimizing; and the nutritional components and characteristics of optimized sea buckthorn powder effervescent tablets were compared to the ones of the commercial product. The results show that the optimal process conditions (47.7% sea buckthorn fruit powder, 1.3% erythritol, 1:1 disintegrant ratio, 2% maltodextrin and 2.9% PVP) were obtained according to the highest fuzzy comprehensive sensory score (87.76). Moreover, the optimized one contains a higher content of vitamin C (50.36 mg/100 g), carotenoids (10.18 mg/100 g), total phenols (11.52 GAE/g), and total flavonoids (28.46 mg RE/100 g), as well as a shorter disintegration time (10 s). The results indicate the RCO, combined with fuzzy mathematical sensory evaluation, is preferably suitable for effervescent tablet process optimization, and the quality indicators met the requirements of the effervescent tablet.
... The most studied product of HR is its oils [4], dried fruit pulp and berry residues yielding 8%-20%, 20%-25% and 15%-20% of oil, respectively [6]. The valuable substances present in the oil of HR are responsible for healthy and beautiful skin as well as for the proper functioning of the human body [1,7]. ...
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The fruits of the Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) are a popular plant food and a valuable health pro-duct. Cultivating of plants produces a lot of leaves with fine branches as an unnecessary residue, which need valor-ization. The aim of the study was to estimate (by HPLC-MS/MS) the qualitative and quantitative content ofpolyphenolic compounds in different parts of H. rhamnoides (HR), and to determine the level of antioxidantactivity of leaves and fruits (by DPPH, ABTS methods and ferrozine test). Up to 19 compounds were identifiedin different parts of HR. The fruits are rich in flavonoids, including various glycosides of flavonols isorhamnetin,quercetin, and kaempferol. Two isorhamnetin glycosides were not identified in the leaves, while isorhamnetin-3-rhamnosylglactosides and the ellagitannins hippophaenin B, stachyurin and casuarinin were present only in theleaves of the plant. The bark and roots contained considerably more catechins, but minimal flavonols than thefruits and leaves of HR. The total phenolics and flavonols were most abundant in water infusions from leavesof HR (especially quercetin-3-O-glucoside-7-O-rhamnoside), compared to methanolic extracts. No significant dif-ferences in the quantitative and qualitative content of the fresh and dried leaves were detected. The highest anti-oxidant activity by all three methods was detected in the leaves of HR. In addition to the fruits, the leaves mayhave a perspective as a source of biologically active substances of HR. (1) (PDF) Polyphenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.). Available from: [accessed Sep 01 2023].
... These are two different plants from different families. Sea Buckthorn first added value to human health in 8 th century [1]. ...
Full-text available
Obtaining edible oil from animals and plant sources is an ancient practice of the people in the tropical regions of the globe. Industrialization of oil and fats began with the creation of a cotton seed mill, due to higher demand several different plants have been studied to get good and healthy oil and fats. In this research the fixed oil from the berries of Sea Buckthorn was characterized and studied for its fatty acid composition by biochemical tests and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS). The chemical characteristics of oil from seeds showed the saponification value 248.36, iodine value 80.49 and free fatty acid value 11.28%. While the identified fatty acids were palmitic acid (C16, 0) 24.98%, oleic acid (C18, 1) 20.97%, linoleic acid (C18:2) 11.51%, linolenic acid 4.31(C18:3) %, and stearic acid (C18, 0) 0.29%. The fatty acid profile and physico chemical value of the oil showed that oil has health promoting chemistry and good source of energy. These findings provide essential data explaining that the oil obtained from the berries is nothing less than any other good quality of edible oil.
Full-text available
Oils derived from plant sources, mainly fixed oils from seeds and essential oil from other parts of the plant, are gaining interest as they are the rich source of beneficial compounds that possess potential applications in different industries due to their preventive and therapeutic actions. The essential oils are used in food, medicine, cosmetics, and agriculture industries as they possess antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Plant based oils contain polyphenols, phytochemicals, and bioactive compounds which show high antioxidant activity. The extractions of these oils are a crucial step in terms of the yield and quality attributes of plant oils. This review paper outlines the different modern extraction techniques used for the extraction of different seed oils, including microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), cold-pressed extraction (CPE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), supercritical-fluid extraction (SFE), enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE), and pulsed electric field-assisted extraction (PEF). For the identification and quantification of essential and bioactive compounds present in seed oils, different modern techniques—such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography–infrared spectroscopy (GC-IR), atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS), and electron microscopy (EM)—are highlighted in this review along with the beneficial effects of these essential components in different in vivo and in vitro studies and in different applications. The primary goal of this research article is to pique the attention of researchers towards the different sources, potential uses and applications of oils in different industries.
The colors that are used in the food are now used in a higher rate for the production of important food commodities like dairy, bakery, food industries. The Food dyes also plays an important part by providing a positive impact on the commercialization of food. The dyes are of two types mainly, the natural dyes as well as synthetic dyes. The natural dyes are naturally isolated processed and used as coloring agents, whereas the synthetic dyes are chemically synthesized and is used worldwide as the coloring agent, but these agents could be harmful for the human health. This review paper is mainly concentrated on the various dyes, their uses and the negative impact on human health and an alternative source for the coloring purpose which could be used in the modern food industry to expand the commercialization as well as providing safe consumption to the public.
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sea Buckthorn pulp oil intake (800 mg/day, 60 days) in hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype obese children. Forty one obese children (10-18 years old) and thirty controls were involved. Modified ATP III (Adult Treatment Panel III) cut points for serum triglycerides (i110 mg/dL) and waist circumference (_:90th percentile for age and sex) were used to divide obese children. Hypertriglyceridemic waist fenotype (n=17) and obese nonhypertriglyceridemic (n=24) obese groups were formed. Metabolic and inflammatory parameters were measured before and after sea buckthorn terapy. Metabolic syndrome was present in 14.25% obese children and all these subjects were from hypertriglyceridemic waist fenotype group. Comparing the obese groups, in hypertriglyceridemic waist fenotype obese children, the values for triglycerides (p<0.001), uric acid (p<0.004), C peptide (p<0.04), leptin (p<0.04), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p<0.05) and waist circumference (p<0.02), were increased, while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (p<0.01) was decreased. After treatment, triglycerides, blood pressure, leptin, C peptide and ceruloplasmin were decreased, while albumin was increased. In conclusion, in hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype obese children, sea buckthorn pulp oil terapy (800mg/day, 60 days) prevents metabolic syndrome, by reducing triglyceridemia and blood pressure. Also, the treatment has a weak antiinflammatory effect.
Full-text available
We analysed the fatty acid (FA) composition of plant and fish oil supplements available in the Czech Republic. Total lipid FA composition was analysed by gas chromatography. A total of 62 plant and 50 fish oil supplements were analysed. Their FA composition ranged widely. Linoleic acid was a dominant FA in soya lecithin (45-60%), evening primrose (65-75%), amaranth (20-50%), pumpkin seed (45-55%), and borage oil supplements (40%). α-Linolenic acid ranged between 2% and 8% in soya lecithin and from 0.2% to 1% in the majority of the other plant oil supplements. Saw palmetto oil supplements were rich in saturated FA (40-90%). γ-Linolenic acid was found in evening primrose and borage oil supplements (10-20%). Sea buckthorn oil composition varied according to the part of the plant used. The majority of fish oil supplements contained 12-23% of eicosapentaenoic and 7-17% of docosahexaenoic acids. Oil supplements may be beneficial for patients with metabolic disorders because of their FA as well as antioxidant and phytosterol content.
Sea-buckthom - Hippophaes rhamnoides L. is one of а wild herb of Azerbaijan which grows in а number of districts: in the eastern and westem parts of the Caucasus Great, highlands of Lenkoran, mountain range of Guba, Alazan-Agrichay valley, highlands of Nakhichevan, in the northern, southern and eastern parts of the Caucasus minor. This herb is а souгce of lipids. А new method of sea-buskthom - Hippophaes rhamnoides L. oil receipt is presented in the article. From air-dry fruits of sea-buckthom oil is evolved by pressing, then filtered under a pressure and the remaining pulp is extracted by vegetable oil. Sea-buckthorn extгact is separated by pressing, filteгed and combined with pure sea-thom oil of the first pгessing. The pгoposed method is simple, economic, does not requiгe the equipment arrangement and allows increasing the oil output up to 90% from its content in the гаw material. It excludes the oil loss during extractioп. Sea-buckthorn oil received bу the pгoposed method is of high purity and in comparison with pгototype in гetention of the organoleptic properties and carotinoids content has а low acidity that promotes the better safety. Proposed method is specially efficient in the pгocessiпg of low-carotinoid sorts of sea-buckthorn.
Presented investigation uses evaluation of liquid crystal structure emulsion with sea buckthorn oil for wound healing. Proposed emulsion with liquid crystal structure was loaded with two different concentrations of sea buckthorn oil. The study compared effects of emulsion samples on wound healing in comparison to the control group during 4, 8, and 14 days, using wound excision model on Wistar rats and histo-pathologic examination of tissue specimens. The accelerated wound healing was noted in the group treated 8 days by sample containing lower concentration of sea buckthorn oil. Since healing was accompanied by increase of collagen deposition, leading subsequently to shrinkage of wound area, the results of our study suggest that emulsion enhanced by liquid crystal structure is suitable vehicle for sea buckthorn oil attaining the optimum wound healing activity with lower concentration of the oil.
This chapter highlights the usage of sea buckthorn seed oil. Sea buckthorn seed oil has immense nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmaceutical uses. It is a rich source of bioactive molecules such as vitamins, carotenoids, phytosterols, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Sea buckthorn seed oil combines high levels of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids such as α-Linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), oleic, palmitoleic, and vaccenic. It contains natural antioxidants, vitamins (E, K), carotenoids, and phytosterols such as campesterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol. These phytochemicals make it ideal for medicinal and cosmetic industries, giving synergistic power to protect the cell membrane and enhance cell regeneration. It enhances microcirculation and epidermal regeneration, acts as a potent antioxidant and antibacterial, and has cholesterol lowering effects. It has therapeutic potential for treating burns of different etiology and inflammatory skin disorders. It also helps in the recuperation of mucous membranes of the stomach and other organs, while having light absorption, UV skin protection, and emollient properties. There are no known drug interactions, contradictions, common allergic reactions, or toxicity to sea buckthorn seed oil.
This chapter highlights the chemical and physicochemical properties of sea buckthorn seeds. The seed is a source of highly unsaturated oil, containing saponifiable and unsaponifiable matter. Its oil is rich in various carotenoids and vitamins and contains high levels of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. Phytosterols are the major constituents of the unsaponifiable fraction of sea buckthorn, which are capable of lowering plasma cholesterol upon consumption by humans. The major sterols in sea buckthorn seed oil are β-sitosterol and 5-avenasterol. Elemental components like sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, zinc, and iron are important for nutritional purposes as well as the cultivation and growth of the plant. Sea buckthorn ssp. Turkestanica seeds are a good source of these important minerals. The presence of potentially health-promoting components in sea buckthorn seed makes it an important plant for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Most of the research work available regarding sea buckthorn seed concentrates on the medicinal values. However, there is a lack of literature regarding any adverse effects, allergies, and toxicity.
Spiced seabuckthorn mixed fruit squash was developed by blending seabuckthorn juice with pineapple and grapes in varying proportions maintaining a constant total soluble solids, juice and acidity contents in the final product. Among all the blends, the seabuckthorn-pineapple combination exhibited the highest sensory scores. The shelf stability of the spiced squash samples was evaluated under ambient as well as at 37°C temperature conditions upto a period of 6 months. The physico-chemical properties of the spiced seabuckthorn-pineapple mixed fruit squash such as total soluble solids, reducing sugars and browning significantly increased during storage, while vitamin C, vitamin E, total phenols, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins and acidity contents significantly decreased. Accelerated temperature storage condition, i.e. 37°C pronounced more effect in terms of physico-chemical changes when compared to ambient temperature condition of the stored products. The spiced seabuckthorn-pineapple mixed fruit squash was acceptable upto 6 months under ambient temperature conditions when packed in PET bottles. The TPC count, yeast and mould count significantly reduced during entire period of storage, while spores and coliform count was found to be non detectable at both the storage conditions. The microbial load of stored spiced squash under these conditions was found to be within the acceptable limits.
Sea buckthorn berries were used as raw materials to study the process of concentrating sea buckthorn cloudy juice and their quality. Physicochemical properties including vitamin C, total flavonoids, total polyphenols, polysaccharides, pH value, total acidity, and browning index changed. Cold crushing sea buckthorn berries, concentrating production and the storage of concentrated cloudy juices were investigated systematically. The results showed that the quality of sea buckthorn juice obtained by cold crushing process technology was excellent. The contents of soluble solids and total acidity reached to 18.0% and 4.24% of sea buckthorn juice obtained respectively. It contained vitamin C 729.69 mg/100 mL, flavonoids 445.17 mg/100 mL, total polyphenols 924.67 mg/100 mL and polysaccharides 25.22 mg/100 mL. Disc milk separator removed the impurities and oil in sea buckthorn juice due to horizontal screw centrifuge. Whole cold crushing was fast with low temperature. Nutrient and health components in sea buckthorn juice lost less, they had been effectively enriched. Then, different concentrations for multiple sea buckthorn juices were processed at 45°C by evaporation in the vacuum of 0.095~0.1 MPa. With the increase of the concentration, the loss rate of nutrients and browning index became larger, the total acidity and 5-HMF content were increased and pH value was decreased. Different concentratedn juices were placed at room temperature (10 to 25°C) and refrigerated conditions (5 to 8°C) for 60 days, their physicochemical properties were changed as follows. Vitamin C, flavonoids, total polyphenols and polysaccharide contents decreased gradually, pH and total acidity did not change significantly, browning index and 5-HMF content increased. Furthermore, refrigerated conditions were conducive to the preservation of the sea buckthorn juice compared with the room temperature condition. The nutrient and health components in preserving rate of same multiple sea buckthorn cloudy juices placed at refrigerated conditions were higher than that placed at natural room temperature. The nutrient and health components in preserving rate of 2-fold concentrated cloudy juice at refrigerated conditions was highest. Its vitamin C, total flavonoids, total polyphenols, polysaccharides preservation rate were 11.46%, 20.44%, 18.37%, 9.83% higher than that of 2-fold concentrated cloudy juice placed at room temperature. Moreover, the browning index and 5-HMF content of concentrated sea buckthorn cloudy juice placed at refrigeration conditions was lower. 2-fold sea buckthorn cloudy juice stored at room temperature conditions was not stabile, but the stability of 2-fold concentrated cloudy juice at refrigerated conditions was better than that of 3 times and 4 times concentrated cloudy juice.
Sea buckthorn (SB) has been a target of scientific investigations at the University of Turku since the 1980s. In addition to taxonomic, chemical and sensory research of the berries, their health effects have deserved special attention. Nutritional effects of both entire berries and of their oil and ethanol soluble fractions have been investigated. Many of the hypotheses were based on Eastern, especially on Chinese traditions, claims and knowledge. Berries in the Scandinavian countries, both cultivated and wild ones, are commonly regarded as health promoting food ingredients also in Finland. The major genera are Vaccinium (bilberry, lingonberry), Rubus (cloudberry, raspberry, arctic bramble), Ribes (currants), Empetrum (crowberry) and Hippophaë (sea buckthorn). Sea buckthorn berries rich in flavonoids, oil-soluble antioxidants and vitamin C were shown to lower concentration of the sensitive CRP in plasma. In addition, consumption of the juice indicated increase of the ratio of HDL cholesterol to LDL cholesterol and elongation of the lag phase of LDL cholesterol oxidation. Berries and especially their ethanolsoluble fraction suppressed the postprandial insulin peak. It was further shown, that the bioavailability of flavonoids was increased by coincide supplementation of sea buckthorn oil. The results of consumption of SB thus indicate possible reduction of the risk of cardiovascular diseases in healthy people. Sea buckthorn seed and pulp oils have been of special interest. The very recent studies showed the unexceptionally high protective, antioxidative effects of SB oils on the isolated DNA in vitro. The same was the case with DNA of rat liver homogenate in vitro. Whether the positive effects of sea buckthorn oils on dry eyes and atopic skin have the same mechanistic background, is not known. The oils investigated have all been isolated by aseptic CO2 extraction.