ArticlePDF Available

Systolic and Diastolic BP Control in Metabolic Syndrome Patients with Metadichol® a Novel Nano Emulsion Lipid

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Metadichol®, [1] a nano formulation a mixture of long chain alcohols that is present in many foods like rice and sugar cane and is derived from the waste of the sugar cane industry. It is a renewable resource. Most of the clinical data in literature is a: non-nano formulation either a tablet or capsule which have not shown any efficacy. Given its safety profile, we carried out a small open-label pilot study on diabetic patients with hypertension who had in additional co-morbidities such as dyslipidemia, obesity, and hypertension. None of them were on any hypertensive medication. Our studies on patients for 60 weeks in an open-label study @20mg per day showed that it is possible to bring about improvements in Systolic and diastolic pressure in addition to CRP, VLDL, HDL, Triglycerides and waist circumference reduction and reduction in insulin resistance. Interestingly Vitamin C levels doubled. The study showed a vast improvement over existing therapies and with no side effects minor or major to report.
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Metadichol modulates cytokine storms, as it is an inhibitor of TNF, ICAM1 and CCL2, which, as shown, play a key role with other cytokines. Co morbidities associated 82,83 with COVID-19, such as hypertension and diabetes84,85 , are also controlled by Metadichol, which could certainly improve the long-term prognosis for the affected patient population. These actions on multiple genes and via multiple pathways bring about homeostasis and prevent SARS-COV-2 infections. ...
... Metadichol modulates cytokine storms, as it is an inhibitor of TNF, ICAM1 and CCL2, which, as shown, play a key role with other cytokines. Co morbidities associated 82,83 with COVID-19, such as hypertension and diabetes 84,85 , are also controlled by Metadichol, which could certainly improve the long-term prognosis for the affected patient population. These actions on multiple genes and via multiple pathways bring about homeostasis and prevent SARS-COV-2 infections. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
New pathogenic virus outbreaks, occurring with increasing regularity, are leading us to explore novel approaches, which will reduce the reliance on time-consuming vaccine modes to halt the outbreaks. The requirement is to find a universal approach to disarm any new and as yet unknown viruses as they appear. A promising approach could be targeting lipid membranes, which are common to all viruses and bacteria. The ongoing pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) has reaffirmed the importance of interactions between components of the host cell plasma membrane and the virus envelope as a critical mechanism of infection. Metadichol®, a nano lipid emulsion, has been examined and shown to be a strong candidate to help stop the proliferation of SARS-COV-2. Naturally derived substances, such as long-chain saturated lipid alcohols, reduce the infectivity of various types of viruses, including coronaviruses such as SARS-COV-2, by modifying lipid-dependent attachment to human host cells. SARS-COV-2 uses the receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. Metadichol®, a nano lipid formulation of long-chain alcohols, has been shown to inhibit TMPRSS2 (EC50 96 ng/ml). Compared to the inhibitor camostat mesylate (EC50 26000 ng/ml), it is 270 times more potent. Additionally, Metadichol® is also a extremely weak inhibitor of ACE2 at 31 µg/ml. Further a live virus assay in Caco2 cells, Metadichol® inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication with an EC90 of 0.16 µg/ml.
... Metadichol modulates cytokine storms, as it is an inhibitor of TNF, ICAM1 and CCL2, which, as shown, play a key role with other cytokines. Co morbidities associated [81,82] with COVID-19, such as hypertension and diabetes [83,84], are also controlled by Metadichol, which could certainly improve the long-term prognosis for the affected patient population. These actions on multiple genes and via multiple pathways bring about homeostasis and prevent SARS-COV-2 infections. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background New pathogenic virus outbreaks, occurring with increasing regularity, are leading us to explore novel approaches, which will reduce the reliance on time-consuming vaccine modes to halt the outbreaks. The requirement is to find a universal approach to disarm any new and as yet unknown viruses as they appear. A promising approach could be targeting lipid membranes, which are common to all viruses and bacteria.The ongoing pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) has reaffirmed the importance of interactions between components of the host cell plasma membrane and the virus envelope as a critical mechanism of infection. Metadichol®, a nano lipid emulsion, has been examined and shown to be a strong candidate to help stop the proliferation of SARS-COV-2.Naturally derived substances, such as long-chain saturated lipid alcohols, reduce the infectivity of various types of viruses, including coronaviruses such as SARS-COV-2, by modifying lipid-dependent attachment to human host cells. SARS-COV-2 uses the receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. Methods Metadichol was tested against TMPRSS2 ana ACE2 invitro using commercial available kits. Also it was tested against the live virus in Caco2 cells to test for inhibition of viral replication of SARS-COV-2.ResultsMetadichol®, a nano lipid formulation of long-chain alcohols, has been shown to inhibit TMPRSS2 (EC50 96 ng/ml). Compared to the inhibitor camostat mesylate (EC50 26000 ng/ml), it is 270 times more potent. Additionally, Metadichol® is also a weak inhibitor of ACE2 at 31 µg/ml. Further a live virus assay in Caco2 cells, Metadichol® inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication with an EC90 of 0.16 µg/ml.Conclusions Metadichol inhibits SARS-COV-2 virus and since it a non toxic molecule can be easily tested in humans and as it has LD 50 of over 5000 mg/kilo and could help mitigate the crisis facing the world today.
... Metadichol modulates cytokine storms, as it is an inhibitor of TNF, ICAM1, and CCL2 that play a key role in generating cytokine storms. Metadichol also regulates COVID-19associated comorbidities [86,87], such as hypertension and diabetes [88][89][90]. Thus, Metadichol has the potential to improve the long-term prognosis of the affected patient population. ...
Article
New pathogenic virus outbreaks, occurring with increasing regularity, are leading us to explore novel approaches, which will reduce the reliance on time-consuming vaccine modes to halt the outbreaks. The requirement is to find a universal approach to disarm any new and as yet unknown viruses as they appear. A promising approach could be targeting lipid membranes, which are common to all viruses and bacteria. The ongoing pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) has reaffirmed the importance of interactions between components of the host cell plasma membrane and the virus envelope as a critical mechanism of infection. Metadichol®, a nano lipid emulsion, has been examined and shown to be a strong candidate to help stop the proliferation of SARS-COV-2. Naturally derived substances, such as long-chain saturated lipid alcohols, reduce the infectivity of various types of viruses, including coronaviruses such as SARS-COV-2, by modifying lipid-dependent attachment to human host cells. SARS-COV-2 uses the receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. Metadichol®, a nano lipid formulation of long-chain alcohols, has been shown to inhibit TMPRSS2 (EC50 96 ng/ml). Compared to the inhibitor camostat mesylate (EC50 26000 ng/ml), it is 270 times more potent. Additionally, Metadichol® is also a weak inhibitor of ACE2 at 31 µg/ml. Further a live virus assay in Caco2 cells, Metadichol® inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication with an EC90 of 0.16 µg/ml. Keywords: Coronavirus, SARS-COV-2, COVID-19, ACE2, TMPRSS2, VDR, Metadichol
... Metadichol modulates cytokine storms, as it is an inhibitor of TNF, ICAM1, and CCL2 that play a key role in generating cytokine storms. Metadichol also regulates COVID-19associated comorbidities [86,87], such as hypertension and diabetes [88][89][90]. Thus, Metadichol has the potential to improve the long-term prognosis of the affected patient population. ...
Conference Paper
Metadichol ® is a food derived nano emulsion that is effective against many viruses ( over 17 of them) . It acts on viruses through multiple pathway most likely through disruption of the protective lipid membrane layer than viruses. In case of COVID 19 we present data that it blocks optimally ACE2 and Nuclear Androgen receptor which controls expression of TMPRSS2. Both TMPRSS2 and ACE 2 are need for viral entry. Optimal blocking is necessary as both ACE2 and AR are needed for other functions in the body to maintain Homeostasis. In addition Metadichol binds to VDR as an inverse agonist the only one known and VDR activation is necessary for a anti viral response. Metadichol also endogenously increases Vitamin C that leads to IgA,IgG and IgM and also Interferons that are needed to mount a anti viral response
... Metadichol ® is derived from food-based ingredients with an LD50 of 5000 mg/kilo [35]. It has no toxic effects on humans and can directly be tested in human subjects in mitigating infectious and other chronic diseases [36][37][38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Humans face a constant threat from pathogens like influenza varieties H1N1, H5N1, and others and there is a need to prevent these from epidemics. The pathogens depend on successful colonization of the host in order to reproduce and multiply. Sialidases are known as neuraminidases are a group of enzymes, the most abundant of these being the exo-sialidases that can catalyze the cleavage of sialic acids from carbohydrates, glycoproteins or glycolipids. Sialidases have been thoroughly studied since their discovery 75 years ago and their occurrence in bacteria and viruses is widespread. They are found in diverse virus families and bacteria and other microbes. Moreover, sialic acids serve as a receptor for various pathogens. This allows bacteria like H1N1 or other influenza viruses, to enter the host cell. There is a need to block sialidases as they release sialic acid that serves as nutrition for the microbes and as well allows them to bind and invade the host cell where they can proliferate. This makes sialidases an interesting target to control pathogenic activity. Metadichol ® is nanoemulsion of long-chain lipid alcohols derived from food ingredients. In rats, it has an LD50 of 5000 mg/kilo and its ingredients are present in many foods we consume on a daily basis. It has antiviral and antibacterial and anti-parasitic properties. We studied inhibition of Sialidases by inducing it with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using THP1 cells. Metadichol showed inhibition at 1 picogram per ml to 1 nanogram per/ml. Compared to Prednisone. It is 100 times more active. Previous studies on Metadichol ® showed that it is toxic to cancer cells at higher concentrations. Since it is safer, it has the potential of being directly tested on humans without side effects and could have a potential role in mitigating the pathogens that a burden on the Public health system.
... Diseases are connected through closely related gene networks, and this is an approach that can be exploited to modulate multiple targets to enhance therapeutic effect as ligands today are focused on a single target and limited by their efficacy. Metadichol is a safe therapeutic that target multiple genes, pathways and multiple diseases that confirms the relevance of network-based approach of polypharmacology [77] and this has been demonstrated by our studies on other diseases [78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Liver diseases are becoming a major health concern. In the developing countries it is due to microbial infection. In the rest of the developed world it is due to alcohol abuse. Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis are a significant health concern in western countries. It is the fifth most common cause of death, after heart disease, cancer, stroke, and chest disease. The liver is capable of regeneration, but it can be overwhelmed leading to liver diseases like cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Vitamin D levels are low in most patients with liver diseases, and this suggests possible therapeutic benefits with use of vitamin D or its analogues. Vitamin D, through the vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR) plays a crucial role in mineral ion homeostasis. The liver has a central role in vitamin D synthesis and there is a need for an agent that will not lead to hypercalcemia. Metadichol, a nano emulsion of long-chain alcohols derived from food, is an inverse agonist of Vitamin D can fill this void. In Diabetic rat studies, it inhibits TNF alpha, ICAM1 (intracellular adhesion molecule), CCL2 (chemokine CC motif) also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1). All these cytokines, chemokines are known to have important role in liver diseases. We show that Metadichol indeed does work in liver disease patients by normalizing essential liver enzymes ALT, AST and ALP, and GGT. This approach is an example where Metadichol targets multiple genes and via multiple pathways to bring about homeostasis of the liver and is a useful, safe, non-toxic product in treating liver diseases and alleviating a global threat.
... When constitutive activity is present, the Protean agonist would be an inverse agonist. Metadichol an extract of sugar cane wax exhibits properties that could also be considered as an Adaptogens [33] which are unique in their ability to balance endocrine hormones and the immune system [34][35][36][37]. Adaptogens help maintain optimal homeostasis in the body. ...
Article
Full-text available
Klotho is an anti-aging protein that is mostly secreted by the kidneys, the brain, and the thyroid. It plays a significant role in regulating kidney function and vascular health. Klotho gene is named after "the Spinner" (Clotho from Greek mythology), the goddess who spins the thread of life. Klotho is a transmembrane protein known to be a co-receptor for Fibroblast Growth Factor-23. Klotho gene is expressed in a variety of tissues changes in the levels are associated with many diseases. Klotho is a tumor suppressor in breast cancer and its expression is reduced in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and treatment with klotho inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Growing evidence suggests that an increase in KL expression may be beneficial for age-related diseases such as arteriosclerosis and diabetes. It remains a challenge today to induce Klotho expression. Herein we show that treating pancreatic cancer cells PANC1, MIAPACA and COLO-205 with Metadichol® a novel food based lipid emulsion of long chain alcohols at picogram/ml, concentration led to a 4-10 fold increase in Klotho expression as seen quantitative RT-PCR. These results suggest the use of Metadichol® given its constituents that are present in foods we consume every day is a novel therapeutic intervention for pancreatic cancer and other diseases.
... Based on our proposed mechanism ( Figure 8) the key genes/enzymes, IRS, IRS2, SLC2A4, IGF, PI3k, INSR, GSK3 are highly connected to multiple genes and enzymes that have an important role in insulin signaling. The network also suggests that it will be useful in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and kidney diseases and we have confirmed through clinical case studies, Metadichol's role in these diseases as well [38,39]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Insulin and IGF signaling require a family of scaffold proteins, also called as Insulin Receptor Substrate (IRS) proteins to integrate extracellular signals into intracellular responses, leading to cellular effects. Two main IRS proteins in humans are IRS1 and IRS2 and are widely expressed in most human and mammalian tissues. In this study, IRS1, IRS2, GLUT4 gene expression is quantified in Umbilical Cord (UC) cell line by semi quantitative-PCR. The internal control β-actin was used to normalize the IRS1, IRS2, GLUT4 gene expression levels. This is the first example of UC cells being induced by a ligand in expressing genes that regulate glucose and insulin levels. Metadichol ® treatment at different concentrations on UC cells showed upregulation of IRS1, IRS2 and GLUT4. 100 pg/mL concentrations showed the highest upregulation of IRS1, IRS2 and GLUT4 expression. 1 ng and 100 ng/mL treatment showed marginal. Metadichol ® is in addition a TNF alpha inhibitor and also inhibits Plasminogen Activation Inhibitor (PAI1) also known as SERPINE1. These genes play an important role in diabetes. The experimental results fully correlated with curated literature data using Bioinformatics software. Network analysis show the uniqueness of shared genes, IRS1, IRS2, GLUT4, TNF, PAI1, acting through multiple pathways that target multiple diseases.
Article
Full-text available
Increasing outbreaks of new pathogenic viruses have promoted the exploration of novel alternatives to time-consuming vaccines. Thus, it is necessary to develop a universal approach to halt the spread of new and unknown viruses as they are discovered. One such promising approach is to target lipid membranes, which are common to all viruses and bacteria. The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has reaffirmed the importance of interactions between the virus envelope and the host cell plasma membrane as a critical mechanism of infection. Metadichol®, a nanolipid emulsion of long-chain alcohols, has been demonstrated as a strong candidate that inhibits the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2. Naturally derived substances, such as long-chain saturated lipid alcohols, reduce viral infectivity, including that of coronaviruses (such as SARS-CoV-2) by modifying their lipid-dependent attachment mechanism to human host cells. The receptor ACE2 mediates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the host cells, whereas the serine protease TMPRSS2 primes the viral S protein. In this study, Metadichol® was found to be 270 times more potent an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 (EC50=96 ng/mL) than camostat mesylate (EC50=26000 ng/mL). Additionally, it inhibits ACE with an EC50 of 71 ng/mL, but it is a very weak inhibitor of ACE2 at an EC50 of 31 μg/mL. Furthermore, the live viral assay performed in Caco-2 cells revealed that Metadichol® inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication at an EC90 of 0.16 μg/mL. Moreover, Metadichol® had an EC90 of 0.00037 μM, making it 2081 and 3371 times more potent than remdesivir (EC50=0.77 μM) and chloroquine (EC50=1.14 μM), respectively.
Article
Full-text available
Metadichol® a nano formulation and mixture of long chain alcohols that is present in many foods like rice and sugar cane. It is derived from the waste of the sugar cane industry and therefore, it is a renewable resource. Most of the clinical data in the literature are from non-nano formulations either in a tablet or a capsule form which has not shown any efficacy. Given its safety profile, we carried out a small open label pilot study on 14 diabetic patients with hypertension. These patients had co-morbidities such as dyslipidemia, obesity and hypertension, but were not on any hypertensive medication. In this open label study, we treated the patients with 20mg of Metadichol per day for 60 weeks. The results showed that it is possible to bring about improvements in Systolic and Diastolic blood pressure in addition to CRP, VLDL, HDL, Triglycerides, waist circumference reduction, and reduction in insulin resistance. Interestingly, the average Vitamin C level for this study group also doubled. This study showed a vast improvement over existing therapies and with no reported side effects (minor or major).
Article
Full-text available
Metadichol ® [1] is a Nanoemulsion of long-chain alcohols found in many foods. It is commonly called Policosanol and is present in foods such as rice, sugar cane, wheat, peanuts Metadichol acts as an inverse agonist on Nuclear Vitamin D receptors (VDR) that are present in cells throughout the body to stimulate the immune system and affects many biologIcal processes to modulate many diseases. Branched-chain amino acid transferase (BCAT1) catalyzes the reversible transamination of leucine, isoleucine, and valine branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to their respective alpha-keto acids, liberating L-glutamate. When this gene is inhibited, the amino acid chains accumulated in the tissue triggering longevity in the nematodes. The health and longevity of the nematodes improved when BCAT1 was inhibited. Gabapentin has been shown to inhibit BCAT1, but IC50 is 10000 uM. Metadichol® inhibits BCAT1 with an IC50 of 3.3 um, 3000 times more potent than Gabapentin.
Article
Full-text available
The inevitable, but unpredictable, appearance of new infectious diseases has been recognized for centuries well before the discovery of causative infectious agents. Today, however, despite advances in development of therapeutics, and vaccines the ease of world travel and increased global interdependence have added layers of complexity to containing these infectious diseases that affect not only the health but the economic stability of societies. Viruses and bacteria and other pathogens impose enormous pressures on their human hosts, and combatting these pathogens is fundamental to the propagation of a species. Innate immunity provides the foundation for pathogen resistance.
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives: Evidence suggests associations between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including hypertension and excessive cortisol levels. Also, vitamin D levels may impact exercise performance. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D intake on cardiovascular risk factors, free urinary cortisol and exercise performance. Methods: A randomized placebo-controlled single-blinded parallel trial was conducted in healthy participants (n = 15). They received 2000 IU (50 µg) vitamin D3 per day (n = 9) or placebo (lactose) (n = 6) for 14 days. Body composition, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and arterial elasticity (as measured by pulse wave velocity, PWV) were recorded at baseline, day 7 and day 14 of intervention. A total of two 24-hour urine samples were collected to estimate free cortisol and cortisone levels. Exercise performance was assessed at the baseline and day 14 of the intervention using a bike ergometer in which BP and PWV were measured before and after exercise. The distance cycled in 20 minutes and the Borg Scale rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Results: In the intervention arm, at day 14, vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced SBP and DBP from 115.8 ± 17.1 and 75.4 ± 10.3 at baseline to 106.3 ± 10.9 (p = 0.022) and 68.5 ± 10.1 mmHg (p = 0.012) respectively. Also arterial stiffness was markedly reduced in the vitamin D group (from 7.45 ± 1.55 to 6.11 ± 1.89, p = 0.049). Urinary free cortisol levels and cortisol/cortisone ratio were significantly reduced from 162.65 ± 58.9 nmol/day and 2.22 ± 0.7 to 96.4 ± 37.2 (p = 0.029) and 1.04 ± 0.4 (p = 0.017) respectively. Exercise-induced SBP and DBP were significantly reduced post vitamin D intake from 130.7 ± 12.2 to 116.1 ± 8.1 (p = 0.012) and from 76.2 ± 8.4 to 70.5 ± 7.7 mmHg (p = 0.042) respectively. The distance cycled in 20 minutes significantly increased from 4.98 ± 2.65 to 6.51 ± 2.28km (p = 0.020), while the Borg Scale RPE reduced from 5.13 ± 1.36 to 4.25 ± 0.71 RPE (p = 0.021). In the placebo arm, no significant effects on CVD risk factors and exercise performance were observed. Conclusion: These results suggest that daily vitamin D supplementation may ameliorate CVD risk factors including a decrease in 11β-HSD1 activity, as evidenced by the decrease in the cortisol/cortisone ratio, and improve exercise performance in healthy individuals. However, large scale studies are required to verify our findings.
Article
Full-text available
Background Metadichol (1,2) is a Nano emulsion of long-chain alcohols called policosanols which are found in many foods like rice, wheat, grapes, sugar cane, apple and many others (3). It acts on membrane receptors in cells throughout the body to stimulate the immune system and inhibit a variety of disease processes, including those that result in metabolic diseases such as diabetes, obesity and hypertension. Methods A 38-year-old male of middle eastern origin was diagnosed as diabetic after complaining of tiredness and bouts of hunger. He was not on any medication and chose to be treated with Metadichol @ 10 mg per day. Findings Metadichol helped to lower his fasting blood sugar level from 300 mg/dl to normal in 6 weeks. His HBA1C was reduced from 9.8% to 6.2% in 12 weeks. After 32 more months, his diabetic indicators remain normal. Interpretation Metadichol is safe and effective in controlling blood sugar and HbA1C levels in humans. Metadichol has been shown to bind to the vitamin D receptor (2) as an inverse agonist. However, it acts more like a protean agonist ligand (4) to increase or decrease activity depending on the system. Since Metadichol has no known negative side effects and consists of natural components of common foods, Metadichol has the potential to serve as a novel treatment for type 2 diabetes.
Article
Full-text available
Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent and has been associated with many diseases. It has been suggested that vitamin D has effects on the immune system and inhibits inflammation. The aim of our study was to investigate whether vitamin D has an inhibitory effect on systemic inflammation by assessing the association between serum levels of vitamin D and C-reactive protein. We studied the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and C-reactive protein through linear regression in 9,649 participants of the Rotterdam Study, an observational, prospective population-based cohort study. We used genetic variants related to vitamin D and CRP to compute a genetic risk score and perform bi-directional Mendelian randomization analysis. In linear regression adjusted for age, sex, cohort and other confounders, natural log-transformed CRP decreased with 0.06 (95% CI: -0.08, -0.03) unit per standard deviation increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Bi-directional Mendelian randomization analyses showed no association between the vitamin D genetic risk score and lnCRP (Beta per SD = -0.018; p = 0.082) or the CRP genetic risk score and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (Beta per SD = 0.001; p = 0.998). In conclusion, higher levels of Vitamin D are associated with lower levels of C-reactive protein. In this study we did not find evidence for this to be the result of a causal relationship.
Article
Background: Cross-sectional studies have found an association between deficiencies in serum vitamin D, as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), and an atherogenic lipid profile. These studies have focused on a limited panel of lipid values including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). Objective: Our study examines the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and an extended lipid panel (Vertical Auto Profile) while controlling for age, gender, glycemic status, and kidney function. Methods: We used the Very Large Database of Lipids, which includes US adults clinically referred for analysis of their lipid profile from 2009 to 2011. Our study focused on 20,360 subjects who had data for lipids, 25(OH)D, age, gender, hemoglobin A1c, insulin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. Subjects were split into groups based on serum 25(OH)D: deficient (<20 ng/mL), intermediate (≥ 20-30 ng/mL), and optimal (≥ 30 ng/mL). The deficient group was compared to the optimal group using multivariable linear regression. Results: In multivariable-adjusted linear regression, deficient serum 25(OH)D was associated with significantly lower serum HDL-C (-5.1%) and higher total cholesterol (+9.4%), non-HDL-C (+15.4%), directly measured LDL-C (+13.5%), intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+23.7%), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+19.0%), remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (+18.4%), and TG (+26.4%) when compared with the optimal group. Conclusion: Deficient serum 25(OH)D is associated with significantly lower HDL-C and higher directly measured LDL-C, intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoproteins cholesterol, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, and TG. Future trials examining vitamin D supplementation and cardiovascular disease risk should consider using changes in an extended lipid panel as an additional outcome measurement.
Article
Background: Vitamin D is an important mediator of calcium metabolism. It has also been implicated as a potential contributor to the pathophysiology of various extra-skeletal conditions, consisting hypertension, renal disease, and insulin resistance. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether oral vitamin D (cholecalciferol) supplementation can lead to improvement of blood pressure in type 2 diabetes patients. Patients and methods: This study was a double blind clinical trial conducted on 60 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Exclusion criteria were taking calcium, vitamin D supplements or any drugs effecting calcium and vitamin D metabolism in the past 6 months. Patients were administered weekly vitamin D supplementation (50000 units) for 12 weeks. Serum 25-Hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level was measured with ELISA method. Results: Five patients (8.3%) had vitamin D deficiency, 27 (45%) had insufficient levels of vitamin D and in 28 (45%) patients vitamin D level was within normal limits. The means of systolic blood pressure (BP) and diastolic BP in patients before intervention were 121 and 80.5 mmHg; after intervention they were 110 and 76.3 mmHg, respectively. After intervention, systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were significantly less than control group (p< 0.01). Conclusions: In this study we found that weekly vitamin D supplementation (cholecalciferol; 50,000 units for 12 weeks) had beneficial effect on the level of blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients. Thus, oral vitamin D may help in improvement of hypertension in these patients.
The effects of policosanol (50–500 mg/kg) administered orally for 24 months to Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes were investigated. No differences related to daily clinical observations, weight gain, food consumption, or mortality (survival analysis) between groups were found. Histopathological study showed that the frequency of the occurrence of non-neoplastic and neoplastic (benign and malignant) lesions was similar in the control and policosanol-treated groups. The lesions observed in this study were similar to the spontaneous lesions reported in this species in previous studies. Since no drug-related increase in the occurrence of malignant or benign neoplasms was found, nor acceleration in tumors growth in any specific group was observed, this study shows no evidence of policosanol induced carcinogenicity in this strain of rats. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.